India and Tropic of Cancer

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Key Points:

Tropic of Cancer is an imaginary line, at an angle of 23.50 degrees north from the Equator that passes through the middle of India. If you run this imaginary line around Earth (Yes, Flat-Earthlings, the Earth is spherical), it passes through 17 countries, India being one of them. The Tropic of Cancer passes through eight states in India: Gujarat (Jasdan), Rajasthan (Kalinjarh), Madhya Pradesh (Shajapur), Chhattisgarh (Sonhat), Jharkhand (Lohardaga), West Bengal (Krishnanagar), Tripura (Udaipur) and Mizoram (Champhai).

Mahi River is the only river in India that cuts the Tropic of Cancer twice, first in Madhya Pradesh from where it flows towards Rajasthan and enters Gujarat where it cuts for the second time. If you are the adventurous type and was looking for something different, following the Tropic of Cancer line across India would definitely qualify as something different. Follow the river all through Dhar and Jhabua in Madhya Pradesh, follow it some more as it enter Banswara in Rajasthan (you are on the Tropic of Cancer here!) and then follow the river back as it passes through Panchmahal in Gujarat and finally joins Arabian Sea at the mouth of Gulf of Khambhat. While you are still in Gujarat, head to Jasdan. The city is known for its beautiful handicrafts and diamond polishing. Looks like sun brought bling with it. Don’t forget, Tropic of Cancer passes through this city.

Udaipur in Tripura is the city nearest to the Tropic of Cancer. Tripura, even though it falls under northeastern part of India, is a hot place. The city is famous for its Tripura Sundari Temple and was an erstwhile capital of the Maharajas of Tripura. Speaking of hot places in the northeast, Mizoram gives a good competition to the rest of country’s hot places. And no wonder why. Champhai falls on the Indo-Myanmar border, and also the Tropic of Cancer. The town is important for the aforementioned reason and upon reaching there, you will be glad you visited. The town is a pretty one (pretty hot too).

The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through
      a) India
      b) Pakistan
      c) Bangladesh
      d) Myanmar

Ans-b

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Q.1) With respect to the chemical composition of earth’s layers consider the following statements:

1. The continental crust is thicker in the areas of major mountain systems.

2. Oceanic crust is thinner as compared to the continental crust.

3. The lower mantle extends beyond the asthenosphere. It is in solid state.

4. Core has the heaviest mineral materials of highest density.

5. Gutenberg Discontinuity – lies between the mantle and the outer core.

Which of the following statements are correct?

a) Only 1,2,3,4

b) Only 1,3,4,5

c) Only 2,3,4,5

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding The Paleomagnetism:

1. Some of the strongest evidence in support of the theory of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics comes from studying the magnetic fields surrounding oceanic ridges.

2. Rocks formed from underwater volcanic activity were mainly basalt, which is rich in silica and low in iron.

3. Basalt contains magnetic minerals and as the rock is solidifying, these minerals align themselves in the direction of the magnetic field.

4. When Earth’s magnetic field undergoes a reversal, the polarity recorded in the magma remains same.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) Only 1, 3, 4

b) Only 2, 3, 4

c) Only 2, 4

d) Only 1, 3

Solution (d)

Q.3) In February 2017 the Barren Island saw another huge volcanic eruption and filled the sea with red lava fountains jutting out of the crater. Consider the following statements regarding it:

1. It is home to Asia’s and India’s only active volcano.

2. The volcano here was dormant for a long time, but in the year 1991 it experienced an explosion which was quite major.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (b)

Q.4) Consider the following statements regarding volcanic eruption:

1. After the eruption of magma has ceased, the crater frequently turns into a lake called a ‘caldera’.

2. Oregan Lake in USA is the largest volcanic Crater Lake in the world.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (a)

Q.5) Consider following regarding diastrophism:

1. Diastrophism includes orogeny, epeirogeny, earthquake, plate tectonics and seafloor spreading.

2. Orogenic processes involves mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust.

3. Epeirogenic processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the earth’s crust.

4. Epeirogeny is a mountain building process whereas Orogeny is continental building process.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 1, 4

c) Only 1, 3

d) Only 2, 3

Solution (d)

Q.6) CCEA approves survey project of Un-appraised Areas of Sedimentary Basins. Consider the following statements regarding it:

1. Sedimentary basin is a low area in the Earth’s crust, of tectonic origin, in which sediments accumulate and are confined to small area of ocean basin.

2. The project will be implemented by Oil India Limited (OIL) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC).

3. India has total 26 sedimentary basins spread over on-land, shallow water and deep water.

4. More than 50 percent of total sedimentary basin area does not have adequate geoscientific data.

Which of the following options are true?

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 1 and 3

c) 2 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (c)

Q.7) Consider the following statements regarding Sinkhole/Swallow Hole:

1. Sinkholes are triangular shaped depressions having an average depth of three to nine metres.

2. These holes are developed by enlargement of the cracks found in such rocks, as a result of continuous solvent action of the river water.

3. The surface streams which sink disappear underground through swallow holes.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) Only 1

Solution (a)

Q.8) which lake has now made it to the Limca Book of Records for having India’s largest floating island?

a) Kolleru lake

b) Vembanad lake

c) Pangong lake

d) Hebbagodi Lake

Solution (d)

Q.9) Consider the following statements regarding island arc formation:

1. In Ocean – Ocean Convergence, a denser oceanic plate sub ducts below a less dense oceanic plate forming a trench along the boundary.

2. As the ocean floor crust (oceanic plate) loaded with sediments sub ducts into the softer asthenosphere, the rocks on the continental side in the subduction zone become metamorphosed under high pressure and temperature.

3. A continuous upward movement of magma creates constant volcanic eruptions at the ocean floor.

4. Such volcanic landforms all along the boundary form a chain of volcanic islands which are collectively called as Island Arcs

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) Only 1, 2, 3

b) Only 2, 3, 4

c) Only 1, 3, 4

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.10) what is the name of the India had launched to provide assistance to earthquake and tsunami victims in Indonesia recently?

a) Operation Samudra Shakti

b) Operation Samudra Maitri

c) Operation Samudra Ekta

d) None of the above

Q.10) Solution (b)

Explanation:

India had launched massive humanitarian operation Samudra Maitri to provide assistance to earthquake and tsunami victims in Indonesia.

Q.11) With respect to seismic waves consider the following statements:

1. P-waves move faster and are the first to arrive at the surface.

2. A secondary wave cannot pass through liquids or gases.

3. They are low frequency, long wavelength, and transverse vibration.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Only 3

d) None of the above

Solution (d)

Q.12) Consider following statements regarding continental drift theory:

1. Continental drift refers to the movement of the continents relative to the ocean floor.

2. Gravity of the earth, buoyancy of the seas and the tidal currents were given as the main factors causing the drift, by Wegener.

3. One criticism of this theory is Continental Drift Theory shifts India’s position too much to the south, distorting its relation with the Mediterranean Sea and the Alps.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

Q.13) Consider the following statements regarding fold mountains:

1. Fold mountains are formed when sedimentary rock strata in geosynclines are subjected to tangential forces.

2. They are the loftiest mountains and they are generally concentrated along continental margins

3. The Aravali Range in India is the oldest fold mountain systems in the India.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 2

b) Only 2,3

c) Only 1

d) All of the above

Solution (c)

Q.14) Consider following statements regarding marine erosional landforms:

1. Sea Cliff is shoreline marked by a steep bank.

2. When waves from opposite directions strike a narrow wall of rock, differential erosion of the rock leaves a bridge like structure called Stack.

3. When a portion of the sea arch collapses, the remaining column-like structure is called a sea arch.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) 1 and 2

c) 2 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.15) Consider the following statements regarding arid landform:

1. In hill slope geomorphology, a gully is a narrow and shallow channel cut into soil by the erosive action of flowing water.

2. A rill is a landform created by running water. Rills resemble large ditches or small valleys, which are few metres to tens of metres in depth and width.

3. A ravine is a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of stream cutting erosion. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale than gullies, although smaller than valleys.

Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) None of the above

Solution (a)

Q.16) Consider the following statements:

1. Granite is a typical example of intrusive rock system.

2. Plutonic rocks are rocks formed by rapid cooling of the lava thrown out during volcanic eruptions.

3. The Deccan traps in the peninsular region are of basaltic origin.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) None of the above

Solution (c)

Q.17) Consider the following statement:

1. Peneplain refers to an undulating featureless plain punctuated with low-lying residual hills of resistant rocks. It is considered to be an end product of an erosional cycle.

2. The outer bend of the loop in a meander is characterized by intensive erosion and vertical cliffs and is called the slip off side. This side has a concave slope.

3. The inner side of the loop is characterized by deposition, a gentle convex slope, and is called the cliff slope side.

Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) None

Solution (b)

Q.18) Consider the following statements regarding Doklam plateau:

1. Doklam is an area with a plateau and a valley, lying between Tibet’s Chumbi Valley to the north, Bhutan’s Ha Valley to the east and India’s Sikkim state to the west.

2. It has been depicted as part of Bhutan in the Bhutanese maps since 1961, but it is also claimed by China.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (c)

Q.19) Consider following regarding glacial depositional landforms:

1. The eskers resemble the features of an embankment and are often used for making roads

2. Kame Terraces Are broken ridges or un-assorted depositions looking like hump in a till plain

3. Drumlin are inverted boat-shaped deposition in a till plain caused by deposition.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1

b) 1 and 2

c) 2 and 3

d) None of the above

Solution (d)

Q.20) Consider following statements regarding batholiths:

1. Batholiths are large rock masses formed due to cooling down and solidification of hot magma inside the earth.

2. They appear on the surface only after the denudation processes remove the overlying materials.

3. Batholiths form the core of huge mountains and may be exposed on surface after erosion.

4. These are Basaltic in nature.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 , 2, 3

b) 2, 3, 4

c) 1, 3, 4

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

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1.     With regard to the Western Himalayas and the Eastern Himalayas, consider the following

  1. The ranges of the Eastern Himalayas are more continuous compared to Western Himalayas
    1. The Western Himalayas receive most of the precipitation in the winter months and the Eastern Himalayas in the summer months
    1. Eastern Himalayas are much greener and dense compared to Western Himalayas

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Solution: 2

2. Consider the following statements

  1. The peninsular plateau is composed mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks
  • The Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills form a part of peninsular block.
  • The peninsular plateau is the oldest and most stable landmass in India, devoid of earthquakes or volcanic activity.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above Solution: 1

New Moore Island was recently in news because

  1. of the maritime dispute between India and Sri Lanka on Katchatheevu islands
  • of the maritime dispute between India and Bangladesh
  • of the alarming decline in the population of dolphins and whales there
  • of the alarming decline in the area of mangroves and coral reefs there Solution: 2

4. Peninsular rivers in India are not flooded as much as the Himalayan Rivers. The reasons can be?

  1. India’s peninsular rivers have relatively steep gradients.
  • There is little variation in flow from the dry to wet seasons.
  • Most rivers do not form deltas.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 only Solution: 4

5.   The Himalayan Mountains are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing rivers which are in their youthful stage. Which of the following features made by rivers can be seen there?

  1. Gorges
  2. V-shaped valleys
  3. Rapids
  4. Waterfalls

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1, 2 and 4 only
  • 1, 2 and 3 only
  • 3 and 4 only
  • All of the above Solution: 4

6. The Kashmir Himalayas are famous for Karewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of

  1. Zafran, a local variety of saffron
  2. buckwheat, a local nutritional coarse grain
  3. turnips, a local health supplement
  4. All of the above Solution: 1

7. The British introduced tea plantations in the Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas looking at some of the favourable conditions which were

  1. Steep slopes
  2. thick soil cover with low organic content
  3. well distributed rainfall
  4. mild winters

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1, 2 and 4 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. All of the above Solution: 3

8. The Tarai region of the Northern plains supports luxurious growth of natural vegetation and varied wild life population. This is because

  1. Re-emerging rivers from Bhabhar flow in undemarcated channels here creating marshy and swampy conditions
  2. all fertile coarse load is deposited at Tarai region after rivers re-emerge from Bhabar region
  3. the Tarai region is crossed by large Himalayan rivers which regularly deposit silt and clay here
  4. Both 1 and 3 Solution: 4

9. Consider the following statements about the Western and Eastern Ghats.

  1. Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation than Eastern Ghats.
  • Western Ghats are more continuous than the Eastern Ghats as the latter is eroded by several east flowing rivers.
  • The Eastern and the Western Ghats meet each other at the Nilgiri hills.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • All of the above Solution: 4

10. Consider the following statements with regard to Western coastal plain

  1. The western coastal plains provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours
  2. The rivers flowing through western coastal plains do not form any deltas

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. None of the above Solution: 3

11.  Consider the following rivers

  1. Krishna
  2. Kaveri
  3. Godavari
  4. Penganga

The correct sequence of these rivers when arranged from south to north is

1. 2, 1,3 and 4

2. 1,2,3 and 4

3.   1, 3, 4 and 2

4.   3, 2, 1 and 4

Solution: 1

12.  Assertion (A): The frequency of floods in North Indian plains has increased in recent times.

Reason (R): There has been reduction in the depth of river valleys due to deposition of silt.

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
  3. A is true but R is false
  4. A is false but R is true
Solution: 1

13.  Given are the Indian Rivers and corresponding National Parks

  1. Lohit                                                                Orang National Park
  2. Chambal                                                          Rajaji National Park
  3. Narmada                                                         Kanha National Park

Select the correct match

  1. Only 2
  2. 1 and 3
  3. Only 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Solution: 3

Explanation: Rajaji National Park spread across Dehradun, Haridwar and Pauri districts of Uttarakhand.

Kanha National Park located in the upper reaches of Narmada and The Orang National Park, located on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam.

14.  Which of the following Rivers does not pass through Tropic of Cancer?

  1. Sabarmati
  2. Mahi
  3. Damodar
  4. Luni

Solution: 4

The River Luni: In Rajasthan

  1. Amongst the following the river that passes through most number of countries?
  1. Zambezi
  2. River Severn
  3. Danube
  4. Mississippi

Solution- 3

  1. Imagine you are travelling from New Delhi towards North. If you go vertically upwards towards Jammu and Kashmir, select the correct sequence in which you will cross these rivers
    1. Ravi-Beas-Ravi-Satluj-Jhelum
    1. Satluj-Beas-Ravi-Chenab-Indus
    1. Satluj-Beas-Ravi-Chenab-Jhelum
    1. Ravi-Beas-Ravi-Satluj-Indus

Solution- 2

Explanation: If one travels vertically upward, he/she will not cross Jhelum as it flows North- West of J&K. Other rivers will come in the sequence as mentioned in option 2.

18.    Suppose you are travelling along the Eastern Ghat on Eastern Coast of India from Northern to Southern region, the sequence in which you will cross these rivers

  1. Krishna-Godavari-Mahanadi-Kaveri
    1. Mahanadi-Krishna -Godavari-Kaveri
    1. Krishna-Godavari-Mahanadi-Kaveri
    1. Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna-Kaveri

Solution: 4

Explanation: Check the Map of India

  1. Consider the statements w.r.t Ganges Drainage System and Peninsular Drainage System
    1. Peninsular rivers bear the exception of flowing through Rift valleys, like Narmada, while Ganges Rivers have no such feature.
    1. All Peninsular rivers are characterized by fixed course, absence of meanders and non-perennial flow of water while Ganges rivers are perennial, having meanders and have non-fixed courses.

Select the correct statement/s

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both
  4. None

Solution: 4

Explanation: Damodar River, a river Ganges River System occupies the eastern margins of the Chotanagpur Plateau where it flows through a rift valley. So, first statement is wrong.

Peninsular rivers are characterized by fixed course, absence of meanders and non-perennial flow of water. The Narmada and Tapi which flow through the rift valley are, however, exceptions. Hence none of the statements are correct.

20.  Consider the following Dams

  1. Barna Dam                                          Chambal River
  2. Pawna Dam                                         Maval River
  3. Maithoon Dam                                    Barakar River
  4. Gandhi Sagar Dam                              Chambal River

Select the correct options

1. 1, 2 and 3

2. 3 and 4

3. 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. 1, 3 and 4

Solution: 2

Explanation:

Barna Dam: Barna River in MP

Pawna Dam: Maval River in Maharashtra Maithoon Dam: Barakar River in Jharkhand

Gandhi Sagar Dam: Chambal River in MP

21.    Snow line is a line above which no vegetation grows on high altitude mountains because of permanent snow cover. This snow line is higher for Eastern Himalayas compared to that of Western Himalayas. What are the reasons?

Consider the following statements

  1. Eastern Himalayas are near to the Equator.
    1. Western Himalayas are more continental in their location thus has lesser maritime influence.
    1. Southwest monsoon winds have the moderating effect on the Western Himalayas.

Choose the correct code

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Solution- 1

Snowline is a function of altitude and latitude. Higher is the latitude and altitude lower is the snowline. Eastern Himalaya’s altitude as well as latitudinal location is lower compared to Western Himalayas. Due to higher altitude as well as latitude the temperature is much less in the Western Himalaya and as a consequence the snowline in the Western Himalaya is at a lower altitude than in the Eastern Himalaya. Southwest monsoon winds bring more rainfall to Eastern Himalayas than compared to Western Himalayas. Thus monsoon winds can have moderating effect on Eastern Himalayas and in turn increasing the altitude of snowline.  Thus 3rd statement is wrong.

  • Heat waves were in news recently which killed more than 2,500 people in the year 2015 till June.

Consider the following statements regarding heat waves

  1. Heat wave’s adverse impact occurred mainly in Northern and Eastern region of India.
  2. Severe heat waves come under National Calamity just like cold waves.
  3. IMD recommended to declare a region as severe heat waves affected region if temperature reached beyond 45 degree Celsius.
  4. It is a natural calamity found in tropical regions and not in temperate regions.

Choose the correct statement/s from the code

1.   1,  3  only 2. 2, 3, 4 only 3. 1, 2, 3 only

4. All the above

Answer: 1

  • During monsoon season the ITCZ (inter tropical convergence zone) shifts almost upto 25 degree North latitude over the Indian subcontinent while it rarely crosses 15 degree North latitude in other regions. This is because
  1. Vast landmass of Eurasia located to the North of the Equator.
    1. Intense low pressure over the Northwestern region of Indian subcontinent and over the vast, high altitude Tibetan plateau pulls ITCZ Northwards.
    1. Shifting of Westerly jet streams to the North of Tibetan plateau at the end of the month of May.

Choose the correct code from the following

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All of the above.

Answer: 4

  • The frequency of the cyclones is lower in Arabian sea when compared to Bay of Bengal. This is because
    • Arabian Sea surface temperature is higher compared to that of Bay of Bengal.
    • Bay of Bengal receives the remnants of the typhoons originated in Northwestern Pacific ocean.
    • Arabian Sea receives the remnants of cyclones from Bay of Bengal.

Choose the correct code from the following

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 3

  • Consider the following statements regarding tropical cyclone which is one of the important determining factors for the success of Indian monsoons.
    • These are termed as the heat engines, which derive their energy from the condensation of water vapor into water droplets/drops.
    • More than 50% of the energy derived is utilized to sustain the wind movement around the central eye.
    • A mature cyclone releases energy equivalent to that of 100 hydrogen bombs.

Which of the following statements are NOT TRUE?

  1. 1, 2only.
  2. 1, 3only.
  3. 2 only.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 3

The energy is derived from the condensation of water vapor into water droplets and of this only meager 3% is utilized for sustaining the wind movements.

  • Coal bed methane is released during coal mining and is generally recommended to extract it rather than letting it evaporate into the atmosphere when untapped because
    • CBM if is not extracted can cause fire hazards while mining deep areas.
    • CBM if allowed to escape into atmosphere will get converted into carbon monoxide which is a potent green house gas.

Which of the statements is/are the correct reason/s?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Neither 1 nor 2.
  4. Both 1 and 2. Answer: 2
  • Consider the following statements regarding the production and reserves of copper in India.
  1. Rajasthan has the largest reserves of copper and is also the highest producer of copper in India.
    1. India is self sufficient in copper production and also at times it has also exportedcopper to countries like Japan, South Korea etc.
    1. Production of copper is a tedious job especially in India as the copper ore found in India as it is of the lower grade compared to International grade of the ore.

Which are the correct statements?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. 3 only. Answer: 4 Explanation:
  • Consider the following statements regarding biogas which is a very important source of energy in rural areas.
    • Biogas has a higher thermal efficiency compared to charcoal, cow dung, kerosene.
    • Not only biogas serves as a source of energy in the form of fuel but also can be used as source of manure for farm crops.
    • It is slightly less environment friendly as it releases green house gases when burnt as a fuel.

Choose the incorrect code from the following

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 3 only.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 1

  1. It as a valuable metal of which the major ore is Wolfram.
  2. It is self hardening which it imparts to the steel when alloyed with the steel.
  3. Steel when alloyed with this metal, is used in manufacturing of ammunitions, armour plates, heavy guns etc.
  4. Its alloys are heat resistant, corrosion resistant and hard facing.

Choose the correct metal from the options

  1. Tungsten
  2. Chromium
  3. Copper
  4. Titanium Answer: 1
  5. Consider the following statements regarding the atomic minerals.
  1. Uranium occurs both in the earth’s crust as well as sea water.
    1. India has one of the richest reserves of thorium in the world.
    1. US have the highest reserves of uranium in the world.

Which of the above statements are correct?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. All the above. Answer: 2

Australia has the highest reserves of uranium and not the US.

31.  Khadar soils are preferred over Bhangar soils for crop cultivation because

  1. Khadar soils are composed of fine particles than that of Bhangar soil.
    1. Bhangar soils lack in Kankar nodules.

Choose the correct reason from the codes below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both.
  4. None of theabove.
  5. Answer: 1

32.    Why black soils are treated with cement or hydrated lime during Roadways and railways construction? Consider the reasons

  1. To overcome problems of volume changes due to alternate expansion and shrinkage of soils.
  2. To prevent soil erosion during wet season.
  3. To improve bearing capacity of the soil.

Choose the correct reason from the codes below.

  1. 1, 2 only.
    1. 2, 3 only.
    1. 1, 3 only.
    1. All the above.

Answer: 4

33.  Although laterite soils are formed in regions with high rainfall and high temperature, it requires good dosage of manures. What are the reasons?

  1. Intense leaching because of high rainfall.
  2. Lack or less availability of humus.

Choose the correct code from the following

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 3

Intense leaching is caused by heavy rainfall which leaches silica and makes soil a bit acidic. High rainfall also inhibits humus formation with decreased bacterial activity.

34.   Left hand side is the region and right hand side is the major reason in that region for soil degradation.

  1. Odisha, Jharkhand — deforestation and mining.
  2. Rajasthan, Maharashtra — over irrigation.
  3. Punjab, Haryana — over-grazing.

Which are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. All the above.
  4. None of the above.
  5. Answer: 1

Overgrazing is mainly the reason in the western India ie Rajasthan, Maharastra while over irrigation is the major reason in the North Western India ie Punjab, Haryana.

35.   Black soils are known for its fertility with little or no evidence of exhaustion. This is because

  1. Black soils with equal proportion of clay, gravel and coarse sand has high moisture retention capacity.
  2. Cracks developed during dry season allow oxygenation of the soils.
  3. Black soil has low level of Kankar thus supports wide variety of crops.

Choose the incorrect reason from the codes below

  1. 2 Only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 1

36.  Consider the statements regarding red and yellow soils.

  1. Soil looks yellowish when iron diffused in the soil gets hydrated.
  2. Red and yellow soils are mainly found in the deltaic regions especially in the Eastern Indian coast.
  3. Less fertile coarser soils are found in the uplands while fertile fine soils occur in the low lying regions.

Which are the correct statements?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. 2, 3 only. Answer: 3

37.  Consider the following statements regarding a particular soil

  1. Found in the summits of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Vindhyas, Satpuras and Malwa plateau.
    1. Subjected to intense leaching and thus not fit for agriculture unless manures and fertilizers are used.
    1. It is the end product of weathering process and thus it is indefinitely durable.

Which is the soil that is spoken about in the above statements?

  1. Forest soil.
  2. Mountain Soil.
  3. Laterite soil.
  4. Red soil.

Answer: 3

Although first two statements ie 1 and 2 do comply with mountain soil and forest soil, the third statement is unique for laterite soil.

38.   Consider the statements regarding salinization which is a one of the major problem, reducing Indian agricultural productivity.

  1. In drier regions, capillary action can lead to salt accumulation on the surface of the land which is brought from the deep saline ground water tables.
    1. Irrigation can result in salinization of soils.
    1. It can occur both naturally as well as artificially.

Choose the correct statements from the codes given below.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 4

  1. In humid regions, there is enough precipitation to leach (wash) the salts below the plant root zone.
  2. In drier regions, higher temperature leads to higher evaporation of water resulting into leaving behind of salt on the surface of the soil.
  3. Soil salinization occurring due to irrigation can equally impact both humid areas as well as drier areas.

Choose the correct statement from the code given below

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 1 only.
  3. 2 only.
  4. 3 only. Answer: 1

40.    Laterite soils and Forest soils are acidic in nature. What is the reason for this?

  1. High rainfalls leach away the cations into sub soil region.
  2. Trees and plants absorb the cations necessary for their development.
  3. Cations are washed away along with running water and drained into sea/ocean.
  4. None of the above reasons are correct.

Answer: 1

41.  The best way to improve crop production in India is to increase the crop intensity ie by increasing gross sown area.

Which is not the hindering factor involved in improving the crop intensity?

  1. Infertile soil.
  2. Deficiency in moisture, especially in rain fed region.
  3. Insufficient usage of manures and fertilizers.
  4. Large tracts of black soil.

Answer: 4

42.     In India El Nino can have comparatively lesser impact on Sugarcane and Urad Production

What are the reasons?

  1. Sugarcane is largely grown under irrigated areas.
  2. Urad is mainly grown in regions where rainfall variability is very low.
  3. Urad is drought resistant crop.
  4. Sugarcane although a kharif crop requires very less water.

Choose the right pair of reasons from the codes below

1)   1, 2

2)   1, 3

3)   2, 4

4)   3, 4

Answer: 2

43.   Ragi, millet is currently encouraged to include in the diet to supplement nutrients to counter the malnutrition that is haunting the country.

Consider the following statements Ragi.                

  1. Ragi is rich in iron, calcium, rough phage and is mainly grown in dry regions.
  2. Among minor producers Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand are included.
  3. It is grown as a major crop in Bengaluru-Mysuru table land from where the country’s Majority of Ragi production comes from.

Choose the correct statements from the code below.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above. Answer: 4

44.    Tea best grows in Assam, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal. What is/are the uniqueness of this region which suits this crop?

  1. It has warm and humid climate.
  2. Showers are mainly concentrated in 4-5 months ie June to October in any year.
  3. Deep, fertile and well drained soil.
  4. Rugged topography of the relief near the Himalayan foot hills.

Choose the correct code.

1)   1, 2, 3 only

2)  1, 3 only

3)   1, 3, 4 only.

4) All the above. Answer: 2

45.  Indian agriculture is termed to be an Intensive Subsistence Farming type. What are the characteristic that has made Indian agriculture to be categorized into that type?

  1. Very high population density.
  2. Labour intensive farming.
  3. Lower yield of production in terms of per capita labour force.
  4. Very small and fragmented land holdings.
  5. Usage of farm machinery.

Choose the correct code from the following.

1) 1,   2, 3 only

2) 1,   2, 3, 4 only

3) 2, 3, 4 only

4) All the above

Answer: 2

46.   Kerala has outpaced every other state in the country in terms of Rubber production. The reasons being

  1. It has hot and humid climate with precipitation more than 200cms annually.
  2. Very small dry spell during summers for 2-3 months.
  3. Well drained red soil with gentle slope and no stagnation of water.

Choose the correct reason/s from the code below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 2

Kerala largely has laterite soil and not red soil.

47.   Sugarcane grown in subtropical region has lower productivity than that is grown in tropical regions.

Consider the following statements about subtropical region ie Northern India which has low productivity in sugarcane production.

  1. Frost formations.
  2. Floods and water logging.
  3. High diurnal temperature.
  4. Low humidity.

Choose the correct reason/s from the codes below.

  1. 1, 2 only
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 3, 4 only. 4) 1, 2, 3 only.

Answer: 1

First two statements are self explanatory.

A higher diurnal temperature and low humidity are required for a better productivity. Thus these two factors are not reducing the productivity.

48.    The productivity in the Indian agriculture has stagnated since 1990’s although the usage of fertilizers has considerably increased since then. What is/are the possible reason/s?

  1. Unscientific usage of fertilizers.
  2. Agriculture productivity in India has reached a zenith position and any further increase in the productivity cannot come through increase in the usage of fertilizers.
  3. Increasing monsoon vagaries because of Climate Change.
  4. Both 1 and 3.

Answer: 4

49.  What are the factors that have favoured the Wheat production in North West India?

  1. Western disturbances.
  2. Fertile alluvial soil brought down mainly by Indus and Ganga river system.
  3. Semi arid region.

Choose the correct code from the following.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 1

North West India does have semi arid region but that itself is not a favourable characteristic,

it’s the Western disturbance that favours Wheat production.

50.   Although green revolution brought a great success for our country during later 1960’s it also brought in few negatives. What are those negatives?

  1. Inter crop disparity.
  2. Inter personal inequalities.
  3. Environmental pollution.
  4. Regional economic disparity.
  5. Unemployment.
  6. Self sufficiency in all types of agricultural crop production.

Choose the correct code from the following.

1) 1, 2, 3 only

2) 1, 3, 4, 5 only

3)   1, 2, 3, 4, 5 only

4)   1, 2, 3, 4, 6 only

Answer: 3

51.  Consider the statements regarding a particular valley which was in the news recently.

  1. It is a part of Gangotri National Park.
  2. It is a cold desert and looks like a replica of Tibetan plateau.
  3. It is home for Snow Leopard.

Which is that valley?

  1. Nellong valley.
  2. Kashmir valley.
  3. Alaknanda valley.
  4. Bhagirathi valley.

Answer: 1

52.  Central Zoo Authority, a body set up in 1992 for the oversight of zoos. Consider the following statements regarding CZA.

  1. It is set up under the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.
  2. It is an affiliated member of World Association of Zoos and Aquarium.
  3. It doesn’t have the power to regulate the trade of endangered species.

Choose the correct statements from the following code.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 1

It does have the power to regulate the trade of endangered species. Apart from that it also has the power to regulate and approve the exchange of animals between Indian and foreign zoos.

53.    The trees found in Western side of Western Ghats and in the Northeast region

Generally don’t shed their leaves i.e they are evergreen. What are the possible reasons?

  1. These regions do not have prolonged dry season.
  2. These regions don’t have severe winters.
  3. These regions have the humidity level beyond 75% almost throughout the year.

Choose the correct reason/s from the codes below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. 1, 2 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 4

Prolonged dry season and severe winters do result in shedding of leaves by trees.

Tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves during dry season because of excess evaporation and temperate deciduous trees shed their leaves during severe winters.

54.   In Tamil Nadu region, evergreen forests are found despite hot and dry summers with temperature of about 28 degree Celsius.

What is/are the reason/s?

  1. Annual rainfall of about 100cms mostly from the North East monsoon winds during October to December.
  2. A humidity of more than 75% throughout the year.
  3. Red and yellow soil found in Tamil Nadu region can retain moisture well.
  4. Both 1 and 2. Answer: 4

Humidity is the main reason for trees not shedding their leaves during prolonged dry seasons. Red and Yellow soils are not good at retaining moisture unlike Black soil which is very good at retaining moisture.

55.   Himalayan yew is a plant found in Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh was in news recently.

Consider the following statements regarding the plant.

  1. It is a medicinal plant.
  2. A chemical compound called ‘Taxol ‘obtained from the plant is used as an effective

Anti-TB drug

Choose the incorrect statements from code below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both are true.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 2

56.    Enrich plantation is something in which a single commercially valuable species is extensively planted in a region and other local species are eliminated.

Consider the statements regarding Enrich plantation.

  1. Teak monoculture has damaged the natural forest majorly in Northeast India which was earlier introduced by British.
  2. Chir, Pine plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalayan Oak and Rhododendron forests.

Choose the correct statements from the code below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 2

57.  Few forests in India are protected under the name of Sacred Grooves. Consider the following statements regarding Sacred Grooves.

  1. It is a nature worship which is an age old belief based on the premise that all the creations of the mother Nature have to be protected.
  2. It is recognized under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following code.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 3

58.  Migration is an unavoidable worldwide phenomenon.

Which among the following is/are the not the push factors for rural to urban migration especially in India.

  1. Unemployment.
  2. Health and education facilities.
  3. Monsoon vagaries.
  4. Caste disabilities.

Answer: 2

59.   Developing countries like India has an adverse sex ratio of less than 1000 while in developed countries it is more than 1000. [Sex ratio: It is the number of females in a country for every 1000 males]

What is/are the possible reason/s with reference to India?

  1. Social disadvantages that female face like female foeticide, female infanticide, domestic violence etc.
  • Stopping at one child ie couples restrain themselves from going for second child provided the first child born is male.

Choose the correct code from the following.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 3

60.   Which is/are the country/s in the world to use Gross National Happiness to measure the progress of the country?

Consider the countries.

  1. India.
  2. Bangladesh.
  3. Sweden.
  4. Bhutan.

Choose the country/s from the code below.

  1. 1, 4 only.
  2. 2, 4 only.
  3. 3 only.
  4. 4 only. Answer: 4

61.  Consider the statements regarding our Solar System.

  1. Pluto is the largest dwarf planet revolving around the Sun.
  2. Every planet except Venus rotates from West to East just like Earth on its own axis.
  3. It is nuclear fusion which takes place within the Sun which releases huge heat energy.

Choose the correct statements from the following code.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. 3 only.

Answer: 4

62.   Earth although has an average density of 5.5 g/cm^3, its core has a density of more than 11 g/cm^3.

What are the possible reasons?

  1. Core is formed of materials like iron, nickel etc which has higher density.
  2. Incumbent pressure from the overlaying rocks.
  3. High temperature prevalent in the core region [more than 5000 degree Celsius].

Choose the correct code from the following.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 1

High temperature need not result into higher density.

63.  There are different discontinuities within the Earth’s internal structure. Which are the

Discontinuities that have been incorrectly matched with its/their respective locations ?

  1. Mohorvic discontinuity — boundary between Core and Mantle.
  2. Wiechert-Gutenberg discontinuity — boundary between Crust and Mantle.
  3. Conrad discontinuity – located at a depth of 15-20kms from the Earth’s surface.

Choose the correct code from the following.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 3 only.
  4. 2 only.

Answer: 1

64.  Consider the statements regarding Earth’s interior and seismic waves.

  1. Primary waves totally disappear in the core region revealing that outer core is made up of liquid.
  2. Secondary waves show changes in its speed as it travels from magma chamber to lithosphere region indicating difference in density.
  3. The speed of secondary waves is highest inside the Earth’s Core region indicating

Highest density in the Core region

Choose the correct statement/s from the code below.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. 1, 3only.
  4. 2, 3 only. Answer: 2

65.  Earth experiences seasons in a rhythmic fashion. What are the causative factors?

  1. Rotation of the Earth on its own axis.
  2. Revolution of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun.
  3. Spherical shape of the Earth.
  4. Earth’s tilted axis.
  • Axial parallelism.

Choose the correct code from the following.

1)  1,  2 only. 2) 1, 2, 3 only

3)   1, 2, 4, 5 only

4)   All the above.

Answer: 4

66.   Winter solstice for Northern Hemisphere generally is on 22nd or 21st December every year.

Consider the statements regarding winter solstice in Northern Hemisphere.

  1. The circle of illumination excludes the North Pole region from Sunlight.
  2. From 66.5 degree south to 90 degree south, the Sun remains below the horizon the entire day.
  3. Arctic Circle is the Southernmost parallel in the Northern Hemisphere that experiences a 24 hour period of darkness on this day.

Choose the correct statements from the codes below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2 only.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 2

67.  Paleomagnetism is the past magnetism of Earth stored in a rock.

Which among the following type of rocks provides most reliable readings of magnetism at a particular time?

  1. Igneous rocks.
  2. Sedimentary rocks.
  3. Metamorphic rocks.
  4. All the above rock types are equally reliable. Answer: 1

Increasing reliability of the rocks: igneous > sedimentary > metamorphic.

68.    Earth’s magnetosphere is the area around the Earth where the geomagnetic field

Stretches out into space

Consider the following statements regarding magnetosphere.

  1. It is uneven in shape as it stretches largely towards the Sun because of Sun’s magnetic field.
  2. Solar winds can have influence on the Earth’s magnetosphere.
  3. This sphere deflects the charged particles that approach the Earth’s surface.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 2

69.  Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter. Consider the following statements.

  1. It doesn’t have volume but has shape.
  2. It is the most abundant form of matter.
  3. Gas or air can be turned into plasma when artificially ionized.

Choose the correct statements from the codes below.

  1. 3 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. 1 only.

Answer: 3

70.  Sun spots are the one found on the outer surface of the Sun. Consider the statements regarding Sun spots.

  1. Sun spots region generally have lower temperature than the surrounding region on the Sun’s outer surface.
  2. Sun spots do not have any effect on Earth’s climate.
  3. Each period of weak Sun spot activity co-relates with the period of overall high solar

Radiation output from the Sun’s surface.

  • Sun spots generally have 11 year cycle.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

1)  1, 2 only.

2) 1, 3, 4 only. 3) 1, 2, 4 only

4) 2, 4 only.

Answer: 2

71.  Continental Drift theory by Wegener changed the perceptions about the Earth’s crust.

Consider the statements regarding this theory.

  1. Sialic masses used to float over the Sima without any resistance being offered by Sima.
  2. Earlier all land masses were united to form a massive landmass known as

‘Panthalasa’.

  • Ocean floors were considered to be stable and never moved.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 2

72.  Consider the statements regarding different types of plates in ‘Plate Tectonic Theory’.

  1. Destructive plate boundary is one in which continuous upwelling of molten material ie lava takes place.
  2. Divergent plate boundary is one which two plates slide past one another thus neither creating nor destroying continental landmass.
  3. Convergent plate boundary is one in which one plate overrides the other plate.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following code.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 3

73.  Consider the statements regarding geysers which are special type of hot springs.

  1. Hot water and vapour spouts from geyser tube intermittently.
  2. It represents the minor form of broader processes of vulcancity.
  3. It is found only in tropical regions.

Choose the incorrect statement/s from the following code.

  1. 2, 3 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 2 only.
  4. 3 only.

Answer: 4

74.  Consider the statements regarding earthquake (seismology).

  1. Primary waves are analogous to sound waves and it can travel through liquid medium.
  2. Secondary waves are analogous to water ripples and it cannot pass through liquid medium.
  3. Surface waves are most destructive and slowest among the three waves (primary, secondary, surface waves).

Choose the incorrect statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 4

64.  Consider the statements regarding volcanoes.

  1. More than 95% of the global volcanoes are along the plate boundaries.
  2. High intensity volcano types like Vesuvius type, Peelean type etc are concentrated in the convergent plate boundaries.
  3. Low intensity volcano like Mid Atlantic Ridge are concentrated in the divergent plate boundary regions.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 4

65.  Every relief can be classified into different types of reliefs.

Match the following.

  1. 1st Order relief — continental plates.
  2. 2nd Order relief — plains and deltas.
  3. 3rd Order relief — Fold Mountains.

Choose the correctly matched pair from the following codes.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 1

66.  Weathering is the basic and first step in soil formation. Consider the statements regarding weathering.

  1. The rate of weathering increases with increasing steepness of the slope.
  2. Mechanical weathering is higher in humid regions than in drier regions.
  3. Chemical weathering is higher in drier regions than in humid regions.

Choose the correct statement/s from the codes below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 1

67.  Mass wasting or mass movement is a common phenomenon at the foothills of big, steep mountains like Himalayas, Atlas etc.

Consider the following statements regarding mass wasting.

  1. Rock debris that moves down the hill is mainly derived from weathering.
  • The rock debris moves down mainly because of earthquake, volcano, moving water etc.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 1

Rock debris move under the influence of Gravitational force and this movement is aided or triggered by volcano, earthquake, moving water etc.

68.  Natural levees are depositional landforms on either side of the banks of a river. What are the disadvantages of natural levees?

  1. Levees if breached can cause catastrophic floods.
  2. Levee forming regions cannot be used for agricultural purposes.
  3. Levee formation leads to sedimentation of river basins.

Choose the correct disadvantage/s from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 3

80.  Arcuate deltas are the most common type of deltas, example being Ganga delta, Rhine delta, Nile delta etc.

Consider the following statements regarding this type of delta.

  1. It is formed when river water is denser than sea water.
  2. It is formed when river water is as dense as sea water.
  3. It is known as growing delta.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. 2, 3 only. Answer: 4

81.  The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope which surrounds Earth’s surface. Consider the following statements regarding the Earth’s atmosphere.

  1. Rotation of Earth helps in binding of atmosphere to Earth’s surface.
  2. It sustains life on the Earth by not allowing Earth to become too hot or too cold.
  3. Content of water vapour increases from the equator towards the poles.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following code.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 2

82.  Troposphere being the weather layer is the most important layer. Consider the statements regarding this weather layer.

  1. The height of the troposphere increases from Equator to the Poles.
  2. The height of the troposphere is comparatively more during the summer season than in the winter season.
  3. The height of the troposphere doesn’t get affected by the change in seasons.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following code.

  1. 2 only.
  2. 1, 3 only.
  3. 2, 3 only.
  4. 3 only.

Answer: 1

83.  Consider the following

  1. These clouds are one of the highest clouds in the atmosphere
  • They are also called thunderheads and produce rains, thunder and lightning

Select the correct answer based on above statements

  1. Stratocumulus
  2. Cumulonimbus
  3. Nimbostratus
  4. Cirrocumulus Answer- 2

73.   Consider the statements regarding insolation which is nothing but the radiant energy received from the Sun in the form of heat and light.

  1. Insolation received on the surface of the Earth decreases from Equator to the Poles.
  2. During Summer Solstice, maximum insolation received at the ground surface is between the 30 to 40 degree South latitudes.
  3. Insolation received is comparatively higher in the outer limit of the atmosphere than that is on the surface of the Earth.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 3

85.   Generally the incoming solar radiations are absorbed, scattered and reflected in the atmosphere. Based on the above statement which of the following is/are correctly matched?

  1. Clouds — reflection.
  2. Atmospheric gases — scattering.
  3. Dust particles, haze — absorption.

Choose the correct code from the codes below.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above. Answer: 1

Atmospheric gases especially green house gases absorb radiations and heat up the atmosphere. Dust particles and haze are largely involved in the scattering of the light.

86.  Consider the statements regarding the cyclones.

  1. In a cyclone, the air circulation is anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
  2. Tropical cyclones being embedded in the Trade winds, in general move from East to West.
  3. Temperate cyclones being embedded in the Westerlies, in general move from West to East.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 4

87.     The atmospheric temperature significantly varies in its distribution pattern. The factors that are the reason for this variability include

  1. Sign of latitude.
  2. Land and water distribution.
  3. Oceanic currents.

Choose the correct reason from the following codes.

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above. Answer: 4

88.   Temperature anomaly is the deviation of temperature either more or less than the average of the surrounding region.

Consider the statements regarding the same.

  1. Positive anomaly is the record of higher temperature than the normal which is identified over the land in lower latitudes during day time.
  2. Negative normally is the record of lower temperature than the normal which is identified over the sea in higher latitudes during night time.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both the above.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 1

89.   The extreme cold winters in the Central low lands of U.S.A is due to a particular polar wind.

Which is that wind?

  1. Loo.
  2. Blizzard.
  3. Harmattan.
  4. Chinook. Answer: 2.

90.  Temperature in the Stratosphere increases because of the presence of Ozone. This Ozone       the sunlight

  1. Absorbs.
  2. Scatters.
  3. Reflects.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 1

91.  Coral reefs destruction is a major concern in the backdrop of Climate Change. Consider the statements regarding the coral reefs.

  1. Coral reefs are example of a symbiotic relation between coral polyps and photosynthetic algae.
  2. Coral reefs are confined to deep waters.
  3. Coral reefs are marine equivalent of tropical rain forest.

Which of the statement/s is/are true?

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 3

92.   Continental rise is a feature found on the boundary of the continental slope. Consider the statements regarding the continental rise.

  1. Continental rise are comprised of the finer textured smaller materials.
  2. Continental rise are found only in the active boundary continental slope.

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both the above.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 1

93.  Consider the following statements.

  1. Pelagic waters are the surface waters between two shorelines extensive upto the depth of 500 meters.
  2. Benthic waters extend from the depth of 500 meters to the base of the ocean.

Which of the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 2 only.
  3. Both the above.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 3

94.   A particular ocean has a broad shape of ‘S’ in the North South orientation. Which is that ocean?

  1. Atlantic Ocean.
  2. Pacific Ocean.
  3. Indian Ocean.
  4. Southern Ocean. Answer: 1.

95.   In which part of the ocean does the typical example of reversal of ocean current can be observed which is guided by the planetary wind system?

  1. Northern part of Indian Ocean.
  2. Southern part of Indian Ocean.
  3. North Atlantic Ocean.
  4. South Pacific Ocean.

Answer: 1

96.  Which of the statements are true regarding Equatorial climatic conditions?

  1. It is known as latitudinal climate.
  2. Low range of temperature is mainly due to the equatorial air mass.
  3. There is no seasonality in this region or there are no distinguished seasons unlike other climatic regions.

Which among the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. 3 only.
  2. 2, 3 only.
  3. 1, 2 only.
  4. All the above.

Answer: 4

97.  Consider the statements regarding the Mediterranean climate.

  1. During summers this climatic region comes under the influence of On-shore Westerly wind.
  2. During winters this climatic region comes under the influence of Off-shore Trade wind.
  3. Atmospheric stability exists over the region during summers because of anti-cyclonic conditions.

Which of the statement/s is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2 only.
  2. 3 only.
  3. All the above.
  4. None of the above.

Answer: 2

During summers this climatic region comes under the influence of Off-shore Trade winds. During winters this climatic region comes under the influence of On-shore Westerly wind.

98.   Desert is mainly located in the tropical West margins of the continents. What is/are the possible reason/s?

  1. Existence of the perennial high pressure over this region.
  2. Prevailing On-shore winds throughout the year.
  3. Cold currents on the continental west margins add to the atmospheric stability of the region.

Choose the correct code from the following.

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1, 2 only.
  3. 1, 3 only.
  4. 2, 3 only.

Answer: 3

Second statement: it is Off-shore winds and not On-shore winds the blows over this region. This winds carry no moisture thus causes no precipitation.

Ex of cold currents: canaries current in the Atlantic East coast, West Australian current in the West continental margins of Australia etc.

99.   Atacama Desert is one of the driest deserts of the world. Apart from other reasons there is a particular current which has made it a driest desert. Which is that current?

  1. Benguela current.
  2. Okhotsk current.
  3. Peruvian current.
  4. None of the above. Answer: 3.

100.       Frank Joseph land of Russia makes the northern most limit of summer vegetation in Tundra climate. Which is the type of precipitation that occurs in this region that supports this vegetation?

  1. A very low cyclonic depression that causes light rainfall in the form of snow fall.
  2. Frontal precipitation that causes precipitation in the form of snow fall.
  3. Convectional type of precipitation.
  4. Both 1 and 2.

Answer: 2

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

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Physical Geography of india 1000+ Practice Question Answer for UPSC CSE IAS Preliminary Exam and State Public Service Commission Exams.

  • The Great mountain of North
  • Northern Plain
  • Peninsular Plateau
  • River,Lakes,Parks,Wildlife
  • Coastal Plains
  • Thar Desert
  • Islands

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

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Based on physical features, India physical geography is broadly divided into following sections-

  • The Great mountain of North
  • Northern Plain
  • River,Parks,Wildlife
  • Peninsular Plateau
  • Coastal Plains
  • Thar Desert
  • Islands

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

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Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Indian Geography Question Bank Based on 6-12th NCERT

Useful for UPSC IAS and State PSC Prelims Exam

We have compiled Questions & Answers on Indian Geography in the form of Practice Sets for Exams like IAS, State PSC, and SSC.

Topic Covered from NCERT Geography:

  1. Indian Geography: General Geography
  2. Mountain
  3. Plateau
  4. Plain
  5. Drainage/River/Lake
  6. National Parks
  7. Biosphere Reserves
  8. Wildlife
  9. Soil
  10. Climate
  11. Vegetation etc.

Textbook for Class-IX (Social Science – Contemporary India-I)

RAS Mains Exam Complete Study Notes

Download RAS Mains 2018 Study Notes

Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III Paper-IV
Unit-I
Rajasthan History Administrative Ethics   Rajasthan Current Affairs General Hindi & English
Art-Culture Rajasthan National Current Affairs
Indian History   International Current Affairs
Indian Culture
World History
Unit-II
Economy-Rajasthan Science & Technology Public Administration
Indian Economy Agriculture-Rajasthan Polity & Administration
                                          Unit-III
Sociology Geography-Rajasthan Sports & Yoga
Management Geography-India Behaviour
Accounting & Auditing Geography-World Law

Geography of India-IAS Prelims 2019

  • The Great mountain of North
  • Northern Plain
  • Peninsular Plateau
  • River,Parks,Wildlife
  • Coastal Plains
  • Thar Desert
  • Islands
  • Practice MCQ

Click Here to Download Complete Study Notes

The Himalayas are the highest and the youngest fold mountain ranges of the world. Their geological structure is young, weak and flexible since the Himalayan uplift is an ongoing process, making them one of the highest earthquake-prone regions of the world.

Formation of Himalayas

The Himalayas are believed to have formed over 50 million years ago with the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate slid below the Eurasian plate, due to its density being higher, and in the process crumbling and buckling up the Eurasian plate into the various mountain ranges that are now apart of the Himalayas.

Ranges of Himalayas

The Himalayas are a series of parallel mountain ranges extending along the North-West to the South-East direction (known as the Strike of the Himalayas). These ranges are separated by longitudinal valleys. They include,

  • Trans-Himalayas
  • The Greater Himalayas or Himadri
  • The Lesser Himalayas or Himachal
  • Shiwalik or the Outer Himalayas
  • The Eastern Hills or Purvanchal

Trans Himalayas

  • They are made of the ocean sediments of the Tethys Sea which was consumed during the collision of Indian and Eurasian plate boundaries.
  • They include the ranges of Karakoram,Ladakh, and Zanskar.
  • Karakoram ranges have their one end originating from the Pamir Knot. Karakoram ranges hold the largest amounts of snow and ice among all of the Himalayan ranges.This is because they are situated in higher latitudes where the snow line(altitude above which there is permanent ice and snow cover).
  • The Karakoram is home to some of the largest glaciers such as Siachen (the second longest glacier outside of Polar Regions), Biafo (longest glacier outside of Polar Regions), Baltoro, Hispar, Trango etc.
  • They are home to some of the tallest peaks in the world such as Mt.K2/Godwin-Austin (8611m), Gasherbrum 1 (8080m), Broad Peak (8051m) etc.
  • Karakoram ranges have gaps in them, which are known as passes. Important among them are –Khunjerab Pass, Karakoram Pass, Sia La Pass, and Bilafond La Pass (immediately west of the Siachen glacier) etc.
  • Ladakh ranges are to the south-east of the Karakoram ranges. They separate the rivers Indus and Shyok (a tributary of Indus). Khardung La Pass (India’s highest motorable pass falls in these ranges). These ranges extend into China where they are known as the Kailash ranges. They include Mt. Kailash and Mansarovar Lake.
  • Pangong Tso (largest saline lake between India and China) and Spanggur Tso are the two salt water lakes situated in these ranges.
  • To the south of the Ladakh, ranges are the Zanskar ranges, which are cut across by the Zanskar River. These ranges extend into Uttarakhand. They contain some prominent peaks like Mt. Kamet, Nanda Devi (a biosphere reserve) Kedarnath etc.Lipulekh Pass that leads to Mansarovar and Mt. Kailash forms a part of these ranges. Spiti Valley, Lahaul Valley, and Kinnaur Valley are also a part of these ranges.

Greater Himalayas 

  • They extend for about 2400 km, making them one of the longest-running fold mountain ranges in the world.
  • Ofthe 28 tallest peaks in the world (higher than 8000 m), 14 are situated in the Himadri.
  • Mt. Everest,Mt. Kanchenjunga, Mt. Makalu etc. are a part of these ranges.
  • Some of the important passes of these ranges include Zojila Pass (connects Srinagar with Leh), Shipki La Pass, Burzil Pass, Nathu La Pass etc.
  • Important glaciers of these ranges include – Rongbuk glacier (largest in the Himadri),Gangotri, Zemu etc.
  • They are separated from the lesser Himalayas by longitudinal valleys which are filled with sediments. These are called the Doons. Prominent Doons include Paatli Dun, Chaukhamba Dun, Dehradun etc.

Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal

  • They are divided into the Pir Panjal range and the Dhauladhar range
  • Pir Panjal range is the longest range of the lesser Himalayas. It is cut across by the Jhelum river, Chenab river. Famous passes of this range include – Pir Panjal Pass, Banihal Pass (connects Jammu and Srinagar)
  • Dhauladhar ranges are the extension of Pir Panjal into Himachal Pradesh. They are cut across by the river Ravi.
  • Mussoorie ranges are also a part of the lesser Himalayas. They divide the waters of Sutlej and Ganga

Shiwalik

Apart from these ranges, Himalayas are also divided on the basis of the regions in which they are found.

  • Kashmir Himalayas – they comprise they trans Himalayan ranges of Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar and the Pir Panjal range of the lesser Himalayas. The cold desert of Ladakh lies in between the Greater Himalayas and the Karakoram range. Kashmir Valley is located between the Greater Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range.
  • Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas – they comprise the ranges between river Ravi in the west and river Kali in the east. It is drained by the Indus and the Ganga river systems.
  • Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas – they are situated between rivers Kali and Teesta.
  • Arunachal Himalayas – they extend from the east of Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east. Their orientation is from the southwest to the northeast direction, unlike the earlier ranges of the Himalayas. Some important rivers crossing these ranges include – Kameng,Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang, Lohit etc. Prominent hills of these ranges include the Dafla hills, Abor Hills, Mishmi hills etc. which are named after the ethnic communities residing in these hills.
  •  Eastern Hills – They are aligned from the north to the south. They include the ranges of Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills,Mizo/Lushai hills.