National Parks in Rajasthan

National Parks of Rajasthan

S. No. Name of National Park Year of Notification Total Area (Sq.Km)
1 Mukundra Hills (Darrah)   2006 200.54
2 Desert National Park   1992 3162
3 Keoladeo Ghana National Park 1981 28.73
4 Ranthambhore National Park 1980 282
5 Sariska National Park   1982 273.8

Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park

Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.

Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955andvisitors now require seeking permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 sq. km.

In past, Darrah sanctuary was the royal hunting ground of the Maharaja of Kota. This place is located at a distance of about 50 km from Kota. It is located on the eastern bank of Chambal River and is drained by its tributaries.

The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 sq. km. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.

The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve.

The name Darrah is taken as the ‘Pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.

The park is situated between two parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gagrola which run across a length of about 80 km (from Murlipura to Rawatbhata). The four rivers which form the boundary of this valley are Ramzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.

The densely wooded Darrah Sanctuary is spread all over the hilly terrain. The forest of the sanctuary is very thick and dense.

Ranthambore National Park

Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.

Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957andcame under the “Project Tiger “as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 sq. km.

The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 sq. km.

Ranthambore was a hunting reserve of the Maharajas of Jaipur, the park at Ranthambore was once the scene of royal hunting parties in the past.

Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.

  • Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
  •  It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from the gentle to the steep slopes; from flat topped hills of the Vindhayas to the conical hillocks and the sharp ridges of the Aravallis.
  • An important geological feature the ‘Great Boundary Fault’ where the Vindhayas plateaus meet the Aravalli hill ranges.

The Rivers Chambal in the South and the Banas in the North bound the National Park. Pure stands of the Dhok interspersed with open grasslands of the plateaus, six large lakes – Gilai Sagar, Mansarovar, Malik talao, Raj Bagh and Padam Talao with in the National Park.

The rugged park terrain alternates between dry deciduous forest, open grassy meadow, dotted by several lakes and rivers that are only made passable by rough roads built and maintained by the Forest Service.

There are many water bodies located all over the park, which provide perfect relief during the extremely hot summer months for the forest inhabitants.

A huge fort, after which the park is named, towers over the park atop a hill. There are many ruins of bygone eras scattered all over the jungle, which give it a unique, wonderful and mixed flavour of nature, history and wildlife.

Tigers at Ranthambore National park have been known to even hunt in full view of human visitors. These tigers are famous for being seen in the daytime too, due to their lack of fear of human presence in vehicles. This lack of fear of humans is excellent for tourists, as they get to see the tigers often.

Desert National Park

Desert National Park is a beautiful place located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.

The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert.

  1. Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and fauna species.
  2. It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
  3. It also has fossil evidences dating back to the Jurassic Period indicating hot and humid climate characterized by dense forests. 180 million years old fossils of animals and plants are preserved at Wood Fossil Park at Akal, situated 17 km away from Jaisalmer.
  4. The Desert National Park is a unique and fragile ecosystem. More than 60 per cent of it is simply semi-arid desert.
  5. The seemingly barren lands gradually dissolve at the horizon touching Pakistan.
  6. But the warm sands of the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer form a fertile micro broth hiding an astounding variety of animals and birds.
  7. Desert National Park is an excellent example of the desert ecosystem.
  8. The landform primarily comprises rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
  9. The topography of Desert National Park supports sandy, gravelly, rocky and compact salt lake bottoms. Sandy areas dominate the western parts of Jaisalmer district, while gravelly and rocky areas are scattered throughout central, southern and eastern areas.
  10. The Desert National Park is barren with several sand dunes and a few hills in the north-western region. The Park forms a vast sandy and undulating terrain.

Dominant fauna

Birds – Great Indian Bustard, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, Bee-Eaters, Shrikes, Larks, Demoiselle Crane, Macqueen’s Bustard, Sand grouse, Long-Legged, Honey Buzzards, chats, babblers, kites etc.

Mammals – Camel, Desert Fox, Bengal Fox, Chinkara, Wolf, Desert Cat, Blackbuck, Hedgehog, Nilgai

Reptiles – Russell’s viper, Saw Scaled Viper, Monitor Lizard, Spiny tailed lizard, Saw scaled viper, Common Krait, Spiny Tailed Lizard, Gecko, Persian Gecko etc.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park

Detail:

 Bird Sanctuary-1971   

National Park-1981           

Ramsar site Oct-1981

World Heritage Site-1985                 

 Reserve forest

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
  2. Keoladeo was declared a Bird Sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981.
  3. Total area of the National park is about 28.7 sq. km.
  4. Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
  5. Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO.
  6.  It is a Reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
  7. The park was a hunting ground for the maharaja of Bharatpur, who turned his personal hunting domain into a bird sanctuary in 1956.
  8. Maharaja of Bharatpur setting up the sanctuary, building a dam and an artificial lake to store the rains that would fall in torrents during the monsoons.
  9. Duck shoots were organized yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, about 4,250 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972.
  10. Grazing of village cattle was banned in this area in 1982, which led to clashes between government and local farmers.

Sariska National Park

Detail:

Wildlife Reserve-1955                                      

Wildlife Sanctuary-1958   

(1979) Sariska Tiger Reserve        

National Park-1982

  1. Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
  2. The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range.
  3. Sariska was declared a wildlife Reserve in 1955.
  4. The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979.
  5. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 sq. km.
  6. The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 sq. km.
  7. The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
  8. The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
  9. The area of Sariska is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
  10. Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991.
  11.  Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.

Sariska was a hunting reserve for royal families in past. Its plentiful tiger population supported by large herds of Sambhar and Nilgai was the ideal place for the royals of the state as well as their visiting guests to go on shikaars. The broad range of wildlife here is a wonderful example of ecological adoption and tolerance, for the climate here is variable as well as erratic.

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Wildlife and its Conservation in Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

Wildlife and its Conservation

Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.

Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden and allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife Sanctuary as the name suggests, is the place that is reserved exclusively for the use of wildlife, which includes animals, reptiles, insects, birds etc. Otherwise called as wildlife refuges it provides habitat and safe & healthy living conditions to the wild animals especially to the endangered and rare ones so that they can live peacefully for their entire life and maintain their viable population.

For proper management of the sanctuary the rangers or guards are appointed to patrol the region. They ensure the safety of animals from poaching, predating or harassing.

  • International Union of Conservation of Nature, shortly called as IUCN has grouped wildlife sanctuaries in Category IV of protected areas.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.

Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.

Definition of National Park: National Park implies an area that is exclusively designated by the government for the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity due to its natural, cultural and historical significance. It is home to millions of animals, birds, insects, microorganisms, etc. of different genes and species, which provides a healthy and safe environment to them.

National Parks, not only conserve wildlife, but it also provides an amusement of the environmental and scenic heritage, in a way and by those means that does not cause harm to it, so as to provide enjoyment to the future generations. The plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting and predating of animals, destruction of flowers are highly prohibited.

Key Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park:

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

Difference between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park

Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a consecrated place where sacred species are kept. It is not open for general public, unlike zoo. In other words, it tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries.

Characteristics of Wildlife Sanctuary

1. It is natural area which is reserve by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species.

2. Area is designated for the protection of wild animals.

3. Only animals are conserved, Could be private property also, outside activities allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has defined its Category IV type of protected areas.

National Parks: It is a home to many species of birds and animals which is established by central and state government for the conservation.

Characteristics of National Park

1. Reserve area of land, owned by the government.

2. Area is protected from human exploitation, industrialization and pollution.

3. There is no cutting or Grazing allowed and no any Outside Species Allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. Conservation of ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.

6. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas has defined its Category II type of protected areas.

Biosphere Reserve: The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO designated of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas from November, 1971.

Characteristics of Biosphere Reserve:

1. Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well.

2. Areas are meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.

3. Three areas: Core, Buffer & Marginal. No outside Species allowed Conservation & research purpose.

4. It is internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.

5. The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage.

Wildlife Sanctuary of Rajasthan

S.No. Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) Established Year Area  (In km²)
1 Bandh Baratha WLS 1985 199.5
2 Bassi WLS 1988 138.69
3 Bhensrodgarh WLS 1983 229.14
4 Darrah WLS 1955 80.75
5 Jaisamand WLS 1955 52
6 Jamwa Ramgarh WLS 1982 300
7 Jawahar Sagar WLS 1975 153.41
8 Kailadevi WLS 1983 676.38
9 Kesarbagh WLS 1955 14.76
10 Kumbhalgarh WLS 1971 608.58
11 Mount Abu WLS 1960 112.98
12 Nahargarh WLS 1980 50
13 National Chambal WLS 1979 274.75
14 Phulwari Ki Nal WLS 1983 692.68
15 Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS 1982 252.79
16 Ramsagar WLS 1955 34.4
17 Sajjangarh WLS 1987 5.19
18 Sariska WLS 1955 219
19 Sawaimadhopur WLS 1955 131.3
20 Sawai Man Singh WLS 1984 103.25
21 Shergarh WLS 1983 98.71
22 Sitamata WLS 1979 422.94
23 Tal Chhapper WLS 1971 7.19
24 Todgarh Raoli WLS 1983 495.27
25 Van Vihar WLS 1955 25.6

Source – Wildlife Institute of India

Main wildlife found in Protected Areas

Protected Area           Main Wild Life
DamDamp-baretha Resident and migratory Birds
Sariska  Tiger, Panther, Chital, Sambhar, Porcupine 
Sariska ‘A’  Sambhar, Chital, Panther
Desert National Park  Chinkara, Desert Cat, Fox, Great Indian Bustard 
Ramgarh- Vishdhari  Panther, hyena, Sloth Bear, jackal, Fox, Chital 
Kesar Bagh  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital
Ram Sagar  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital 
Van Vihar  Bear, Wolf, Chital, hyena, Fox, Wild Cat
Keoladevi  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Bear, hyena, Wild Boar, Wolf 
Sitamata  Flying Squirrel, Panther, Wild Cat, Sambhar, hyena, Civet 
Bhensrodgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Four horned antelope, Chinkara, hyena, Fox 
Shergarh  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar 
Darrah  Panther, Wolf, Jackal, Chital, Fox, Sambhar, Sloth Bear, Porcupine 
Jawahar Sagar  Panther, Bear, Wolf, Ghariyal, Crocodile, Chital, Hyena, Fox, Jackal 
National Chambal Ghariyal  Ghariyal, Crocodile, Tortoise, Dolphin, Bear, Chinkara, Otter 
Bassi  Chital, Chinkara, Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat
Tal-Chapar  Black Buck, Resident birds, 
Nahar-Garh  Hyena, Jackal, Fox, Hare 
Jamwa-Ramgarh  Panther, Chital, Wild Boar, Hyena, Jackal 
Sajjan-Garh  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Phulwari- ki- Naal  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Tatgarh Ravli  Panther, Hyena, Wolf, Green Pigeon, Jungle fowl 
Jaisamand  Resident Birds, Hyena, Jackal, Chinkara 
Kumbhalgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Hyena, wild boar, Four Horned antelope, Sambhar
Mount Abu  Panther, Bear, Hyena, Wolf, Porcupine
Sawai Man Singh  Tiger, Panther, Hyena, Fox, Bear, Chital, Sambhar

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

BREEDS OF GOAT LIVESTOCK IN RAJASTHAN

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

BREEDS OF GOAT IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Goat          Distribution Area
  1.   Sirohi Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat.
  2.   Marwari Marwar region of Rajasthan, comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Barmer districts. The breed also extends into certain areas of Gujarat, especially Mehsana district.
  3.   Jhakrana Jhakrana and a few surrounding villages near Behror, in the Alwar district of Rajasthan.
  4.   Barbary Etah, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Breeds of Cow – Livestock in Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

BREEDS of COWS IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Cow Area (Mainly Found)
  1.   Nagauri 1. Origin from Suhalak area Nagaur 2. This species gives less milk.
  2.   Kankrej 1. Found in Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore. 2. Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk 3. The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.
3. Tharparkar Breed 1. Origin from Malani (barmer) 2. Cows excellent production of milk
4. Rathi Breed  Sri Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer. Good at milk production, males lack draught power.
5.   Gir Breed Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. In Rajasthan it is found in Southeastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi and Kota

  • .
Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan-Livestock

1. Gir

  • This breed is otherwise known as Bhadawari, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi and Surati.
  • Originated in Gir forests of South Kathiawar in Gujarat also found in Maharashtra and adjacent Rajasthan.
  • Basic colours of skin are white with dark red or chocolate-brown patches or sometimes black or purely red.
  • Horns are peculiarly curved, giving a ‘half moon’ appearance.
  • Milk yield ranges from 1200-1800 kgs per lactation.
  • Age at first calving 45-54 months and inter calving period from 515 to 600 days.
  • This is known for its hardiness and disease resistance.

2. Sahiwal

  • Originated in Montgomery region of undivided India.
  • This breed otherwise known as Lola (loose skin), Lambi Bar, Montgomery, Multani and Teli.
  • The best indigenous dairy breed.
  • The colour is reddish dun or pale red, sometimes flashed with white patches.
  • Heavy breed with symmetrical body having loose skin.
  • The average milk yield of this breed is between 1400 and 2500 kg per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 37 to 48 months and the calving interval is 430 to 580 days.

3. Tharparkar

  • Originated in Tharparkar district (Pakistan) of undivided India and also found in Rajasthan.
  • Otherwise known as White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi and Thari.
  • They are medium sized, compact and have lyre-shaped horn and Body colour is white or light grey.
  • The bullocks are quite suitable for ploughing and casting and the cows yield 1800 to 2600 kg of milk per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 38 to 42 months and inter calving period from 430 to 460 days.

4. Hariana

• It was originated from Rohtak, Hisar, Jind and Gurgaon districts of Haryana and also popular in Punjab, UP and parts of MP.

• Horns are small and the bullocks are powerful work animals.

• Hariana cows are fair Milkers yielding 600 to 800 kg of milk in lactation.

• The age at first calving is 40 to 60 months and calving interval is 480 to 630 days.

5. Kankrej

  • It is otherwise called as Wadad or Waged, Wadhiar.
  • Originated from Southeast Rann of Kutch of Gujarat and adjoining Rajasthan (Barmer and Jodhpur district).
  • The horns are lyre-shaped.
  • Colour of the animal varies from silver-grey to iron-grey or steel black.
  • The gait of Kankrej is peculiar called as 1 ¼ paces (sawai chal).
  • Kankrej is valued for fast, powerful, draught cattle.
  • Useful in ploughing and carting.
  • The cows are good milkers, yielding about 1400 kg per lactation.

6. Rathi

  • Mostly found in Lunkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar & Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan and also found in Fazilka & Abhor district of Punjab, adjoining to Rajasthan.
  • Usually brown with white patches all over the body but animals having complete brown or black with white patches are often encountered.
  • Horn: Short and generally do not exceed 3-4 inches
  • Forehead: Medium size & lean
  • Ear- Medium size
  • Body- Medium size & symmetrical

7. Malvi

  • Mostly found in Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh and Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type: Draught and the Colour –White, Males: Grey dark in neck, shoulders, hump quarters, Head: Short, dished forehead.
  • Horns: Strong pointed emerge from outer angles from poll.
  • Tail: Switch is black.

8. Nagauri

  • Mostly found in Nagaur districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type –Draught and the Colour – White, light Grey.
  • Eyes-White eyelids, heavy and over hanging
  • Horns-Black, emerging from outer angles.
  • Ears-Medium size, inside is pinkish.

9. Murrah

  • Most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Sind of Haryana, Nabha and Patiala districts  of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state. It is also called as Delhi, Kundi and Kali.
  • The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities sometimes found.
  • Tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
  • Most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
  • Butter fat content is 7.83%. Average lactation yield is varying from 1500 to 2500 kgs per lactation and also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes.

10. Surti

  • It is also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.
  • The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat. Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey.
  • The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
  • The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket region.
  • The milk yield ranges from 1000 to 1300 kgs per lactation and the peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12 %).

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

The line dividing the Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer districts covered in semi arid.
  • Area – 7500 Sq. Km
  • Rainfall – 20 cm
  • Gullying has given rise to conglomerate landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.

Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.

 Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:

1. Luni Basin              

2. Shekhawati Region 

3. Ghaggar Plain                    

4. Nagauri Upland

1. Luni Basin: This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni river.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga Hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni River & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari River meets it.  

2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production & dairy.

Topography of the Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.

3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

4. Nagauri Upland: Average height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand hills & low depressions and the temperature being High, the evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt & Soda in the depression.

 Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Mountains, Peaks and Aravalli Ranges- Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Rajasthan is bisected by Aravali range into two major parts: Southeast Rajasthan and Northwest Rajasthan. The northwest consists of a series of sand dunes covers nearly two-thirds of the area. Aravali range is approximately 692 Kms long which is running across Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

The Aravali Mountain in Rajasthan is divided into following Ranges:

Geography of Rajasthan- Mountain,Peak and Aravali Ranges

What is Mountain?

Mountains are landforms that stick up high above the surrounding land. Mountains are much taller than hills, mountains can often be found together in groups or mountain ranges.

Mountains are prominent landforms that have significant heights above sea level and/or the surrounding land. They are steeper than hills. A mountain or mountain range usually has a peak, which is a pointed top. Mountains have different climates than land at sea level and nearby flat land.

The literal meaning of Aravalli Range is ‘line of peaks’. It is the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni and Sabarmati. This region is also famous for heavily forested consisting of large areas of sand and stone and of masses of rose-coloured quartzite.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

  • This range is also known as Alwar hill range.
  • In North-Eastern Aravalli Range all the hill ranges are eroded.
  • It stretches from delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.
  • Average elevation of this range is approx. 300-670 meters.
  • Towards north & east it merges with Ganga-Yamuna plains.
  • Torawati hills, Malkhet & Khetri Group of hills are also part of north eastern Aravali range.

Important Peaks of North-Eastern Aravalli Region:

Peak Name District Height (meters)  
Raghunathgarh Sikar 1055
Khoh Jaipur 920
Bhairach Alwar 792
Barwara Jaipur 786
Babai   Jhunjhunu 780
Bilali Alwar 775
Manoharpur Jaipur 747
Baraith Jaipur 704
Sariska Alwar 677

2. Central Aravali Range

The Average height of Central Aravali Range is 700 meter but in the valley it is approx 550m. Four famous ghats of this range are Bar, Pakheria, Shivpur and sura ghat. Shekhawati lower hills and Marwar hills are part of Central Aravali range.

It includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur Surrounded:-

(1)  North by Alwar hills

(2)  East by Karauli table-land

(3)  South by Banas plains and

(4)  West by Sambhar basin

Important Peaks of Central Aravalli Region

Peaks District Height (m)  
Goramji Ajmer 934
Taragarh Ajmer 870
 Naag Pahar Ajmer 795

3. Southern Aravali Range

The southern Aravali expansion of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and Aravali quartzite also found in this range and it formed 8-10 hill ranges are in parallel. The Southern Aravali range includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur & South-eastern margin of Pali district.

Physiographically it is a dominant part of Aravallis which falls in Mewar. The general altitude of the region is above 650 metre and it extends longitudinally from Bhim tehsil in the north to the Dungarpur tehsil in the south. The region separates Marwar in the west from the Mewar in the east, extending along the western border of Udaipur district. The Aravalli within Mewar appears like a triangular shaped land form, having greates width as well as height in the south. Thus the whole western portion of the Mewar is part of Aravalli and widely known as south Aravalli region.

Peaks of Southern Aravali Range                                                            

Peak Name District Height (m)
Guru Shikhar Sirohi 1722
Ser Sirohi 1597
Dilwara Sirohi 1442
Jarga Sirohi 1431
Achalgarh Sirohi 1380
Kumbhalgarh Rajsamand 1224
Dhoniya Abu Block 1183
Hrishikesh Abu Block 1017
Kamalnath Udaipur 1001
Sajjangarh Udaipur 938
Lilagarh   — 874

Main hill ranges of southern Aravali are:

  • Girwa Hills
  • Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  • Merwara Hills
  • Abu block & Oria plateau
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Introduction:Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

General Introduction

The term “geography” comes from the ancient Greeks. In Greek, geo means earth and graphy means to write. Greeks developed an understanding of where their homeland was located in relation to other places and how people and environments were distributed by using geography.

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way those locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there and how they develop and change over the time.

The natural resources of a country are of primary importance for the economic development. As a matter of fact, natural resources determine the economic life of a nation.

Man may grow rich in knowledge and intelligence, however much he may have overcome nature but ultimately he will have to depend on the materials supplied by Mother Nature for the development of his economic life.

The physical factors like topography, soils, geologic formation, climate and the available flora and fauna are the basic influences which lead to differences in land-use, cropping pattern, settlement and density of population and occurrence of minerals, water and power resources in different parts of the country.

Geography also became an important part of other academic disciplines, such as chemistry, economics and philosophy. In fact every academic subject has some geographic connection and the study where certain chemical elements such as gold or silver can be found. Economists examine which nations trade with other nations and what resources are exchanged.

Some people have trouble to understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic. The geography is concerned with many different topics—people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, land forms and much more.

What distinguishes geography is that, it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way. Geography asks spatial questions—how and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. It also asks questions about how the interaction of different human and natural activities on earth’s surface shape the characteristics of the world in which we live.

Geography seeks to understand where things are found and why they are present in those places; how things that are located in the same or distant places influence one another over time; and why places and the people who live in them develop and change in particular ways. Raising these questions is at the heart of the “geographical perspective.”

The study of geography is so broad; the discipline is typically divided into specialties. At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography, human geography, geographic techniques and regional geography.

The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems. Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, Pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography and oceanography.

Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists investigate the nature and impact of wind, ice, rivers, erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes, living things, and other forces that shape and change the surface of the Earth.

Glaciologists focus on the Earth’s ice fields and their impact on the planet’s climate. Glaciologists document the properties and distribution of glaciers and icebergs. Data collected by glaciologists has demonstrated the retreat of Arctic and Antarctic ice in the past century.

Pedologists study soil and how it is created, changed and classified. Soil studies are used by a variety of professions from farmers analyzing field fertility to engineers investigating the suitability of different areas for building heavy structures.

Hydrology is the study of Earth’s water: its properties, distribution and effects. Hydrologists are especially concerned with the movement of water as it cycles from the ocean to the atmosphere then back to Earth’s surface. Hydrologists study the water cycle through rainfall into streams, lakes, the soil and underground aquifers.

Climatologists study Earth’s climate system and its impact on Earth’s surface. For example: climatologists make predictions about El Nino- a cyclical weather phenomenon of warm surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. They analyze the dramatic worldwide climate changes caused by El Nino, such as flooding in Peru, drought in Australia and in the United States, the oddities of heavy Texas rains or an unseasonably warm Minnesota winter.

Biogeographers study the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants and animals. For example: a biogeographer might document all the places in the world inhabited by a certain spider species and what those places have in common.     

Oceanography is a related discipline of physical geography, focuses on the creatures and environments of the world’s oceans. The discovery and tracking of the Gulf Stream helped communications and travel between Europe and the Americas.

Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. They also might look at how consumers in China and India adjust to new technology and markets and how markets respond to such a huge consumer base.

Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers.

The Republic of India is a vast country. It lies entirely in the northern hemisphere. The mainland of the country extends between latitudes 8°4′ and 37°6′ north, longitude 68°7′ and 97°25′ east.

Why everyone should read Geography?

  1. To understand basic physical systems that affect everyday life.
  2. To learn the location of places and the physical and cultural characteristics of those places.
  3. To develop a mental map of your community, province or territory, country and the world so that you can understand the “where” of places and events.
  4. To explain how the processes of human and physical systems have arranged and sometimes changed the surface of the Earth.
  5. To understand the spatial organization of society, people and places.
  6. To understand the geography of past times and how geography has played important roles in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and our environments.
  7. To recognize spatial distributions at all scales- local and worldwide -the complex connectivity of people and land places.
  8. To be able to make sensible judgements about matters involving relationships between the physical environment and our society.
  9. To appreciate Earth as the homeland of humankind and provide insight for wise management decisions about how the planet’s resources should be used.
  10. To understand global interdependence and to become a better global citizen.
  11. To understand earth-sun relationships, water cycles and wind and ocean currents).
  12. To understand the rich natural resources and how peoples are depend on our environment and ecology.

Geography is a focus within the curriculum for understanding and resolving issues about the environment and sustainable development. It is also an important link between the natural and social sciences. As students study geography, they encounter different societies and cultures.

Introduction of Rajasthan

The Rajasthan state was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.

Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau.

The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest indian state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara district.

The Aravalli ranges are india’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges.

The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake.
Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.

Rajasthan has its important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow /originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati, Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.

The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found.

The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane.

The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus river.

The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here.

Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions.  The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C.

Different Regions of Rajasthan: 1. Ahirwal- This include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.

2. Bagar tract- This include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).

3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and northern part of Karauli.

4. Gorwar- South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.

5. Hadoti- districts like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.

6. Marwar- “Jodhpur region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.

7.  Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P. and some parts of Gujarat.

8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P.

9. Shekhawati- district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.

10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara.

Rajasthan: Important Facts

Area 342,239 km2  (Biggest state of India in terms of land)
Population 6.85 cr (2011 census)
Language Official language (Hindi), Additional official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family.
Climate Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September.
Capital  Jaipur
Election Seats    25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Legislature Unicameral
Major Cities (population) Jaipur (3,073,349), Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101), Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Famous Lakes Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm) 313-675
The Thar Desert Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”.)
Literacy 66.11 %
Districts 33
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census) 928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio 888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli Dance.
Fair and Festivals Desert Festival-Jaisalmer, Nagaur Fair-Nagaur, Pushkar Fair- Pushkar, Summer Festival-Mt. Abu, Marwar Festival-Jodhpur, Camel Race Festival-Bikaner, Gangaur Festival-Jaipur, Teej Festival-Jaipur, Mewar Festival-Udaipur, Urs Festival-Ajmer, Kaila Devi Fair-Karauli, Summer Festival-Mount Abu, Dusshera –Kota
World Heritage Sites   The six forts — Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia .
Principal Crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,  Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Principal Minerals Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%), Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%), Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas & Petroleum

District-wise Population-List (As per census – 2011)

District Population Area (km2) Po. Density Sex-ratio
Jaipur 66,26,178 11,143 595 910
Jodhpur 36,87,165 22,850 161 916
Alwar 36,74,179 8,380 438 895
Nagaur 33,07,743 17,718 187 950
Udaipur 30,68,420 11,724 262 958
Sikar 26,77,333 7,732 346 947
Barmer 26,03,751 28,387 92 902
Ajmer 25,83,052 8,481 305 951
Bharatpur 25,48,462 5,066 503 880
Bhilwara 24,08,523 10,455 230 973
Bikaner 23,63,937 30,239 78 905
Jhunjhunun 21,37,045 5,928 361 950
Churu 20,39,547 13,835 147 940
Pali 20,37,573 12,387 164 987
Ganganagar 19,69,168 10,978 179 887
Kota 19,51,014 5,217 374 911
Jalore 18,28,730 10,640 172 952
Banswara 17,97,485 4,522 397 980
Hanumangarh 17,74,692 9,656 184 906
Dausa 16,34,409 3,432 476 905
Chittaurgarh 15,44,338 7,822 197 972
Karauli 14,58,248 5,524 264 861
Tonk 14,21,326 7,194 198 952
Jhalawar 14,11,129 6,219 227 946
Dungarpur 13,88,552 3,770 368 994
SawaiMadhopur 13,35,551 4,498 297 897
Baran 12,22,755 6,992 175 929
Dhaulpur 12,06,516 3,033 398 846
Rajsamand 11,56,597 4,655 248 990
Bundi 11,10,906 5,776 192 925
Sirohi 10,36,346 5,136 202 940
Pratapgarh 8,67,848 4,449 195 983
Jaisalmer 6,69,919 38,401 17 852

Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Lakes in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

 In Rajasthan, Lakes are divided into two categories

  • Saltwater Lake and
  • Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

Salt Water Lakes

Sambhar Lake

  • It is India’s largest inland Salt Water Lake.
  • It has been designated as a Ramsar site because this wetland is a favourite spot for migratory birds like Pink Flamingo.
  • The total area of the lake is 150 sq. km.
  • The lake receives water from five rivers Merta, Samand, Mantha, Roopangarh and khandel.

Didwana Lake

  • It is a natural lake, is located at Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
  • It is 2km broad and 4km long.
  • The Production of salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Pachpadra Lake

  • It is located in Barmer district.
  • This is also a Natural Lake, is a salt lake near Pachpadra in Barmer, Rajasthan.
  • Its sodium chloride level is marked at Approx 98%.
  • The total area of this Lake is 25 Sq. km.

      Lunkaransar Lake

  • It is located in Lunkaransar, 80 km away from Bikaner.
  • It is also Natural and a salt water lake.
  • Some other famous Salt Water Lakes are Phalodi, Kuchaman, Kovaad, Kachhor, Rewasa, etc.

2. Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

  • Due to the scarcity of water in Rajasthan, this freshwater lakes act as boons for people of Rajasthan.

Important Fresh Water Lakes of Rajasthan

Jaisamand Lake

  • It was constructed by Maharana Jaising by building the dam on Gomati River from 1685 to 1691.
  • It is located 51 km southeast of Udaipur.
  • It is also called Dhebar Lake.
  • It is the biggest natural lake of Rajasthan.

Rajsamand Lake

 It was constructed by Maharana Rajsingh in 1662.

On the bank of this, lakes many inscriptions are there which tells about the history of Mewar.

Pichhola Lake

  • Lake Pichhola, an artificial fresh water lake, situated on the heart of the Udaipur city in Rajasthan.
  • It was built in 1362 AD by a Banjara and & named after the nearby Picholi village.
  • There are four islands on the lake: Jag Niwas, where the Lake Palace is built, Jag Mandir, with the palace of the same name, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Vilas.
  • The Pichhola Lake and the Swaroop Sagar Lake are connected by an arched bridge built by Maharana Swaroop Singh during 1842-1861.
  • One has Jag Mandir (Temple) and second has Jag Nivas named palaces.

Fateh Sagar Lake

This is an artificial lake was initially built by Maharana Jai Singh in north-west of Udaipur in the year 1678 but it was reconstructed by Maharana Fateh Singh in 1888.

It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

There are Udaipur Solar Observatory, impressive water-jet fountain and Nehru Park – Popular picnic spot.

Anasagar Lake

It is an artificial lake situated in the city of Ajmer.

It was built by Arnoraja alias Anaji, the grandfather of Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1135 -1150 AD and is named after him.

The five Baradari or pavilions, between the garden and the lake, were built by Shahjahan in 1637. On its bank, there’s a garden called “Daulat Baug by Jehangir.

Pushkar Lake

  • It is located in Ajmer district surrounded by mountains.
  • This is also known as Pushkar Sarovar, is located in Pushkar.
  • Pushkar Lake is a sacred lake of the Hindus. The Hindu scriptures describe it as “Tirtha-Raj” – the king of Pilgrimage sites related to a water-body and relate it to the mythology of the creator-god Brahma, whose most prominent temple stands in Pushkar.
  • The Pushkar Lake finds mention on coins as early as the 4th century BC.

Siliserh Lake

  • It is located in Alwar district in between Aravalli Range.

Some other famous lakes are Navlakkha Lake (Bundi), Kolayat Lake (Bikaner), Shaiva Sagar (Dungarpur), Galati and Ramgarh (Jaipur), Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur), Kailana Lake (Jodhpur), etc.

River system: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

The Location of the great Indian watershed and the existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past Udai sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to Pratapgarh.

Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along with its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and Berach, Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.

The inland drainage system is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin, Barrah basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage basins. The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these rivers.

The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri, Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near the Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.

The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south, southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and has some important streams.

The river Chambal is the largest stream and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.

The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about 325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at 505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.

The river Chambal is joined by its first major tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj, after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas join the Chambal River on the left bank.

The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.

1. Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal

Chambal River

  • In the ancient time, it was called “Charmanyavati”.
  • It originates from Janapao Hills near Maanpur in Mahu, Madhya Pradesh.
  • It enters in Rajasthan near Chaurasigarh and makes the border of Kota and Bundi.
  • It passes through Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur and finally meets in Yamuna River.
  • Gandhi sagar, Jawahar sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Kota Barrage Dam are built on this river.
  • Banas, Kalisindh and Parvati are its tributaries.
  • Length- 965 Km & Length in Rajasthan-370Km

Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link

      The proposed Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link is one of the big projects being planned in the basin which will divert surplus waters of Parwati and Kalisindh to the Rana Pratap Sagar or Gandhi Sagar dam.

Banas River

  • It originates from Khamnor Hill near Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand.
  • It travels through Gogunda Plateau, Nathdwara, Rajsamand, Rel Magara, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Tonk and in Sawai Madhopur, it join the Stream of Chambal River.
  • It is also called ‘Hope of Forest (Van Ki Asha)’.
  • Bedach, Kothari, Khari, Mainal, Bandi, Dhundh and Morel are the tributaries of Banas River.

Banas River Basin

Banas lies completely within Rajasthan and has the largest catchment area (45,833 square km) in Rajasthan. Banas drains the east slope of the central portion of the Aravalli Range, and the basin includes all or part of Pali, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Tonk, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Dausa, Jaipur and Sawai Madhopur districts.

Kali Sindh River

  • It originates in dewas in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It passes through Jhalawar and Baran districts and meets Chambal River in Narena.
  • It is tributary of Chambal & it meet near Nonera village in Baran.
  • Paravan, Ujaad, Niwai and Aahu are its tributary rivers.

      Parban River is a tributary of Kali Sindh and it originates in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. Parban flows through Sehore, Shajapur and Rajgarh districts in Madhya Pradesh. It covers Jhalawar, Kota; Baran districts of Rajasthan and meets Kali Sindh in Baran district of Rajasthan.

Parvati River

  • It originates in Sihor region of Madhya Pradesh and flows in Baran and meets Chambal River near Paliya, Sawai Madhopur.
  • Origin- Northern slopes of Vindhyan Range Length in State- 65 Km
  • It is the tributary of Chambal and it meet near Poh village

Berach River

  • It Originates from Gogunda Hills, North of Udaipur
  • Districts- Udaipur, Chittorgarh
  • It is also known as Aayar River
  • It is a tributary of Banas River & it meet near Bigod.

It is known by name of Aayar River. It is called Berach after appearing from Udai Sagar Lake near Udaipur. It flows northeast through Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Bhilwara districts, joining the Banas near Bigod village of Bhilwara district.

Berach has significant historical significance with banks of Ahar having thrown up evidences of settlements dating back to the Harappan and pre-Harappan era’s cultural levels, thus exhibiting connection with Indus Valley civilization. Additionally, evidences of big palaces were found at Nagri, an ancient site around 16 km from Chittorgarh.         

Mez River

  • Originates from Bhilwara and meets Chambal near Lakheri in Bundi.
  • Mej River is a left bank tributary of Chambal River.
  • It originates near Mandalgarh in Bhilwara and joins Chambal in Kota. The catchment area of Mej River extends over Bhilwara, Bundi and Tonk districts of Rajasthan.

Vapani (Bahyani) River

  • Originates near Haripura village of Chittorgarh district and meets Chambal near Bhaisroadgarh.

Gambhiri River

Origin- Hills of Sawai Madhopur district

Districts- Karauli and Bharatpur

Dam- Panchna Dam in Sawai Madhopur Band Baretha has been built over it to tame its water.

It is a tributary of Yamuna River & it meet in Agra district.

It changes its course in many years.

Banganga River

  • It originates from Bairath Hills of Jaipur district.
  • Then it moves towards the east in Sawai Madhopur and then in Bharatpur meets in the Yamuna.
  • Banganga River Basin is located in the northeastern part of Rajasthan state with a total catchment area of 8,878.7 sq km. It is bounded by Ruparail and Sabi in its north; and the Shekhawati Basin in its west and the Gambhir and Banas River Basins in its south-southwest. The eastern border of the basin is marked by the Yamuna River Basin in Uttar Pradesh. Administratively, Banganga River Basin extends over parts of Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur Districts.

2. Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea

Luni River

  • It originates from Naag Hills of Ajmer, after that it moves towards Jodhpur, Pali, Barmer, and Jalore and enters in Gujarat in Kutchh.
  • It travels almost 320 km.
  • Its water is sweet up to Balotara and then it becomes salty.
  • Jawai, Liladi, Mithadi, Sukhadi, Bandi and Saagi are its tributaries.
  • Pali city is situated on the bank of Bandi River.
  • Sheoganj city is on the banks of Jawai River.
  • Jalore is on the bank of Sukri River

Mahi River

  • It began its journey from Mahu Hills of Madhya Pradesh and enters Rajasthan in Banswara district.
  • The  Mahi Bajaj  Sagar  Multipurpose project has been constructed on it near Borkhera village
  • It forms the border between Banswara and Dungarpur and enters Gujarat and ends its journey in Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay).
  • Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is constructed on this river near Banswara.
  • Its main tributaries are Soma, Jakham, Anas, Chap and Moren.

Sabarmati River

  • It originates near Udaipur and flows in Sirohi and then enters in Gujarat and ends its journey in Gulf of Cambay.
  • At the initial stage, it is called Vakal River.

3. Inland Rivers

Kantali River

  • It originates from Khandela Hills of Sikar district.
  • District-    Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Churu.
  • Finally terminates in the sand dunes of Churu
  • It travels 100 km and flowing from Sikar and Jhunjhunu, disappeared in the desert land.

Sota Sabi River

  • Origin- Sota from the hills of Bairath, Sabi from Sewar hills
  • In Rewari & Gurgaon it causes floods.
  • It originates from Sevar Hills and flows in banasur, Bahrod, Kishangarh, Mandawar and Tijara and disappeared in Haryana.

Kakani or Kakneya River

  • Originates from Kotari village and disappear after travelling some distance.
  • Origin- Kotari village
  • District- Jaisalmer
  • Fall into- Bhuj Lake.
  • It flows only during rainy season

Ghaghar River

  • It is considered the oldest river of India, i. e. Saraswati.
  • It flows from Haryana to Hanumangarh, Ganganagar Suratgarh, and Anupgarh and enters in Pakistan.
  • Origin- Kalka Hills (Himachal Pradesh) Length- 465 Km
  • It often causes floods during heavy rainfall It enters Rajasthan in Tibbi Tehsil (Ganganagar)
  • It finally enters into the Bhawalpur district of Pakistan where it lost in the vast array of sand dune.
  • It is also called Dead River.

Other Rivers

Khari River- Origin- Hills of Bijral village, North of Rajsamand district and it meets near Banas River near Deoli (Tonk).

Dai River

            Dai River originates in the southeastern slopes of the Aravalli Range, near Nasirabad Tehsil of Ajmer. It flows southeast and then east in Ajmer District and for a short distance through Tonk District, before joining Banas River near Bisalpur village in Tonk District.

Dheel River

            Dheel River originates in the plains near Bauli village in Tonk District. It flows generally from north to south through Jaipur, Tonk and Sawai Madhopur. It joins the Banas near Philpura village in Sawai Madhopur district. River Gudia is its tributary.

Morel River

            One branch of River Morel originates in the hills near Dharla and Chainpura villages in Bassi Tehsil of Jaipur District and the second branch makes by receiving water from the catchment area of foothills of Paplaj Mataji mountains, district Dausa.

            It flows southeast and then southwest to meet river Dhund, and then again southeast through Jaipur, Dausa and Sawai Madhopur, joining Banas river near Hadoli of Sawai Madhopur District.

 Kalisil River

            The River Kalisil originates in the hills near Rajpura village in Sawai Madhopur District. The river flows generally southwest, partly through hills and partly in the plains of Sawai Madhopur District, finally joining the Morel River.

Sarasvati and Drishadvati:  Ancient Indian River

Sarasvati River

(O Sarasvati, you the best of mothers, the best of rivers, the best of gods! Although we are of no repute, mother, grant us distinction.)

            During the vedic civilization, Aryans developed Rigveda, which describes about the ” Sapta Sindhu ” the seven rivers of NW India , traced from east to west as Sarasvati, Satadru ( Sutlej ), Vipasa (Beas), Parosni (Ravi) , Asikni (Chenab) Vitasta (Jhelum) and Sindhu (Indus) which started flowing consequent on the melting of the Himalayan glaciers at the end of Pleistocene.

Sarasvati River system is sequenced as Sutlej-Markanda-Drishadvati-Ghaggar-Hakra river channels which constituted the hydrological flows of Vedic Sarasvati River system traceable upstream: from

  • Sarasvati creek starting from Ad Badri at the foothills of the Siwalik ranges and Extending into the Bata Valley in upper reaches of the Himalayas, traceable into the Rupin-Supin glaciers close to Yamunotri glaciers.
  • Another glacier source from ManaSarovar yielded the River Sutlej which was a tributary of Vedic Sarasvati River System joining the latter southwards from Ropar at Shatrana (50 km. South of Patiala).

Humidity in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Humidity in Rajasthan

The relative humidity in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.

During the monsoon months, July to September the relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.

The annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.

The variation in the relative humidity is low during the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid region.

The main reason in this decline is the deforestation and other activities.

The diurnal variation in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the diurnal variation is highest.

Air temperature and relative humidity conditions

The pleasant winters in the state witness mean night temperatures above 4.7 C to 10.6 C. During summers the western Rajasthan becomes the hottest place in the country with mean maximum air temperatures varying from 38.6 C to 42.6 C in May. The recorded extreme temperatures in the state were -4.4 C to 50.0 C in the western Rajasthan and -2.8 C to 47.8 C in the eastern Rajasthan (as per Indian Meteorological Department, 2010).

The relative humidity in the arid region of Western Rajasthan is also quite high because of the unfavorable circulations of the atmosphere and low precipitation that occurs in the arid region as compared to other semi-arid and sub-humid regions.

Classification and distribution of soils in Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

What is Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme?

It is a Government of India’s scheme promoted by the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture. It will be implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments. A SHC is meant to give each farmer soil nutrient status of his holding and advice him on the dosage of fertilizers and also the needed soil amendments, that he should apply to maintain soil health in the long run.

What is a Soil Health Card?

SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients) ; S (Secondary- nutrient) ; Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients) ; and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.

How can a farmer use a SHC?

The card will contain an advisory based on the soil nutrient status of a farmer’s holding. It will show recommendations on dosage of different nutrients needed. Further, it will advise the farmer on the fertilizers and their quantities he should apply, and also the soil amendments that he should undertake, so as to realize optimal yields.

Will the farmer get a card every year and for every crop?

It will be made available once in a cycle of 3 years, which will indicate the status of soil health of a farmer’s holding for that particular period. The SHC given in the next cycle of 3 years will be able to record the changes in the soil health for that subsequent period.

What are the norms of sampling?

Soil samples will be drawn in a grid of 2.5 ha in irrigated area and 10 ha in rain- fed area with the help of GPS tools and revenue maps.

Who will draw the soil sample?

The State Government will collect samples through the staff of their Department of Agriculture or through the staff of an outsourced agency. The State Government may also involve the students of local Agriculture / Science Colleges.

What is the ideal time for soil sampling?

Soil Samples are taken generally two times in a year, after harvesting of Rabi and Kharif Crop respectively or when there is no standing crop in the field.

How will soil samples be collected from a farmer’s field?

Soil Samples will be collected by a trained person from a depth of 15-20 cm by cutting the soil in a “V” shape. It will be collected from four corners and the centre of the field and mixed thoroughly and a part of this picked up as a sample. Areas with shade will be avoided. The sample chosen will be bagged and coded. It will then be transferred to soil test laboratory for analysis.

What is a soil test laboratory?

It is a facility for testing the soil sample for 12 parameters as indicated in reply to question number 2. This facility can be static or mobile or it can even be portable to be used in remote areas.

Who and Where will the soil sample be tested?

The soil sample will be tested as per the approved standards for all the agreed 12 parameters in the following way:

  • At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture and by their own staff.
  • At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture but by the staff of the outsourced agency.
  • At the STLs owned by the outsourced agency and by their staff.
  • At ICAR Institutions including KVKs and SAUs.
  • At the laboratories of the Science Colleges/Universities by the students under supervision of a Professor/ Scientist.

1.   Old System of Soil Classification:

This system of soil classification is based on the soil as a natural body concept and has a strong genetic bias. According to this classification soils of Rajasthan are classified into eight soil groups.

1. Desert Soils

2. Dunes and Associated Soils

  • This type of soil covers most part of Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Churu.
  • These soils are yellowish brown in colour sandy to sany loam, deep and well drained
  • Calcium carbonate, sometime occur in the form of Kankar nodules which increases with depth.
  • Texture- loamy fine sand to coarse sand and may or may not be calcareous.
  • Cultivation is practiced in rainy season on the slopes of low to medium high dunes and usually rainfed Bajra or Kharif pulse are grown.
  • These have been grouped separately from desert soils as they are only deposited sand and little profile development has taken place.

3. Brown Soils

The brown soil covers most area of Tonk, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Chittorgarh district and the colour of soils ranges from grayish brown to yellow brown. Rabi crops are grown under irrigation.

Annual Rainfall- 50 cm to 75 cm is sufficient for Kharif crops and Texture- Sandy loam to clay loam.

Major area of these soils is in the catchment area of Banas River and they are rich in calcium salts but have poor organic matter Use of fertilizers becomes essential to get good harvest.

As the ground waters are saline, soils irrigate with these waters have accumulated salts and the Tank irrigated soils have also developed problem of high water table.

4. Sierozems

The Sierozems soil is found in most of the part of Pali, Nagaur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa districts it means this type of soil lies on both the side of Aravalli Hills and they are mostly yellowish brown.

  • The Annual Rainfall range is 50 cm to 70 cm and Texture- Sandy loam to Sandy clay
  • These soils are suitable for cultivation but for low rainfall and high evaporation.
  • Kharif crops are rainfed and Rabi crops are grown through well irrigation.
  • In the Kharif crops Bajra, Jowar, pulses are grown and in Rabi crops wheat, mustard & vegetables are grown.

5. Red Loams

This Soil Covered Part of Dungarpur, Banswara, Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Parent material of these soils is the red sandstone or yellow sandstone which is found in Vindyan rocks. Rainfall- 70 cm to 100 cm and Texture- Sandy loam to sandy.

These soils have rich content of iron-oxide and devoid of calcium salts because calcium salts soluble in water and are easily washed away.

These soils are reddish in colour with granular/crumb structure & well drained and it is suitable for maize, chilies, wheat, and barley and rapeseed cultivation.

6.   Hill Soils (Litho sols)

This type of soil found at the foot hills of Aravalli in Sirohi, Pali, Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara and Ajmer and its Colour is – Reddish to yellowish red to yellowish brown but the problem isSoil erosion due to water is another problem of these types of soils.

  • Texture- Sandy loam to clay and well drained.
  • Cultivation of crops in these soils is very much restricting due to shallow nature of these soils and presence of stones on the surface.

 7. Saline Sodic Soils (Solonchaks)

This type of soil found in the natural depressions like the Pachpadra, Sambhar, Deedwana, Ranns of Jalore and Barmer and Saline Sodic soils are seen in the far flood plains of river Ghaggar and in Luni Basin.

The Colour is dark grey to pale brown and Water table is sometime close to surface but Cultivation is not possible due to the impeded drainage and high degree of salinity and the only vegetation consists of some salt tolerant grasses and shrubs.

8. Alluvial Soils:

These soils cover a vast area in north western and south eastern plains of the State. These soils have been brought down by different modern and ancient rivers; therefore, different areas have soils of different characteristics depending upon the source from which the alluvium has been brought and deposited. In Rajasthan alluvial soils are found in the valleys of Ghaggar River, Banas and Chambal river basins and covered part of Sriganganagar, Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jaipur.

Soil Conversation Methods / Techniques in Rajasthan

Soil Conservation methods adopted in Rajasthan:

1.   Adequate Drainage: The solution for salinity & Alkanity of soil is to provide of soil is to provide adequate drainage.

2.   Afforestation: Large scale planting of saplings which act as wind breaks

3. Use of Gypsum: Use of gypsum which is abundantly and cheaply available in Rajasthan, is economical and long term solution to the problem

4.   Shelter Belts: In dry regions rows of trees are planted to check wind movement to protect soil cover.

5.   Grass Development: Plantation of trees & grasses on marginal and sub marginal land.

6.   Contour Barriers: Stone, gross, soils are used to build barrier along contours. Trenches are made in front of the boomers to collect water.

7.   Wind strip cropping: Grass and crop strip at right angle to wind direction.

8.   Stubble Mulching: Crop stubbles are left in the field and next crop planted with minimum tillage.

9.   Contour Bonding: Ravine land can be made cultivable by leveling followed by contour bonding. The medium and deep gullies can also be converted into productive wood lands.

10. Proper Drainage System in canal Project Area: The problem of water logging can be checked and overcome by introducing proper drainage system in the canal project area.

11. Rock Dam: Rock Dam is built to slow down its flow of water.

12. Dry Farming: D.F in and region is a method of conserving soil moisture preventing soil erosion.

13. Mulching: A layer of organic matter is made on soil. It helps to retain soil moisture.

14. Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternative rows to protect the soil form rain wash.

15. Contour Plugging: Plugging parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

16. Terrace Farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They reduce surface run off & soil erosion.

Distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.

There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of earlier.

The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.

The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.

The districts of Eastern plains i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur, South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.

The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur, Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.

The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.

The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e. Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.

The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43 cm in West Rajasthan.

In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.

The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100 years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.

Weather Seasons of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

The geographical diversity of the state causes varied weather conditions even during same season. However, Rajasthan has four distinct weather seasons:

1.   The Hot weather season (March to Mid June)

2.   The Season of general Rains or Rainy Season (June to September)

3.   The Season of Retreating Monsoon (October – November)

4.   The Cold Season (December to February)

The Hot Weather Season

The Hot whether season starts with movement of Sun toward the Tropic of Cancer in March. It ends in the month of June-July, when rainy seasons starts. In the months, the Sun overhead tropic of cancer so the temperature is Maximum in the month of June. The mean temperature of Rajasthan at this time is 38-39°C. However, the maximum temperature in western districts reaches at 45-50°C in day and minimum temperature 15-16°C.

  • The difference in temperature in sandy region is generally found 32-35°C. The Aravalli Range has lower temperature (30°C) due to its high elevation.

       Due to high temperature, the surface becomes very hot. Due to this, the hot and dry winds, known as ‘Loo’, blow from west to east direction.

Dry and hot winds known as ‘Loo’, blow in the afternoon, and very often, they continue to well into midnight. Dust storms in the evening are very common in May for south-eastern areas and in June for north-western part of state.

Average Mean Temperature: The maximum daily temperature in the western parts of Marusthali mainly at Bikaner, Phalodi, Barmer, and Jaisalmer goes upto 40-45 deg C.

Rainfall: Sometimes, the dust storms bring a welcome respite from the oppressing heat since they bring with them light rains and a pleasant cool breeze.

The Season of General Rains or Rainy Season

Due to high temperature in India in May – June, a center of low air pressure is created in the west and north-west India. While is temperature is low in Southern Hemisphere at this time, creates the high air pressure region.

The low air pressure created in the west and north-west India becomes so strong that it attracts the trade wind of Indian ocean coming from Southern hemisphere.

This southeast trade wind passes over the equatorial warm currents and brings the moisture in abundance. Then these winds enter the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and caught in the air circulation over India.

These trade winds follow the south-west direction. So monsoon created by these winds is known as South-west monsoons.

However these branches tries to reach low air pressure area, west and north-west India, the Rajasthan gets very less rainfall because of the following reasons:-

  • The Bay of Bengal branch already gives up its moisture during its passage through Ganga plain. Further, as Aravali range stretches from south-west to north-east direction, so western part of Rajasthan lies in leeward side of the Bay of Bengal branch and receives little or no rain from this branch.
  • The same Aravalli Range lies parallel to the direction of Arabian Sea branch and fails to interrupt this branch of monsoon. However, in the southern Aravallis, the mountains have slight east-west span thus Mount Abu in south receives highest rainfall.

The Season of Retreating Monsoon

The Months of October and November are known for Retreating Monsoons and it withdraws from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Ganga plain and the Central Highlands by the end of the month.

 By the end of September, the southwest monsoon becomes weak as the low Pressure trough of the Ganga plain starts Moving Southward in response to the Southward Movement of the Sun.

After 22nd September, the Sun begins to overhead in Southern Hemisphere. Due to this high air pressure area is created in southern hemisphere and low air pressure area in north and north-west India and due to this air Pressure difference, the monsoon retreat from western Rajasthan by the month of October.

The retreating south-west monsoon season is marked by clear sky and rise in temperature. The land is still moist. Due to this high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes oppressive. This Process is commonly known as ‘October heat’.

Average Mean Temperature: The temperature maximum ranging from 33-37 deg C and minimum ranging from 18 – 22 deg C.

The Cold Weather Season

This Season starts from December and continuous till February.

Average Mean Temperature: Ranges from 12 deg. C in North of State to 16 deg. C in the south in January.

Due to high air pressure in west and north-west India and low air pressure in Indian Ocean, the air flow from west and north-west India to Indian Ocean.

During this time, the north-western parts of India get the rainfall from shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the East Mediterranean Sea. This rainfall is also called ‘Mavath’.

During the cold season, the sun migrates to the southern hemisphere and creates high-pressure condition over the northern plain. As a result, winds start blowing from northwestern high pressure zone to the low air pressure zone over the Indian Ocean in the South.

shallow cyclonic depressions  at certain time interval originating over the East Mediterranean Sea and travelling eastwards across West Asia, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan before they reach the northwestern parts of India. On their way, the moisture content gets augmented from the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf in the south.

Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time.

Climatology or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography which is one of the Earth sciences.

Rajasthan Action Plan on Climate Change (RAPCC) builds on the key areas as identified Under the CCAR by prioritizing urgent areas of action in a phased and time-bound manner and it is in coherence with the Rajasthan State Environment Policy and Environment Mission while the RAPCC primarily focuses on risk reduction and adaptation measures. It also looks in to the co-benefits offered by specific strategies in the form of mitigation.

Task Force Constitution: The Rajasthan State Government established a ‘Climate Change and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Cell’ in the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB) to act as a nodal agency for coordinating issues related to climate change in the state. The Cell was constituted in April 2010 and was involved in the drafting of the CCAR. A Steering Committee has also been formed, headed by the Chief Secretary and Principal Secretaries of various key departments as members to monitor the implementation of various actions proposed under the Rajasthan Environment Mission. The state of Rajasthan has constituted a team to review the implementation of the Environment Mission. The composition of the Environment Mission includes:-

Chairperson: Chief Minister

 Convener: Principal Secretary, Environment

 Members: Ministers of the under-mentioned departments, Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries and Secretaries in-charge of the under mentioned departments:

1. Environment

2. Forests

3. Mines and Petroleum

4. Industries

5. Water Resources

6. Command Area Development

7. Agriculture

8. Urban Governance

9. Transport

10. Energy, renewable energy

11. Science and Technology

12. Plan

13. Finance

14. Policy Planning

The Steering Committee is chaired by the Chief Secretary, headed by the Principal Secretary of Environment and members from each designated department mentioned above. The Steering Committee includes participation from the non-governmental bodies. Their role is to review the implementation of each of the mission. For the implementation of the environment policy, Rajasthan environment mission and climate change agenda task forces have been constituted for different sectors viz.,

1. Industry

2. Water

3. Forestry and bio-diversity

4. Urban governance and sustainable habitat

5. Enhanced energy efficiency including solar energy

6. Strategic knowledge for climate change

The climate of Rajasthan state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus parameters have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.

However, three main approaches to climatic regions of Rajasthan are:

  1. Climatic regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity
  2. Koeppen’s classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
  3. Thornthwaite’s classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity

The distribution of climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature variations includes following divisions:

Arid Region:  A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Arid land or an arid climate is very dry because it has very little rain Water

The Arid region includes Jaisalmer district, northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and Southern parts of Ganganagar district and climate of the region is very severe and arid.

  1. Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.
  2. The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 35degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16 Deg Celsius.

Semi-arid Region: A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration but not as low as a desert climate; Semi-arid regions are those where rainfall is not enough to cover the growth needs of the vegetation all year round. That is aridity index (rainfall/potential evapotranspiration) is below 0.5 per cent.

The average temperature during winter season ranges between 10 deg C and 17 deg C and the summer season temperature range 32 deg C to 37 deg C.

  1. As the region has erratic as well as torrential rainfall it brings floods too each time and rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.
  2. The winter season is very short and arid in the northern parts of this region.
  3. This region comprises the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and Barmer districts.

Sub-humid Region: Regions where moisture in normally less than under humid conditions but still sufficient for the production of many agricultural crops without irrigation or drylands farming.

In the semi arid humid region, rainfall is meager and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few monsoon months only.

  1. The rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average temperature during summer season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is recorded 12 Deg C in northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.
  2. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi districts are included in this category.
  3. This region has Steppe type of vegetation.

Humid Region: A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined as large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters. This region receives winter rainfall associated with cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which varies from 60 to 80 cm and the deciduous trees dominate the region.

  • Humid region is found at the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and Rajsamand and the north-eastern parts of Udaipur.

Very Humid Region: Very humid region includes south-east Kota, Baran and Jhalawar, Banswara, south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the summers are very hot and winters are cold and dry.

  • Rainfall received is between 80 cm to 150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna type of vegetation is present in the region.

2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

Koeppen’s classification for the world climatic regions is totally based on the vegetation, as the effects of temperature and rainfall are directly evident and visible it. Here, the three categories are associated with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid) climates and Mild temperate climates respectively.

The classification of Rajasthan according to Koeppen’s is as follows:

Aw or Tropical Humid Region

  1. Winter season is arid and cool whereas summers experience scorching heat.
  2. Rainfall also mainly occurs in summer season.
  3. The temperature is more than 18 deg. C in the coldest month records.
  4. The southern parts of Dungarpur district and Banswara come under the region.
  5. Arid tropical grasslands and Savanna like region are found along with deciduous trees of monsoon type.

Bshw Climatic Region

  1. Vegetation is of steppe type characterized with thorny bushes and grasses.
  2. Region comprises the districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
  3. This climatic region is semi-arid, where winters are dry and even in summers there is no sufficient amount of rainfall.

Bwhw Climatic Region

  1. The region has arid-hot desert climate with very scanty rainfall.
  2. On the contrary the process of evaporation is very active.
  3. North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district are included in this category.
  4. Thus, these areas are known as desert region limited to western parts of Thar Desert.

Cwg Climatic Region

  1. The south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the part of the region.
  2. Seasonal winds do not bring rains to this region during winters.
  3. Rains are limited to few monsoon months only.

Aravalli Range & Hilly Region: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Aravalli Range & Hilly Region

Aravalli: The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.

The principal and most dominant mountain range of Rajasthan is the Aravalli range. The geological history of the Aravalli range can be traced back probably close of the Dharwar times.

Rajasthan is the largest state in the Union of India and has more physical variations than any other state. It has regions of rolling sand dunes in the west to lofty rocks in the middle to fertile plains in the east. This range runs diagonally across the state from northeast near delhi and extends to southwest up to the Plains of Gujarat for a distance of about 692 km. The range runs from Khetri in the northeast to Khed Brahma in the Southwest within Rajasthan for a length of about 550 kilometers. It is composed of rocks belonging originally to the Delhi system, folded in a synclinorium occupying the site of the geosynclines which have been deeply eroded.

The whole of this Aravalli range and Hilly Region has been further subdivided into two physiographic units:

(i) Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau

This division constitutes east Sirohi, nearly the whole of Udaipur except a narrow belt in the east and whole of Dungarpur district.

The highest section of the Aravalli range known as ‘Bhorat’ Plateau lies northwest of Udaipur between Kumbhalgarh – Gogunda and the average elevation of this plateau is 1,225 metres.

(ii) North-Eastern Hilly Tract

Northern edge of Bhorat plateau marks the boundary of north eastern hilly tract in the southwest. North of Kumbhalgarh, especially at the Alwar hills the elevation varies between 550m to 670m.

Further north and northeast, the hills are broken and their elevation decreases in the final extension of hills south of delhi to about 306m above sea level. This level is about 60m to 90m above the surrounding plain.

Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau:

The eastern part along the Chambal River is covered by the Hadoti plateau. Four districts Kota, Baran, Bundi and Jhalawar are the part of this plateau. The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border. River Chambal drains in the large part of this area.

  • This region locally called Pathar and Uppermal
    • It comprises of the eastern & south-eastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti.
    • Bhilwara, Bundi, Kota, Baran and Jhalawar are the districts contain about 9.6% of the area of whole Rajasthan.
    • East of the plateau has a general slope toward Gwalior & catchment of Betwa river
    • The eastern, southern and south-west part bordered with Madhya pradesh.

The Plateau has been divided into two units

(a) Vindhyan Scrap Land

The scarp lands formed by massive sandstones separated by shale have an average elevation between 350m to 580m. The scarps are facing towards the south-southeast between the Banas and the Chambal and then it extend towards the east over Bundelkhand. A scarp block occupies the areas of Dholpur and Karauli. The region presents an undulating topography strewn with blocks, depressions and boulders.

(b) Deccan Lava Plateau

The Deccan Lava Plateau is also known as Pathar or Uppermal plateau. It is a wide stony upland including Kota-Bundi plateau section. The Chambal along with its tributaries Kali Sindh and Parbati form a triangular alluvial basin of 210m-275m at Kota and mostly black soil found in this region.

Western Sandy Plains: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Western Sandy Plains                            

(a) Sandy Arid Plains

  • Marusthali
  • Dune free Tract

(b) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar

  • Luni Basin or Godwar Tract
  • Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

Western Sandy Plain

The western Plain covers a large part of Rajasthan in the west and the northwest of the Aravalli axis. Its northern boundary is marked by Punjab and the southwest by Gujarat and the western boundary is the international boundary between India and Pakistan. The eastern boundary of the western sandy plain is marked by the Aravalli range’s western sub-montane zone up to the northern point of Udaipur district. Beyond which the boundary is marked by the great Indian watershed and 50cm isohyets.

The surface of western Rajasthan is covered with vast stretches of sand occasionally interrupted by rocky protruding right up to the Pakistan border.

The Northwestern division is sandy, poorly watered and sterile. The Rajasthan desert in the west has been subdivided into several natural regions because of the Aravalli hills and the rocky terrain of Barmer-Jaisalmer-Bikaner tract.

Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Jalore, Sirohi, Pali, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar district are part of western sandy plain and the Luni, Sukri & Jawai rivers flow in rainy season in this area.

Its eastern portion is known as Thar desert which is perfectly dry & with desert Plants and Western Sandy Plain & Pakistan face each other across International boundary for about 1070 Km.

The Western Sandy Plains are subdivided into two units:

 (a) Sandy Arid Plain: Minimum rainfall- 50 Cm

There are vast expanses of sand & rock outcrops mainly limestone are found in Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar.

It further divided in two small sub groups:

1. Marusthali

2. Dune Free Tract

1. Marusthali – (Thar Desert)  

  1. It covered Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Churu Area
  2. Height of sand dunes varies from 6 m to 60 m
  3. Length of sand dunes – 3 km to 5 km
  4. Towards west this sandy arid Marushthali is known as Thar Desert.
  5. The Shifting of sand dunes is locally terms as Dharians.

What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.

Dunes: In geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by Aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.

1. Longitudinal Dunes

  • These are mostly run from south west to north east
  • Parallel to the prevailing winds & mostly sword-shaped type.
  • Its Longer axis is parallel to the direction of wind

 2. Transverse Dunes

  • These types of dunes are formed across the wind direction.
  • Commonly found in eastern & northern parts of Marusthali.
  • Windward side is long & gently sloping, while leeward side is steep and abrupt.
  • These are also called U-shaped dunes.

 3. Crescent Shaped Dunes

  • The Width of these types of dunes varies from 100 m to 200 m height of dunes-10 m to 20 m.
  • The dunes have a gently sloping convex windward side & steep leeward
  • These are found in isolation or occasionally side by side in lines.

 2. Dune Free Tract

  • It is rocky but dune free tract.
  • Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Phalodi & Pokhran are known as dune free areas.
  • Limestone & Sandstone rocks exposes here belong to Jurassic & Eocene formations.
  • Gneiss, Grid conglomerate, schist & granite rocks are also exposed at places. 

(b) Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

The line dividing the Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer districts covered in semi arid.
  • Area – 7500 Sq. Km
  • Rainfall – 20 cm
  • Gullying has given rise to conglomerate landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.

Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.

Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:

1. Luni Basin: This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni River.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni river & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari river meets it.   

2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production & dairy.

Topography of the Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.

3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

4. Nagauri Upland: Average height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand hills & low depressions and the temperature being high, the evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt & Soda in the depression.

(PDF) Land and The People of Rajasthan: State Gazetteer

This is very useful for all competitive exams; Rajasthan Public Service Commission RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains, Rajasthan subordinate exams, Lecturer, Teachers, SI, LDC etc.

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

UPSC IAS EXAMS BOOK/NOTESRPSC RAS/RTS EXAMS BOOK/NOTES

Physical Geography of India Study Notes for IAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study Notes

2000 Solved MCQ for IAS Preliminary Exam 2019:GS Paper-I

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 10 Practice Solved Paper

Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Study Notes with MCQ

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

Geography of Rajasthan Study notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims 2019: Art and Culture Revision Notes

Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Revision Notes: Environment and Ecology

RAS Mains Exam Economy Solved Questions

Geography of India Question Bank

Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes- Hindi

Indian Polity Question Bank eBook

Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RPSC RAS Mains Exam

History Of India Practice Question Bank

RPSC RAS Mains Art and Culture Practice Solved Question

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 GS Paper Solved Test 1-5

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-1

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper Test 6-10

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-2

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-3

Disclaimer:-The myupsc.com is not an official website of any government examination, and not associated with the Government Organization. The Information and study material we are providing here have been collected from http://plan.rajasthan.gov.in. All the Readers/students/others please also check details on Original website before taking any decision. Here we are not responsible for any Inadvertent Error that may have crept in the information being published in this Website and for any loss to anybody or anything caused by any Shortcoming, Defect or Inaccuracy of the Information on this Website. If any Problem please contact us@thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

UPSC IAS and State PSC Exams Geography MCQ-1

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Quiz-3

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 Quiz-2

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

UPSC and State PSC Prelims Exam Indian Geography Question Bank

Q.1) With respect to the chemical composition of earth’s layers consider the following statements:

1. The continental crust is thicker in the areas of major mountain systems.

2. Oceanic crust is thinner as compared to the continental crust.

3. The lower mantle extends beyond the asthenosphere. It is in solid state.

4. Core has the heaviest mineral materials of highest density.

5. Gutenberg Discontinuity – lies between the mantle and the outer core.

Which of the following statements are correct?

a) Only 1,2,3,4

b) Only 1,3,4,5

c) Only 2,3,4,5

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding The Paleomagnetism:

1. Some of the strongest evidence in support of the theory of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics comes from studying the magnetic fields surrounding oceanic ridges.

2. Rocks formed from underwater volcanic activity were mainly basalt, which is rich in silica and low in iron.

3. Basalt contains magnetic minerals and as the rock is solidifying, these minerals align themselves in the direction of the magnetic field.

4. When Earth’s magnetic field undergoes a reversal, the polarity recorded in the magma remains same.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) Only 1, 3, 4

b) Only 2, 3, 4

c) Only 2, 4

d) Only 1, 3

Solution (d)

Q.3) In February 2017 the Barren Island saw another huge volcanic eruption and filled the sea with red lava fountains jutting out of the crater. Consider the following statements regarding it:

1. It is home to Asia’s and India’s only active volcano.

2. The volcano here was dormant for a long time, but in the year 1991 it experienced an explosion which was quite major.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (b)

Q.4) Consider the following statements regarding volcanic eruption:

1. After the eruption of magma has ceased, the crater frequently turns into a lake called a ‘caldera’.

2. Oregan Lake in USA is the largest volcanic Crater Lake in the world.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (a)

Q.5) Consider following regarding diastrophism:

1. Diastrophism includes orogeny, epeirogeny, earthquake, plate tectonics and seafloor spreading.

2. Orogenic processes involves mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust.

3. Epeirogenic processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the earth’s crust.

4. Epeirogeny is a mountain building process whereas Orogeny is continental building process.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 1, 4

c) Only 1, 3

d) Only 2, 3

Solution (d)

Q.6) CCEA approves survey project of Un-appraised Areas of Sedimentary Basins. Consider the following statements regarding it:

1. Sedimentary basin is a low area in the Earth’s crust, of tectonic origin, in which sediments accumulate and are confined to small area of ocean basin.

2. The project will be implemented by Oil India Limited (OIL) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC).

3. India has total 26 sedimentary basins spread over on-land, shallow water and deep water.

4. More than 50 percent of total sedimentary basin area does not have adequate geoscientific data.

Which of the following options are true?

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 1 and 3

c) 2 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (c)

Q.7) Consider the following statements regarding Sinkhole/Swallow Hole:

1. Sinkholes are triangular shaped depressions having an average depth of three to nine metres.

2. These holes are developed by enlargement of the cracks found in such rocks, as a result of continuous solvent action of the river water.

3. The surface streams which sink disappear underground through swallow holes.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) Only 1

Solution (a)

Q.8) which lake has now made it to the Limca Book of Records for having India’s largest floating island?

a) Kolleru lake

b) Vembanad lake

c) Pangong lake

d) Hebbagodi Lake

Solution (d)

Q.9) Consider the following statements regarding island arc formation:

1. In Ocean – Ocean Convergence, a denser oceanic plate sub ducts below a less dense oceanic plate forming a trench along the boundary.

2. As the ocean floor crust (oceanic plate) loaded with sediments sub ducts into the softer asthenosphere, the rocks on the continental side in the subduction zone become metamorphosed under high pressure and temperature.

3. A continuous upward movement of magma creates constant volcanic eruptions at the ocean floor.

4. Such volcanic landforms all along the boundary form a chain of volcanic islands which are collectively called as Island Arcs

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) Only 1, 2, 3

b) Only 2, 3, 4

c) Only 1, 3, 4

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.10) what is the name of the India had launched to provide assistance to earthquake and tsunami victims in Indonesia recently?

a) Operation Samudra Shakti

b) Operation Samudra Maitri

c) Operation Samudra Ekta

d) None of the above

Q.10) Solution (b)

Explanation:

India had launched massive humanitarian operation Samudra Maitri to provide assistance to earthquake and tsunami victims in Indonesia.

Q.11) With respect to seismic waves consider the following statements:

1. P-waves move faster and are the first to arrive at the surface.

2. A secondary wave cannot pass through liquids or gases.

3. They are low frequency, long wavelength, and transverse vibration.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Only 3

d) None of the above

Solution (d)

Q.12) Consider following statements regarding continental drift theory:

1. Continental drift refers to the movement of the continents relative to the ocean floor.

2. Gravity of the earth, buoyancy of the seas and the tidal currents were given as the main factors causing the drift, by Wegener.

3. One criticism of this theory is Continental Drift Theory shifts India’s position too much to the south, distorting its relation with the Mediterranean Sea and the Alps.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

Q.13) Consider the following statements regarding fold mountains:

1. Fold mountains are formed when sedimentary rock strata in geosynclines are subjected to tangential forces.

2. They are the loftiest mountains and they are generally concentrated along continental margins

3. The Aravali Range in India is the oldest fold mountain systems in the India.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 2

b) Only 2,3

c) Only 1

d) All of the above

Solution (c)

Q.14) Consider following statements regarding marine erosional landforms:

1. Sea Cliff is shoreline marked by a steep bank.

2. When waves from opposite directions strike a narrow wall of rock, differential erosion of the rock leaves a bridge like structure called Stack.

3. When a portion of the sea arch collapses, the remaining column-like structure is called a sea arch.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) 1 and 2

c) 2 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.15) Consider the following statements regarding arid landform:

1. In hill slope geomorphology, a gully is a narrow and shallow channel cut into soil by the erosive action of flowing water.

2. A rill is a landform created by running water. Rills resemble large ditches or small valleys, which are few metres to tens of metres in depth and width.

3. A ravine is a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of stream cutting erosion. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale than gullies, although smaller than valleys.

Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) None of the above

Solution (a)

Q.16) Consider the following statements:

1. Granite is a typical example of intrusive rock system.

2. Plutonic rocks are rocks formed by rapid cooling of the lava thrown out during volcanic eruptions.

3. The Deccan traps in the peninsular region are of basaltic origin.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) None of the above

Solution (c)

Q.17) Consider the following statement:

1. Peneplain refers to an undulating featureless plain punctuated with low-lying residual hills of resistant rocks. It is considered to be an end product of an erosional cycle.

2. The outer bend of the loop in a meander is characterized by intensive erosion and vertical cliffs and is called the slip off side. This side has a concave slope.

3. The inner side of the loop is characterized by deposition, a gentle convex slope, and is called the cliff slope side.

Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1, 2

b) Only 2, 3

c) Only 1, 3

d) None

Solution (b)

Q.18) Consider the following statements regarding Doklam plateau:

1. Doklam is an area with a plateau and a valley, lying between Tibet’s Chumbi Valley to the north, Bhutan’s Ha Valley to the east and India’s Sikkim state to the west.

2. It has been depicted as part of Bhutan in the Bhutanese maps since 1961, but it is also claimed by China.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (c)

Q.19) Consider following regarding glacial depositional landforms:

1. The eskers resemble the features of an embankment and are often used for making roads

2. Kame Terraces Are broken ridges or un-assorted depositions looking like hump in a till plain

3. Drumlin are inverted boat-shaped deposition in a till plain caused by deposition.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) Only 1

b) 1 and 2

c) 2 and 3

d) None of the above

Solution (d)

Q.20) Consider following statements regarding batholiths:

1. Batholiths are large rock masses formed due to cooling down and solidification of hot magma inside the earth.

2. They appear on the surface only after the denudation processes remove the overlying materials.

3. Batholiths form the core of huge mountains and may be exposed on surface after erosion.

4. These are Basaltic in nature.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 , 2, 3

b) 2, 3, 4

c) 1, 3, 4

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

Geography of Rajasthan Free Study Notes in Hindi

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

  1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                             3-10
  2. Geology of Rajasthan                                                    11-47  
  3. Disaster Management                                                   48-53
  4. Physical divisions                                                          54-73
  5. Mountain Peaks                                                             74-78
  6. Climate of Rajasthan                                                     79-103
  7. Drainage/River  System                                               104-125
  8. Lakes in Rajasthan                                                         126-132
  9. National Parks                                                                133-143
  10. Wildlife Sanctuary                                                         144-146
  11. Soils of Rajasthan                                                           147-159
  12. Irrigation Development                                                 160-172
  13. Agriculture                                                                     173-183
  14. Minerals and Mines                                                       184-213
  15. Rajasthan Basin(Hydrocarbon)                                   214-220
  16. Livestock of Rajasthan                                                  221-233
  17. Classification of forest                                                   234-235
  18. Natural Vegetation                                                        236-238
  19. Transportation in Rajasthan                                         239-256
  20. Tribes of Rajasthan                                                         257-267
  21. Population-2011                                                            268-308
  22. Practice Solved Questions                                             309-379

Geography of Rajasthan in English – Download

We are providing some free study notes/ebook/pdf for education purpose only and the material already available free online. if any objection please contact us – thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes with practice MCQ

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela

Preface

I am presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, forest, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I have tried to avoid mistakes, if there is any minute mistakes in it please comment and that will help to improve the book when a revised edition comes out. It is honest hope that this book will prove useful for Aspirants.

Best wishes!!

Er. R.P.Meena

myupsc.com

(thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com)

Content                                                 Pages

  1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                             3-10
  2. Geology of Rajasthan                                                    11-47  
  3. Disaster Management                                                   48-53
  4. Physical divisions                                                          54-73
  5. Mountain Peaks                                                             74-78
  6. Climate of Rajasthan                                                     79-103
  7. Drainage/River  System                                               104-125
  8. Lakes in Rajasthan                                                         126-132
  9. National Parks                                                                133-143
  10. Wildlife Sanctuary                                                         144-146
  11. Soils of Rajasthan                                                           147-159
  12. Irrigation Development                                                 160-172
  13. Agriculture                                                                     173-183
  14. Minerals and Mines                                                       184-213
  15. Rajasthan Basin(Hydrocarbon)                                   214-220
  16. Livestock of Rajasthan                                                  221-233
  17. Classification of forest                                                   234-235
  18. Natural Vegetation                                                        236-238
  19. Transportation in Rajasthan                                         239-256
  20. Tribes of Rajasthan                                                         257-267
  21. Population-2011                                                            268-308
  22. Practice Solved Questions                                             309-379

Click Here to Download

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Questions:Geography

Click Here to Download

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions as per Syllabus.
we have covered the whole syllabus of RPSC RAS Mains Geography of Rajasthan in this eBook.
200+ Geography of Rajasthan Solved Questions in 50/100/250 Words.

Sample Questions:

  1. Which are the Products obtained from forests of Rajasthan?
  2. Write down on Instrumented Earthquakes in Rajasthan.
  3. What is the catchment area of a river?
  4. Write Notes about the Seismic Faults in Rajasthan.
  5. Write down the list of Districts of Rajasthan touched the boundary with other States.
  6. What causes temperature variation?
  7. Describe the physical feature Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau of Rajasthan.
  8. How are the seasons formed?
  9. What are the deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan?
  10. What is the difference between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park?
  11. What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.
  12. Describe Luni Basin area.
  13. Why most of the world’s tropical deserts located on the Western margins of continents?
  14. What are the Ghaggar Plains?
  15. Describe the Eastern Plains of Rajasthan.
  16. What do you know about Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau, Comment?
  17. Describe the Southern Aravali Range and which the main hill ranges of it are?
  18. The Climate Change Agenda task forces constituted for which sectors?
  19. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity
  20. What is the difference between Reserved, Protected and Unclassified forest Areas?
  21. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
  22. What is the Rajasthan State Water Policy 2010?
  23. What is the distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan?
  24. What are the features of humidity in Rajasthan?
  25. Which factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan?
  26. Describe the drainage system of Rajasthan.
  27. Write short notes on Mez River
  28. Write the name of Rajasthani Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea.
  29. K.S. Valdiya Committee report says Saraswati River did exist. What are the key points of this report?
  30. Describe the Salt Water Lakes of Rajasthan.
  31. Write in brief about Fateh Sagar Lake.
  32. What is the definition and features of national park?
  33. Describe the Ranthambore National Park
  34. What is Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme?
  35. Will the farmer get a card every year and for every crop?
  36. What is a soil test laboratory?
  37. Who and Where will the soil sample be tested?
  38. What is the Classification and problems of Soils of Rajasthan?
  39. Write about Indira Gandhi Canal Project.
  40. Which are the deposits of Gypsum in Rajasthan?
  41. Write about the Rajasthan’s two principal crop seasons.
  42. How Aravalli hills are formed?
  43. Write the features and motives of first biological Park of Rajasthan?
  44. Which are the Highest and Low Density cities of Rajasthan as per Census 2011?
  45. Write down the Flora and fauna of Thar Desert?
  46. What is the Soil Classification of Rajasthan in detail?
  47. Describe the physiographic character of Rajasthan and also mention the Importance of Aravali Mountain?
  48. Describe the role of RICCO in the industrial development of Rajasthan
  49. Write down the Introduction of Aravalli Range and Hilly Region.
  50. Write down the detailed features and location of Major Dams in Rajasthan?
  51. Describe the main source of power generation in Rajasthan?
  52. How many villages have benefitted from the Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan?

53 Rajasthan is known for traditionally harvesting rain. Why do the communities once again need to be made aware of the old systems under this initiative?

54. Are corporate bodies contributing to this initiative? Crowd sourcing for such a big scale initiative is new in India. What is the response from the communities?

55. How are the structures being maintained? How do you ensure the quality of the structures constructed? Are the donors also tracking them?

56. In which state is the Aravalli Range situated?

57. What is solar energy? What are the Potential and Possibilities in Rajasthan?

58. What is National Lake Conservation Plan? Background of NLCP

59. Write down the Complete Notes on Humidity in Rajasthan?

60. Describe the mains crop seasons in Rajasthan

61. What are the Programmes for Dairy development in Rajasthan?

62. What are the major crops of Rajasthan?

63. Write notes on Indira Gandhi Canal of Rajasthan, which districts lies on it.

64. Where is Tal Chappar Sanctuary and why it is famous for?

65. Write Introduction of Southern Aravalli Region with its division?

66. What are the Non-Conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan?

67. Give a detailed explaination of the different regions of Rajasthan?

68. Describe Longewala

69. Write short notes on CAZRI and its origin.

70. Write short notes on the Industrial Overview of Rajasthan?

71. What is the Mandate of forest department of Rajasthan?

72. Name the five districts of Rajasthan which have lowest and highest sex ratio of 0-6 Year child?

73. What are the salient features of Rajasthan Tourism Policy?

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-4

RAS-MAINS-PRACTICE-PAPER

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2018-19 Practice Question Answer

1. What do you know about ‘Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan’?

Answer:

  • Mangarh Dham (MANGARH HILL) is known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan
  • In a barbaric tribal massacre that was executed on November 17, 1913, nearly a century ago, 500 odd tribal martyrs were killed by British Rulers, in Santrampur taluka of tribal dominated Panchmahal district.
  • Govind Guru and Mangarh massacre have become part of the memory of Bhils. Despite this, it was buried in remote areas of Banswara-Panchmahal, situated on the border of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and this historic tragedy could not have been more than a footnote in the history of India’s freedom fight.
  • He awakened the Bhil community and filled them with a sense of patriotism. The Bhils were so inspired that they sacrificed their lives for freedom. Later, 1500 Gurubhakt Bhils sacrificed their lives while fighting against the British army. It is therefore also known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan.

2. Enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to implement financial inclusion in the country?

Answer: – Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion simply means to ensure that everyone gets the benefit of the financial services of the nation at an affordable cost in spite of whatever background he belongs. It especially focuses on including Underprivileged and vulnerable group of the society into the economy and providing them with its benefit and thus further causing growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country through increase of customer base of the financial institutes which will further results in high profits for future and this cycle will keep going with increasing profits.

It enhances GDP growth by broadening the resource base of the financial system by developing a culture of savings among large segment of rural population bringing low-income groups within the perimeter of formal banking sector thus plays its own role in the process of economic development

India and Financial Inclusion

As far as India is concerned it has a long history of putting efforts to have financial inclusion and to some extent, it has been successful as compared to starting stages of building up of Indian economy after independence but there are still many milestones yet to be achieved in this process. And efforts of current government have enhanced financial inclusion in the society to many folds but we still are in the process figuring out to use this in favoring our economy and make everyone in the reach of its benefit and for this, there are various government schemes available.

Steps and Schemes followed by India for Financial Inclusion

  • Swabhiman Campaign
  • Business correspondent Model

Under this model financial Institutes appoint commission agents who provide financial Services at the doorstep of the public at remote areas where they are unable to open branches which result in large customer base at low cost. Therefore this model is also known as the cost-efficient model.

Various steps taken in area of banking for financial inclusion are:-

RBI’s Compulsory Requirement of Opening Branches in Un-banked Villages, banks is directed to allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches to be opened during the year in un-banked (Tier 5 and Tier 6) rural centers.

No Frill account- The central bank had introduced ‘no-frills’ accounts in 2005 to provide basic banking facilities to poor and promote financial inclusion. The accounts could be maintained without or with very low minimum balance. These were later converted into BSBDA

BSBDA- RBI advised all banks to open Basic Saving Bank Deposit (BSBD) accounts with minimum common facilities such as no minimum balance, deposit, and withdrawal of cash at bank branch and ATMs, receipt/ credit of money through electronic payment channels, facility of providing ATM card

JAN DHAN Account- These are similar to BSBDA but with little more features as earlier bank were reluctant to open BSBDA account. Banks also do not provide good service to BSBDA account holder. They even denied service like the debit card. But after JHAN DHAN Yojna this scenario has been completely changed

JHAN DHAN account holder is compulsorily issued RUPAY debit card and many more services. It certainly increased the financial inclusion and made bank account opening a cake walk

Account age should be at least 6 months

Account holder should visit ATM branches at least once in 90 days

Income should be up to 1 lakh per year in rural areas and up to 1.5 lakh year for urban areas

For Loans-

In order to control public to borrow from Schedule banks to lend fix amount in priority sector at affordable rate of interest along with certain government schemes such as – Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc.

For Insurance Sector

Insurance sector also plays a major role in financial inclusion of a country and thus government has various schemes in this sector among which few most recent schemes are-

Pradhanmantri Fasal Bima Yojna: This is a general insurance for crops and this scheme started from Feb 2016 by NDA government and replaced the earlier scheme of UPA government named “National Agricultural Insurance” with few more advantages such as low premium on crop insurance, use of technology for weather forecasting (like smartphones, drones, remote sensing satellites), Future generation of claim and post-harvest benefits e.t.c

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojna : It is a life insurance scheme from age of 18-50 years (benefit until 55 years) at a premium of Rs 330+(18%gst). It covers till 2 lakh Rs and is under LIC India on behalf of the government of India. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima yojna – started on Jan 2015 for accidental insurance and covers up to Rs 2lakh in case of death and Rs 1 lakh in case of physical disability at a premium of (Rs 12+GST) for the age group of 18 to 70 years and is under HDFC life on behalf of government of India

Recent steps still in progress

On Recommendation of Nachiket More committee there are various measures are going on among which one is opening of two special kinds of banks in India which are

Payment banks– These banks will only accept deposit from public and will not lend loans, these payment banks will provide payment services and deposit products to its target customers which will be small businesses and low-income households. Till date 11 licenses have been granted out of which four banks are functional which are – Paytm, Airtel, Indian postal payment bank, Phinopayment?

Small finance banks– Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.

3. Where is Kaila Devi temple located in Rajasthan?

Answer: Kaila Devi Temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Kaila Devi Village of Karauli district, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The temple is located on the banks of the Kalisil River, a tributary of the Banas River in the hills of Aravali.

4. Differentiate between Acute and Chronic diseases, with the help of some examples.

Answer: Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long-developing syndrome, such as osteoporosis or asthma. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma.

Examples of acute diseases include appendicitis, acute leukemia, and strep throat. Some acute diseases do not require hospitalization or medical treatments, such as influenza, whereas others, such as pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction, may require medical attention and extended treatment.

Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Many people with these illnesses become depressed. In fact, depression is one of the most common complications of chronic illness.

5. Enumerate a few reasons that cause phenomenon of ‘Forgetting’ in humans

Answer: This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.

There are three ways in which you can forget information in the STM:

  1. Decay: This occurs when you do not ‘rehearse’ information, ie you don’t contemplate it.
  2. Displacement: Displacement is quite literally a form of forgetting when new memories replace old ones.
  3. Interference

6. Name a few schemes targeted for poverty alleviation in India

Answer: The poverty alleviation programmes in India can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as prevalence of poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations.

 The programmes can be mainly grouped into:

1) Wage employment programmes

2) Self-employment programmes

3) Food security programmes

4) Social security programmes

5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

The five year plans immediately after independence tried to focus on poverty alleviation through sectoral programmes.

1     Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)

2     National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)

3     National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

4     National Maternity Benefit Scheme

5     Annapurna

6     Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

7     Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

7. Identify and describe (in brief) different types of sheep in the state of Rajasthan

Answer: Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan

Jaisalmeri: Found in Jaisalmer.

Naali: Found in Hanumangarh, Churu and Bikaner & Jhunjhunu. …

Maalpuri: Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli & Sawai madhopur.

Magra: Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year.

Pugal: Originated from Pugal in Bikaner.

Chokla or Shekhawati

Sonari or Chanothar

8. Determine the respective importance of generalists and specialists in the Indian Administration

Answer: A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotrophy with a varied diet). A specialist species can thrive only in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.

It is not necessarily true that you would prefer a specialist all the time. A specialist is one who has mastered the skill of one particular trade while a generalist is someone who has a fair knowledge of all trades but not an expert in any. In other words a generalist is Jack.

9. What do you understand by the term ‘Ownership?

Answer: Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property. Ownership is self-propagating in that the owner of any property will also own the economic benefits of that property.

10. Describe the salient features of demography of Rajasthan in the latest census

Answer: As per details from Census 2011, Rajasthan has population of 6.86 Crores, an increase from figure of 5.65 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Rajasthan as per 2011 census is 68,548,437 of which male and female are 35,550,997 and 32,997,440 respectively. In 2001, total population was 56,507,188 in which males were 29,420,011 while females were 27,087,177. The total population growth in this decade was 21.31 percent while in previous decade it was 28.33 percent. The population of Rajasthan forms 5.66 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 5.49 percent.

Recently as per Rajasthan census data, 93.22% houses are owned while 5.36% were rented. In all, 66.73% couples in Rajasthan lived in single family. In 2011, 68.02% of Uttar Pradesh population had access to Banking and Non-Banking Finance Corporation. Only 1.80% of Uttar Pradesh population had internet facility which is likely to improve in 2021 due to Jio. 4.66% of family in Uttar Pradesh owned car while 24.06% owned two wheeler. In few months we will also get details of election data for Rajasthan.

11. Describe the status and potential of non-conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan.

Answer: Rajasthan has become the leading state in tapping wind energy and solar energy for power generation in the country. According to the Government of Rajasthan, the estimated wind energy potential in the state is estimated to be about 5400 MW. A total of 3065.55 MW wind power capacity has been installed by December 2014.

Now, the emphasis has shifted to tapping more of solar Energy for power production and Rajasthan has signed MoUs with investors for setting up of a cumulative generation capacity of 32000 MW in the solar sector recently.

“Rajasthan shines on the solar map of India with 300-330 clear sunny days comparable to deserts of California, Nevada, Colorado and Arizona. Within the state the districts such as Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur are the key regions with best solar radiation. Rajasthan is endowed with two critical resources that are essential to solar power production: high level of solar radiation (6-7 kWh/ m2/ day) and large tracts of relatively flat, undeveloped land,” informs the website of resurgent Rajasthan.

Currently development of Solar-park at Jodhpur is in progress to create 2000 MW Solar Power Plant and Rajasthan has taken the lead ahead of all other states in this sector too. With regard to solar energy production, it is said that the world’s largest 4,000 MW solar project would be built in two phases in Sambhar block of Jaipur.

The first phase will be of 1000 MW and most likely will be commissioned by the end of 2016. Rajasthan is one of India’s most solar-developed states, it is said. As we know that solar energy is the most important non-conventional source of energy because it is non-polluting and helpful in lessening the greenhouse effect.

Rajasthan has decided for promoting generation of electricity from biomass also and is encouraging investments in the sector. The main source for biomass energy in the State of Rajasthan is mustard husk and Julie flora.

RAS Mains-Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question

RAS-MAINS-EXAM-2018-GEOGRAPHY-SOLVED-QUESTION-ANSWER

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD

This Book is useful for RAS Mains Exam.
Practice Solved Question/Descriptive – Geography of Rajasthan
These Mock Solved Question Answer prepared as per last couple of years RAS Mains analysis.
We have covered almost all trending topics/static topics of geography of Rajasthan.
Answer Style is in 20/50/100/200 words.

Geography of Rajasthan-Solved Test Questions

Sample Preview:

Why Rewat hill of Rajasthan is famous?

Write short note on soils of Rajasthan.

Write the name of World Famous Wildlife Sanctuaries in Rajasthan

How Aravalli hills are formed?

Write the features and motives of first biological Park of Rajasthan?

Write down the Introduction of Aravalli Range and Hilly Region.

Which are the Highest and Low Density cities of Rajasthan as per Census 2011?

Write down the Flora and fauna of Thar Desert?

What are the Soil Classifications of Rajasthan in detail?

Why in spite of Aravalli range Rajasthan receives very less rain?

Which part of India gets the monsoon first?

What are pre monsoon showers?

Describe the physiographic character of Rajasthan and also mention the Importance of Aravali Mountain.

Why the Coromandel Coast gets most of its rain during the winter season?

1- Delineate natural regions of Rajasthan and describe any one of them.

2- Describe the role of RICCO in the industrial development of Rajasthan.

3- Describe the main source of power generation in Rajasthan.

4- Combating drought in Rajasthan.

5- Water Policy 2010 of Rajasthan.

6- Write a short note on Aravalli Range.

7- The district of Rajasthan which have the highest and lowest sex ratio as per 2001 census.

7(a) – Describe the seed Spices of Western Rajasthan.

8- Flora of Thar Desert.

9- Lake Development Projects in Rajasthan

10-What is solar Energy Enterprise Zone (SEEZ) and where is it located?

11- Mewat and its source of humidity.

12- Classification of Soil areas.

13- Dairy Development.

14- Stone Industry of Rajasthan.

15(a) – Main Districts which lie across Indra Gandhi Canal

15(b) – Tribal Mahila Self Help Group- 2 marks 2008

16- Cover Erosion.

17- Describe the Desert Development Projects of Rajasthan.

18-Describe the Population distribution format of rajasthan & illustrate its determining factors.

19- Describe the silent features of Physico Cultural Regions of Rajasthan.

20- Describe the Tribal Area Development & Plans.

21- Execution of Narmada Project in Rajasthan.

22(a) – Talchhapar Sanctuary

22(b) – Kankrej &its main varieties

23- Non-Conventional sources of energy.

24- Takhli Dam Project.

25- Describe the current status of population of Rajasthan and the steps taken to restrict the population growth.

26- Through some light on the administrative setup established in Rajasthan for improving the electricity condition.

27- Give a detailed explaination of the cultural regions of Rajasthan.

28- Through some light on the Chambal project of Rajasthan.

29- Explain various cattle varieties and their regions.

30- Drought and famines are frequent in Rajasthan. Mention the causes and suggest the ways to deal with this problem.

31- Describe the role of public sector industries in economic development of the state.

32- Review the present position of production of lead, Zinc and Copper in Rajasthan, stating the places of availability of the sources.

33- What means are used for irrigation in Rajasthan and what is their contribution in the agricultural development of the state?

34- Jakham River

35- Sambhar Lake

36- Compare the mother and child care programmes in Rajasthan with the other states in India.

37- Describe the Main features of ‘Bisalpur Project’?

38- Discuss the growth of Distance education in Rajasthan. To what extent it would serve the interests of Higher Education in the State?

39- Access the Progress of ‘Heritage Hotel Scheme’ Rajasthan during the last five years.

40- How far do you agree that Rajasthan is a Mazor cement producing state in the country?

41- Mineral oil Exploration in Rajasthan.

42- Solar Energy Projects in Rajasthan.

43-Write on any 5 wildlife sanctuaries in Rajasthan

44(a) – Rajsamand Lake

44(b) – Chappan Plains.

45- Write the names and special features of the main geographical sub-regions of Rajasthan.

46- Access the progress of industrial growth and its impact on Rajasthan in last five years.

47- Why population growth in Rajasthan is very high? What strategy should be adopted to contain it?

48- Why literacy in Rajasthan is very low? What immediate steps should be taken to improve the situation?

49- Name 6 important rivers of Rajasthan.

50-(a) Narmada Canal Project

50-(b) Making Rajasthan Literate

50-(c) Gurushikhar

50-(d) Longewala

50-(e) Dang

50(f) Mahi

50-(g) Thar

50-(h) Mewar

51- Access the progress of oil seeds production programme and its impact on Rajasthan in last five years.

52- Mention five major sectors/areas which would be crucial in the development of Rajasthan in 21st Century. Explain why?

53-Why female Literacy in Rajasthan is lowest in the country? What immediate steps should be taken to improve the situation?

54- Main problems of rapid industrial development of Rajasthan.

55- Explain Salient Features of Geography of Rajasthan.

56- Explain Solar Energy as a good source of energy in Rajasthan.

57- Indra Gandhi Canal Project

58- Aravali Mountain

59- Desertification.

60- CAZRI

61- Rajsamand

62(a) – Godawan

62(b) – Rathi

62(c) – Uppermal

62(d) – Hadoti

63- Access the Progress of afforestation programmes in Rajasthan.

64- Desert Development Programme.

65- Drought and famines are frequent in Rajasthan. Mention the causes and suggest the ways to deal with this problem.

66- Write briefly about the following mineral wealth in Rajasthan- Tungsten, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and Feldspar

67- What do you understand by Social-Forestry?

68- Why does western Rajasthan receives low amount of annual rainfall?

69- Present a short note on ‘soil degradation’ in Rajasthan. 2.5 marks-RAS/RTS Mains-1994

70- Explain ‘Bio-Gas’ as a good source of energy in the rural areas of Rajasthan.

71- Family Planning Programme in Rajasthan.

72- Name four breeds of cows which are generally classified as ‘Dairy Breed’.

73- Mention the names of two major tributaries of Chambal River.

74- Name two places in Rajasthan where ‘National Parks’ have been established.

75- Cash Crops of Rajasthan.

76- Maru- Ganga.

77- Desertification

77(a) – Vegetation and climate of Rajasthan

77(b)-Tribals of Rajasthan

77(c) – What are the important agro based industries which can be setup in Rajasthan?

78- Mineral resources of Rajasthan

79- Desert Development Programme.

80- The main Rabi crops of Rajasthan.

Drainage System of Rajasthan

RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam Preparation

Rivers of Rajasthan

The rivers of Rajasthan can be divided into three main types based on their drainage pattern; they are rivers that drain into Arabian Sea, rivers that drain into Bay of Bengal and rivers with inland drainage. The most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan is that nearly 60.2% of the area of the state has an inland drainage system.

The Aravalli range forms the main watershed for Rajasthan, dividing the drainage into the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Luni river system that rises from the western slopes of the Aravalli Range (near Ajmer) flows through the semi-arid transitional plains into the Rann of Kutch and Arabian Sea, while the Banas and other streams, rising from the eastern slopes of the Aravallis, join the Chambal. The Chambal, then flows into the Yamuna-Ganga river system which drains into the Bay of Bengal. The main watercourses like the Sabarmati, Banas, etc. and the tributaries of the Luni, are more or less parallel to the Aravalli Range.

Additionally, Rivers of Rajasthan are mostly seasonal with only two river basins (Chambal and Mahi) being perennial.

River Basins of Rajasthan

  • Ancient Rivers of Rajasthan: Saraswati & Drishadwati Rivers

Chambal River

Tributaries:

•     Parbati

•     Kali Sindh

•     Mej (ST: Mangli)

•     Alnia

•     Sep

•     Banas

•     Gambhir or Utangan

•     Brahmani

•     Gunjali

Banas River

Tributaries:-

•     Berach

•     Kothari

•     Khari

•     Dai

•     Mashi

•     Sohadra

•     Morel

•     Kalisil

•     Dheel

Banganga River

Tributaries:

•     Suri

•     Sanwan

•     Palasan

Luni River

Tributaries:

  • Bandi River
  • Sukri River
  • Jawai River
  • Khari River

Sabarmati River

Tributaries:

•     Sei

•     Wakal

•     Harnav

•     Hathmati

•     Watrak

Mahi River

Tributaries:

  • Som (ST: Gomti, Jakham)
  • Anas
  • Panam

Other Important Rivers of Rajasthan

  • Saraswati River
  • Dravyavati River
  • West Banas River
  • Rivers of Inland Drainage
  • Gambhir or Utangan River

Lakes in Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the most arid state of India with average yearly rainfall less that 100 cm. However, Rajasthan has large number lakes mostly artificial as well as historical, signifying a tradition of conserving natural resources and respecting nature. The lakes in Rajasthan can divided into types Saline and Fresh water lakes.

Types of Lakes in Rajasthan:

  • Saline (Salt) Water lakes
  • This are considered as remains of Tethys Sea.
  • Deedwana, Lunkaransar, Sambhar, Pachpadra etc.

 Fresh (Sweet) Water lakes

They have either developed naturally or artificially and get replenished by rainwater.

Pichhola, Rajsamand, Rajsamand, Ana Sagar etc.

A.  Saline (Salt) Water lakes in Rajasthan

  • Sambhar Lake – Sambhar
  • Location: Phulera, Jaipur

    Built by: As per mythology, Scambhari Devi,

    Highlights:

  • Ramsar Wetland
  • Largest in-land salt-lake in India
  • Touches border of Jaipur, Ajmer and Nagaur.
  • Rivers mantha, Rupnagar, khari, Khandela drain their water into this lake.
  • The lake produces 8.7% of Salt produced in India.

 Lake Is managed by Sambhar Salts Limited, a joint venture of Hindustan Salts and the Government of Rajasthan

Pachpadra Lake: Pachpadra

  • Location: Barmer
  • Built by: Natural

Highlights: Its sodium chloride level is marked at 98%

Lunkaransar Lake: Lunkaransar

 Location: Bikaner

 Built by: Natural

Highlights: It is a playa lake formed due to deflation.

Deedwana Lake: Deedwana

  • Location: Nagaur
  • Built by: Natural

 Highlights: Salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Tal Chappar: black-buck

    Location: Churu

Highlights: Tal Chhapar Wild Life Sanctuary

Other Salt lakes:

 Nagaur District: Degana, Kuchaman

  • Jodhpur: Falaudi
  • Sikar: Rewasa
  • Jaisalmer: Kavod

B.  Fresh Water lakes in Rajasthan

Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer: AnasagarAnasagar Lake is a scenic artificial lake, commissioned and built by Arno raj Chauhan, son of Ajapala Chauhan, between 1135 and 1150 AD. Arno raj was also known as Anaji, which gives the lake its name. Many years later, Mughal Emperor Jahangir added his touch to the lake by laying out the Daulat Bagh Gardens near the lake. Emperor Shah Jahan too, contributed to the expansion by building five pavilions, known as the Baradari, between the garden and the lake.

Lake Foy Sagar, Ajmer: Lake-foy

A beautiful artificial lake that appears flat, Lake Foy Sagar was built by an English engineer, Mr. Foy in 1892 AD. Interestingly, this work was taken up to provide famine relief through wage employment to locals. Lake Foy Sagar offers a beautiful view of the Aravalli range.

Pushkar Lake, Pushkar, Ajmer

Pushkar according to Hindu scriptures, the sacred Pushkar Lake is described as ‘Tirtha Raj’, the king of all pilgrimage sites. No pilgrimage is considered to be complete without a dip in the holy Pushkar Lake. Semi-circular in shape and about 8-10 metres deep, Pushkar Lake is surrounded by 52 bathing ghats and over 400 temples and is truly a magnificent sight to behold.

Siliserh Lake, Alwar

The water palace of Siliserh with a lake surrounded by low wooded hills is on route to Sariska. It lies 12 Kms. Southwest of Alwar. The tranquil lake is nestled in the hills; the sparkling ripples of the lake cover an area of about sq. Kms, surrounded by thick forest and magnificent cenotaphs on its embankment. A royal hunting lodge /palace were built by Maharaja Vinay Singh for his Queen Shila in 1845. It has been converted into a tourist bungalow and is an attractive sot for a peaceful holiday.

Anand Sagar Lake, Banswara

This artificial lake, also known as Bai Talab was constructed by Lanchi Bai, the Rani of Maharaval Jagmal Singh. Located in the eastern part of Banswara, it is surrounded by holy trees known as ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ famous for fulfilling the wishes of visitors. The Chattris or cenotaphs of the rulers of the state are also scattered nearby.

Dailab Lake, Banswara

On the banks of this beautiful lake stands the summer residence of the former rulers. A major part of the lake itself is covered with lotus flowers.

Jait Sagar Lake, Bundi

Located close to the Taragarh Fort, this picturesque lake is surrounded by hills and covered with pretty lotus flowers that bloom during winter and monsoon.

Kanak Sagar Lake, Bundi

About 67 kilometers from the town of Bundi lies this wonderful flat lake. There is also a town named after the lake. One can spot several migratory birds here such as bar headed goose and Demoille cranes all through the year.

Nawal Sagar Lake, Bundi

Nawal Sagar Lake is an artificial lake that is a major tourist attraction and can even be seen from the Taragarh Fort. There is a half-submerged temple dedicated to Lord Varun Dev in its centre. What makes the lake unique is that one can see the reflection of nearby palaces and forts in its waters.

Gaib Sagar Lake, Dungarpur

The lake is famous for the shrine of Shrinathji that rests on its banks. The shrine complex contains numerous exquisitely carved temples and one core temple, the Vijay Rajrajeshwar Temple. This temple of Lord Shiva displays the skilled craftsmanship of the famed sculptors or ‘shilpkars’ of Dungarpur.

Gadsisar Lake, Jaisalmer

Gadsisar Lake was constructed in the 14th century by Maharaval Gadsi Singh to meet the water needs of his arid lands. Considering its importance, many small temples and shrines were constructed around it, transforming it into a pilgrimage centre and a tourist attraction.

Balsamand Lake, Jodhpur

Balsamand Lake is about 5 kilometers from Jodhpur on the Jodhpur-Mandore Road. Built in 1159 AD, it was planned as a water reservoir to cater to Mandore. The Balsamand Lake Palace was built on its shore later as a summer palace. It is surrounded by lush green gardens that house groves of trees such as mango, papaya, pomegranate, guava and plum. Animals and birds like the jackal and peacock also call this place home.

Kailana Lake, Jodhpur

Situated on Jaisalmer road, this small artificial lake is an ideal picnic spot. It is like a canvas with a splash of romantic colours. The beauty of the lake stays with you long after you’ve experienced it.

Kishore Sagar Lake, Kota

Kishore Sagar Lake is one of the lakes in Kota which was built in 1346 by the prince of Bundi named Dher Deh. The Jagmandir Palace was built by one of the queens of Kota between 1743 and 1745, and is situated in the middle of the Kishore Sagar Lake.

Rajsamand Lake, Rajsamand

Maharana Raj Singh an able administrator of the fifth generation of Maharana Pratap constructed Rajsamand Lake in 1662 AD, which is a beautiful example of sculpture and public utility works. The banks known as “Nouchoki” consist of 25 carved stone ‘RAJ PRASHASHTI’ the longest stone inscription in Sanskrit in the world. The stairs, footrest, artistic gates and ‘Mandaps’ are made of beautiful carved marble and the sculpture imparts a new look every time. The whole construction is based on the number 9 which is considered to be the absolute number in Hindu philosophy & mythology. It took 14 years for completion and cost more than 12.5 million rupees at that time. Rajsamand District is a district of the state of Rajasthan in western India

Doodh Talai, Udaipur

The road that takes visitors to Pichhola Lake has another popular destination – the Doodh Talai Lake. The lake is nestled between several small hillocks which themselves are tourist attractions. The Deen Dayal Upadhyay Park and the Manikya Lal Verma Garden are part of the Doodh Talai Lake Garden.

Fateh Sagar Lake, Udaipur

This delightful lake, bordered by hills and woodlands, lies to the north of Lake Pichhola. This artificial lake is connected to Lake Pichhola by a canal. The lake houses the beautiful Nehru Island as well as an islet on which stands the Udaipur Solar Observatory. It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

Jaisamand Lake, Udaipur

Jaisamand Lake is known for being the second largest man-made sweet water lake in Asia. It is popular among the locals as a weekend picnic destination. Locals say that the lake was constructed to halt the waters of Ruparel River. This lake boasts of a large island, which is home to various species of birds, at its centre.

Pichhola Lake, Udaipur

Pichhola was the name of a village that was submerged and lent its name to the lake when it was expanded. The islands of Jag Niwas and Jag Mandir as housed in this lake. Along the eastern banks of the lake lies the City Palace. A boat ride in the lake around sunset offers a breathtaking view of the Lake and City Palaces.

Udai Sagar Lake, Udaipur

Udai Sagar Lake is one of the five striking lakes situated in Udaipur. Located about 13 kilometers to the east of Udaipur, the construction of this lake was started in 1559 by Maharana Udai Singh. The lake is actually a result of a dam being built on the river Berach to supply adequate water to the Maharana’s kingdom. Udai Sagar Lake is 4 kms in length, 2.5 kilometers in width and about 9 meters at its deepest.

Seismic Zones and faults: Earthquake Hazard in Rajasthan

Seismic Zones & Earthquake Hazard in Rajasthan

Earthquake History

  • Though the state of Rajasthan has not had a major earthquake in recent years, small to moderate earthquake have been felt in the state.
  • Several faults have been identified in this region out of which many show evidence of movement during the Holocene epoch.
  • The Cambay Graben terminates in the south-western part of the state. The Konoi Fault near Jaisalmer trends in a north-south direction and was associated with the 1991 Jaisalmer earthquake. Several active faults criss-cross the Aravalli range and lie parallel to each other.
  • The most prominent of them is the north-south trending Sardar Shahr Fault and the Great Boundary Fault which runs along the Chambal River and then continues in the same direction into Uttar Pradesh.
  • However, it must be stated that proximity to faults does not necessarily translate into a higher hazard as compared to areas located further away, as damage from earthquakes depends on numerous factors such as subsurface geology as well as adherence to the building codes.

According to GSHAP data, the state of Rajasthan falls in a region of moderate to high seismic hazard. As per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Rajasthan falls in Zones II, III & IV. Historically, parts of this state have experienced seismic activity in the M 5.0 range.

Largest Instrumented Earthquake in Rajasthan

  1. 15 August 1906 – Thar Desert, Rajasthan, Mw 6.2
  2. This event was located along the India-Pakistan border, in the vicinity of Janpalia, Rajasthan which is located north-northwest of Bakhasar.

Seismic Faults in Rajasthan

  • Several faults have been identified in Rajasthan, out of which many show evidence of movement during the Holocene epoch.  
  • The Cambay Graben terminates in the south-western part of the state.
  • The Konoi Fault near Jaisalmer trends in a north-south direction and was associated with the 1991 Jaisalmer earthquake.
  • Several active faults criss-cross the Aravalli range and lie parallel to each other.
  • The most prominent of them is the north-south trending Sardar Shahar Fault and the Great Boundary Fault which runs along the Chambal River and then continues in the same direction into Uttar Pradesh.

RAS Mains Exam Complete Study Notes

Download RAS Mains 2018 Study Notes

Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III Paper-IV
Unit-I
Rajasthan History Administrative Ethics   Rajasthan Current Affairs General Hindi & English
Art-Culture Rajasthan National Current Affairs
Indian History   International Current Affairs
Indian Culture
World History
Unit-II
Economy-Rajasthan Science & Technology Public Administration
Indian Economy Agriculture-Rajasthan Polity & Administration
                                          Unit-III
Sociology Geography-Rajasthan Sports & Yoga
Management Geography-India Behaviour
Accounting & Auditing Geography-World Law