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Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

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Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Quiz-3

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 Quiz-2

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

UPSC and State PSC Prelims Exam Science & Technology Question Bank

Q.1) NASA’s spacecraft OSIRIS – Rex has recently arrived at its destination. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding it?

1. The mission will land at near earth orbit asteroid, Bennu and will bring a rock sample on earth.

2. The aim of the mission is to discover formation of water and organic molecules on mars.

3. This will be the world’s first space asteroid sampling.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.2) ISRO’s launch vehicle PSLV – C43 has successfully launched satellite HysIS. Which of the following statements are correct regarding HysIS?

a) It is an observation satellite to study the earth’s surface in the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared regions.

b) It is a communication satellite that will be helpful in providing DTH connection across

India.

c) It is a surveillance satellite launched for Indian army to keep a check at Indo – Pak and Indo – China border.

d) It is a meteorological satellite launched for IMD for exact weather predictions in India.

Solution (a)

Q.3) Recently NASA retired its Kepler space telescope as it ran out of fuel. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the mission?

1. It was NASA’s first planet-hunting mission.

2. It used transit photometry detection method for searching for exoplanet.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (c)

Q.4) Consider the following statements regarding the Gaganyaan Mission:

1. ISRO is setting up a third launch pad at Kalam Island for this mission.

2. It will be India’s first manned space mission.

3. India is planning to send three humans in space in low earth orbit through this mission.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

Q.5) ISRO has launched two observation satellites NovaSAR and S1 – 4 from Satish Dhawan center. Which of the following statements are correct regarding NovaSAR?

1. It has been launched in Sun synchronous Pole to pole project.

2. It is French satellite commercially launched by ISRO.

3. NovaSAR is a S-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite intended for forest mapping, land use and ice cover monitoring, flood and disaster monitoring.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (c)

Q.6) Japanese researchers are going to conduct world’s first experiment to test small prototype of space elevator. Which of the following statements regarding space elevator are correct?

1. It is a proposed planet to space transportation system.

2. An Earth-based space elevator would consist of a cable with one end attached to the surface near the equator and the other end in space beyond geostationary orbit.

3. Gravity and centrifugal force keeps the cable under tension, and stationary over a single position on Earth.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.7) Consider the following statements regarding Gaofen 11:

1. It is part of China High-resolution Earth Observation System (CHEOS).

2. It is a sub-meter resolution optical satellite, used for surveying.

3. It will be used for land surveys, urban planning, and road network design and agriculture and disaster relief.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.8) ISRO has successfully conducted ground test of its high thrust version of Vikas Engine.

Which of the following statements are correct regarding Vikas Engine?

1. It is a solid propulsion engine carrying solid fuel and oxidizer.

2. It is a workhorse engine of PSLV but hasn’t been used in any stage of GSLV.

3. High thrust version of Vikas engine will increase the payload capability of PSLV, GSLV and GSLV Mk III.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 and 2

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

Q.9) Remove DEBRIS is a satellite research project intending to demonstrate various space debris removal technologies. Rather than engaging in active debris removal (ADR) of real space debris, the Remove DEBRIS mission plan is to test the efficacy of several ADR technologies on mock targets in low Earth orbit through some experiments. Which of the following experiment is not a part of mission?

a) Net Experiment

b) Vision based Navigation

c) Harpoon and Deployable target

d) Laser HIT and disintegration Experiment

Solution (d)

Q.10) NASA has launched InSight Mission as robotic lander on Mars. The aim of the mission is to

a) Study the atmosphere of Mars

b) Study the topography of Mars

c) Study the interior of Mars

d) Study the evidence of life and water on mars

Solution (c)

Q.11) Chandrayaan 2 is totally indigenous project of ISRO. Which of the following statements are correct regarding Chandrayaan 2?

1. It is a lunar mission consisting of an Orbiter, Lander and Rover.

2. The mission will carry a six-wheeled Rover which will move around the landing site in semi-autonomous mode as decided by the ground commands.

3. If successful, it will be ISRO’s first mission to land rover on any celestial body.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.12) Spacecraft cemetery/graveyard is the location used for crash landing of defunct spacecrafts. It is considered to be the most remote part of the earth and lies in Southern Pacific ocean. The name given to this point is

a) Point Dolphin

b) Point Angel

c) Point Nemo

d) Point Poseidon

Solution (c)

Q.13) Aditya L1 is India’s first dedicated scientific mission to study sun. It will be placed at

Lagrange point 1. Which of the following statements are correct regarding Lagrange points?

1. A Lagrange point is a location in space where the combined gravitational forces of two large bodies, such as Earth and the sun or Earth and the moon, equal the centrifugal force felt by a much smaller third body.

2. L1 lies a million miles from Earth in the opposite direction of the sun with the Earth, moon and sun behind it.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (a)

Q.14) Stratolaunch is the world’s largest composite airplane. Which of the following statements is correct regarding it?

a) It is designed to take astronauts to International Space Station.

b) It is designed to take commercial passengers to exosphere for zero gravity experience.

c) It is designed for sending satellite-carrying rockets into low-Earth orbit

d) It is designed to carry heavy payloads from construction site to the launch site.

Solution (c)

Q.15) NASA successfully tested a supersonic parachute designed to land the agency’s next rover on Mars. The supersonic parachute experiment is known as

a) INSPIRE

b) ASPIRE

c) EXPIRE

d) RESPIRE

Solution (b)

Q.16) NASA has named a new bacteria discovered on International Space Station after

a) Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

b) Dr Vikram Sarabhai

c) Dr Saha

d) Eugene Parker

Solution (a)

Q.17) GUSTO is a balloon based observatory to study the cosmic material entering the earth.

The program was launched by

a) NASA

b) ISRO

c) ROSCOSMOS

d) ESA

Solution (a)

Q.18) which of the following energies are believed to be responsible for expansion and acceleration of Universe?

a) Gravitational energy

b) Weak forces

c) Electromagnetic energy

d) Dark Energy

Solution (d)

Q.19) Cornell University has successfully tested ‘Sprites’. Which of the following statements are correct regarding them?

1. They are world’s smallest fully functional space probes, built on a single circuit board achieving low Earth orbit

2. They are equipped with tiny solar panels and two antennas, plus a tiny radio, computer, magnetometer (to orient to Earth’s magnetic field) and gyroscope.

3. They were launched by NASA under starshot project.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.20) ISRO has commissioned the world’s third largest hypersonic wind tunnel at Vikram Sara bhai Space Center. Which of the following statements regarding this wind tunnel are correct?

1. It is being made with the help of Israel.

IASbaba’s 60 day Science and Tech Compilation 2019

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2. It will be used to study the effects of air flowing past solid objects like space vehicles.

3. It will help aerodynamic characterization of advanced space transportation systems in a hypersonic environment.

Select the code from following:

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

Petya Ransomware Attack

Key Features:

Petya Ransomware was part of a new wave of cyber-attacks that had hit computer servers all across Europe, locking up computer data and crippling enterprise services in the corporate sector.

  1. Ransomware is a type of malware that blocks access to a computer or its data and demands money to release it.
  2. When a computer is infected, the Ransomware encrypts important documents and files and then demands a ransom, typically in Bitcoin, for a digital key needed to unlock the files
  3. Ukraine and Russia are the worst affected, though the attack has also impacted some companies in the US and other Western European countries

NASA Developing First Asteroid Deflection Mission

Key Feature:

NASA is developing the first-ever mission that will deflect a near-Earth asteroid, and help test   the systems that will allow mankind to protect the planet from potential cosmic body impacts in future.

  1. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) — which is being designed and would be built and managed by the John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory.
  2. DART would be NASA‘s first mission to demonstrate what‘s known as kinetic impact or technique — striking the asteroid to shift its orbit — to defend against a potential future asteroid impact.
  3. The target for DART is an asteroid, Didymos that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022 and then again in 2024.
  4. The Didymos asteroid system has been closely studied since 2003. It has been classified as potentially hazardous asteroid.

Two Stages to Orbit (TSTO) Space Transportation System

Key Features:

Recently India became the fifth nation to successfully conduct the flight demonstration of a scaled down version of a winged-body reusable launch vehicle.

It is a stepping stone towards fully reusable Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) space transportation system.

  1. TSTO launch vehicle can launch payload to Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) with 15 times reusability.
  2. It also validates the critical technologies such as autonomous navigation, guidance & control, reusable thermal protection system and re-entry mission management
  3. Low earth orbit is defined as an orbit within a locus extending from the earth‘s surface up to an altitude of 1,200 miles.
  4. Most communication applications use LEO satellites because it takes less energy to place the satellites into LEO.
  5. Also, they need less powerful amplifiers for successful transmission.
  6. As LEO orbits are not geostationary, a network of satellites is required to provide continuous coverage.

Electric Propulsion System

Recently, ISRO has planned to launch GSAT-20, based on electric propulsion technology which has helped in reducing the weight of the satellite to just 3.5 tonnes.

  1. Electric Propulsion System (EPS) can reduce the dependence on chemical propellant thereby increasing the payload capacity of the vehicle.
  2. Electric Propulsion system helps in orbit correction of a satellite.
  3. It helps in maintaining a satellite on its path during its entire life duration.
  4. This system provides small but accurate thrust to a satellite in its orbit.
  5. The new system converts solar energy available in the space into electrical energy and later to kinetic energy by generating thrust that propels a satellite.
  6. This system has been already tested by Russian space agency and NASA.
  7. It has immense capability to eventually lower the cost of launches.

Green Propellants by ISRO

Key features:

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is developing green propellants for future rockets, considering the harmful effects of exhausts released by rockets on the earth’s atmosphere.

  1. ISRO has developed eco-friendly solid propellant based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer at the laboratory level, which will eliminate the emission of chlorinated exhaust products from rocket motors.
  2. The LOX/LH2 (liquid oxygen – liquid hydrogen) combination is already being used in the cryogenic upper stages of GSLV and GSLV Mk-III launch vehicles.
  3. Additional Facts: ISRO has successfully developed ISROSENE, which is a rocket grade version of kerosene as an alternative to conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.
  4. The propellants that are being used now have a very reactive effect on the ozone layer due to the release of chlorinated exhaust products.

Bacteria Wolbachia

Key Points

Recently successful experiments were conducted in Australia, which demonstrated the positive correlation between presence of Wolbachia bacteria in mosquitoes and reduced spread of diseases such as Malaria and Dengue.

Wolbachia bacteria are a tiny bacterium that is present in up to 60% of all species of insects, including several mosquito species.

  1. It is one of the world‘s most common parasitic microbes and possibly the most common reproductive parasite in the biosphere.
  2. But it is usually not present in the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the primary species responsible for transmitting dengue, chikungunya and Zika.
  3. When present in the mosquito, the viruses (E.g. Zika Virus) cannot replicate and hence small numbers of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes are released in target areas.
  4. Once Wolbachia carrying mosquitoes are released, they breed with wild mosquitoes and over time, the majority of mosquitoes carry Wolbachia.

Thermal Battery Plant

India became home to the world‘s first-ever thermal battery plant which was inaugurated recently in Amravati, Andhra Pradesh.

It aims to create a new energy storage form that is expected to have commercial applications, while also maintaining a low carbon footprint, and being less dependent on external factors like weather.

It will be owned by Bharat Energy Storage Technology Private Limited (BEST).

It will have a battery capacity of 1000MW which is expected to be upgraded to a 10GW capacity by 2025.

It could provide energy solutions for electrical grids, transport and telecom services (help boost signal strength).

 Key Points:

  1. It is considered to be even better than solar energy which cannot be charged or utilized to their optimum potential after sunset or even when the skies are densely clouded.
  2. Conventional  battery  technology  work  on  basis  of  electrical  energy  and  is  based  on  system of charging and discharging cycles that are driven by electricity.
  3. Thermal battery use thermal energy to operate i.e. energy created by temperature differences.
  4. The energy transfer in this battery helps to store heat when heat travels from one part of battery setup to other.
  5. For this transmission, thermal battery consists of two parts viz. cool zone (sink) and hot source.

Digital North East Vision 2022

Key Points

Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) recently released The Digital North East Vision 2022 in Guwahati, Assam.

The vision document emphasizes on leveraging digital technologies to transform lives of people of north east and enhance ease of living.

It identifies eight digital thrust areas namely, Digital Infrastructure, Digital services, Promotion of Electronics Manufacturing, Digital empowerment, Promotion of IT and ITeS including BPOs, Digital Payments, Innovation & Startups and Cyber security.

Gaganyaan

India’s first manned space flight – Gaganyaan – is expected to send three persons into the space for seven days and the spacecraft will be placed in a low earth orbit of 300-400 km.

ISRO and Roscosmos (Russia’s federal space agency) have agreed to worked together for India’s first manned space mission Gaganyaan.

Key Points:

  1. India will launch its second lunar mission on January 3 next year which will land on the moon with a lander and rover.
  2. ISRO conducted its first pad abort‘test that was successful.
  3. The pad abort‘ test or Crew Escape System is an emergency escape measure that helps pull the crew away from the launch vehicle when a mission has to be aborted.
  4. The crew will be selected by Indian Air Force (IAF) and ISRO jointly after which they will undergo training for two-three years.
  5. It will conduct microgravity experiment during the mission.
  6. India will become fourth nation in the world after the United States, Russia and China to send astronaut into space
  7. Former Indian Air Force (IAF) pilot Rakesh Sharma was first Indian to travel to space.
  8. He was part of the Soviet Union‘s Soyuz T-11 expedition, launched in 1984, as part of the Intercosmos programme.

The Ebola virus

Key Points:

The Ebola virus returned to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) just days after the World Health Organization (WHO) announced, on July 24, that the Ebola outbreak had ended there.

In 2014, Ebola first outbreak had struck three West African countries (Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone)

It is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus of Ebola virus.

  • Ebola virus (species Zaire Ebola virus)
  • Sudan virus (species Sudan Ebola virus)
  • Tai Forest virus (species Tai Forest Ebola virus, formerly Cote d’Ivoire Ebola virus)
  • Bundibugyo virus (species Bundibugyo Ebola virus)

MCR 1 Gene

Key Points:

  1. Mcr-1 gene seen in K. pneumoniae bacteria
  2. mobilized colistin resistance (mcr-1) gene that confers multidrug-resistance has now been reported in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria
  3. This gene endows resistance against last hope antibiotic — colistin
  4. The mcr-1 gene is usually found in the plasmid (small DNA in the cytoplasm)
  5. Colistin, also known as polymyxin E, is an antibiotic produced by certain strains of the bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa.
  6. Colistin has also been used recently to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bacteremia caused by MDR bacteria, such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii.

5G (Fifth Generation)

Key Points:

  1. TRAI gives nod for sale of 5G spectrum
  2. The government has set up a high level forum to evaluate road-maps and formulate a strategy to adopt 5G in the country by 2020.
  3. 5G is a wireless communication and next generation mobile networks technology after 4G LTE networks.
  4. The final standard for 5G will be set up by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
  5. India lacks a strong backhaul to transition to 5G.
  6. Backhaul is a network that connects cells sites to central exchange.

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