Vision IAS Current Affairs May 2019 PDF

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Monthly Current Affairs Magazines for UPSC Civil Services IAS, State PSC and other competitive exams Preparation. These Magazines are available for free download.

With the way people generally study current affairs, a lot of them would find the above a tough nut to crack. The reason is that people focus on ‘news’ not ‘issues’.  But, as per the latest trend of Prelims and Mains examination, UPSC focuses on ‘issues’, and not just ‘news’.

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General Studies Test – 3

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1.       With reference to the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC), consider the following statements.

1.       It is the world’s largest international maritime exercise.

2.       Only Pacific Ocean littoral countries participate in this exercise.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only 4

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

2.       Which of the following laws are the legacies of British rule in India?

1.       Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code

2.       Section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code

3.       Armed Forces Special Power Act

4.       Section 499 and 500 of the Indian Penal

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 and 3 only

(b)     2 and 4 only

(c)     1, 2 and 4 only

(d)     2 and 3 only

3.       Which of the following were the reasons for French decline in India?

1.       French army was no match for British army

2.       French monarchy had no stakes in the French company

3.       French were engaged in continental expansion in Europe

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 only

(d)     All of these

4.       Consider the following with reference to “Coral reefs”.

1.       Coral reefs are symbiotic association of coral polyps and algae.

2.       Muddy waters are more suitable for the growth of coral reefs.

3.       Coral reefs are equivalent to marine of tropical rain forest.

4.       Lakshadweep islands are of coral origin.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a)     1 and 4 only

(b)     1,3 and 4 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1,2,3 and 4

5.       With reference to the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI), which of the following statements is/are not correct?

1.       BCSBI defines the benchmarks for banking services in India.

2.       It oversees the Scheme of Banking Ombudsman.

3.       It is a statutory body under the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     1 and 2 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

6.       Which one of the following statements about the provisions of the Constitution of India is correct?

(a)     Minorities can establish and administer educational institutions of their choice

(b)     Only linguistic, ethnic and religious minorities find mention under Article 30

(c)     Every religious denomination has unfettered right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes.

(d)     An educational institution established by a religious minority loses its minority status on receiving financial aid from the Government.

7.       The Peshwa accepted the Subsidiary Alliance with the British via which among the following treaties?

(a)     Treaty of Purandhar

(b)     Treaty of Bassein

(c)     Treaty of Salbai

(d)     Treaty of Surji Arjunagaon

8.       Consider the following statements in the context of Peruvian current.

1.       It is cold current

2.       It is responsible for fishing productivity in Peruvian coast.

3.       It cases dryness in Atacama Desert. Which of the statements given above is / are correct

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 and 3 Only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

9. Match the Following

(a)           (b)           (c)          (d)

(a) 2 3 4 1

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 3 1 2 4

(d) 2 4 1 3

(a)     (b)     (c)     (d)

(a) 2 3 4 1

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 3 1 2 4

(d) 2 4 1 3

10.     With reference to the fish production in India, consider the following statements.

1.       In terms of fish production, the inland fisheries sector contributes more than that of the marine sector.

2.       India’s marine fisheries production is more in Gujarat as compared to other States.

3.       In India is the second largest fish producing country in the World. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1, 2 and 3 only

(d)     None of the above statements are correct

11.     With reference to the Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), consider the following statements.

1.       It is an initiative under the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP) for trade expansion among developing country members of the Asia Pacific Region.

2.       India and Pakistan are among the founding members of this Preferential Trade Agreement.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

12.     Which among the following is correct with regards to the Constituent assembly of India?

(a)     Constituent assembly was democratically elected by the people of India.

(b)     The representatives of each community were elected by the members of that community itself.

(c)     Each province/princely states were allocated seats based on their geographical area.

(d)     Mahatma Gandhi was a member of the constituent assembly until he was assassinated in 1948.

13.     Who among the following signed the Treaty of Bassein in 1802 with the British East India Company?

(a)     Baji Rao II

(b)     Baji Rao I

(c)     Sultan Bahadur

(d)     None of the above

14.     Which of the following is not correct in the context of “Wildfires”?

(a)     These are controlled blazes fuelled by weather, wind, and dry underbrush etc.

(b)     They return nutrients to the soil

(c)     They act as a disinfectant.

(d)     They allow sunlight to reach the forest floor, enabling a new generation of seedlings to grow.

15.     In which of the following states, the indigenous beliefs “Donyi-Polo” and “Rangfra” are practiced?

(a)     Arunachal Pradesh

(b)     Mizoram

(c)     Manipur

(d)     Assam

16.     Which of the following functions were performed by the Constituent Assembly of India?

1.       Enactment of the ordinary laws

2.       Adoption of National Flag and National Anthem.

3.       Election of the First President of India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     1 and 3 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

17.     In the tenure of which Governor-General an attempt was made for the first time to codify Hindu and Muslim customary laws?

(a)     Lord Cornwallis

(b)     Warren Hastings

(c)     William Bentinck

(d)     Charles Metcalfe

18.     Which of the following factors is / are responsible for tides formation?

1.       Earth’s gravitational pull

2.       Moon’s gravitational pull

3.       Sun’s gravitational pull

4.       Centrifugal force due to earth’s rotation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a)     2 and 3 only

(b)     1,2 and 3 only

(c)     2,3 and 4 only

(d)     1,2,3 and 4

19.     Consider the following statements regarding the Aral Sea

1.       The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake

2.       It lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

Which of the above given statements are incorrect?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

20.     Consider the following statements about the Lokpal in India.

1.       The institution of Lokpal was first recommended by the first Administrative Reforms Commission.

2.       Under the Lokpal Act (2013), Jurisdiction of Lokpal includes Prime Minister, Ministers, and Members of Parliament.

3. As per the Lokpal Act of 2013, Lokpal can take Suo Motu actions against any public servant.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 and 2 only

(d)     1 and 3 only

21.     With reference to the recently launched “cVIGIL” mobile App, consider the following statements.

1.       The App enables the employees of public sector undertakings to report any instances of corruption in their organization.

2.       The application was launched by the department of personnel and training. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

22.     Consider the following statements about the “Preamble” of the Indian Constitution

1.       It has been amended only once since its inception.

2.       It is not a part of the constitution.

3. It is justifiable in nature

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     1 and 2 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

23.     Which among the following was the first municipal corporation set up in India in the year 1687?

(a)     Madras Municipal Corporation

(b)     Bombay Municipal Corporation

(c)     Delhi Municipal Corporation

(d)     None of the above

24.     Which of the following statements is / are correct?

1.       Britain has no climate, only weather.

2.       Egypt has no weather, only climate. Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 Only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

25.     With reference to the SAARC development fund (SDF), which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.       SDF was setup by the World Bank to accelerate economic growth, social progress and poverty alleviation in the SAARC region.

2.       The headquarters of the SDF is located at the Thimpu, Bhutan. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

Answer:

1.A ,2.C ,3.B ,4.B ,5.C ,6.A ,7.B ,8.A ,9.B ,10.C ,11.A ,12.B ,13.A ,14.A ,15.A ,16.D ,17.B ,18.C ,19.D ,20.C ,21.D ,22.A ,23.A ,24.C ,25.B

Rajasthan GK – Test 2

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Daily Practice Multiple Choice Question Answer for RPSC, RAS, RSMSSB, Lecturer, SI and all other competitive exams of Rajasthan.

1.         In which of the following states Aravalli Range extends in India:

1.         Rajasthan                   2.  Haryana

3.         Delhi                          4. Punjab

5.         Gujarat

Choose the correct pair.

1.         1,2,3,4

2.         2,3,4,5

3.         1,2,3,5

4.         1,2,4,5

2. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is India’s oldest fold mountains.

2. The north end of it continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana

3. It is the source of the Mithari, Luni, and Jawai River.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range

4. Aravali Range

3. Luni Basin, Shekhawati Region, Nagaur Upland, and Ghaggar Plain are considered in which region/plain?

1.  Semi-Arid Basin               2. Sandy Arid Plain

3. Mewar Rocky region       4 The Sambhar Basin

4. Chambal Basin, Banas Basin and Mahi Basin are the example of which plain?

1. Eastern Plain                     2. Western Plain

3. Northern Plain                  4. Southern Plain

5. States in which Thar Desert is not extends in India?

1. Rajasthan                     2. Haryana

3. Punjab                        4.  Gujarat

5. Madhya Pradesh

6. Special Industrial Complexes are being built up in Rajasthan to meet the necessities of industries. Match the following pairs correctly.

1. Hosiery Chopanki                                A. Bhiwadi

2. Gems & Jewellery and Gem Park      B. Bikaner

3. Ceramics Khara                                   C. Jaipur

4. Dimensional Stone                              D. Chittorgarh

1. 1-A 2-B 3-C 4-D

2. 1-B 2-A 3-D 4-C

3. 1-A 2-C 3-B 4-D

4. 1-C 2-D 3-A 4-B

7. Arrange the following peaks of Aravali as per their height in descending order:

1. Kamalnath           2. Bhairach

3. Taragarh                       4. Khoh

1. 1-2-3-4

2. 2-3-1-4

3. 3-4-1-2

4. 1-4-3-2

8. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1.         Stretches from Delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.

2.         Average elevation of 300-670 meters.

3.         To North & East it merges with Ganga-Yamuna Plains.

1. Shekhawati hills               2. Marwar Hills

3. Alwar Hills                                  4. Girwa hills

9.  Malkhet, Khetri Group of hills, Torawati Hills & Alwar hills is part of which Aravali range?

1.  North-Eastern Aravalli Range

2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range

4. All of the above

10. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1. Includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur.

2. It Surround on North by Alwar Hills

3. It Surround on East by Karauli table-land South by Banas plains.

4. West by Sambhar basin

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range             2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range                     4. None of the above

11. Who became the first women governor of Rajasthan?

1. Smt. Vijya Laxmi

2. Smt. Pratibha Patil      

3. Smt. Sudha Srivastava

4. None of the above

12. Which is the state game of Rajasthan?

1. Basketball

2. Kabbadi

3. Hockey

4. Football

13. Rajasthan Revenue Board Headquarter is located at which place?

1. Jaipur

2. Jodhpur

3. Ajmer

4. Kota

14. Which is not a part of Rajasthan Union?       

1. Banswara

2. Bundi

3. Kishangarh

4. Bharatpur

15. Matsya Union merged in Greater Rajasthan and became which of the following?

1. United State of Rajasthan

2. Greater Rajasthan

3. United State of Greater Rajasthan

4. United Rajasthan

16. Who was appointed as the Deputy Head of Rajasthan Union?

1. Bhim singh

2. Manikya Lal Verma

3. Heeralal Shastri

4. Bhadursingh

17. Who said the statement while signing the accession documents, “I am signing on my death warrant”.

1. Banswara State Maharawal, Chandra Veer Singh

2. The ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh

3. The Maharana Bhupal Singh of Udaipur

4. None of the above

18.  Which of the following appointed by Governor of Rajasthan?

1. Advocate general of state.

2. State election commissioner

3.  Chairman & members of RPSC.

4. All the above

19. Who wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha?

1. Sidhha Rishi                                 2- Vigrah Raj

3. Somdeva                                        4. Kumbha

20. Who wrote drama named Harkaili?

1. Sidhha Rishi                                  2- Vigrah Raj Chauhan

3. Kumbha                                         4. Somdeva

21. Who wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay?

1. Kumbha                 2. Somdeva

3. Jayanak                  4. Sidhha Rishi

22. Who wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj?

1. Kumbha                 2. Jayanak

3. Sanga                      4. Somdeva

23. Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by

1. Vijrasen Suri                        2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri                 4.Hemraj

24. Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by?

1. Vijrasen Suri              2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri   4.Hemraj

25. Jiyadarya Raas by

1. Vijrasen Suri                      2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

26. Padmavati Chaupai by

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

27. Stulibhadra Phag written by

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri               4.Hemraj

28. Who wrote Gyan Manjari?

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

Answer:

  1. 3
  2. 4
  3. 1
  4. 1
  5. 5
  6. 3
  7. 4
  8. 3
  9. 1
  10. 2
  11. 2
  12. 1
  13. 3
  14. 4
  15. 1
  16. 4
  17. 1
  18. 4
  19. 1
  20. 2
  21. 3
  22. 1
  23. 1
  24. 3
  25. 2
  26. 4
  27. 2
  28. 1

UPSC Prelims 2019 Question Topics – 100 Areas from which UPSC Framed Questions

From which areas did UPSC frame questions for this year IAS exam?

UPSC Prelims 2019 Question Topics – 100 Areas from which UPSC Framed Questions This Year

UPSC Prelims 2019 Question Topics – 100 Areas

  1. Jagirdar and Zamindar – Mughal Rule – Medieval India.
  2. Land reforms in independent India – India since Independence.
  3. Global Competitiveness Report – Current Affairs/General Awareness.
  4. Charter Act of 1813 – Modern India.
  5. Swadeshi Movement – Freedom Struggle – Modern India.
  6. Movement/Organization Leader – Freedom Struggle – Modern India.
  7. Harappan site – Ancient India.
  8. Ashoka Sculpture inscriptions – Ancient India.
  9. Mahayana Buddhism – Ancient India/Culture.
  10. Gupta period forced labour (Vishti) – Ancient India.
  11. Kalyaana Mandapas – Medieval India/Culture.
  12. Delhi Sultanate – Medieval India.
  13. Saints and Contemporaries – Medieval India/Culture.
  14. Mahatma Gandhi and British Colonial Rule – Freedom Struggle – Modern India.
  15. Person: Position – Freedom Struggle – Modern India.
  16. Mian Tansen – Medieval India/Culture.
  17. Mughal Emperors Portrait – Medieval India/Culture.
  18. National Park in the temperate alpine zone – Geography.
  19. Atal Innovation Mission – Current Affairs/Schemes.
  20.  21st June – Summer Solstice – Geography.
  21. ‘New World’ vs ‘Old World’ Plants – History.
  22. Animals Found in India – Biodiversity.
  23. Famous place River – Geography.
  24. Poverty lines – Geography.
  25. Cirrus cloud thinning technique and the injection of sulphate aerosol into the stratosphere – Global Warming – Climate Change.
  26. Pyrolysis and plasma gasification – Waste to Energy – Science and Technology/General Awareness.
  27. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve – Geography/Environment.
  28. Species/Herbivores/Viviparous – Biodiversity.
  29. Wildlife naturally found – Biodiversity.
  30. Microbeads – Environment/General Awareness.
  31. Importance of Himalayan nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) – Biodiversity/General Awareness.
  32. Satellite images/remote sensing data – Science and Technology.
  33. Percentage of forest covers to the total area of State – Geography.
  34. Deposits of ‘methane hydrate’ – Climate change/General Awareness.
  35. Burning of crop/biomass residue – Environment.
  36. Sea Bordering country – Maps – Geography
  37. The largest exporter of rice in the world – Geography
  38. Glacier River – Geography
  39. Methyl parathion, phorate and triazophos – Current Affairs/General Awareness
  40. Ramsar Convention – Wetlands – Environment
  41. Gases released into the environment – Environment
  42. Places known as Aliyar, Isa pur and Kangsabati – Geography
  43. Hydrogen-enriched CNG (H-CNG) – Current Affairs/General Awareness
  44. Dewdrops – cloudy night – Geography
  45. Constitutional Amendments/Judgments – Indian Polity
  46. Impeachment of a Judge of the Supreme Court of India – Indian Polity
  47. Ninth Schedule – Indian Polity
  48. CoaI sector – Economy/General Awareness
  49. Office of Profit – Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959 – Indian Polity
  50. Tribal land – Schedule of the Constitution of India – Indian Indian Polity.
  51. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India – Indian Indian Polity/General Awareness.
  52. Constitutional powers under Article 142 – Indian Indian Polity
  53. Legislative Assembly of a State in India – Indian Indian Polity
  54. United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) -Current Affairs/General Awareness
  55. Minor Forest Produce – Indian Forest Act, 1927 and Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest
    Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 – Environment/Current Affairs
  56. Article of the Constitution of India – Right to marry – Indian Indian Polity
  57. Indian Patents Act – Patenting process in India – Science and Technology/Current Affairs
  58. The Environment Protection Act, 1986 – Environment.
  59. Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 – Current Affairs/General Awareness
  60. Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Central (Amendment) Rules, 2018 – Current Affairs/General Awareness
  61. Services Area Approach – Indian Economy
  62. Minor minerals in India – Indian Economy
  63. India’s external debt – Indian Economy
  64. Assets of a commercial bank in India – Indian Economy
  65. The risk of a currency crisis – Indian Economy/Current Affairs
  66. Governor – Sarkaria Commission – Indian Polity
  67. Foreign portfolio  investors – Participatory Note – Indian Economy/Current Affairs
  68. Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016 – Environment/General Awareness
  69. Review of independent regulators – Indian Polity
  70. India’s Five-Year Plans – Indian Economy
  71. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) – Current Affairs
  72. Inter-Creditor Agreement signed by Indian banks – Indian Economy
  73. Chairmen of public sector banks – Bank Boards Bureau – Indian Economy
  74. Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) – Indian Economy
  75. Differences between LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and VoLTE (Voice over Long-Term Evolution) – Science and Technology/General Awareness
  76. Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 – Current Affairs
  77. World Bank’s “Ease of Doing Business Index” – Current Affairs/General Awareness
  78. ‘Extended producer responsibility’ – E-Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 – Current Affairs
  79. The economic cost of food grains to the Food Corporation of India – Indian Economy
  80. Social capital – Indian Polity/General Awareness
  81. Constitution of India – Amendment – High court – Indian Polity
  82. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) – Economics.
  83. Cultivation of Kharif crop in India – Geography
  84. The highest imports in terms of value – Economics/Geography
  85. Definition of liberty – Indian Polity/General Awareness
  86. The slide of the Indian rupee – Economics/Current Affairs
  87. Storage of Payment System Data or data diktat – Current Affairs
  88. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) – Current Affairs
  89. Action Plan for Prioritization and Implementation of Cooperation Areas in the Nuclear Field – Current Affairs
  90. Money Multiplier Economics
  91. Digital technologies for entertainment – Augmented Reality vs Virtual Reality – Science and Technology
  92. Denisovan – Science and Technology
  93. Recent developments in science – chromosome/DNA – Science and Technology
  94. Digital signature – Science and Technology
  95. Wearable technology – Science and Technology
  96. ‘RNA interference (RNAi)’ technology – Science and Technology
  97. The Merger of giant ‘blackholes’ – gravitational waves – Science and Technology
  98. Multi-drug resistance in microbial pathogens – Science and Technology
  99. Cas9 protein – Science and Technology
  100. Hepatitis B vs HIV – Science and Technology

These are just question areas; not actual questions!

The above mentioned are the question topics or areas. If you need to go through the actual questions, refer the link – IAS PRELIMS ANSWER KEY 2019 WITH SOLUTION

UPSC IAS EXAMS BOOK/NOTESRPSC RAS/RTS EXAMS BOOK/NOTES

Physical Geography of India Study Notes for IAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study Notes

2000 Solved MCQ for IAS Preliminary Exam 2019:GS Paper-I

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 10 Practice Solved Paper

Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Study Notes with MCQ

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

Geography of Rajasthan Study notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims 2019: Art and Culture Revision Notes

Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Revision Notes: Environment and Ecology

RAS Mains Exam Economy Solved Questions

Geography of India Question Bank

Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes- Hindi

Indian Polity Question Bank eBook

Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RPSC RAS Mains Exam

History Of India Practice Question Bank

RPSC RAS Mains Art and Culture Practice Solved Question

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 GS Paper Solved Test 1-5

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-1

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper Test 6-10

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-2

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-3

General Studies Practice Test-1

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UPSC CSE IAS prelims and State PSC Exams Daily Practice Questions

1. Which of the following organization has recently, tested its Crew Escape System?

(a)        NASA

(b)       ISRO

(c)        DRDO

(d)       Air India

2. Consider the following statements regarding Untouchability

1. The constitution doesn’t define untouchability and it also doesn’t prescribe any punitive punishment

2. Manual scavenging is considered as a form of untouchability and is banned by Manual Scavenging Act, 2013 which provides a blanket ban on the employment of manual scavengers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

3. Consider the following statements:

1. The French were the last to come to India in search of trade opportunities.

2. The Portuguese were the first European community to discover a direct sea route to India.

3. Queen Elizabeth I was a share holder of the British East India Company.

Which of the statements given above is/are are correct?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        1 and 3 only

(d)       All of the above

4.         Consider the Following statements:

1. Rotation of the earth is responsible for holding its atmosphere.

2. Atmosphere rotates along with earth’s rotation

3. Humidity in atmosphere increases from equator towards poles.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a)        1 and 2 Only

(b)       2 only

(c)        2 and 3 only

5. Which of the Mobile App launched by Ministry of Coal to prevent illegal coal mining?

(a)        Khan Prahari

(b)       Coal Bachao

(c)        Khan Helpline

(d)       Koyla Bachao

6. If a new state is to be created which of the following schedules should definitely be altered?

(a)        First

(b)       Second

(c)        Third

(d)       Eighth

7. Who was the Governor General of India at the time of formation of the Indian National Congress?

(a)        Lord Lytton

(b)       Lord Dufferin

(c)        Lord Elgin

(d)       Lord Minto

8. Which of the following can be tapped for electricity generation?

1.         Tidal waves

2.         Volcanoes

3.         Hot springs

4.         Earth Quakes

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)        1 and 3 only

(b)       1, 2 and 3 Only

(c)        1, 2 and 4 Only

(d)         1, 2, 3 and 4

9.         Consider the following statements

1.         Africa is the second largest continent after Asia and is ten times the size of India

2.         Also called as The Dark Continent

3.         It is the only continent that crosses the Tropic of Cancer, Equator and Tropic of Capricorn.

Which of the above given statements is/are correct?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        1 only

(d)       1 and 3 only

10. Which committee was constituted by the Union Government to upgrade norms for state & district level economic data collection?

(a)        Susheel Kumar Committee

(b)       Ravindra H Dholakia Committee

(c)        Bimal Jalan Committee

(d)       S Kashyap Committee

11. Which among the following sites of Mumbai has recently been inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage Site list?

(a)        Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai

(b)       The Imperial Tower

(c)        1905 Prince’s Triumphal Arch Clock Tower, Mumbai

(d)       Global Vipassana Pagoda

12. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Article 15 of the Constitution of India is available to both citizens of India and the foreigners.

2. Article 16 of the Constitution of India is available to the citizens of India only.

3. Article 21 of the Constitution of India is available to both citizens of India and the foreigners alike within the territory of India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        3 only

(d)       1, 2 and 3

13. Which of the following statements is incorrect about “Drain of Wealth” theory in context of Indian freedom struggle?

(a)        The Drain of Wealth theory was systemically initiated by Dadabhai Naoroji.

(b)       Through this theory Naoroji sought to prove that Britain was draining money out of India.

(c)        Drain of Wealth included “Home Charges”.

(d)       All the statements are correct.

14. Which one of the following statements is / are not correct with respect to core of the earth?

1.         it’s made up of high-density materials mostly like nickel and iron

2.         Solid state of the inner core is because of the incumbent pressure.

3.         High temperature of inner core is responsible for the magnetic sphere of the earth.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        3 Only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        1 and 2 only

(d)       1, 2 and 3

15. Which state government has launched a “happiness curriculum” for school students?

(a)        Delhi

(b)       Rajasthan

(c)        Haryana

(d)       Uttar Pradesh

16. Consider the following statements regarding Article 368 of Indian Constitution

1. If an Indian territory is to be ceded to a foreign nation then it requires a formal amendment process under Article 368

2. The settlement of boundary disputes also requires a formal amendment process under Article 368.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

17.       Who among the following is known as “The Father of the Indian Renaissance”?

(a)        Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

(b)       Swami Vivekananda

(c)        Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(d)       Swami Dayanand Saraswati

18.       Which of the following is not a “Second order relief” feature?

(a)        Himalayas

(b)       Mid Atlantic Ridge

(c)        Grand Canyon

(d)       Great African Rift valley

19.       Consider the following statements

1. Africa is separated from Eurasia at three different points, Strait of Gibraltar, Suez Canal and strait of Bab-el- Mandel.

2. It joins Asia by the narrow Isthmus of Suez

Which of the above given statements is/are incorrect?

(a)        Both 1 and 2

(b)       1 only

(c)        2 only

(d)       none

20. Which ministry has launched India Smart Cities Fellowship (ISCF) and Internship (ISCI)?

(a)        Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

(b)       Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region

(c)        Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

(d)       Ministry of environment

21. Which of the following countries have been put in to the grey list of Financial action task force (FATF) ?

(a)        Iran

(b)       Syria

(c)        Pakistan

(d)       Afghanistan

22. Consider the following statements with regards to “Right to Education Act”

1.         “The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act” is an Act enacted by the Parliament of India and ratified by the states of India

2.         It describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.

3.         It mandates unaided schools with the exception of Minority educational schools to reserve 25% of their seats for children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       1 and 2 only

(c)        2 and 3 only

(d)       1, 2 and 3

23. Consider the following statements about Permanent Settlement System.

  1. Permanent Settlement System was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1793.
  2. It was introduced on the recommendations of Sir John Shore. Which of the statements given above is/are are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

24. Consider the following layers with reference to atmosphere of the sun

1.         Photosphere

2.         Chromo sphere

3.         Corona

Arrange the layers of atmosphere given below in order from surface towards core of the sun.

(a) 3 – 2 – 1

(b) 1 – 2 – 3

(c) 2 – 1 – 3

(d) 1 – 3 – 2

25. In the first ever India’s inter-state relocation, a tiger was shifted between which two states?

(a)        Uttarakhand & Madhya Pradesh

(b)       Madhya Pradesh & Uttar Pradesh

(c)        Madhya Pradesh & Odisha

(d)       Gujarat & Maharashtra

26. Which of the following agencies come under the definition of “State” mentioned in the Article 12 of the Indian constitution?

1.         Local bodies

2.         Public sector banks

3.         National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)

4.         Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       1, 2 and 4 only

(c)        1, 2 and 3 only

(d)        1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer Key:

1.B ,2.A ,3.D ,4.B ,5.A ,6.A ,7.B ,8.B ,9.B ,10.B ,11.A ,12.B ,13.C ,14.A ,15.A ,16.A ,17.C ,18.C ,19.D ,20.C ,21.C ,22.C ,23.B ,24.A ,25.C

Rajasthan Gk Test-1

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RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims, Lecturer, Sub-Inspector, Teachers and Other Govt Exams daily Practice MCQ.

1. When did Rajasthan came in to existence?

1. 20th march 1948                 2. 30th march 1949

3. 25th April 1949                  4- 26th Jan 1951    

 

Q.2 Total geographical area of Rajasthan State is?

1. 2, 90, 932 sq km                2. 3, 39, 293 sq km

3. 3, 32, 392 sq km                4.  3, 42, 239 sq km

Q.3 The area of Rajasthan is which percentage of Indian Territory?

1. 9.76%                                  2. 10.47%

3. 10.74%                                4. 11.05%

Q.4 Rajasthan is placed in which division of India?

1. North-western                  2. Western

3. North-eastern                    4. Northern

Q.5 The Tropic of Cancer passes through which district in Rajasthan?

1. Banswara               2. Sirohi

3. Jhalawar                 4. Dholpur

6. Who was the first governor of Rajasthan?

1. Gurumukh Nihal Singh

2. Sardar Hukum Singh

3. Basant Rao Patil

4. None of the above

7. Who was the first chairman of Rajasthan Assembley (Vidhan Sabha)?

1. Ramniwas Mirdha

2. Narottam Joshi

3. Lal Singh Shaktawat

4. None of the above

8. Who was the first chief justice of Rajasthan High Court?

1. K. N. Vanchu

2. K. K. Verma

3. 2. N. Jha

4. None of the above

9. Which one of the following was first implemented in Rajasthan?

1. Cooperative society

2. Public distribution system

3. President Rule

4. Panchayati Raj

10. Rajasthan state Archives is located at which place?

1. Bikaner

2. Jaipur

3. Jodhpur

4. Bharatpur

11. Which one of the following date, Rajasthan Public Service Commission Established?

1. 15-08-1950

2. 16-08-1949

3. 20-12-1952

4. 17-08-1952

12. Ajmer and Abu was the part of which Stage of the integration of Rajasthan?

1. First

2. Third

3. Fifth

4. Seventh

13. On March 25, 1948 which Princely state became part of Rajasthan Union?

1. Sirohi

2. Bharatpur

3. Pratapgarh

4. Alwar

14. Match the following:

Paleolithic Sites                                         Place

1 Lidder River                                    a   Rajasthan

2. Sohan valley                                       b. Punjab

3. Chittorgarh and Kota                       c.   Rajasthan

4. River Wagoon, Kadamli basins       d.  Kashmir

  1. 1-a 2-b 3-c 4-d                        

  2. 1-b 2-c 3-d 4-a

 3. 1-d 2-b 3-c 4-a

 4. 1-c 2-a 3-b 4-d

15. Mesolithic human burials have been found at?

Identify the incorrect answer:

 1. Bagor                   Rajasthan

 2. Langhnaj             Gujarat

 3. Bhimbetka          Madhya Pradesh

 4. Mauda                 Haryana

16. The rock painting of Mesolithic period is found at?

Identify the incorrect answer:

1. Lakhudiyar         Uttarakhand

2. Tekkalkotta        Karnataka

3. Bhimbetka         Madhya Pradesh

 4. Adamagarh       Madhya Pradesh

 5. Pratapgarh        Rajasthan

6.  Mirzapur          Haryana

17. Mehrgarh is located on the bank of which River?

1. Indus                       2. Bolan

3. Saraswati                4. Mahi

18. Which is not the Indus Valley Site in Rajasthan?

   1. Kalibangan           2. Baror

   3. Karanpura            4. Rangpur

19. Identify the Place/Site which has the following features?

1. Most noteworthy is a cylindrical seal, depicting a female figure between two male figures, fighting or threatening with spears.

2. The best terracotta figure is that a charging bull which is considered to signify the “realistic and powerful folk art.

3. The cemetery was located to the west-southwest of the citadel.

4. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist.

Which is the correct answer?

1.  Lothal (Gujarat)                       2.Kalibangan (Rajasthan)

3. Diamabad (Maharashtra)       4.Alamgirpur (U.P.)

20. Match The Following:

1. Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP)      a. Ganga valley

2. Narhan culture                                   b. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan

 3. Ahar culture                                 c. Mewar region of Rajasthan

4. Kayatha and Malwa cultures       d. Maharashtra

5. The Jorwe culture                         e. western Madhya Pradesh

1. 1-a 2-b 3-c 4-d 5-e

2.1-b 2-a 3-c 4-e 5-d

3. 1-c 2-b 3-d 4-a 5-e

4. 1-d 2-c 3-b 4-e 5-a

21. Identify the Place/Site/Culture name which has following features?

1. People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses.

2. Its Pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it

3. Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are its prominent sites.

Which is the correct answer?

1. Ahar-Banas Culture       2.OCP Culture

3. Kalibangan                         4. Dholavira

22. Match the following:

                 Districts                                 Mahajanapads

1.   Jaipur, Alwar & Bharatpur             Matsya Mahajanapads

2.   Bharatpur, Dholpur & Karauli         Kuru Mahajanapads

3.   Northern Alwar region              Saurasena Mahajanapads

Which is the correct answer?

1.   1-a 2-b 3-c

2.   1-a 2-c 3-b

3.   1-b 2-a 3-c

23. Match the Following:

       Capital                          Mahajanapads

1. Viratanagari           Saurasena Mahajanapads

2. near modern day Mathura      Kuru Mahajanapads

3. Indrapath                                 Matsya Mahajanapads

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

1.   1-a 2-b 3-c

2.   1-a 2-c 3-b

3.   1-b 2-a 3-c

4.   1-c 2-a 3-b

24. Where/who acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas?

1. Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi                  2. Ganapatha

3. Junagarh rock inscription          4.All

  • The region surrounding modern districts of Bikaner & Jodhpur was referred to as Jangaldesh during Mahajanpadas period.

25. Consider the following Statements and choose the right answer:

1. Maan Mori, of the Maurya dynasty was killed by him.

2. He belonged to Guhilot clan.

3. Born as Kalbhoj, was the founder of a dynasty, which later comes to rule Mewar.

1. Vyaghramukh               2. Nayachandra Suri

3. Bappa Rawal                4 Bahar Deo                

26. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district.

2. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach.

3. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds.

4. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture.

1. Balathal            2. Pachamta

3. Gilund             4. Ojiyana

27. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Rajasthan.

2. It is located on banks of Katar River.

3. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63.

4. This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.

1. Gilund                      2. Ahar

3. Ojiyana                    4.  Balathal

28. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. Recently excavation was carried out at a village in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

2. It belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture.

3. Art facts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

1. Balathal          2. Pachamta

3. Gilund             4. Ojiyana

29. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. The site is located at source of river Kantali, which used to join river Drishadwati, near Soni-Bhadra on the north.

2. Historian R.L. Mishra wrote that, Red pottery with black portraiture was found which is estimated to be belonging to 2500–2000 BC was found when it was excavated in 1977.

3. It mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

1. Ganeshwar (Sikar)        2.  Jodhpura (Jaipur)

3. Noh (Bharatpur)          4. Sanari (Jhunjhunu)

30. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. This Kingdom played a great part in history of Northern India nearly for 500 years.

2. The King Nagabhatt I from this kingdom won Kannauj and established rule over most of Rajasthan.

3. The capital of their Kingdom was shreemal, which is old name of Bhinmal in Jalore.

Identify the Kingdom?

1. Western Satraps                               2. Rajput Kingdom

3. Vardhana                                            4. Gurjara Kingdom

31. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

 1. These people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas as per theory of James Todd.

 2. This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that it is a mixed race.

3. This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that those are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama.

4. This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, those are the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu.

1. Origin of Pratiharas               2. Origin of Rajputs

3. Origin of Rathores                 4. Origin of Chauhans

32. Arrange these Pratihars Kings as Historical in descending order

1. Harichandra           2. Kakka

3. Jhota                        4. Narabhatta

1.   1-2-3-4

2.   1-3-2-4

3.   1-4-3-2

4.   1-4-2-3

33. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara.

 2. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

3. He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.

4. He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country.

1. Raja Nagabhatt I                     2. Raja Nagabhatt II

3. Raja Mihir Bhoj                      4. Raja Mahendrapal

34. Who Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar?

1.   Durlabha-raja I

2.   Govinda-raja I

3.   Chandra-raja II

4.   Govindaraja II

35. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. He captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions.

2. He suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II.

3. He attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions.

4. He proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

1. Qutub ud-din-Aibak          2. Mahmud Gazni

3. Mohd. Ghori                       4 Iltutmish

Answer Key: 

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 3
  4. 1
  5. 1
  6. 1
  7. 2
  8. 2
  9. 4
  10. 1
  11. 2
  12. 4
  13. 3
  14. 3
  15. 4
  16. 6
  17. 2
  18. 4
  19. 2
  20. 2
  21. 1
  22. 2
  23. 4
  24. 4
  25. 3
  26. 3
  27. 4
  28. 2
  29. 1
  30.  4
  31. 2
  32. 3
  33. 1
  34. 2
  35. 3

National Parks in Rajasthan

National Parks of Rajasthan

S. No. Name of National Park Year of Notification Total Area (Sq.Km)
1 Mukundra Hills (Darrah)   2006 200.54
2 Desert National Park   1992 3162
3 Keoladeo Ghana National Park 1981 28.73
4 Ranthambhore National Park 1980 282
5 Sariska National Park   1982 273.8

Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park

Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.

Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955andvisitors now require seeking permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 sq. km.

In past, Darrah sanctuary was the royal hunting ground of the Maharaja of Kota. This place is located at a distance of about 50 km from Kota. It is located on the eastern bank of Chambal River and is drained by its tributaries.

The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 sq. km. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.

The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve.

The name Darrah is taken as the ‘Pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.

The park is situated between two parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gagrola which run across a length of about 80 km (from Murlipura to Rawatbhata). The four rivers which form the boundary of this valley are Ramzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.

The densely wooded Darrah Sanctuary is spread all over the hilly terrain. The forest of the sanctuary is very thick and dense.

Ranthambore National Park

Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.

Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957andcame under the “Project Tiger “as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 sq. km.

The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 sq. km.

Ranthambore was a hunting reserve of the Maharajas of Jaipur, the park at Ranthambore was once the scene of royal hunting parties in the past.

Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.

  • Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
  •  It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from the gentle to the steep slopes; from flat topped hills of the Vindhayas to the conical hillocks and the sharp ridges of the Aravallis.
  • An important geological feature the ‘Great Boundary Fault’ where the Vindhayas plateaus meet the Aravalli hill ranges.

The Rivers Chambal in the South and the Banas in the North bound the National Park. Pure stands of the Dhok interspersed with open grasslands of the plateaus, six large lakes – Gilai Sagar, Mansarovar, Malik talao, Raj Bagh and Padam Talao with in the National Park.

The rugged park terrain alternates between dry deciduous forest, open grassy meadow, dotted by several lakes and rivers that are only made passable by rough roads built and maintained by the Forest Service.

There are many water bodies located all over the park, which provide perfect relief during the extremely hot summer months for the forest inhabitants.

A huge fort, after which the park is named, towers over the park atop a hill. There are many ruins of bygone eras scattered all over the jungle, which give it a unique, wonderful and mixed flavour of nature, history and wildlife.

Tigers at Ranthambore National park have been known to even hunt in full view of human visitors. These tigers are famous for being seen in the daytime too, due to their lack of fear of human presence in vehicles. This lack of fear of humans is excellent for tourists, as they get to see the tigers often.

Desert National Park

Desert National Park is a beautiful place located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.

The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert.

  1. Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and fauna species.
  2. It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
  3. It also has fossil evidences dating back to the Jurassic Period indicating hot and humid climate characterized by dense forests. 180 million years old fossils of animals and plants are preserved at Wood Fossil Park at Akal, situated 17 km away from Jaisalmer.
  4. The Desert National Park is a unique and fragile ecosystem. More than 60 per cent of it is simply semi-arid desert.
  5. The seemingly barren lands gradually dissolve at the horizon touching Pakistan.
  6. But the warm sands of the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer form a fertile micro broth hiding an astounding variety of animals and birds.
  7. Desert National Park is an excellent example of the desert ecosystem.
  8. The landform primarily comprises rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
  9. The topography of Desert National Park supports sandy, gravelly, rocky and compact salt lake bottoms. Sandy areas dominate the western parts of Jaisalmer district, while gravelly and rocky areas are scattered throughout central, southern and eastern areas.
  10. The Desert National Park is barren with several sand dunes and a few hills in the north-western region. The Park forms a vast sandy and undulating terrain.

Dominant fauna

Birds – Great Indian Bustard, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, Bee-Eaters, Shrikes, Larks, Demoiselle Crane, Macqueen’s Bustard, Sand grouse, Long-Legged, Honey Buzzards, chats, babblers, kites etc.

Mammals – Camel, Desert Fox, Bengal Fox, Chinkara, Wolf, Desert Cat, Blackbuck, Hedgehog, Nilgai

Reptiles – Russell’s viper, Saw Scaled Viper, Monitor Lizard, Spiny tailed lizard, Saw scaled viper, Common Krait, Spiny Tailed Lizard, Gecko, Persian Gecko etc.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park

Detail:

 Bird Sanctuary-1971   

National Park-1981           

Ramsar site Oct-1981

World Heritage Site-1985                 

 Reserve forest

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
  2. Keoladeo was declared a Bird Sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981.
  3. Total area of the National park is about 28.7 sq. km.
  4. Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
  5. Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO.
  6.  It is a Reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
  7. The park was a hunting ground for the maharaja of Bharatpur, who turned his personal hunting domain into a bird sanctuary in 1956.
  8. Maharaja of Bharatpur setting up the sanctuary, building a dam and an artificial lake to store the rains that would fall in torrents during the monsoons.
  9. Duck shoots were organized yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, about 4,250 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972.
  10. Grazing of village cattle was banned in this area in 1982, which led to clashes between government and local farmers.

Sariska National Park

Detail:

Wildlife Reserve-1955                                      

Wildlife Sanctuary-1958   

(1979) Sariska Tiger Reserve        

National Park-1982

  1. Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
  2. The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range.
  3. Sariska was declared a wildlife Reserve in 1955.
  4. The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979.
  5. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 sq. km.
  6. The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 sq. km.
  7. The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
  8. The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
  9. The area of Sariska is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
  10. Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991.
  11.  Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.

Sariska was a hunting reserve for royal families in past. Its plentiful tiger population supported by large herds of Sambhar and Nilgai was the ideal place for the royals of the state as well as their visiting guests to go on shikaars. The broad range of wildlife here is a wonderful example of ecological adoption and tolerance, for the climate here is variable as well as erratic.

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

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Wildlife and its Conservation in Rajasthan

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Wildlife and its Conservation

Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.

Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden and allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife Sanctuary as the name suggests, is the place that is reserved exclusively for the use of wildlife, which includes animals, reptiles, insects, birds etc. Otherwise called as wildlife refuges it provides habitat and safe & healthy living conditions to the wild animals especially to the endangered and rare ones so that they can live peacefully for their entire life and maintain their viable population.

For proper management of the sanctuary the rangers or guards are appointed to patrol the region. They ensure the safety of animals from poaching, predating or harassing.

  • International Union of Conservation of Nature, shortly called as IUCN has grouped wildlife sanctuaries in Category IV of protected areas.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.

Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.

Definition of National Park: National Park implies an area that is exclusively designated by the government for the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity due to its natural, cultural and historical significance. It is home to millions of animals, birds, insects, microorganisms, etc. of different genes and species, which provides a healthy and safe environment to them.

National Parks, not only conserve wildlife, but it also provides an amusement of the environmental and scenic heritage, in a way and by those means that does not cause harm to it, so as to provide enjoyment to the future generations. The plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting and predating of animals, destruction of flowers are highly prohibited.

Key Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park:

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

Difference between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park

Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a consecrated place where sacred species are kept. It is not open for general public, unlike zoo. In other words, it tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries.

Characteristics of Wildlife Sanctuary

1. It is natural area which is reserve by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species.

2. Area is designated for the protection of wild animals.

3. Only animals are conserved, Could be private property also, outside activities allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has defined its Category IV type of protected areas.

National Parks: It is a home to many species of birds and animals which is established by central and state government for the conservation.

Characteristics of National Park

1. Reserve area of land, owned by the government.

2. Area is protected from human exploitation, industrialization and pollution.

3. There is no cutting or Grazing allowed and no any Outside Species Allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. Conservation of ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.

6. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas has defined its Category II type of protected areas.

Biosphere Reserve: The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO designated of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas from November, 1971.

Characteristics of Biosphere Reserve:

1. Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well.

2. Areas are meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.

3. Three areas: Core, Buffer & Marginal. No outside Species allowed Conservation & research purpose.

4. It is internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.

5. The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage.

Wildlife Sanctuary of Rajasthan

S.No. Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) Established Year Area  (In km²)
1 Bandh Baratha WLS 1985 199.5
2 Bassi WLS 1988 138.69
3 Bhensrodgarh WLS 1983 229.14
4 Darrah WLS 1955 80.75
5 Jaisamand WLS 1955 52
6 Jamwa Ramgarh WLS 1982 300
7 Jawahar Sagar WLS 1975 153.41
8 Kailadevi WLS 1983 676.38
9 Kesarbagh WLS 1955 14.76
10 Kumbhalgarh WLS 1971 608.58
11 Mount Abu WLS 1960 112.98
12 Nahargarh WLS 1980 50
13 National Chambal WLS 1979 274.75
14 Phulwari Ki Nal WLS 1983 692.68
15 Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS 1982 252.79
16 Ramsagar WLS 1955 34.4
17 Sajjangarh WLS 1987 5.19
18 Sariska WLS 1955 219
19 Sawaimadhopur WLS 1955 131.3
20 Sawai Man Singh WLS 1984 103.25
21 Shergarh WLS 1983 98.71
22 Sitamata WLS 1979 422.94
23 Tal Chhapper WLS 1971 7.19
24 Todgarh Raoli WLS 1983 495.27
25 Van Vihar WLS 1955 25.6

Source – Wildlife Institute of India

Main wildlife found in Protected Areas

Protected Area           Main Wild Life
DamDamp-baretha Resident and migratory Birds
Sariska  Tiger, Panther, Chital, Sambhar, Porcupine 
Sariska ‘A’  Sambhar, Chital, Panther
Desert National Park  Chinkara, Desert Cat, Fox, Great Indian Bustard 
Ramgarh- Vishdhari  Panther, hyena, Sloth Bear, jackal, Fox, Chital 
Kesar Bagh  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital
Ram Sagar  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital 
Van Vihar  Bear, Wolf, Chital, hyena, Fox, Wild Cat
Keoladevi  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Bear, hyena, Wild Boar, Wolf 
Sitamata  Flying Squirrel, Panther, Wild Cat, Sambhar, hyena, Civet 
Bhensrodgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Four horned antelope, Chinkara, hyena, Fox 
Shergarh  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar 
Darrah  Panther, Wolf, Jackal, Chital, Fox, Sambhar, Sloth Bear, Porcupine 
Jawahar Sagar  Panther, Bear, Wolf, Ghariyal, Crocodile, Chital, Hyena, Fox, Jackal 
National Chambal Ghariyal  Ghariyal, Crocodile, Tortoise, Dolphin, Bear, Chinkara, Otter 
Bassi  Chital, Chinkara, Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat
Tal-Chapar  Black Buck, Resident birds, 
Nahar-Garh  Hyena, Jackal, Fox, Hare 
Jamwa-Ramgarh  Panther, Chital, Wild Boar, Hyena, Jackal 
Sajjan-Garh  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Phulwari- ki- Naal  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Tatgarh Ravli  Panther, Hyena, Wolf, Green Pigeon, Jungle fowl 
Jaisamand  Resident Birds, Hyena, Jackal, Chinkara 
Kumbhalgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Hyena, wild boar, Four Horned antelope, Sambhar
Mount Abu  Panther, Bear, Hyena, Wolf, Porcupine
Sawai Man Singh  Tiger, Panther, Hyena, Fox, Bear, Chital, Sambhar

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
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BREEDS OF GOAT LIVESTOCK IN RAJASTHAN

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BREEDS OF GOAT IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Goat          Distribution Area
  1.   Sirohi Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat.
  2.   Marwari Marwar region of Rajasthan, comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Barmer districts. The breed also extends into certain areas of Gujarat, especially Mehsana district.
  3.   Jhakrana Jhakrana and a few surrounding villages near Behror, in the Alwar district of Rajasthan.
  4.   Barbary Etah, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

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Breeds of Cow – Livestock in Rajasthan

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BREEDS of COWS IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Cow Area (Mainly Found)
  1.   Nagauri 1. Origin from Suhalak area Nagaur 2. This species gives less milk.
  2.   Kankrej 1. Found in Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore. 2. Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk 3. The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.
3. Tharparkar Breed 1. Origin from Malani (barmer) 2. Cows excellent production of milk
4. Rathi Breed  Sri Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer. Good at milk production, males lack draught power.
5.   Gir Breed Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. In Rajasthan it is found in Southeastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi and Kota

  • .
Geography of Rajasthan
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Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan

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Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan-Livestock

1. Gir

  • This breed is otherwise known as Bhadawari, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi and Surati.
  • Originated in Gir forests of South Kathiawar in Gujarat also found in Maharashtra and adjacent Rajasthan.
  • Basic colours of skin are white with dark red or chocolate-brown patches or sometimes black or purely red.
  • Horns are peculiarly curved, giving a ‘half moon’ appearance.
  • Milk yield ranges from 1200-1800 kgs per lactation.
  • Age at first calving 45-54 months and inter calving period from 515 to 600 days.
  • This is known for its hardiness and disease resistance.

2. Sahiwal

  • Originated in Montgomery region of undivided India.
  • This breed otherwise known as Lola (loose skin), Lambi Bar, Montgomery, Multani and Teli.
  • The best indigenous dairy breed.
  • The colour is reddish dun or pale red, sometimes flashed with white patches.
  • Heavy breed with symmetrical body having loose skin.
  • The average milk yield of this breed is between 1400 and 2500 kg per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 37 to 48 months and the calving interval is 430 to 580 days.

3. Tharparkar

  • Originated in Tharparkar district (Pakistan) of undivided India and also found in Rajasthan.
  • Otherwise known as White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi and Thari.
  • They are medium sized, compact and have lyre-shaped horn and Body colour is white or light grey.
  • The bullocks are quite suitable for ploughing and casting and the cows yield 1800 to 2600 kg of milk per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 38 to 42 months and inter calving period from 430 to 460 days.

4. Hariana

• It was originated from Rohtak, Hisar, Jind and Gurgaon districts of Haryana and also popular in Punjab, UP and parts of MP.

• Horns are small and the bullocks are powerful work animals.

• Hariana cows are fair Milkers yielding 600 to 800 kg of milk in lactation.

• The age at first calving is 40 to 60 months and calving interval is 480 to 630 days.

5. Kankrej

  • It is otherwise called as Wadad or Waged, Wadhiar.
  • Originated from Southeast Rann of Kutch of Gujarat and adjoining Rajasthan (Barmer and Jodhpur district).
  • The horns are lyre-shaped.
  • Colour of the animal varies from silver-grey to iron-grey or steel black.
  • The gait of Kankrej is peculiar called as 1 ¼ paces (sawai chal).
  • Kankrej is valued for fast, powerful, draught cattle.
  • Useful in ploughing and carting.
  • The cows are good milkers, yielding about 1400 kg per lactation.

6. Rathi

  • Mostly found in Lunkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar & Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan and also found in Fazilka & Abhor district of Punjab, adjoining to Rajasthan.
  • Usually brown with white patches all over the body but animals having complete brown or black with white patches are often encountered.
  • Horn: Short and generally do not exceed 3-4 inches
  • Forehead: Medium size & lean
  • Ear- Medium size
  • Body- Medium size & symmetrical

7. Malvi

  • Mostly found in Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh and Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type: Draught and the Colour –White, Males: Grey dark in neck, shoulders, hump quarters, Head: Short, dished forehead.
  • Horns: Strong pointed emerge from outer angles from poll.
  • Tail: Switch is black.

8. Nagauri

  • Mostly found in Nagaur districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type –Draught and the Colour – White, light Grey.
  • Eyes-White eyelids, heavy and over hanging
  • Horns-Black, emerging from outer angles.
  • Ears-Medium size, inside is pinkish.

9. Murrah

  • Most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Sind of Haryana, Nabha and Patiala districts  of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state. It is also called as Delhi, Kundi and Kali.
  • The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities sometimes found.
  • Tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
  • Most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
  • Butter fat content is 7.83%. Average lactation yield is varying from 1500 to 2500 kgs per lactation and also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes.

10. Surti

  • It is also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.
  • The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat. Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey.
  • The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
  • The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket region.
  • The milk yield ranges from 1000 to 1300 kgs per lactation and the peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12 %).

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

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Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

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Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

The line dividing the Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer districts covered in semi arid.
  • Area – 7500 Sq. Km
  • Rainfall – 20 cm
  • Gullying has given rise to conglomerate landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.

Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.

 Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:

1. Luni Basin              

2. Shekhawati Region 

3. Ghaggar Plain                    

4. Nagauri Upland

1. Luni Basin: This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni river.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga Hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni River & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari River meets it.  

2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production & dairy.

Topography of the Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.

3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

4. Nagauri Upland: Average height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand hills & low depressions and the temperature being High, the evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt & Soda in the depression.

 Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

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Mountains, Peaks and Aravalli Ranges- Geography of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan is bisected by Aravali range into two major parts: Southeast Rajasthan and Northwest Rajasthan. The northwest consists of a series of sand dunes covers nearly two-thirds of the area. Aravali range is approximately 692 Kms long which is running across Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

The Aravali Mountain in Rajasthan is divided into following Ranges:

Geography of Rajasthan- Mountain,Peak and Aravali Ranges

What is Mountain?

Mountains are landforms that stick up high above the surrounding land. Mountains are much taller than hills, mountains can often be found together in groups or mountain ranges.

Mountains are prominent landforms that have significant heights above sea level and/or the surrounding land. They are steeper than hills. A mountain or mountain range usually has a peak, which is a pointed top. Mountains have different climates than land at sea level and nearby flat land.

The literal meaning of Aravalli Range is ‘line of peaks’. It is the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni and Sabarmati. This region is also famous for heavily forested consisting of large areas of sand and stone and of masses of rose-coloured quartzite.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

  • This range is also known as Alwar hill range.
  • In North-Eastern Aravalli Range all the hill ranges are eroded.
  • It stretches from delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.
  • Average elevation of this range is approx. 300-670 meters.
  • Towards north & east it merges with Ganga-Yamuna plains.
  • Torawati hills, Malkhet & Khetri Group of hills are also part of north eastern Aravali range.

Important Peaks of North-Eastern Aravalli Region:

Peak Name District Height (meters)  
Raghunathgarh Sikar 1055
Khoh Jaipur 920
Bhairach Alwar 792
Barwara Jaipur 786
Babai   Jhunjhunu 780
Bilali Alwar 775
Manoharpur Jaipur 747
Baraith Jaipur 704
Sariska Alwar 677

2. Central Aravali Range

The Average height of Central Aravali Range is 700 meter but in the valley it is approx 550m. Four famous ghats of this range are Bar, Pakheria, Shivpur and sura ghat. Shekhawati lower hills and Marwar hills are part of Central Aravali range.

It includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur Surrounded:-

(1)  North by Alwar hills

(2)  East by Karauli table-land

(3)  South by Banas plains and

(4)  West by Sambhar basin

Important Peaks of Central Aravalli Region

Peaks District Height (m)  
Goramji Ajmer 934
Taragarh Ajmer 870
 Naag Pahar Ajmer 795

3. Southern Aravali Range

The southern Aravali expansion of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and Aravali quartzite also found in this range and it formed 8-10 hill ranges are in parallel. The Southern Aravali range includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur & South-eastern margin of Pali district.

Physiographically it is a dominant part of Aravallis which falls in Mewar. The general altitude of the region is above 650 metre and it extends longitudinally from Bhim tehsil in the north to the Dungarpur tehsil in the south. The region separates Marwar in the west from the Mewar in the east, extending along the western border of Udaipur district. The Aravalli within Mewar appears like a triangular shaped land form, having greates width as well as height in the south. Thus the whole western portion of the Mewar is part of Aravalli and widely known as south Aravalli region.

Peaks of Southern Aravali Range                                                            

Peak Name District Height (m)
Guru Shikhar Sirohi 1722
Ser Sirohi 1597
Dilwara Sirohi 1442
Jarga Sirohi 1431
Achalgarh Sirohi 1380
Kumbhalgarh Rajsamand 1224
Dhoniya Abu Block 1183
Hrishikesh Abu Block 1017
Kamalnath Udaipur 1001
Sajjangarh Udaipur 938
Lilagarh   — 874

Main hill ranges of southern Aravali are:

  • Girwa Hills
  • Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  • Merwara Hills
  • Abu block & Oria plateau
Geography of Rajasthan

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Introduction:Geography of Rajasthan

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General Introduction

The term “geography” comes from the ancient Greeks. In Greek, geo means earth and graphy means to write. Greeks developed an understanding of where their homeland was located in relation to other places and how people and environments were distributed by using geography.

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way those locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there and how they develop and change over the time.

The natural resources of a country are of primary importance for the economic development. As a matter of fact, natural resources determine the economic life of a nation.

Man may grow rich in knowledge and intelligence, however much he may have overcome nature but ultimately he will have to depend on the materials supplied by Mother Nature for the development of his economic life.

The physical factors like topography, soils, geologic formation, climate and the available flora and fauna are the basic influences which lead to differences in land-use, cropping pattern, settlement and density of population and occurrence of minerals, water and power resources in different parts of the country.

Geography also became an important part of other academic disciplines, such as chemistry, economics and philosophy. In fact every academic subject has some geographic connection and the study where certain chemical elements such as gold or silver can be found. Economists examine which nations trade with other nations and what resources are exchanged.

Some people have trouble to understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic. The geography is concerned with many different topics—people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, land forms and much more.

What distinguishes geography is that, it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way. Geography asks spatial questions—how and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. It also asks questions about how the interaction of different human and natural activities on earth’s surface shape the characteristics of the world in which we live.

Geography seeks to understand where things are found and why they are present in those places; how things that are located in the same or distant places influence one another over time; and why places and the people who live in them develop and change in particular ways. Raising these questions is at the heart of the “geographical perspective.”

The study of geography is so broad; the discipline is typically divided into specialties. At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography, human geography, geographic techniques and regional geography.

The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems. Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, Pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography and oceanography.

Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists investigate the nature and impact of wind, ice, rivers, erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes, living things, and other forces that shape and change the surface of the Earth.

Glaciologists focus on the Earth’s ice fields and their impact on the planet’s climate. Glaciologists document the properties and distribution of glaciers and icebergs. Data collected by glaciologists has demonstrated the retreat of Arctic and Antarctic ice in the past century.

Pedologists study soil and how it is created, changed and classified. Soil studies are used by a variety of professions from farmers analyzing field fertility to engineers investigating the suitability of different areas for building heavy structures.

Hydrology is the study of Earth’s water: its properties, distribution and effects. Hydrologists are especially concerned with the movement of water as it cycles from the ocean to the atmosphere then back to Earth’s surface. Hydrologists study the water cycle through rainfall into streams, lakes, the soil and underground aquifers.

Climatologists study Earth’s climate system and its impact on Earth’s surface. For example: climatologists make predictions about El Nino- a cyclical weather phenomenon of warm surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. They analyze the dramatic worldwide climate changes caused by El Nino, such as flooding in Peru, drought in Australia and in the United States, the oddities of heavy Texas rains or an unseasonably warm Minnesota winter.

Biogeographers study the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants and animals. For example: a biogeographer might document all the places in the world inhabited by a certain spider species and what those places have in common.     

Oceanography is a related discipline of physical geography, focuses on the creatures and environments of the world’s oceans. The discovery and tracking of the Gulf Stream helped communications and travel between Europe and the Americas.

Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. They also might look at how consumers in China and India adjust to new technology and markets and how markets respond to such a huge consumer base.

Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers.

The Republic of India is a vast country. It lies entirely in the northern hemisphere. The mainland of the country extends between latitudes 8°4′ and 37°6′ north, longitude 68°7′ and 97°25′ east.

Why everyone should read Geography?

  1. To understand basic physical systems that affect everyday life.
  2. To learn the location of places and the physical and cultural characteristics of those places.
  3. To develop a mental map of your community, province or territory, country and the world so that you can understand the “where” of places and events.
  4. To explain how the processes of human and physical systems have arranged and sometimes changed the surface of the Earth.
  5. To understand the spatial organization of society, people and places.
  6. To understand the geography of past times and how geography has played important roles in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and our environments.
  7. To recognize spatial distributions at all scales- local and worldwide -the complex connectivity of people and land places.
  8. To be able to make sensible judgements about matters involving relationships between the physical environment and our society.
  9. To appreciate Earth as the homeland of humankind and provide insight for wise management decisions about how the planet’s resources should be used.
  10. To understand global interdependence and to become a better global citizen.
  11. To understand earth-sun relationships, water cycles and wind and ocean currents).
  12. To understand the rich natural resources and how peoples are depend on our environment and ecology.

Geography is a focus within the curriculum for understanding and resolving issues about the environment and sustainable development. It is also an important link between the natural and social sciences. As students study geography, they encounter different societies and cultures.

Introduction of Rajasthan

The Rajasthan state was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.

Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau.

The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest indian state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara district.

The Aravalli ranges are india’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges.

The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake.
Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.

Rajasthan has its important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow /originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati, Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.

The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found.

The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane.

The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus river.

The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here.

Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions.  The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C.

Different Regions of Rajasthan: 1. Ahirwal- This include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.

2. Bagar tract- This include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).

3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and northern part of Karauli.

4. Gorwar- South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.

5. Hadoti- districts like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.

6. Marwar- “Jodhpur region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.

7.  Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P. and some parts of Gujarat.

8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P.

9. Shekhawati- district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.

10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara.

Rajasthan: Important Facts

Area 342,239 km2  (Biggest state of India in terms of land)
Population 6.85 cr (2011 census)
Language Official language (Hindi), Additional official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family.
Climate Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September.
Capital  Jaipur
Election Seats    25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Legislature Unicameral
Major Cities (population) Jaipur (3,073,349), Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101), Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Famous Lakes Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm) 313-675
The Thar Desert Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”.)
Literacy 66.11 %
Districts 33
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census) 928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio 888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli Dance.
Fair and Festivals Desert Festival-Jaisalmer, Nagaur Fair-Nagaur, Pushkar Fair- Pushkar, Summer Festival-Mt. Abu, Marwar Festival-Jodhpur, Camel Race Festival-Bikaner, Gangaur Festival-Jaipur, Teej Festival-Jaipur, Mewar Festival-Udaipur, Urs Festival-Ajmer, Kaila Devi Fair-Karauli, Summer Festival-Mount Abu, Dusshera –Kota
World Heritage Sites   The six forts — Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia .
Principal Crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,  Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Principal Minerals Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%), Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%), Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas & Petroleum

District-wise Population-List (As per census – 2011)

District Population Area (km2) Po. Density Sex-ratio
Jaipur 66,26,178 11,143 595 910
Jodhpur 36,87,165 22,850 161 916
Alwar 36,74,179 8,380 438 895
Nagaur 33,07,743 17,718 187 950
Udaipur 30,68,420 11,724 262 958
Sikar 26,77,333 7,732 346 947
Barmer 26,03,751 28,387 92 902
Ajmer 25,83,052 8,481 305 951
Bharatpur 25,48,462 5,066 503 880
Bhilwara 24,08,523 10,455 230 973
Bikaner 23,63,937 30,239 78 905
Jhunjhunun 21,37,045 5,928 361 950
Churu 20,39,547 13,835 147 940
Pali 20,37,573 12,387 164 987
Ganganagar 19,69,168 10,978 179 887
Kota 19,51,014 5,217 374 911
Jalore 18,28,730 10,640 172 952
Banswara 17,97,485 4,522 397 980
Hanumangarh 17,74,692 9,656 184 906
Dausa 16,34,409 3,432 476 905
Chittaurgarh 15,44,338 7,822 197 972
Karauli 14,58,248 5,524 264 861
Tonk 14,21,326 7,194 198 952
Jhalawar 14,11,129 6,219 227 946
Dungarpur 13,88,552 3,770 368 994
SawaiMadhopur 13,35,551 4,498 297 897
Baran 12,22,755 6,992 175 929
Dhaulpur 12,06,516 3,033 398 846
Rajsamand 11,56,597 4,655 248 990
Bundi 11,10,906 5,776 192 925
Sirohi 10,36,346 5,136 202 940
Pratapgarh 8,67,848 4,449 195 983
Jaisalmer 6,69,919 38,401 17 852

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan

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Lakes in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
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RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

 In Rajasthan, Lakes are divided into two categories

  • Saltwater Lake and
  • Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

Salt Water Lakes

Sambhar Lake

  • It is India’s largest inland Salt Water Lake.
  • It has been designated as a Ramsar site because this wetland is a favourite spot for migratory birds like Pink Flamingo.
  • The total area of the lake is 150 sq. km.
  • The lake receives water from five rivers Merta, Samand, Mantha, Roopangarh and khandel.

Didwana Lake

  • It is a natural lake, is located at Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
  • It is 2km broad and 4km long.
  • The Production of salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Pachpadra Lake

  • It is located in Barmer district.
  • This is also a Natural Lake, is a salt lake near Pachpadra in Barmer, Rajasthan.
  • Its sodium chloride level is marked at Approx 98%.
  • The total area of this Lake is 25 Sq. km.

      Lunkaransar Lake

  • It is located in Lunkaransar, 80 km away from Bikaner.
  • It is also Natural and a salt water lake.
  • Some other famous Salt Water Lakes are Phalodi, Kuchaman, Kovaad, Kachhor, Rewasa, etc.

2. Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

  • Due to the scarcity of water in Rajasthan, this freshwater lakes act as boons for people of Rajasthan.

Important Fresh Water Lakes of Rajasthan

Jaisamand Lake

  • It was constructed by Maharana Jaising by building the dam on Gomati River from 1685 to 1691.
  • It is located 51 km southeast of Udaipur.
  • It is also called Dhebar Lake.
  • It is the biggest natural lake of Rajasthan.

Rajsamand Lake

 It was constructed by Maharana Rajsingh in 1662.

On the bank of this, lakes many inscriptions are there which tells about the history of Mewar.

Pichhola Lake

  • Lake Pichhola, an artificial fresh water lake, situated on the heart of the Udaipur city in Rajasthan.
  • It was built in 1362 AD by a Banjara and & named after the nearby Picholi village.
  • There are four islands on the lake: Jag Niwas, where the Lake Palace is built, Jag Mandir, with the palace of the same name, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Vilas.
  • The Pichhola Lake and the Swaroop Sagar Lake are connected by an arched bridge built by Maharana Swaroop Singh during 1842-1861.
  • One has Jag Mandir (Temple) and second has Jag Nivas named palaces.

Fateh Sagar Lake

This is an artificial lake was initially built by Maharana Jai Singh in north-west of Udaipur in the year 1678 but it was reconstructed by Maharana Fateh Singh in 1888.

It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

There are Udaipur Solar Observatory, impressive water-jet fountain and Nehru Park – Popular picnic spot.

Anasagar Lake

It is an artificial lake situated in the city of Ajmer.

It was built by Arnoraja alias Anaji, the grandfather of Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1135 -1150 AD and is named after him.

The five Baradari or pavilions, between the garden and the lake, were built by Shahjahan in 1637. On its bank, there’s a garden called “Daulat Baug by Jehangir.

Pushkar Lake

  • It is located in Ajmer district surrounded by mountains.
  • This is also known as Pushkar Sarovar, is located in Pushkar.
  • Pushkar Lake is a sacred lake of the Hindus. The Hindu scriptures describe it as “Tirtha-Raj” – the king of Pilgrimage sites related to a water-body and relate it to the mythology of the creator-god Brahma, whose most prominent temple stands in Pushkar.
  • The Pushkar Lake finds mention on coins as early as the 4th century BC.

Siliserh Lake

  • It is located in Alwar district in between Aravalli Range.

Some other famous lakes are Navlakkha Lake (Bundi), Kolayat Lake (Bikaner), Shaiva Sagar (Dungarpur), Galati and Ramgarh (Jaipur), Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur), Kailana Lake (Jodhpur), etc.