General Studies Practice Test-2

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Civil Services Preliminary and State PSC Exams daily Practice MCQ

1. in the first ever India’s inter-state relocation, a tiger was shifted between which two states?

(a)        Uttarakhand & Madhya Pradesh

(b)       Madhya Pradesh & Uttar Pradesh

(c)        Madhya Pradesh & Odisha

(d)       Gujarat & Maharashtra                         

2. Which of the following agencies come under the definition of “State” mentioned in the Article 12 of the Indian constitution?

1.         Local bodies

2.         Public sector banks

3.         National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)

4.         Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       1, 2 and 4 only

(c)        1, 2 and 3 only

(d)       1, 2, 3 and 4

3. Which of the following Indian province was annexed on account of alleged misgovernance?

(a)        Awadh

(b)       Satara

(c)        Jhansi

(d)       Mysore

4. Which of the following is / are examples of mechanical weathering

(a)        Lichens and mosses

(b)       Exfoliation

(c)        Frost Action

(d)       Abrasion

5. Consider the following

1. Mediterranean Sea separates Africa from Asia

2. Red Sea separates Africa from Europe.

3. Mozambique Channel lies to the East of Mozambique.

Which of the above given statements is/are incorrect?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        1 only

(d)       2 only

6. Ministry of health and Family welfare has banned the domestic companies to produce which hormone/chemical effective from 1st July to prevent its misuse?

(a)        Oxytocin

(b)       Serotonin

(c)        Insulin

(d)       Adrenaline

7. RIMPAC naval military exercise of 26 countries started recently in Hawaii. Which Indian naval stealth frigate ship is participating in the exercise?

(a)        INS Sahyadri

(b)       INS Comorta

(c)        INS Vikramaditya

(d)       INS Viraat

8. The ideals of Liberty, equality and fraternity in our constitution were inspired from the

(a)        American revolution

(b)       English revolution

(c)        Russian revolution

(d)       French revolution

9. Consider the following statements about Lord William Bentinck.

1. Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India.

2. He was thought to be a reform oriented person.

3. He brought a law against Sati Pratha.

Which of the statements given above is/are are correct?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        3 only

(d)       1, 2 and 3

10.       Which one of the following statements is not correct with reference to “summer solstice”?

(a)        It Signifies winter season in southern hemisphere

(b)       International day of Yoga coincides with it

(c)        Perihelion falls during the month of summer solstice.

(d)       Antarctic Circle receives no sunlight during summer solstice.

11.       Which Indian National Park has become the largest host for the endangered Salt Water (Estuarine) Crocodile?

(a)        Bhitarkanika

(b)       Sunderbans

(c)        Papikonda

(d)       Periyar

12.       With regards to Fundamental rights which of the statement is not correct?

(a)        These are enforceable only against State not against private individual

(b)       Their application is limited in cases of armed forces and the times of emergency.

(c)        Some of the provisions of Fundamental rights have to be enforced by a separate law

(d)       They are neither Sacrosanct nor permanent in nature.

13.       Which of the following statements are correct?

1.         Vasco Da Gama was welcomed by Zamorin king at Muziris port.

2.         Thomas Roe visited the court of Aurangzeb to get permission to trade in India.

Select the correct answer using the Codes give below

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

14.       Which of the following planet(s) has / have westward rotation in our solar system?

(a)        Uranus Only

(b)       Venus and Earth

(c)        Venus and Uranus

(d)       Mars and Saturn

15.       Consider the following

1.         Strait of Gibraltar separates Europe from Africa

2.         Strait of Babel Mandel connects Red sea with Gulf of Aden

Which of the following statement (s) is/are true?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       1 only

(c)        2 only

(d)       None

16.       ”Project Sashakt” often seen in news is related to which of the following

(a)        Reforms in Priority Sector Lending

(b)       A 5-point plan to fight NPAs in the banks

(c)        To bring changes in GST Tax Slabs

(d)       None of the above

17.       Consider the following statements with regard to “Global Innovation Index”

1.         The Global Innovation Index (GII) is a biannual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.

2.         It is jointly released by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization

3.         The index was started in 2007 by INSEAD and World Business

Which of the following statements are incorrect?

(a)        1 only

(b)       1 and 2 only

(c)        1 and 3 only

(d)       None of the above

18.       Consider the following statements

1.         An ordinary right generally imposes a corresponding duty on another individual and state in some cases but a fundamental right is a right which an individual possess against the state.

2.         Our constitution guarantees the right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of both fundamental rights as well as legal rights.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

19.       The play “Neel Darpan” is associated with the Indigo Revolt (1858) of Bengal. Who wrote this play?

(a)        Ishwar Chandra Gupta

(b)       Deen Bandhu Mitra

(c)        Bhanu Bandopadhyay

(d)       Rajshekhar Basu

20.       Which of the following faults could generate Tsunami waves?

1.         Dip Slip Fault

2.         Strike Slip Fault

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        1 Only

(b)       2 Only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

21.       Recently which nation has agreed to reduce tariffs on its imports of Indian medicines?

(a)        US

(b)       Japan

(c)        China

(d)       Germany

22.       Consider the following statements with regards to Child employment in India

1.         Indian Constitution prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 with no exceptions.

2.         The children between 14 and 18 are permitted to work in Non Hazardous Industries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

23.       Which of the following crops were introduced by the Portuguese in India?

1.         Sugarcane

2.         Maize

3.         Tomato

4.         Potato Codes

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2, 3 and 4 only

(c)        2 and 3 only

(d)       1, 2, 3 and 4

24.       “They are generally known as thunderstorm clouds, can grow up to 10 km in height looks anvil – like in shaped and are associated with heavy rain, snow, hail, lighting and tornadoes”. Which of the following type of cloud is best described by the given above statement?

(a)        Cirrocumulus

(b)       Cirrostratus

(c)        Nimbostratus

(d)       Cumulonimbus

25.       Which one of the following African countries is not land-locked?

(a)        Benin

(b)       Chad

(c)        Lesotho

(d)       Mali

26.       The term, “one country, two systems”, seen in the news recently, in the context of affairs of which of the following country?

(a)        Israel

(b)       China

(c)        United Kingdom

(d)       Srilanka

27.       With reference to the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC), consider the following statements.

1.         It is the world’s largest international maritime exercise.

2.         Only Pacific Ocean littoral countries participate in this exercise.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

Answer Key:

1.         C

2.         A

3.         A

4.         C

5.         A

6.         A

7.         A

8.         D

9.         D

10.       C

11.       A

12.       A

13.       D

14.       C

15.       A

16.       B

17.       A

18.       A

19.       B

20.       A

21.       C

22.       B

23.       B

24.       D

25.       A

26.       B

27.       A


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Thar the Great Indian desert

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The Thar Desert also known as the Great Indian Desert encompasses 77,000 square miles of rolling sand dunes in the northwestern Indian state of Rajasthan. Small portions of the desert also extend into the Indian states of Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat, but these states do not exercise extensive control over the region.

The Thar Desert’s name derives from the word t’hul, the general term for the region’s sand ridges. It is defined by a series of natural borders, including the Aravalli Mountain Range to the southeast and the Punjab plain in the north and northeast. To the west, lies the Indus plain and to the south, the Rann of Kutch.

The geographic isolation of the Thar desert by mountain ranges and plains contributes significantly to the weather patterns that shape its distinctive, hot, dry environment. The environment around the Thar effectively absorbs all the rain that is carried in the monsoon clouds before the clouds can reach the desert. The resulting monsoon winds in the desert are hot and dry and the desert does not share in the wet season experienced in surrounding terrains.

Origin of the Thar Desert

The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some experts consider it to be 4,000 to 10,000 years old, while others maintain that aridity started in this region much earlier.

Another theory states that the area turned to desert relatively recently: Perhaps around 2,000-1,500 B.C.E. Around this time, the Ghaggar river ceased to be a major river and the river now has terminated in the desert.

It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neo-tectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses and a large number of palaeochannels exist.

Most of the studies share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westward and the Yamuna eastward, causing the Ghaggar to dry up.

Natural features-

There are three principal landforms in the desert region:

  • The predominantly sand covered Thar
  • Plains with hills including the central dune free country
  • Hills
  • The Thar Desert is distinguished by a series of rolling sand dunes that vary in height across the desert. While sand dunes are a common occurrence in deserts across the world, the dunes of the Thar are remarkable for their continual motion. In sharp contrast to the mountain ranges that ring the desert, the sandy desert floor is always in motion.
  • The perpetual movement of the desert, while contributing the desert’s beauty has had a prohibitive effect for permanent human settlement as the sands can easily be blown over structures.
  • The sands are particularly mobile due to severe winds in the region, which sweep the sands over areas of fertile soil.
  •  The layer of sand over much of the available farming land hinders agricultural development in the region.
  • Some of the sand dunes of the Thar have become semi stabilized over time and while not completely sedentary, these older dunes move only very small degrees. Older sand dunes can reach a height of 500 feet.

Dotted among the sands of the Thar, several salt water lakes provide a unique and welcome environment for desert dwelling creatures. While the water of the lakes cannot be consumed by humans, they support much needed shelter and viable farmland. The abundance of salt water, however also serves to highlight the extreme lack of drinkable water in the Thar desert. Annual rainfall in the region is particularly low measuring from 4-20 inches, most of which falls during the monsoon season. It is difficult to estimate annual precipitation for the Thar desert however as rainfall often varies widely from year to year.


  • The harsh natural environment and extreme temperature variations found in the Thar desert have combined to severely inhibit the growth of vegetation.
  • Most of the native plants grow in small clumps, without a system of order regulating where the clumps grow or any standard number of plants in a vegetation grouping.
  • The plants which have been most successful in the difficult environment have adapted to the conditions of the desert.
  • It is important, in particular for plants, to have developed water storage systems to be able to provide much needed water to themselves during the dry season.
  • Significant plants of the desert include gum, Arabic acacia and euphorbia. However, these plants are only found on the rocky slopes of the hills.


  • Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains.
  • Due to the diversity of ecosystems that exist within the Thar, a varied and thriving wildlife population calls the desert their home.
  • Both vegetation and animal life in this arid region are very rich. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here; several of them are endemic to the region.

The most notable example of a preserved ecosystem is the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer which provides an excellent example of the natural wildlife of the region. In this park, Great Indian Bustards, Blackbucks, Chinkaras, the Indian Gazelle, the Indian Wild Ass and Desert Foxes are common. These are species which are fast vanishing in other parts of India. Despite the apparent difficulty of life in the desert, the animals in the Desert National Park have found ways to adapt and thrive. The park supports these wild and naturally occurring populations of species that are threatened with existence elsewhere. It is also noted for rich seashell and petrified wood deposits.

The animals which are found in the Desert National Park exhibits many of the adaptations that are necessary for survival in the desert. These animals, along with those animals found outside the reserve, often exhibit a smaller body size, one example of biological adaptation to the region. In addition, many of the desert animals are nocturnal, a trait which allows them to avoid the sweltering heat of the day.

There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community the Bishnois, is also a factor.


The Thar Desert faces a distinct environmental threat from the loss of land through wind erosion. The harsh winds of the Thar sweep the sands across the plains and into its awe–inspiring sand dune formations. However, the winds also erode valuable farming land and threaten livestock grazing areas. In an attempt to hinder the wind erosion, plants species and trees have been planted in many areas to help keep the sands attached to the ground. The new windbreaks also provide much needed shelter.

In order to plant the necessary windbreaks, it has become necessary to import exotic plants into the region. The native plants are noted for their slow growth patterns and windbreaks must mature quickly to be fully effective. The Acacia tortillis has proven most adaptable to the Thar. While the induction of foreign plants is helping the wind erosion issues, the introduction of exotic plants into any environment threatens to overthrow the preexisting environmental balance.

Why most of the world’s tropical deserts located on the Western margins of continents?

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile to plant and animal life. In other words, it is extremely dry area of land with sparse vegetation.

The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation (the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes).

There are four types of desert found in the world: sub-tropical desert, Coastal deserts, Cold desert and Polar Desert. The fifth part of the Earth’s surface is desert. They are found in Asia, Australia, Africa, North America and South America. Sahara is the world’s largest tropical desert.

There are four major factors responsible for the location of the world’s tropical desert on the western margins of continents:

1. Offshore areas of trade wind and falling under the rain shadow area: When the moisture laden trade wind flows from east to west shed their moisture on the eastern part and by the time they reach the western margin, they become dry. These dry winds make the soil more and this led to the formation of the desert.

2. Anti-cyclonic conditions: The areas between 20 °- 30 ° latitude on western margins of continents are the regions of descending air. Because of this, the air gets compressed and warm as it descends and thus the moisture keeps decreasing.

3. Formation of Rain-shadow Zone:

A region in the lee of mountains that receives less rainfall than the region windward of the mountains is called rain-shadow zone. For example: Thar Desert in India is formed due to the formation of rain-shadow zone because Aravallis mountains are situated parallel to the region. Therefore the moisture holding winds pass away from the region because there is absence of mountain barriers.

4. Presence of cold ocean currents along the western coast of continents tends to stabilize the air over the coast. This prevents cloud formation and rainfall. Hence, it leads to arid conditions or the formation of marine deserts on the adjacent coastal lands.

Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Temperature Variation in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
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RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
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RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
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RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Temperature Variation in Rajasthan

What causes temperature variation?

Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in earth’s energy balance, including:

  1. Variations in the sun’s energy reaching earth.
  2. Changes in the reflectivity of earth’s atmosphere and surface.
  3. Changes in the greenhouse effect, which affects the amount of heat retained by earth’s atmosphere.

There are different variations of the temperature range of daily and seasonal throughout the state, covering the most typical phenomenon of warm and dry continental climate. Summer begins in March while the temperature continues to rise gradually to April, May and June. To the west of Rajasthan and the eastern side of the aravali in Bikaner district, Phalodi, Jaisalmer and the Barmer, the maximum daytime temperature hovers around 40 ° C to 45 ° C. Sometimes it even reaches as high 48-49 ° C during the summer months. Summer nights see a significant drop in temperature with a minimum of daily temperature of about 20 ° C to 29 ° C. However, Udaipur and Mount Abu have a pleasant climate in the summer with a relatively low daily maximum temperature that reaches 38 ° C and 31.5 ° C respectively.

The Rajasthan state experiences more or less uniform day temperatures over the plains except during the winter when temperatures increase southwards and during monsoon season when temperatures increase northwards. During the southwest monsoon the night minimum temperatures are more or less uniform but generally they are lower in higher latitudes.

As compared to the plains the day and night temperatures over the plateau and at high level stations are lower. In the hottest month of May the mean maximum temperature is approximately around 41°C – 42°C in the plains but it is 2°C to 4°C lower in the elevated and plateau regions of the state. The Graph depicts the average mean temperature of Rajasthan district-wise from the year 1980 to 2009.

The mean minimum temperature in the coldest month of January in the state is 7.4°C which varies from 4°C in the north to 12°C in the south. With the arrival of western disturbances much lower winter temperature may be experienced. Minimum temperature 2°C – 5°C below the freezing point can be recorded at few stations of northern Rajasthan. In the past 50 years the lowest minimum temperature at a plain station ever recorded was -5.9°C at Jaisalmer on 12 January 1967 (12.8°C below the respective normal for the coldest month) while the hill station of Abu had recorded the lowest temperature of -7.4°C on 12 December 1994 (13.1°C below the respective normal for the coldest month).

The maximum temperature rise rapidly from February onwards till May and minimum temperature from February onwards till June. The increase in maximum in the period from January to May ranges from 13°C to 20°C at individual stations as we proceed from south to north of the state. From the beginning of June to the end of July, the maximum temperature falls by about 3°C to 7°C whereas the minimum temperature falls only by about 3°C to 5°C from June to September. A slight rise in the maximum temperature is experienced in the month of September due to increased insolation.

Post-September the night temperatures start falling rapidly while day temperatures too start falling rapidly after October and by January both attain their lowest values. There is about 8°C to 15°C fall in minimum temperature and maximum temperature fall by 5°C to 7°C. In both cases, the fall increases from southern parts of the state to the northern parts. Smallest diurnal range of temperature is experienced during July and August of about 9°C in the state. After the withdrawal of the monsoon the diurnal range of temperature increases. The diurnal range is greatest in November month.

Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan

1.  Temperature

2.  Rainfall

3.  Thunder Storms

4.  Wind

5.  Humidity

6.  Dust Storms

Plains of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
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Plains of Rajasthan/Eastern Plains of Rajasthan


A plain is a broad area of relatively flat land. Plains are one of the major landforms or types of land on Earth. They cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. The plains exist on every continent.

How the Plain formed?

Plains form in many different ways. Some plains form as ice and water erodes or wears away the dirt and rock on higher land. Water and ice carry the bits of dirt, rock and other material called sediment, down hillsides to be deposited elsewhere. As layer upon layer of this sediment is laid down and formed the plains.

Volcanic activity can also form plains. Lava plains form when lava pushes up from below ground and flows across the land. The land area in a lava plain is often much darker than the surrounding soil. The dark land is a result of the lava, mostly dark-colored mineral called basalt that is broken down into tiny particles over millions of years.

The movement of rivers sometimes formed plains. Many rivers run through valleys. As rivers move from side to side they gradually erode the valley and creating broad plains.

As a river flood overflows the bank. The flood carries mud, sand and other sediment out over the land. After the water withdraws, the sediment remains. If a river floods repeatedly, over time this sediment will build up into a flood plain. Flood plains are often rich in nutrients and create fertile farmland.

Alluvial plains form at the base of mountains. Water carrying sediment flows downhill until it hits flat land. There it spreads out, depositing the sediment in the shape of a fan.

Many rivers deposit their sediment in the ocean. As the sediment builds up, it might eventually rise above sea level and forming a coastal plain.

Sediments: Sediment is a naturally occurring substance composed of small particles. It can be broken down by various processes such as erosion and weathering. Sediments can be transported through forces of water, wind, gravity, ice and the action of the particle.

Abyssal plains are found at the bottom of the ocean. These plains are 5,000 to 7,000 meters (16,400 to 23,000 feet) below sea level so scientists have a hard time studying them. But scientists say abyssal plains are among the flattest, smoothest places on Earth.

What are the Abyssal plains? – Large, relatively flat areas of ocean floor found at 5,000-6,000m below sea level. If sediments are discharged from a river and deposit relatively quick onto the plain they may form an abyssal plain.

Eastern Plains: The area on the northeast, east and southeast of the Aravalli range is known as the Eastern Plain and it covers 23% of the total area of Rajasthan.

The Vindhyan Plateau marks the southeastern limit of the plain and the western boundary is demarcated by the eastern edge of the Aravalli up to north of Udaipur.

This Plain is further subdivided into two physiographic units-

(i) The Banas Basin

(ii) The Chappan Plain

What is Basin?

A basin is a depression or dip in the earth’s surface. Basins are shaped like bowls with sides higher than the bottom. They can be oval or circular in shape similar to a sink or tub you might have in your own bathroom. The basins are filled with water or may be empty.

Basins are formed by forces above the ground (like erosion) or below the ground (like earthquakes). They can be created over thousands of years or almost overnight.

The major types of basins are river drainage basins, structural basins and ocean basins.

What is a River drainage basin?

  • A river drainage basin is an area drained by a river and all of its tributaries. The river basin is made up of many different watersheds.
  • A watershed is small version of a river basin. Every stream and tributary has its own watershed which drains to a larger stream or wetland. These streams, ponds, wetlands and lakes are part of a river basin.

(i) Banas River Basin

The great watershed of india runs in an easterly direction starting from Udai Sagar, east of Udaipur. The watershed acts as the southern boundary of the Mewar Plains and southern area of this watershed is known as the Chappan Plain. The region is marked by various types of erosional features produced in the granite and gneiss rocks mark the topography of the area. The soil is stony and the annual rainfall is about 73cm. It is a Peneplane rather than alluvial plain drained by Banas and its tributaries having an elevation of about 300 metre normally. The plain has been formed on the Archean gneiss and its slope gradually decreases toward east and north east. The Banas is super-imposed in a most striking manner.

This plain is poor; having thin soil but the numerous pegmatite and quartzite dykes facilitates the construction of tanks.

  • The area- 187400 Km³ is an elevated plain drained by Banas & its tributaries and it is essentially Peneplains (Peneplain is a low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion or it is a more or less level land surface produced by erosion over a long period, undisturbed by crustal movement).
  • It is a dissected in Mewar and flat in Malpura plain region.
  • Mewar plain gradually slope towards the east & north east.
  • The Banas & its tributaries Berach, Menal, Bandi, Mansi, Kothari and Khori flow through this plain.
  • It is flat upland which recognized a ―Tertiary Peneplane.
  • It is composed of schist & guess.
  • Banas plain slopes gradually towards northeast from the foot of the Aravalli range.

(ii) The Chappan Plains

  • It is lying east of the Mewar hills & south of the Banas plain in Dungarpur district. 
  • The central & eastern parts known as Chhappan
  • Average elevation is approximate 200-400 m
  • This dissected plain along with hill tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur are locally known as Bagar.
  • This plain drained by the tributaries of the Mahi River lies south of the great indian watershed in southeastern Udaipur, Banswara and the southern part of Chittorgarh district.

The Chappan area is deeply and intricately eroded resulting in the formation of separate hillocks, which is not identical to the Mewar plain in the north. This deeply dissected area is locally known as ‘Bagar’ and includes the hilly tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur.

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This Booklet will be Helpful for UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam General Studies Paper-1

This Booklet will cover all these topics:

  1. Culture
  2. Economy
  3. Environment
  4. International Relation
  5. Polity
  6. Science & Technology
  7. Social Issues
  8. Government schemes

Daily Current Affairs 25 March 2019

Current Affairs Solved MCQ- 25 March 2019


Q1. Consider the following statements regarding the Sunderbans delta:

1) The Sundarbans is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal.

2) Despite a total ban on all killing or capture of wildlife other than fish and some invertebrates, it appears that there is a consistent pattern of depleted biodiversity or loss of species in the 20th century, and that the ecological quality of the forest is declining.

3) Being a Ramsar wetland site the whole administration of Sunderbans national park lies with the Ministry of environment & Forests.

Which of the above statements are true?

A) 1 & 2 only

B) 2 & 3 only

C) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer- A

Q2. The tribes Tai ahom,Chutia, Koch Rajbongshi,Moran recently accorded Scheduled tribe status belongs to which of the following states of India ?

A) Andhra Pradesh

B) Assam

C) Madhya Pradesh

D) Arunachal Pradesh

Answer- B

Q3. Which of the following statements regarding India’s FDI policy are true?

1) India has become the most attractive emerging market for global partners (GP) investment for the coming 12 months, as per a recent market attractiveness survey conducted by Emerging Market Private Equity Association (EMPEA).

2) The Government of India is aiming to achieve US$ 200 billion worth of FDI inflows in the next two years.

3) The World Bank has stated that private investments in India is expected to overtake private consumption growth and thereby drive the growth in India’s gross domestic product (GDP) in FY 2018-19.

A) 1 & 2 only

B) 2 & 3 only

C) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above


Q4. Which of the following statements regarding SevaBhojyojana scheme of central government are true?

1) The scheme aims reimburse Central Government share of CGST and Integrated Goods and Service Tax (IGST) of Charitable Religious Institutions (CRIs) who provide food, Prasad, langar (Community Kitchen), Bhandara free of cost without any discrimination to public and devotees.

2) Only those institutions registered under Societies registration act are eligible under the scheme.

3) Those CRI’s having existence for at least five years and serve free food to at least 5000 people in month can apply for the reimbursement as per ministry of culture guidelines.

A) 1 & 2 only

B) 2 & 3 only

C) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above


Q5. India was ranked at 140 on the United Nation’s latest World Happiness Report that gauged 156 countries, a decline of seven spots from the last edition of the survey.

Which of the following global institutions releases the report?

A) International Labour Organisation (ILO)

B) World Bank


D) UN sustainable development Solutions network



1. Who was sworn-in as the 11th Chief Minister of Goa?

a) Pramod Sawant

b) Ramkrishna Dhavlikar

c) Vijai Sardesai

d) Vinod Palyekar

2. Who was appointed as India’s first Lokpal on March 19, 2019?

a) Dinesh Kumar Jain

b) Pinaki Chandra Ghose

c) Pradip Kumar Mohanty

d) Ajay Kumar Tripathi

3. When was Global Recycling Day 2019 observed globally?

a) 16 March

b) 17 March

c) 18 March

d) 19 March

4. The Union Health Ministry reviewed preparedness on West Nile Virus Fever in which state?

a) Maharashtra

b) Bihar

c) Haryana

d) Kerala

5. Which regulatory body has directed the Central Pollution Control Board to prepare noise pollution maps?

a) Supreme Court

b) Delhi HC

c) National Green Tribunal

d) Uttarakhand HC

6. Which nation’s President has resigned from his position after nearly 30 years in power?

a) Afghanistan

b) Tajikistan

c) Zimbabwe

d) Kazakhstan

7. Cyclone IDAI has affected over 1.5 million people in which among the following continents?

a) Oceania

b) Australia

c) Africa

d) South America

8. Which nation piloted two resolutions on single-use plastics and sustainable nitrogen management at the fourth session of United Nations Environment Assembly?

a) France

b) India

c) US

d) Japan

9. Gauri Sawant has been appointed as the first transgender election ambassador in which state?

a) Karnataka

b) Maharashtra

c) Tamil Nadu

d) Telangana

10. India Post has released a special stamp cover on which environmental initiative?

a) Green Energy

b) Ice Stupas

c) Hydrogen Lights

d) Green Electricity

11. Name the Second Scorpene Class Submarine which is set to be inducted into the Indian Navy by May 2019?

a) INS Khanderi

b) INS Kalvari

c) INS Karanj

d) INS Vela

12. Which country will host the FIFA U-17 Women’s World Cup 2020?

a) France

b) India

c) South Korea

d) Japan

Answer Key:

1. (A) Pramod Sawant

Goa Legislative Assembly Speaker and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader, Pramod Sawant was sworn-in as the 11th Chief Minister of Goa in a late-night ceremony, hours after his predecessor, Manohar Parrikar was cremated with state honours.

2. (B) Pinaki Chandra Ghose

India gets its first Lokpal six years after the passage of Act, former Supreme Court judge, Pinaki Chandra Ghose was on March 19, 2019 appointed as India’s first Lokpal also known as the anti-corruption ombudsman.

3. (C) 18 March 2019

The Global Recycling Day was observed across the world on March 18, 2019 to help recognise, and celebrate the importance recycling plays in preserving the precious primary resources. The theme of 2019 Global Recycling Day was ‘Recycling into the Future’.

4. (D) Kerala

The Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare on March 19, 2019 reviewed the current situation and state preparedness to deal with West Nile Virus Fever in Malappuram district of Kerala along with the officials from National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC).

5. (c) National Green Tribunal (NGT)

The National Green Tribunal has directed the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to prepare a noise pollution map and remedial action plan to solve the issue across the country. The green bench headed by NGT Chairperson Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel directed the CPCB to identify noise pollution hotspots and categorise cities with specified hotspots and propose a remedial action plan within three months.

6. (D) Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan’s President Nursultan Nazarbayev has announced his resignation after nearly 30 years in power.  The 78-year old leader had ruled the country since it emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. The announcement came less than a month after the President sacked his government, citing a lack of economic development despite the country’s vast energy resources.

7. (c) Africa

In Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi have been hit by a vicious cyclone, Cyclone IDAI, which has killed nearly 150 people, left hundreds more missing and stranded more than thousands. According to the UN, the cyclone has affected more than 1.5 million people in the three southern African countries.

8. (B) India

India piloted resolutions on two key global environmental issues, single-use plastics and sustainable nitrogen management, at the fourth session of United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) that was held in Nairobi from March 11-15, 2019. The UN Environment adopted both the resolutions with consensus.

9. (B) Maharashtra

The Election Commission of India has appointed transgender social activist Gauri Sawant, as one of the 12 election ambassadors from Maharashtra. During 2004 and 2009 Lok Sabha elections there was no record of transgender voters.  Sawant’s appointment is expected to help more people from the category to get registered during the final phase of voters enrollment.

10. (B) Ice Stupas

The Department of Post has released a special stamp cover on Ice Stupa. The special stamps aim to create awareness about depleting glaciers and affect the ecology around the Himalayas. Ice Stupas also known as artificial glaciers, are being built with an aim to reduce the problem of water shortage, faced by Ladakhi farmers due to the receding of glaciers.

11. (A) INS Khanderi

INS Khanderi, the second of the 6 Scorpene Class Submarines, will soon be inducted into the Indian Navy by May 2019. INS Khanderi was launched at the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) in Mumbai on January 12, 2017 and since then it has been undergoing trials and tests.

12. (B) India

Gianni Infantino, the President of International Football Federation (FIFA), on March 15, 2019 announced that India will host the U-17 Women’s World Cup in 2020. The 2020 World Cup will be the seventh edition of the U-17 Women’s tournament.

RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key – 6 January 2019

RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key and Question Paper RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key 6 January 2019 SET Wise Paper Solution Sheet RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 6 Jan. 2019 Question Paper PDF – राजस्थान अधीनस्थ और मंत्री सेवा चयन बोर्ड {आरएसएमएसएसबी} ने महिला सुपरवाइजर की परीक्षा 06 जनवरी 2019 को सफलतापूर्वक आयोजित की है. जिन उम्मीदवारों ने 6 जनवरी 2019 को  Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor की परीक्षा दी है अब सभी आवेदक इंटरनेट पर राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर उत्तर कुंजी 6 जनवरी 2019.

उम्मीदवार इसकी आधिकारिक वेबसाइट के माध्यम से ऑनलाइन  Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 06/01/2018  डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं. आपको उत्तर कुंजी के साथ राजस्थान वुमन सुपरवाइजर प्रश्न पत्र पीडीएफ प्रदान की जाएगी .जल्द ही आप नीचे लिंक के माध्यम से आरएसएमएसएसबी महिला सुपरवाइजर उत्तर कुंजी पीडीएफ 6 जनवरी 2019 डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं .

RSMSSB Women Supervisors Question Paper – 6 January 2019 (Answer Key)

राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 6 जनवरी 2019 डाउनलोड पीडीऍफ़

राजस्थान ने विभिन्न परीक्षा केंद्रों में Women Supervisor कि परीक्षा 6 जनवरी 2019 को आयोजित की है।परीक्षा समाप्त होने के कुछ समय बाद आरएसएमएसएसबी महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की बोर्ड के दवारा ऑफिसियल वेबसाइट पर उपलोड कर दी जायेगी.अत अभियार्थी उपर दिए गये लिंक से उत्तर कुंजी देख सकते है. इस परीक्षा मे प्रदेश के कई लाख अभ्यर्थियो के उपस्थित होने की संभावना है, परीक्षा की ऑफिसियल आंसर  5 -7 दिन के अंदर विभाग की वेबसाइट पर जारी कर दी जाएगा.

Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019,Check 6 January 2019 Question Paper Solution

RSMSSB ने उम्मीदवारों की भर्ती के लिए RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 2019 परीक्षा आयोजित की है इसलिए ,Rajasthan Women Supervisor परीक्षा में बहुत से उम्मीदवारों ने भाग लिया था .अब उम्मीदवार RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key 2019 की तलाश में है .उम्मीदवार को सूचित किया जाता है .Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 6 January 2019 आ चुकी है.

उम्मीदवारों को अपेक्षित अंक जानने के लिए RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor परीक्षा की उत्तर कुंजी की जांच करना आवश्यक है .RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019 से उम्मीदवार अपने सवालों के उत्तर की जाँच कर सकते है . नीचे हमने कुछ महत्वपूर्ण टिप्स दिए  है जो RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor ,06 जनवरी पेपर सॉल्यूशन 2019 की जांच करने में आपकी मदद करेंगे.

How to Check RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019?

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नीचे आपको RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019 के लिए लिंक भी दिया गया है ,लिंक के जरिए भी आप RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key 2019 को देख सकते है .

RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 6 January Answer key: Download Here

RSMSSB Supervisor Answer Key 06th January 2019

Name of the Examination Authority Rajasthan Subordinate and Ministerial Services Selection Board {RSMSSB}
Official Web Portal
Name of the Post Woman Supervisor
Total Posts 180 Posts
Exam Date 06th January 2019
Exam Mode Offline
Admit card publishing date December 2018
Category Answer Key
Status Not available
Job Location Rajasthan
Selection Process Written Exam, Document Verification
Exam Timing 11:00 AM to 02:00 PM

राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की Set A B C D PDF

आरएसएमएसएसबी ने वुमन सुपरवाइजर की परीक्षा आयोजित की है । इसके अलावा, परीक्षा में Set A ,B ,C ,D विभिन्न कोड हैं .अब इन सभी कोडों के राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की  प्रकाशित करेंगे।आधिकारिक उत्तर कुंजी आधिकारिक वेबसाइट द्वारा परीक्षा तिथि के 5 या 7 दिनों के बाद जारी की जाएगी.उम्मीदवार कोचिंग संस्थानो द्वारा अनौपचारिक उत्तर कुंजी परीक्षा के उसी या अगले दिन रिलीज होगी.इसलिए उम्मीदवार को आधिकारिक राजस्थान वुमन सुपरवाइजर उत्तर कुंजी 2019 की तलाश करनी चाहिए.

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इस पोस्ट में आपको RSMSSB Women Supervisor Exam Answer Key Pdf 2019 Set {A B C D} Rajasthan Women Supervisor Answer Sheet 2019 RSMSSB Women Supervisor Exam Solved Paper 2019 RSMSSB महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 6 January 2019 RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Sheet 06 jan. 2019 PDF राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 06 जनवरी 2019 पीडीऍफ़ के बारे में बताया गया है इस अलावा आपका कोई भी सवाल या सुझाव है तो नीचे कमेंट करके जरुर पूछे



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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

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Rajasthan Current Affairs December 2018

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2018 Special Issue

Current Affairs Monthly Magazine with RAS Mains Exam 100+ Solved Practice Questions.


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New Development Project in Rajasthan RAS Mains Exam Free PDF

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Useful Important Topics

Development Projects Announced in Rajasthan Budget that will Transform Rajasthan

Construction of an underpass

  • Ram Niwas Bagh will now be connected to Jaipur-Delhi National Highway through an international level underpass.

  • The project will be carried out as part of the Smart City Program and Jaipur Smart City Limited (JSCL) has already started inviting the bid for the project.

  • The funding will be provided by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). Additional tunnels will be constructed for the parking that will bring the city at par with the infrastructure of foreign countries.

  • Electric Buses

  • Dravyavati river project

  • Environmental

  • Health

  • Education

  • Tourism

  • Women & Child Development

  • Science & Technology

  • The Nahargarh Sculpture Park

  • Jhalana Leopard Safari

  • Rural & Urban Development

  • Some Other noteworthy Projects


Download Free PDF For Complete Study Notes

Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan

Ancient India is an important part of History Syllabus for UPSC IAS/PSC Prelims Exams. Most of the questions related to History, Art and Culture have been appearing from this section in Prelims Exam. Candidates are advised to go through previous year questions to fully understand the nature of questions from Ancient History Part.

Stone Age

1. Paleolithic age

  • Handaxe, cleavers and choppers were characteristic stone tools of Lower Paleolithic Age.
  • These tools were used for chopping, digging and skinning.
  • In India such tools have been excavated from many sites such as Belan valley in Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh, Didwana in Rajasthan, Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh, etc.
  • Tools made on flakes were predominantly used during Middle Paleolithic. Upper Paleolithic Age was characterized by use of tools made on blades and flakes.
  • Nagaur
  • Didwana

Paleolithic groups developed increasingly complex tools and objects made of stone and natural fibers.

Language, art, scientific inquiry, and spiritual life were some of the most important innovations of the Paleolithic era.

2. Mesolithic Age

In Mesolithic period, small stone tools were made. These were used as composite tools and were hafted in woods, bones, etc. Due to small size of the tools, Mesolithic period is also known as Microlithic period Such small tools were an adaptation to new environment where small animals, birds and fishes were abundant.

The period of the earth’s history called the Stone Age was filled with remarkable achievements, made by early humans who roamed the globe following large animals around for food and for clothing. These early nomadic humans called hunter-gatherers needed tools and weapons that would be strong enough to take down animals much larger than what our minds can imagine today.

We called this time the Stone Age because of the tools that early humans used during the period that were crafted from stone. The period began in different places around the world, earlier in places like Africa (2.5 million years ago), and later in places like China (1.7 million years ago).

The first part of the Stone Age was called the Paleolithic Age, also known as the Old Stone Age when the world was particularly cold You could also call this period the Ice Age, when most of the world was covered in ice. Early humans would have needed large animals for their fur in order to make clothing to keep warm and survive.

Neolithic Age was the last phase of Stone Age. The beginning of Neolithic Age is characterized by crop farming and cultivation. This significant change in subsistence resulted in far reaching changes in socio-economic life of people. People transformed their nomadic life into sedentary and settled life. Such changes took relatively less time. This is why the farming practice of that time is called Agricultural Revolution.

The next period of the Stone Age, the world warmed considerably and the Ice Age came to an end This middle part of the Stone Age was known as the Mesolithic Age.

In India, the period began about 12,000 BCE and lasted until 2,000 BCE.


  • On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwara District.
  • Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Tools are excavated in large numbers.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
  • Biggest Mesolithic Site in India.


  • On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
  • Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.

Chalcolithic Age

The term Chalcolithic is a combination of two words- Chalcolithic was derived from the Greek words “khalkos” + “líthos” which means “copper” and “stone” or Copper Age. It is also known as the Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus “of copper”) is an archaeological period that is usually considered to be part of the broader Neolithic (although it was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age).

People in this phase used copper tools along with stone tools; hence it is given such name. Chalcolithic Age is considered to be a transition between Stone Age and Bronze Age.

Ahar Culture

  • Also known as Banas Culture.
  • Six Hearth stone are found from a single home which shows the evidence of joint families living under the same roof.
  • Black and Red Ware pottery were found here.
  • Other important sites were Gilund, Balathal, Pachamta, etc.

Chalcolithic Sites in Indian Sub-Continent:

  1. Indus Region
  • Mohenjodaro
  • Harappa
  • Ropar
  • Suratgarh
  • Hanumangarh
  • Chanhudaro
  • Jhukar
  • Amri
  • Jhangar
  1. Ganges Region
  • Kausambi
  • Alamgirpur
  1. Brahmaputra Region
  2. Mahanadi Region
  3. Chambal Region
  • Pseva
  • Nagda
  • Paramar kheri
  • Tungini
  • Metwa
  • Takraoda
  • Bhilsuri
  • Maori
  • Ghanta Bilaod
  • Betwa
  • Bilawati
  • Ashta
  1. Saurashtra Region
  • Rangpur
  • Ahar
  • Prashas Patan
  • Lakhabawal
  • Lothal
  • Pithadia
  • Rojdi
  • Adkot
  1. Narmada Region
  • Navdatoli
  • Maheshwar
  • Bhagatrav
  • Telod
  • Mehgam
  • Hasanpur
  1. Tapi Region
  • Prakash
  • Bahal
  1. Godavari-Pravara Region
  • Joware
  • Nasik
  • Kopergaon
  • Nivasa
  • Daimabad

10. Bhima Region

  • Koregaon
  • Chandoli
  • Umbrage
  • Chanegaon
  • Anacin
  • Hingni
  • Nagarahole
  1. Karnataka Region
  • Brahmagiri
  • Piklihal
  • Maski

The first metal to be used at the end of the Neolithic period was copper which was used in addition to stone by several cultures. The cultures to use stone and copper implements were known as Chalcolithic which means stone-copper phase. The main occupations of the phase were hunting, fishing, and farming.

Following are some Multiple Choice Questions of Ancient History. These questions are also useful for UPSC CSE/State PCS Prelims Exams.

  1. Cleavers and Handaxe were characteristic tools of

(A) Lower Paleolithic Age

(B)  Middle Paleolithic Age

(C)  Upper Paleolithic Age

(D)    Iron Age

2. Chalcolithic Age is also known as

(A) Iron Age

(B) Stone Age

(C) Copper Age

(D) Neolithic Age


3. Mature phase of Harappan civilisation is dated between

(A) 3000 BC to 2000 BC

(B) 4000 BC to 3000 BC

(C) 1500 BC to 1000 BC

(D) 2600 BC to 1900 BC


4. Chirand in Bihar is a

(A) Lower Paleolithic site

(B) Mesolithic site

(C) Middle Paleolithic site

(D) Neolithic site


5. Which of the following is also known as Microlithic period?

(A) Paleolithic

(B) Mesolithic

(C) Neolithic

(D) Chalcolithic


6. Which of the following is correct about Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. The cities were planned
  2. Non- standardized weights were used
  3. There was elaborate water drainage system

Select using following codes:

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) 1 and 3 only

(D) 3 only


7. At which of the following Indus Valley Civilization yarns of spun cotton have been found?

(A) Harappa

(B) Mohenjodaro

(C) Lothal

(D) Kalibangan


8. Which of the following deity was not worshiped in Indus valley civilization?

(A) Vishnu

(B) Peepal tree

(C) Pashupati

(D) Mother goddess

9. the most common motif found on the seals of Indus Valley Civilisation is

(A) Elephant

(B) Bull

(C) Unicorn

(D) Rhinoceros


10. Agricultural Revolution took place in

(A) Paleolithic Age

(B) Mesolithic Age

(C) Neolithic Age

(D) Iron Age

Ancient-Medieval-Modern History of Rajasthan



Download-History of Rajasthan-Complete Study Notes


  • Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan

  • Practice MCQ

  • Stone Age

  • Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan

  • Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan

  • Neolithic Age in Rajasthan

  • Practice MCQ

  • Kalibangan Civilizations

  • Ahar-Banas Culture

  • Chalcolithic Phase

  • OCP Culture of Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan during Vedic Period

  • Iron Age in Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan during Mahajanapads

  • Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion

  • Foreign origin theory of Rajputs

  • Pratiharas of Bhinmal

  • The Chauhan Dynasty

  • The Kingdom of Mewar

  • Guhils of Chittorgarh

  • Battle of Rajasthan

  • Mauryan Period

  • Post Mauryan Period

  • Practice MCQ

  • Gupta Period

  • Post Gupta Period

  • Praja Mandal Movement

  • Modern History of Rajasthan (1707-1964)

  • Princely State

  • Revolt of Rajasthan 1857

  • Practice MCQ

  • Peasant & Tribal Movement

  • Some Famous Peasant Movement

  • Some famous Tribal movements

  • Terms Related to Land Revenue System in Rajasthan

  • Land rights in Khalsa system

  • Practice MCQ

  • Land rights in Jagir system

  • Famous Freedom Fighter of Rajasthan                     

  •  Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  • Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

  • Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

  • Practice MCQ

  • Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

  • Kachwaha of Amber

  • Chauhan Dynasty

  • Chauhan of Jalore

  • Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • Practice MCQ

  • Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • Parmar of Abu

  • Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes

 Download-Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes

  1. Physiography of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  • Physical divisions of Rajasthan

  • Peaks of Rajasthan

  • Geology of Rajasthan

  • Seismic Zones & Earthquake Hazard in Rajasthan

  • Western Sandy Plains

  • South-Eastern Rajasthan Pathar

  • Aravalli Range and Hilly Region

  • Eastern Plains of Rajasthan

  1. Climate of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  • Climatic Regions of Rajasthan

  • Temperature Variation in Rajasthan

  • Solar Radiation and Sunshine availability in Rajasthan

  • Wind Regime and associated phenomenon

  • Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

  • Soils of Rajasthan

  • Rainfall in Rajasthan

  • Humidity in Rajasthan

  • Land use pattern of Rajasthan

  • Desertification, Erosion and Conservation of soils in Rajasthan

  • Agro-climatic Zones of Rajasthan

  1. Minerals Resources of Rajasthan and topic Related MCQ

  • Mines & Minerals of Rajasthan

  • Hydrocarbon – Rajasthan Basin

  1. Drainage System of Rajasthan and Related important MCQ

  • Rivers of Rajasthan

  • Lakes in Rajasthan

  1. Demography of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  • Tribes of Rajasthan

  1. Wildlife/National parks/Biosphere of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  2. Water Resource of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  3. Irrigation and Topic Related MCQ

  4. Irrigation in Rajasthan

  5. Major Dam Irrigation Projects in Rajasthan

  6. List of Small and Medium Scale Irrigation Projects

  7. Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project (ERCP)

  8. The Major Canal Irrigation Projects in Rajasthan

  9. Indira Gandhi Canal

  10. Animal Resources of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  11. Natural Vegetation of Rajasthan and Practice MCQ

  12. Power Resources of Rajasthan and its MCQ

  13. Agriculture and its practices in Rajasthan

  14. Practice MCQ/Previous year solved Geography Questions

Current Affairs & GK Notes 29-30 November 2018

Arvind Saxena appointed as Chairman of UPSC

Saxena will have tenure till August 7, 2020, when he attains the age of 65 years. He has been working as acting head of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) since June 20. He took over charge from Vinay Mittal who had completed his term. Saxena joined the UPSC as a member on May 8, 2015. Prior to joining the UPSC, he was working as director of the Aviation Research Centre (ARC).


Maharashtra approves 16% Maratha quota

The Maharashtra assembly has unanimously approved 16% reservation for the Maratha community in jobs and educational institutes. Following this, the total reservation in the state for OBC, SC/ST groups, other minor social groups, and the Marathas will be 68%. The government created a separate category called socially and Educationally Backward Class (SEBC).


BCCI announces two-year ban for age frauds

From the 2018-19 season, any cricketer who is found guilty of tampering his/her date of birth will be disqualified and barred from participating in any BCCI tournament for a period of 2 years i.e. 2018-19 and 2019-20 seasons. Earlier, a cricketer faced a ban of one year. In September, the BCCI had banned a Meghalaya-bound Delhi player, Jaskirat Singh Sachdeva, for producing a fake birth certificate to play in an Under-19 tournament.


Electric cars set to replace diesel, petrol vehicles in Telangana State offices

The Telangana government offices are soon to make way for electric cars as the State aims at promoting non-polluting vehicles. The government has brought in the Electric Mobility Policy 2018-2023 to encourage the use of carbon-free cars. It has followed it up by signing with the Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL). The EESL in principle has agreed to invest a whopping Rs.10, 250 crore in the State to procure 1, 00,000 cars. The State has sought support from two automobile companies, the Mahindra and the Tata and Sons, to provide 100 cars before the end of December. The two signature electric cars, the Mahindra Verito, and the Tata Tigor, can be charged for six hours with AC charger and 90 minutes with DC charger and can travel for 100-110 km. It is expected that the introduction of electric cars could provide smart solutions to the concerns over increasing carbon emissions and pave way for cleaner cities, apart from rising in fuel prices. It is estimated that 2.5 kg of carbon and 60 grams of nitrogen are emitted for every litre of diesel. There is a rise in the incidence of lung cancer and respiratory diseases.


CSIR to Establish a High-End Skill Development Centre in Chandigarh

CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR-IMTECH) announced a new partnership with Merck, a leading German science and Technology Company, to establish a ‘High End Skill Development Centre’ in CSIR-IMTECH, Chandigarh. This ‘High End Skill Development Centre’ will enrich skills by conducting workshops, trainings and seminar series on cutting edges life science processes, tools and techniques.


G-20 Summit 2018 begins in Argentina

The 2018 G-20 Summit began on November 28, 2018 in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is the 13th meeting of Group of Twenty (G20) and the first G20 summit to be hosted in South America. Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be representing India at the Summit and is scheduled to meet US President Donald Trump, Chinese President Xi Jinping, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, Argentina President Mauricio Macri, Chilean President Sebastian Pinera and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, on the sidelines of the summit. Member Countries: The members of the G20 consist of 19 individual countries plus the European Union (EU). The 19 member countries of the forum are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States.


Miko-2 IIT-Bombay graduates launch Indias first advanced personal robot for kids

Graduates of Indian Institute of Technology – Bombay (IIT-B) who are Co-founders of a start-up called Emotix have launched India’s first advanced personal robot Miko 2 for Kids. IIT Bombay graduates Snehi Rajkumar Vaswani along with his batch mates Prashant Iyengar and Chintan Raikar have founded the Tech start-up Emotix. Miko 2 is India’s first advanced robot that can see, hear, sense, express, talk, recognize faces, remember names, Identify moods and initiate a conversation.


LG Appoints Brian Kwon as Mobile Business President


  • LG Electronics has announced that it has appointed Brian Kwon as the new president. He is replacing Hwang Jeong-hwan after one year.
  • Brian Kwon is head of LG’s home entertainment business, from December 1.
  • It comes after LG’s mobile business posted a loss of $410 million this year, including a $130.5 million net loss in the last quarter.


Azim Premji Conferred Highest French Civilian Honour


  • IT czar and philanthropist Azim Premji was bestowed with the highest French civilian distinction Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour). Premji, who is the chairman of Bengaluru-headquartered IT major Wipro, received the distinction from the Ambassador of France to India Alexandre Ziegler in Bengaluru.


  • The award was bestowed on Azim Premji for his outstanding contribution to developing the information technology industry in India, his economic outreach in France, and his laudable contribution to society as a philanthropist through the Azim Premji Foundation and Azim Premji University.


 IFFI 2018: Donbass Wins the Golden Peacock


  • Donbass directed by Sergei Loznitsa has won the coveted Golden Peacock Award at the 49th International Film Festival of India (IFFI), which concluded in Goa on November 28, 2018.


  • The Golden Peacock Award carries a cash prize of Rs 4 million (Rs 40 lakhs) to be shared equally between the Producer and the Director, Trophy and the citation.


Government Launches Bhasha Sangam


  • The government has launched a unique initiative called Bhasha Sangam to introduce school students to 22 Indian languages. The initiative, under Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat, was active for the period between 22nd November – 21st December


  • Bhasha Sangam is a programme for schools and educational institutions to provide multilingual exposure to students in Indian languages. Another objective of Bhasha Sangam is to enhance linguistic tolerance and respect and promote national integration.


India-United Kingdom Exercise KONKAN-18 Held at Goa


  • Naval exercise between India and the United Kingdom, KONKAN held in Goa this year. Both Navies have, over the years, undertaken bilateral activities such as training exchanges and technical cooperation. The Bilateral KONKAN exercise provides a platform for the two Navies to periodically exercise at sea and in harbour, so as to build interoperability and share best practices.


  • The KONKAN series of exercises commenced in 2004, and since then has grown in scale. The Royal Navy will be represented by HMS Dragon, a Type 45 Class Destroyer equipped with an integral Wildcat helicopter.


Himachal Pradesh first state to launch single emergency number ‘112’


Himachal Pradesh became the first state to launch a pan-India single emergency number ‘112’ where all kinds of immediate help can be sought in urgent matters. Under this project, an Emergency Response Centre (ERC) has been established in Shimla along with 12 district command centres (DCCs), covering the entire state. The ERC has been integrated with police (100), fire (101), health (108) and women (1090) helpline numbers to provide emergency services through the emergency number ‘112’. The central government has allocated Rs 321.69 crore under Nirbhaya Fund for implementation of ERSS project across the country.


IAS Ranbir Singh appointed as Chief Electoral Officer of Delhi


IAS Officer, Ranbir Singh served as the commissioner of East Delhi Municipal Corporation was appointed as the Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) of Delhi. Ranbir Singh will succeed Vijay Kumar Dev who had been appointed as the chief secretary of the Delhi Government.


Vijay Varma and P. Rajkumar were awarded the Asian of the Year awards


Indian Navy commander Vijay Varma and Captain P. Rajkumar were among those honored at the ‘Asian of The Year’ awards at Singapore on 28th November. The two were acknowledged for their selfless service and bravery in rescue operations during the Kerala floods. They were awarded for their death-defying rescue flying during the floods in Kerala earlier this year. Others awarded included the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre), and Singapore NGO Mercy Relief, who operated amid large-scale flooding, earthquakes and a variety of other disasters.


Govt launched ‘Paisa’ portal for affordable credit and interest subvention access


The government launched a centralised electronic platform for processing interest subvention on bank loans to beneficiaries under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM), called ‘Paisa’ PAiSA, or `Portal for Affordable Credit and Interest Subvention Access’, is a web platform designed and developed by Allahabad Bank, which is the nodal bank.


Lancet Countdown 2018 report Indians faced almost 60 mn heat wave exposure events in 2016, says journal Average length of heat waves in India ranged from 3-4 days compared with the global average of 0.8-1.8 days.

Indian policy makers must take a series of initiatives to mitigate the increased risks to health, and the loss of labour hours due to a surge in exposure to heat wave events in the country over the 2012-2016 Periods Connect to the report.

From 2014-2017, the average length of heat waves in India ranged from 3-4 days compared to the global average of 0.8-1.8 days, and Indians were exposed to almost 60 million heat wave exposure events in 2016, a jump of about 40 million from 2012

Heat waves

Heat waves are associated with increased rates of heat stress and heat stroke, worsening heart failure and acute kidney injury from dehydration.

Children, the elderly and those with pre-existing morbidity are particularly vulnerable.

Almost 153 billion hours of labour were lost globally in 2017 due to heat, an increase of 62 billion hours from the year 2000.

India amongst the countries who most experience high social and economic costs from climate change


Science and Technology

India’s heaviest communication satellite GSAT-11 to orbit in space on December 5

  • The satellite will support BharatNet connecting gram panchayat for e-governance and digital platforms; VSAT terminals and for enterprise network and consumer broadband applications.
  • India’s heaviest communication satellite with high throughput GSAT-11 will be put into orbit by an Ariane-5 rocket of Arianespace from French Guiana
  • According to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the GSAT-11 weighing 5,854 kg is the heaviest satellite built by it.
  • The satellite is scheduled for launch onboard Ariane-5 launch vehicle from French Guiana.
  • The satellite will be initially placed in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit and will subsequently be raised to geostationary orbit by firing the satellite’s onboard motor.

According to ISRO, GSAT-11 is the forerunner in a series of advanced communications satellites with multi-spot beam antenna coverage over Indian mainland and islands.

  • The satellite with a mission life of 15 years will have 32 user beams (Ku band) and eight hub beams (Ka band) and the throughput data rate of 16 Gbps.
  • GSAT-11 will play a vital role in providing broadband services across the country. It will also provide a platform to demonstrate new generation applications.
  • The Indian space agency said the GSAT-11 will be used to meet the increased data demands with high data rates over regions using spot beams.
  • The satellite will support BharatNet connecting gram panchayat for e-governance and digital platforms; VSAT terminals and for enterprise network and consumer broadband applications.
  • In April 2018, ISRO had recalled GSAT-11 from Arianespace’s rocket port in French Guiana for further tests, to be on the safe side.

The ISRO’s move to call back GSAT-11 for further tests and be doubly sure of its performance may be due to the loss of the recently launched GSAT-6A satellite, soon after it was put into orbit on March 29.

ISRO suspected the failure of the power system in the satellite for the loss of communication link.

The satellites are powered by solar panels that charge the onboard batteries. The batteries are fully charged when the satellite is loaded on to the rocket.

According to experts, the power system could have failed due to some short-circuiting or arcing resulting in what is known in the space terminology ‘loss of lock’ or loss of contact with the ground station. Satellites in space are locked to ground stations for tracking and other purposes.

On March 29, Indian rocket Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) slung GSAT-6A in its intended orbit. From there the satellite was to be taken up further to its orbital slot by firing its onboard motors.

The first orbit raising operation was successfully carried out by firing the onboard motors for around 36 minutes on March 30 mornings. The second orbit raising operation of GSAT-6A satellite was also successful as its motors were fired for about 53 minutes on March 31. After that, the communication link got snapped.




The countdown for the launch of PSLV-C43/HySIS mission began yesterday

The agency further added that it will be the 45th flight of PSLV while the PSLV-C43 will carry India’s earth observation satellite named HySIS along with 30 co-passenger satellites from eight other countries.

HySIS is an earth observation satellite which has been developed by ISRO while it is also the primary satellite onboard the PSLV-C43 rocket with a total mass of around 380 kgs.

The co-passengers of HySIS will include 1 Micro as well as 29 Nano satellites from 8 different countries.

These countries include United States of America (with 23 satellites), Canada, Columbia, Australia, Finland, Netherlands, Malaysia and Spain (with one satellite each).

The mission life of the HySIS satellite is estimated to be 5 years while the primary goal of the observation satellite is to study earth’s surface in visible, near infrared as well as shortwave infrared regions present in the electromagnetic spectrum.

The HySIS satellite will be placed in 636 kilometre polar sun synchronous orbit aka SSO while it will have an inclination of 97.957 degrees.

PSLV is a four stage launch vehicle compromising of alternating solid and liquid stages. On the other hand, the PSLV-C43 rocket is the Core Alone version of PSLV, which also happens to the lightest version of the launch vehicle.


Workhorse launch vehicle PSLV C-43 injects Hyper Spectral Imaging Satellite into space

Nearly three minutes after lift-off on Thursday, India’s workhorse launch vehicle, the PSLV, carrying 31 satellites on board soared in a trajectory crossing the path of the Sun and sped to inject India’s Hyper Spectral Imaging Satellite (HySIS), being dubbed ‘Sharp Eye’, towards the launcher’s intended first orbit.


Over the course of the next one hour, the team at Mission Control waited for the PSLV C-43 to come up on the other side of the Equator to insert 30 small satellites from various countries into another orbit as requested by the customers. The 30 satellites were part of a commercial launch.


In its 13th flight of the Core-Alone version and 45th launch of the PSLV, ISRO carried one satellite each from Australia, Canada, Colombia, Finland, Malaysia, Netherlands and Spain, and 23 satellites from the U.S. on board as co-passengers of the HySIS.


At 9.57 a.m., the rocket lifted off from the first launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR and here. A little over 17 minutes later, the HySIS was injected into a precise orbit of 636 km from Earth. The HySIS is an Earth Observation satellite primarily to assist in a wide range of applications in agriculture, forestry, geological environments and coastal zones, among others.


Lauding the ISRO team for making HySIS, Mr. Sivan said the satellite was state-of-the-art technology. The heart of the system required for the HySIS satellite is basically an optical imaging detector chip. This chip has been indigenously designed by Space Application Centre of ISRO and fabricated at our semi-conductor lab at Chandigarh. I am sure that team ISRO can be proud that they are really giving an excellent space asset to India.


Explaining the one-hour wait for the vehicle to come up on the other side and to insert the commercial satellites, Mr. Sivan said the PSLV first travelled Southward and injected the HySIS around 27 degree South of the Equator.

Indian healthcare and agriculture sectors need a federal institution similar to the GST Council to coordinate State and Central policies and schemes.

Speaking at the Confederation of Indian Industry’s Health Summit on Thursday, Mr. Jaitley said the GST Council, which comprised the Union and State Finance Ministers, was a successful experiment in practical federalism.


There are two other institutions which eminently require federal institutions of this kind. The GST was constitutionally provided for, but political maturity can impose on government to try that experiment. One is healthcare and one is agriculture.


Sustainable Blue Economy Conference

  • Nairobi, capital of Kenya

Organizing agencies

  • It was organized by Kenya and co hosted by Japan and Canada.

Theme: The Blue Economy and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

  • It was held on momentum of UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2015 Climate Change Conference in Paris and UN Ocean Conference 2017 ‘Call to Action.
  • Over 17,000 plus participants from some 184 countries had participated in the conference.
  • India was represented Union Minister for Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Nitin Gadkari.

Blue Economy

  • It is economic benefit and value that is realized from Earth’s coastal and marine environment.
  • Sustainable Blue Economy is marine-based economy that provides social and economic benefits for current and future generations, restores, protects and maintains diversity, productivity and resilience of marine ecosystems.

Source:The Hindu+PIB

RPSC RAS Mains Previous Papers For General Studies Paper I

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies


Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download


Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download


  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.

  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.

  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.

  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture, Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance

  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.

  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan


Part B

 Indian History & Culture



Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download


  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.

  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.

  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues

  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country

  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century

  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)


(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes


  • Renaissance and Reformation.

  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution

  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa

  • Impact of World Wars


Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives

  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments

  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India

  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.

  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan


Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download


  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.

  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.

  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.

  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.

  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.

  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.




Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes


Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values

  • Caste Class & Occupation

  • Sanskritization

  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha

  • Secularism

  • Issues and Problems of Society.

  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.

  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion

  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital

  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication

  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management

  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning

  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control


To Download RPSC RAS Mains Previous Papers For General Studies Paper I:Click Here

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies


Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download


Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download


  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.

  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.

  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.

  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance

  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.

  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan


Part B

 Indian History & Culture



Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download


  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.

  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.

  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues

  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country

  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century

  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)


(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes


  • Renaissance and Reformation.

  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution

  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa

  • Impact of World Wars


Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives

  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments

  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India

  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.

  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan


Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download


  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.

  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.

  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.

  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.

  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.

  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.




Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes



Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values

  • Caste Class & Occupation

  • Sanskritization

  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha

  • Secularism

  • Issues and Problems of Society.

  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.

  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion

  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital

  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication

  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management

  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning

  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

Current Affair & GK Notes 23-24-25 November 2018

Amur Falcons Landing in Nagaland

Amur Falcon

  • A small slender bird of prey, with long, pointed wings, the Amur falcon is noteworthy for undertaking one of the most arduous annual migrations of any bird of prey.
  • The male is a largely dark grey bird with a chestnut lower belly and thighs and a white under wing, visible in flight.

Amur falcons from Siberia form clouds above Pangti village in Nagaland.

  • In October flocks of Amur falcons from Siberia start landing in a tiny village called Pangti, near the Doyang reservoir, in Wokha district of Nagaland.
  • Tens of thousands of these small raptors (Falco amurensis) frolic in the village for about two months before they head for warmer climes in Kenya and South Africa in a non-stop flight over the Arabian Sea.
  • The falcon is protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • In all probability, the Doyang reservoir, surrounded by hills, hosts the single largest congregation of Amur falcons anywhere in the world. The abundance of water and insects to feed on is a magnet for the birds.
  • The Nagaland government hosted the first Amur Falcon Conservation Week from November 8 to 10.

Till 2012, thousands of them would not make that onward journey. They would be hunted down by the villagers for their meat. The same hunters have now turned the birds’ protectors. Concerted efforts by the State government and non-governmental organisations, with the cooperation of the villagers, have paid off. Bano Haralu, managing trustee of the Nagaland Wildlife and Biodiversity Trust, has been the lead player in the conservation efforts. The village council offers her support.


Sherpa, an anti-corruption NGO from French seeking a probe into Rafale deal and the choice of Anil Ambani as the offset partner.

  • In month September 2016, Indian and France government signed a €7.87 billion Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) for 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets in fly-away condition.


  • Pressure continues to mount over allegations of corruption in the purchase of Rafale fighter jets from France from both within and outside the country.

  • According to French news portal Mediapart, a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) has approached the National Financial Prosecutor’s office, seeking a probe into the allegations of money laundering and corruption in the deal and the choice of Anil Ambani as the offset partner.
  • Controversy surrounding the Rafale deal has steadily grown over last few months.


Sherpa, an anti-corruption NGO, lodged the complaint with the National Financial Prosecutor’s Office highlighting “potential acts of corruption, granting of undue advantages, influence peddling, complicity of these offences and money laundering.

The complaint sought an investigation into the circumstances under which 36 combat aircraft were sold by France to India in 2016 and the choice of Anil Ambani’s Reliance Defence as the offset partner which had no experience in the manufacture of fighter jets and was registered only “twelve days” before the announcement of the deal in 2015.


  • The Supreme Court has heard arguments in the case and reserved its verdict on whether it merits a court-monitored investigation.


Cyclone Gaja made landfall and swirled through the fertile Cauvery delta


November 16, Vedaranyam, the tip of the nose of peninsular India stretching into the Bay of Bengal, was in the eye of a storm when Cyclone Gaja made landfall and swirled through the fertile Cauvery delta in Tamil Nadu. The cyclone left the delta battered like no other in more than half-a-century.


  • The cyclone with high velocity winds gusting up to 120 km an hour sheared trees, huts, tiled houses and every other structure in its path.
  • Almost the entire delta spread over Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur and Thanjavur districts, considered the granary of the State, the neighbouring Padukottai and even interior Tiruchi and Dindigul districts staggered under its impact as the cyclone made its way to the Arabian Sea in Kerala.

What was the impact of this cyclone?

  • The cyclone swept in wind and water, destroying lakhs of trees, including coconut, banana, cashew, mango, jackfruit, casuarinas, betel vine, eucalyptus, teak and sugarcane on thousands of hectares.
  • The paddy crop of the samba/thaladi seasons was also damaged in some places.
  • Boats and huts of fishermen were destroyed.
  • The Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, a Ramsar site (a wetland of international importance for conservation), was ravaged.
  • Carcasses of blackbuck, spotted deer, feral horses and birds were washed on the shores of Karaikkal in Puducherry.
  • Scores of villages were wiped out and thousands rendered homeless.
  • The steel roofs of petrol stations, grain storage godowns and other buildings were blown away. Nearly a lakh tonne of stocks in salt pans in Vedaranyam were washed away. Over 3.41 lakh houses with thatched or tiled roofs were damaged, according to an estimate. More than 3.78 lakh persons were accommodated in over 550 relief centres. Over 92,500 birds and 12,200 heads of cattle perished.
  • .A few elders compared the devastation to a cyclone in the 1950s.
  • Every family was left counting its losses.
  • The coconut growing belt of Padukottai, Peravurani and Orathanadu in Thanjavur district took a severe beating. “Coconut growers are ruined.


Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana

As per the latest data released by the Centre for Digital Financial Inclusion (CDFI) that uses technology for financial inclusion, the government has transferred over Rs 1,600 crore to eligible mothers under Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana through direct benefit transfer so far. Rs 16,04,66,63,000 have been transferred through direct benefit transfer to 48.5 lakh women.


CAS (Common Application Software) System:

  • CDFI is a non-profit organisation.
  • It had conceptualized, designed and implemented the PMMVY-CAS (Common Application Software) System through which disbursements were made.


 Facts of Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) is a maternity benefit rechristened from erstwhile Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY). The IGMSY was launched in 2010.
  • The scheme is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women of 19 years of age or above for first live birth.
  • It provides partial wage compensation to women for wage-loss during childbirth and childcare and to provide conditions for safe delivery and good nutrition and feeding practices.


Exceptions: The maternity benefits under Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) are available to all Pregnant Women & Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) except those in regular employment with the Central Government or State Government or Public Sector Undertaking or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force.

Funding: The scheme is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under which cost sharing ratio between the Centre and the States & UTs with Legislature is 60:40 while for North-Eastern States & three Himalayan States; it is 90:10.

It is 100% Central assistance for Union Territories without Legislature.


Relocating monkeys could spread infection

Bonnet macaques living near people have more intestinal parasites than those living in forests, shows a study recently published in PLOS ONE. So monkeying around by relocating such commensal macaques could spread parasites to wild macaques and other forest species.


  • Just like big cats or jumbos, monkeys too are sometimes relocated to forests from human-dominated areas.

Instances of relocation

  • To find out, researchers from Coimbatore’s Bharathiar University and Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History first compiled information on instances of primate relocation in India and found that of the 25 relocations between 1998 and 2017 (none of which attempted to relocate the entire group or screen the monkeys for diseases or end parasite infections), 13 were of bonnet macaques across south India.


  • Focusing on bonnet macaques and their gastrointestinal parasites (end parasites, which can be transmitted to other macaques in the vicinity through faeces or water) the team followed 20 macaque troops across Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in 2014-15 and collected 161 macaque poop samples to study parasites levels.
  • For comparison, they also followed macaques in the forests of Karnataka’s Sirsi–Honnavara between 2015 and 2016 and collected 205 poop samples. They quantified parasite eggs and cysts in these samples.
  • They found as many as 24 end parasites (19 taxa of helminthes or worms and five taxa of protozoans) in both urban (commensal monkeys living near humans) and forest macaques. Almost all macaque groups had at least one endoparasite in them.
  • They found that the amount of food that an urban macaque group availed from human-dominated areas determined the number of endoparasite taxa and levels of endoparasites in them.
  • Macaque groups that accessed such food from dumps and other areas had more species of endoparasites.
  • Immature macaques had the highest levels of endoparasites.
  • Endoparasite levels across seasons revealed that the parasites persisted in the monkeys every month.
  • The species richness of endoparasites was highest in summer.


Parasite transfer

Relocating such infected monkeys to the wild as part of conflict mitigation measures could transfer new parasites into wild populations in the area, write the authors. Just like in people, higher parasite loads in animals can affect physiological functions.


Austria withdraw from UN New Migration Fact

  • The Austrian government decided to withdraw from the new migration pact of the United Nations. The U.S., Hungary, the Czech Republic and, most recently, Australia and Poland, had done the same, and it is not a coincidence that politics in most of these countries is dominated by right-wing leaders.
  • The UN’s Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migrations is aiming to make migration all over the world safer.
  • We view some points of the migration pact as very critical, such as the mixing up of seeking protection with labour migration.
  • The Chancellor also said Austria’s “sovereign migration policy” is endangered by the pact. Since Mr. Kurz’s government, consisting of his Conservative Party and the far-right Freedom Party, came to power a year ago, several controversial policies have been adapted.
  • Many Austrians believe that their country is isolating itself with this decision. “I think it is sad and embarrassing. Austria is already making a lot of negative headlines with this government. But this step is a new peak. Our country now appears to be heading backwards; we are now on the same level with Donald Trump and Viktor Orbán.

The UN pact, which is not binding, addresses issues such as how to protect migrants and how to integrate them into new countries or how to return them to their original home countries.

Far-right blogs and social media warriors close to the Freedom Party have mounted criticism against the pact in recent months. Many of these sites started to spread misinformation, often quoting context-less or wrongly translated passages from the document.

Source: The Hindu+PIB


Izzat Ghar

The Government of India has restricted the practice of manual scavenging from 2013. So in order to compliance the Indian Railways has decided to introduce bio-toilets in the trains.


  • This is an Eco-friendly bio toilet
  • Set up in Hubballi Railway Station
  • This bio toilet is made free to all railway passengers and general public
  • It ensure that the area is free of open defecation


What is Bio-toilet?

  • Bio-toilet is a decomposition mechanized toilet system which decomposes human excretory waste in the digester tank using high graded bacteriaand further converting it into Carbon dioxide gas, methane gas and water. 
  1. Only 15% of People in the world have a flush toilet.
  2. It will be surprised to know that only 3% peoples of ruralIndia and 25% of urban Indians have flush toilets.

Indian Railways have said that its goal is to install 1,440,000 bio-toilets in all 55,000 coaches under the “Clean Rail-Clean India” program by the end of 2019. More than 49,000 bio-toilets have been installed by the Indian Railways in the passenger coach till October 31, 2016.


How bio toilet works?

  • Bio-digester technologytreats human waste at the source.
  • A collection of anaerobic bacteriathat has been adapted to work at temperatures as low as -5°C and as high as 50°C act as inoculates or seed material to the bio-digesters and convert the organic human waste into water, methane, and carbon-dioxide gases.


Bio toilet is completely different toilet as compare to the traditional. It saves a lot of water and helps in keep our environment clean.

The anaerobic process inactivates the Pathogens responsible for water-borne diseases and treats the shit without the use of an external energy source.

The bio-digester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria. The water trap system in the toilet prevents air from getting into the tank, the human waste is processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.


After the completion of this process methane, carbon dioxide and water remains. These gases are left in the environment whereas water can be Recycled and used in toilets again.


What are the benefits of Bio-Toilets?


  1. Human excreta were released on the rail tracks directly causing damage to the metal of Railway tracks as well as spreading the dirt in the environment. It will not happen in bio toilets
  2. Traditional toilets spent approx 5-6 liters of water in one flush, while vacuum-based bio-toilets needed just half a liter of water.
  3. Indian railway stations will now become clean and which will support “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” of the Government of India.
  4. These bio toilets will provide respite to those who manually clean the dirt/shit at the platforms.
  5. By this initiatives those disease caused by pollute environment will overcome and the massage of clean and healthy country will become.


Kartarpur corridor

Between India and Pakistan Letters exchanged to build infrastructure for Sikh pilgrims to visit holy place

  • India and Pakistan exchanged letters committing to build the required infrastructure for visa-free direct travel by Sikh pilgrims to Pakistan’s Kartarpur Sahib Gurudwara, allowing them to mark the 550th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Devin November 2019.
  • Pakistani Minister described the move as the victory of peace lobbiesin both countries.
  • Pilgrims on the Indian side will take from Dera Guru Nanak Dev in Gurdaspur district, will lead directly to the border, and from the Pakistani side of the border directly to the Kartarpur Darbar Sahib


American killed in the restricted zone in Andamans by Sentinelese

Who is the Sentinelese?

  • The Sentinelese is a Negrito tribe who live on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans.
  • The inhabitants are connected to the Jarawaon the basis of physical, as well as linguistic similarities, said by researchers. Based on carbon dating of kitchen middens by the Anthropological Survey of India, Sentinelese presence was confirmed in the islands to 2,000 years ago.

How are they protected?

  • The Govt. of India issued the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Regulation (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes), 1956 to declare the traditional areas occupied by the tribes as reserves, and prohibited entry of all persons except those with authorization.
  • Photographing or filming the tribe members is also an offence.
  • The rules were amended later to enhance penalties. But restricted area permits were relaxed for some islands recently.


How many are there?

  • In 1991 their head count was put at 23. Census 2001 counted 39 inhabitants.

(RPSC) RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-3


Explain the Health, Health Infrastructure and Health Policy of Rajasthan for Benefits of society?


  • The State Government is having focus on the medical sector to promote health status of the people of the State especially for the weaker sections of the society.
  • The State is committed to control and eradicate communicable and other diseases and for providing curative and preventive services to the people of the State.
  • A number of initiatives have been taken to bring them into the mainstream.
  • Medical & Health Department is committed to make Health facilities available to every common man of Rural and Urban areas in a planned manner for which medical infrastructure Development & Strengthening is being done in accordance with the National Health Policy through Health Institutions.

Medical Infrastructure in Rajasthan

  • There are 16 Medical Colleges in Rajasthan, out of which eight are in the Government sector including one under Government Society and remaining eight are in the private sector.
  • There are 15 Dental colleges in the state, one in Government sector and 14 in Private sector.
  • The Government Medical Colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,450 students in UG, 829 students in PG course and 93 in Super-Specialty courses.
  • The private medical colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,150 students in UG and 173 students in PG courses.
  • The Government Dental College has an annual admission capacity of 40 UG and 14 PG students.
  • The private dental colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,400 students in UG and 299 students in PG courses.
  • For upgradation of 7 other district hospitals Alwar, Bharatpur, Churu, Barmer, Bhilwara, Pali and Dungarpur having bed capacity of 300 beds into medical colleges, except Alwar, construction is under progress in State.
  • Establishment of state cancer institute under Sawai Man Singh (SMS) Medical College Jaipur, Two Tertiary Cancer Care Centers, one in Bikaner and other at Jhalawar are under process.
  • Metro Manas Arogya Sansthan at Mansarovar Jaipur is running on PPP mode.
  • The hospitals associated with Government Medical Colleges are playing a vital role in patient care for both indoor and outdoor patients and cater to the medical/health care needs of a large segment of the population.


  • Department of Ayurveda has been functioning in the State, since 1950.
  • At present there are 118 Ayurvedic hospitals (out of which one is established at Bikaner House in Delhi), 3,577 Ayurvedic Dispensaries, 3 Yoga & Naturopathy Hospitals, 3 Yoga & Naturopathy Dispensaries with 1 Mobile Surgical Unit (200 bedded) and 13 Mobile Units are functioning in the State.
  • 33 Aanchal Prasuta Kendra, 33 Jaravastha Janya Vyadhi Nivaran Kendra, 33 Panchkarma Kendra & 33 Yoga and Naturopathy Research Centers are also functioning in the State

Mukhya Mantri Nishulk Dava Yojna

  • “Mukhya Mantri Nishulk Dava Yojna” was launched on 2ndOctober, 2011. The scheme aims to benefit all the patients coming to government hospitals.
  • Under this scheme, all outdoor and indoor patients visiting medical college attached hospitals, district hospitals, community health centers, primary health centers and sub centers, are provided commonly used essential medicines, free of cost.
  • Rajasthan Medical Services Corporation (RMSC) has been constituted as a central procurement agency for purchase of medicines and surgical sutures for medical department and Medical Education department.
  • RMSC is supplying medicines etc. to all Government health institutions through District Drug Ware Houses (DDWH) established in all 33 districts of the State. Quality of drugs being supplied is ensured by testing of drugs at empanelled drug testing laboratories.
  • The list of drugs which is provided by Free Drug Distribution Centers has been displayed in Government Medical Institutions.
  • Medicines are available for Outdoor patients according to OPD timings and 24 hour for Indoor and Emergency patients.
  • In this scheme, according to need of hospitals, 10 per cent of annual budget can be used for local purchase. Under the scheme, medicines for the treatment of critical and severe disease are also available like 37 drugs for Cancer, 53 drugs for heart diseases, 20 drugs for Diabetes and 20 drugs for Asthma. Under the scheme, E-Aushadhi software is established for tendering, indent sending, to know the status of drug consumption at medical hospitals, to ensure the quality of drugs, to submit the information about the debar medicines etc.


Nishulk Sanitary Napkins Distribution Scheme

  • Government of Rajasthan started a scheme for free distribution of sanitary napkins to all school going girls of class 6 to 12 of rural areas and non-school going girls of 10 to 19 years age of BPL families.
  • In this scheme Ist phase of the free sanitary napkins distribution scheme for adolescent school girls of rural area and non-school going girls of BPL families has been completed.
  • About 20 lakh adolescent girls are being benefitted under the scheme.

These are the main objects of this scheme:-

  • To make aware the adolescent girls of rural areas about menstrual hygiene.
  • To improve the health of adolescent girls.
  • To increase the attendance of adolescent girls in schools.
  • To reduce the MMR and IMR in rural areas in the long term.
  • To make clean and healthy Rajasthan.


Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana

  • Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana was launched in the state on 13th December, 2015.
  • The main objective of this scheme is to provide cashless healthcare services to the poor families (under selected families of NFSA – 2013 and RSBY) of Rajasthan thus providing social and financial security against illness to these families and reducing out of pocket expenditure.
  • Around 97 lakh eligible families of Rajasthan are selected under the National Food Security Act (2013) and Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY).

Health Insurance cover of `30,000 (for general illnesses) and of 3.00 lakh (for critical illnesses) per family per year is provided on floater basis.

  • Total 1,715 disease packages are offered under the scheme, for which reserved list include 1,148 secondary packages, 500 tertiary packages and 67 Government Medical Institution packages.
  • Cashless IPD treatment facility is provided at empanelled hospitals.
  • Includes 7 days pre- hospitalization and 15 days post- hospitalization expenses.
  • No Third Party Administration (TPA).
  • Presently, 499 Government and 674 private hospitals are empanelled for providing services under the scheme.


Write Short notes on Various Initiatives by Ministry of Drinking Water.


The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)

  • The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing adequate and safe drinking water to the rural population of the country.
  • The NRDWP is a component of Bharat Nirman which focuses on the creation of rural infrastructure.
  • This has resulted in the provision of significant additional resources to the sector and for creating an environment for the development of infrastructure and capacities for the successful operation of drinking water supply schemes in rural areas.


Bharat Nirman


Bharat Nirman was launched by the Government of India in 2005 as a programme to build rural infrastructure.

While Phase-I of the programme was implemented in the period 2005-06 to 2008-09, the Phase-II was implemented from 2009-10 to 2011-12. Rural drinking water is one of the six components of Bharat Nirman.

Funds provided under the NRDWP are counted towards the Bharat Nirman also and no additional funds are provided under Bharat Nirman


Scheme for providing safe drinking water supply through community water purification plants in fluoride, arsenic, uranium and other heavy/toxic metals and pesticide/fertilizer affected rural habitations in the country


The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) funds for supplying “safe” water in contaminated areas are being utilized by the States as a policy mostly for alternate safe Piped Water Supply (PWS) schemes including Multi village schemes (MVS) (i. e., from far away safe sources) the gestation period of such MVS projects is about 4-5 years.

Since the rural people cannot be put to risk due to consumption of unsafe drinking water in the interim period as also whereas all such Multi-Village Schemes carrying safe water from far away sources cannot be planned and completed in the span of 4-5 years due to huge funds involved, hence, the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation has submitted an EFC proposal to provide community water purification plants in fluoride, arsenic, uranium and other heavy/toxic metals and pesticide/fertilizer affected rural habitations in the country for providing safe drinking water immediately with an anticipated expenditure of total capital cost of Rs 3,600 crore with fund sharing pattern of 75:25 (90:10 in case of NE, J&K) between Centre and State in approx 20,000 habitations during the period 2014-15 to 2016-17.


Combined Water Supply Schemes (CWSS)


Combined Water Supply Schemes are being implemented where more than one local body, either rural or urban with a common source of water supply is involved with financial assistance under the Minimum Needs Programme, National Rural Drinking Water Programme and with funding from financial institutions like TUFIDCO, TNUIFSL, NABARD and Asian Development Bank.

During 2009 – 10 combined water supply schemes have been completed to benefit 4352 rural habitations and 41 towns at a cost of Rs. 795.04 crores. Presently Board is maintaining 422 CWSS in the state to serve 10,101 habitations benefiting populations of 131.59 lakhs which is about 20 percent of the state population.


What Is the Connection Between Zika, Microcephaly, and Pregnancy?

  • Zika causes Microcephaly in babies born to infected pregnant women, the CDC confirmed this year. Microcephaly stunts a baby’s head growth, causing devastating, sometimes fatal brain damage, and it can result in miscarriage or stillbirth.
  • The virus has caused panic in Brazil since it first appeared there in May 2015. More than 2,100 babies in Brazil have been born with Microcephaly or other birth defects linked to Zika. Brazil and several other nations have advised women to postpone pregnancy.
  • Although there are many causes of Microcephaly in babies, including infections during pregnancy, genetic problems, and exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy, the CDC says research has provided enough evidence to show that Zika is among those causes. Research has suggested that infection during the earliest stages of pregnancy, when a baby’s organs are still forming, seems to be linked to the worst outcomes.

However, some studies are showing that fetuses can be harmed by infection later in pregnancy, and evidence is emerging that Microcephaly isn’t the only birth defect linked to Zika. In a November report, the CDC describes five types of birth defects, including severe Microcephaly that are unique to Zika or rarely occur with other infections in pregnant women. They are:

Decreased brain tissue with calcium deposits indicating brain damage

  • Damage to the back of the eye
  • Limited range of motion in joints, such as clubfoot
  • Too much muscle tone, which restricts movement
  • Those effects in babies are called congenital Zika syndrome.


What are El Nino and southern oscillation and how it affects the Indian Monsoon?


  • El-Niño is the classical phenomenon where warming of Pacific Ocean takes place near the western coast of Peru and Equador.
  • It occurs at every 3-4 years. It weakens the trade winds and changes in southern oscillation, thereby affects the rainfall pattern across the world.
  • Southern oscillation: Southern oscillation is the alternating of sea level pressure between the eastern and western hemisphere. The southern oscillation is measured by observing the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin.


The effect of El Nino on Indian monsoon

  • El Nino also leads to reversal of pressure difference between Indian and Pacific Ocean- known as Southern Oscillation.
  • El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weakens the Trade winds, consequently less push to the South Western Monsoon Winds from Mascarene High to India, and therefore poor monsoon.
  • Drought condition decreases the agriculture output, leads to food inflation.
  • Declined supply of cotton, oilseeds and sugarcane negatively affects the textile, edible oil and food processing industries respectively.


What is Earthquake? List down the causes of Earthquake?

An earthquake is the shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface, caused by the sudden movement of a part of the earth’s crust. They result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves or earthquake waves.

Causes of the earthquake are as follows:

  • Sudden slipping of rock formations along faults and fractures in the earth’s crust happen due to constant change in volume and density of rocks due to intense temperature and pressure in the earth’s interior.
  • Volcanic activity also can cause an earthquake but the earthquakes of volcanic origin are generally less severe and more limited in extent than those caused by fracturing of the earth’s crust.
  • Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move in relation to one another. The major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up Earth’s crust.

Plate tectonics: Slipping of land along the fault line along, convergent, divergent and transform boundaries cause earthquakes. Example: San Andreas Fault is a transform fault where Pacific plate and North American plate move horizontally relative to each other causing earthquakes along the fault lines.

Most earthquakes are causally related to compressional or tensional stresses built up at the margins of the huge moving lithosphere plates the immediate cause of most shallow earthquakes is the sudden release of stress along a fault, or fracture in the earth’s crust.


What is contract farming? What are its advantages?

Contract farming is a kind of system in which bulk purchaser enters into contract with farmers. It includes agro- processing, exporting and trading units.  They purchase a specified quantity of any agricultural commodity at pre agreed price. Sponsor provides all kind of production support to the contracted farmers. This includes extension service also.


  • This will help to provide sustainable source of livelihood. It will provide an alternative market mechanism.
  • Exposure to international markets.
  • More FDI in agro processing industries.
  • Employment generation in Food processing industries
  • Improvement in cold supply chain and hence reduction in wastages.
  • Pooling of land will help in utilizing the land properly as 86% of the farmers in India are small and marginal farmers.
  • Farmers no longer have to transport their produce to the mandis and hence reduction in the cost.
  • Better access to technology, crop diversification, extension services


Explain: Prahaar, Sagarika, Shaurya

Prahaar – The Prahaar is India’s latest surface-to-surface missile with a range of 150 kms. The primary objective of the conventionally armed Prahaar missile is to bridge the gap between the unguided Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher (ranging 45 kms) and the guided Prithvi missile variants. Stated to be a unique missile, the Prahaar boasts of high maneuverability, acceleration and accuracy

Sagarika – It is a Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) with a range of 750 kms. Sagarika missile is being integrated with India’s nuclear powered Arihant-class submarine.

Shaurya – A variant of the K-15 Sagarika named Shaurya has been developed from ground up as a submarine-capable missile. This nuclear-capable missile aims to enhance India’s 2nd-strike capability. Shaurya missile can carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead over 750 kms and striking within 20-30 metres of its target.


What are seismic waves? Explain the different type of seismic waves?

Seismic waves are generated due to the release of the energy during an earthquake. They behave differently in different physical mediums and hence provide a good idea how the interior of earth must be.

Broadly there are three types of seismic waves:

  1. Primary waves: (P) – Waves are longitudinal waves. i.e. The motion of particles is in the direction of the propagation of the wave. These waves are the fastest of the three and are detected first. They have the shortest wavelength and highest frequency. They can travel in Solid, liquid and gaseous medium.
  2. Secondary waves: (S) – They are transverse waves i.e. the motion of the particles is Perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the waves. They are slower than P –waves. They have relatively longer wavelength and lower frequency than P – waves. These waves can travel only in solid medium.
  3. Surface waves: they are the slowest and are detected quite late. They travel only in upper layer or earth surface. They are the most destructive of the three waves. Even the surface waves are of two types – the one travelling in upper crust are called LOVE waves and the one travelling in lower crust are called RAYLEIGH waves.


Discuss the Challenges faced by the ECI? List down the reforms brought out by ECI for conducting free and fair elections.


ECI is entrusted with the responsibility of conducting free and fair elections. If democracy is a temple then EC is priest.  But conducting elections for such diverse country and frequent elections is not without challenges. The major challenges with the ECI are as follows:

Constitutional loopholes:

  • The constitution has not prescribed the qualification of the members of the ECI.
  • The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the EC.
  • The Constitution has not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.


Lack of dedicated permanent staff

Expenses are not charged on consolidated fund of India.

Problem faced due to vast territory of India. Sometimes it becomes difficult to carry out elections in difficult terrain.


Some voters have trust deficit due to frequent use of money and muscle power. There are creditability issues with respect to expenditure during elections.

Recent allegation of fraud in EVM’s

  • The reforms bring in by ECI So far:
  • SVEEP (explain)
  • NOTA
  • Reforms in Nomination filling
  • EVM

National electoral roll purification and Authentication programme: building a completely error-free and authenticated electoral roll.

National voter’s service portal: to provide single window services to electors.

Mobile apps: Metadata, matdaan, Samadhaan, Sugam, Suvidha, E-netra.


The theoretical and cognitive systems of sociology are socially conditioned Explain.

Possible Sociological Discourses:

We need to concentrate on some of the essentials of sociological discourses to develop sociology in India.

They are:

  • The development of sociology in India may be viewed in terms of the historicity of social conditions that have shaped the sociological perspectives from time to time. The theoretical and cognitive systems of sociology are socially conditioned (Singh, 1986).
  • It is to be hoped that thinking in this direction will result in the concentration of contested themes and in the recovery of key Indian socio-cultural realities and textual tradi­tions, traditions that have remained or continue to remain as an excluded part of hegemonic sociology or its margin (Nada rajah, 1996). Perhaps, this is the right time to resume the ‘Indian sociology’ by recognizing context and culture of the society and to overcome from the identification of sociology as solely a western.
  • The production of sociological knowledge can be qualitatively changed with a sociological curriculum helping the multi- faceted contestation of western sociological knowledge. There is a need to consider not only the content of social science education in our universities but also the methodology used in the production of such knowledge (Nada rajah, 1996).
  • Institutionalization of research requires a proper fit between the growing needs of theory and the increasing demands of society. Generally, public funds are made available by the government, UGC, ICSSR and other agencies in terms of the criteria set out for priorities. The question of priorities has to be answered in the context of the relevance of research.
  • While paying attention to research priorities, the needs of individual scholars pursuing a promising but out-of-the- way enquiry should not be neglected. Research efforts involving interdisciplinary approach or bold methodological innovation should, on principle, be encouraged. The ICSSR standing committee has also recommended these suggestions in the eighties.
  • To conclude, the history of the development of sociology has not been much encouraging. At its beginning anthropology and ethnology helped the colonial rule to establish its foundation. In other words, the discipline of sociology was partly responsible for the survival of colonialism and feudalism in princely states. The feudal mentality of Indian people is thus due to sociology, anthro­pology and ethnology. It must be said that this discipline has not been worth its salt in India.
  • If we make a survey of the sociological literature which has cropped up during the last about 100 years does not take into account any massive event which took place in India. India’s freedom struggle was a long struggle and it sought the participation of the masses. All the people participated in the movement notwithstanding the plural character of the Indian society.
  • It was a great event in the history of India. The sociologists did nothing to analyze the freedom struggle. It is difficult to find any book on sociology written by our so-called sociologists. When the masses were busy fighting for their freedom, our sociologists such as N.K. Bose and G.S. Ghurye were writing on caste and ethnicity. Such a record of sociology can easily be called ungrateful to the nation. How can we be proud of such sociologists?
  • Another memorable event in India’s history has been the mass exodus of people from Pakistan after the division of country between India and Pakistan. Burning trains from Pakistan were coming to India and the blood-stained trains were leaving India for Pakistan. Lakhs of refugees crossed the borders. It never happened earlier but the sociologists who claimed to be the analysts of Indian society did not mention anything about this tragic event.
  • Besides, an event, which is a remarkable in the building of our nation-state, is the era of building modern India. Nehruji and his generation of national leaders started Five-Year Plans for the devel­opment of industry and village agriculture. The sociologists again turned their eyes to this era of development.
  • It is discouraging to learn that the sociologists observed silence on this process of devel­opment. However, the sociologists made some village studies. Actually, there was a flood of such studies. These studies made some contributions. But, these contributions have false theoretical claims. Dominant caste, sanskritization, westernization, parochialization and universalization are some of the contributions which have not proved to be of any help for the development of villages. They have proved to be Utopian for the nation.
  • There are several problems for the country. The problems are multi-ethnic, multi-caste, multi-religion, multi-region and multi-linguistic. Economic problems coupled with unemployment are disasters. It is expected of sociology to analyze the social ills and bring out some solutions. In the present work, we are discussing social thinkers of contemporary India. They are also responsible to relax-in comfortable armchairs and enjoy the academic status.


What is the Varna system? Discuss the occupation and differentiation in castes in ancient and modern time with features.


The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas.

They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege.

The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. They are followed by the Vaishyas, or merchants, and the fourth are the Shudras, who are usually laborers, peasants, artisans, and servants. At the very bottom are those considered the Untouchables? These individuals perform occupations that are considered unclean and polluting, such as scavenging and skinning dead animals and are considered outcastes. They are not considered to be included in the ranked castes.

The four orders of society are believed to have originated from the self-sacrifice of Purusha-the creator, the primeval being and are mentioned in Rig Veda.

There seems to be a constant upward and downward social mobility between the different Varnas. When a lower Varna changed into a higher Varna, it was known as jatyutkarsa or uplift of the caste. On the other hand, if a person belonging to a higher Varna gradually descended into a lower Varna, it was known as jatyapakarsa or the degeneration of the caste. While the caste system is rigid without possibility of social mobility

Caste on the other hand may be defined as a hereditary endogenous group which decides the individual‟s status in the social stratification and his profession. Caste is also defined as an aggregate of persons whose share of obligations and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by magic and or religion.

Caste is basically a closed system of stratification, since members are recruited on the criteria of ascribed status. In other words, an individual becomes a member of a Caste in which he or she is born. Thus it is an ascribed status. Even if there is social mobility in the caste system through the process of Sanskritization, urbanization, etc it is only a positional change rather than a structural change.

The main features of caste system in Indian Society are

  • Hierarchy
  • Endogamy and Hyper gamy
  • Pre-fixed occupation of castes
  • Restriction on food, drink, smoking etc.
  • Distinction in customs, dress and speech
  • Differentiation in rituals
  • Caste based disabilities
  • Theory of pollution
  • Criteria of touchability and untouchability
  • Concept of purity and impurity
  • Claim of Divine creation
  • Prohibition on marriages outside one’s own caste
  • Location or residences.

The division of Indian society into various castes, together with the practice of untouchability, and the geographic isolation of some tribal communities has meant that these communities have lagged behind others in terms of educational and occupational attainment, political participation and with regard to opportunities for social mobility.

There were many movements and governmental actions that took place pre- and post- independence in order to overcome and attempt to eliminate the inequalities and injustices associated with the caste system. During the national movement, Gandhi began using the term “Harijans” (God’s people) to refer to the untouchables in order to encourage a shift towards positive attitude towards the lower castes. B.R. Ambedkar campaigned for greater rights for Dalits in British India, and even after independence.

(Yearbook) Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs PDF 2019

MPPSC Current GK Free PDF


Current Affairs Yearbook 2019: we update regularly.
1. July 2018 to June 2019 Current Affairs Important Notes.
2. Practice Question Current GK
3. 1000+ Static General Knowledge MCQ
This Book is very useful for Madhya Pradesh M.P.P.S.C and other MP State level examinations.


  • Madhya Pradesh tops in digital initiative
  • Khajuraho dance festival organised in Madhya Pradesh
  • Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav begins in Madhya Pradesh
  • Madhya Pradesh’s first butterfly park comes up in Raisen
  • Madhya Pradesh’s Kadaknath chicken gets Geographical Indication tag
  • Madhya Pradesh announces pension for single women
  • MP government launches “pollution metre” app to spread awareness against pollution
  • Indian, Vietnamese armies hold first military exercise ‘VINBAX’
  • Madhya Pradesh Waqf Board appoints first all transgender Waqf panel
  • Chambal river water is equally shared by both the states
  • Over 4K papers-filed, RO to check nominations
  • Madhya Pradesh on 3rd position in milk production in India
  • MP Govt takes serious note on Zika virus
  • Madhya Pradesh becomes first state to achieve complete door-to-door garbage
  • Madhya Pradesh has become the first state in India to completely implement door-to- door garbage collection in all areas under urban bodies.
  • PM Narendra Modi attends Annual DGP Conference at BSF Academy in Tekanpur
  • Crime data under cloak ahead of polls
  • India and ADB Signs $110 Million Loan to Improve Rural Connectivity in Madhya Pradesh
  • Women still get raw deal in Chhattisgarh politics

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-2

What is black money? Discuss its implication in context of India?

Black money is defined  as assets or resources that have neither been reported to the public authorities at the time of their generation nor disclosed at any point of time during the possession. The problem with  black money is huge . It has serious socio-political and economic implications. According to sources the estimate of GDP is to the extent of 60% of GDP.

The implications of Black money are:


  • Black money infusion into the economy lead to the weakening of institutions
  • The trust on the institution decreases.
  • Transnational crimes increase as they act as a source of terror funding and anti-national activities. Black money also affects the elections.
  • Especially in a country like India, it infuses money power. Money power does not allow genuine candidates to compete in the election.


  • Corruption raises its ugly head.
  • Black money also leads to inflationary tendencies in the market.
  • It also effects the transmission of monetary policies.
  • It also demoralized the genuine tax payer. Loss of tax revenue is also its serious implication. It brings inefficiency in the economic architecture.


  • Black money leads to widening of inequality.
  • Concentration of wealth in the few increases.
  • So it destroyed the work ethics.

Thus Black money is a menace to society its implication does not restrict to economy but it has wider connotation.


RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-I




Write short notes on Neemchuna and Mev Farmers Movement.

Neemchuna Farmers Movement, 1925

  • Maharaja Jai Singh of Alwar increased the Lagaan rates in 1924.
  • Rajput peasants of Khalsa lands in Alwar started the movement & took to arm rebellion.


  • Government setup an enquiry commission but meanwhile Maharaj decided to crush revolt by force.
  • On 14th May 1925 forces opened fire on around 800 farmers gathered at Neemchuna.
  • Mahatma Gandhi considered this masaccare as even extreme of Jallianwallah Bagh and termed it “Dyrism Double Distilled” in Young India.


Mev Farmers Movement, 1932-35

  • In 1932 farmers of Kishangarh, Ramgarh, Laxmangarh & Tijara (Mev Region) started movement under leadership of Mohd. Ali.
  • In 1933, in Alwar demands of farmers were agreed.
  • However, in Bharatpur Farmers stopped paying land revenue for Kharif crops but government did not let the movement to succeed.
  • Gradually the movement turned communal and leader Anjuman Khaidm-ul-Islam raised demands for separate schools for Muslims, significant place for Urdu language and jobs to Muslims in Govt.


Why desert are on the western margins of the continent?


A glance at the world map reveals that most of the desert region is on the western part of the continent for example Mohave Desert in North America, Atacama in Southern America, Namib, Sahara in Africa, Arabian in west Asia.

The reasons for such homogeny are:

  • The hot desert lies astride the Horse latitudes or the sub tropical high pressure belts where the air is descending, a condition least favourable for precipitation of any kind to take place.
  • The rain bearing Trade winds blow off-shore and the wester lies that are on shore blow outside the desert limits. Whatever winds reach the desert blow from cooler to warmer regions, and their relative humidity is lowered, making condensation almost impossible. The relative humidity reaches to about 30%. This makes condition for drought.
  • On the western coast, the presence of cold currents gives rise to mists and fogs by chilling the oncoming air. This air is later warmed by contact with the hot land, and little rain falls. The desiccating effect of the cold Peruvian current along the Chilean coast is so pronounced that the mean annual rainfall for the Atacama Desert is not more than half an inch.


Explain the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its role in keeping Antarctica frozen?


The Antarctic Circumpolar Current or ACC is changing as the world’s climate warms. Scientists are studying the current to find out how it might affect the future of Antarctica’s ice sheets, and the world’s sea levels.

It’s significance:

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, or ACC, is the strongest ocean current on our planet. It extends from the sea surface to the bottom of the ocean, and encircles Antarctica. It is vital for Earth’s health because it keeps Antarctica cool and frozen.


The ACC carries an estimated 165 million to 182 million cubic metres of water every second (a unit also called a “Sverdrup”) from west to east, more than 100 times the flow of all the rivers on Earth. It provides the main connection between the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.


The tightest geographical constriction through which the current flows is Drake Passage, where only 800 km separates South America from Antarctica. While elsewhere the ACC appears to have a broad domain, it must also navigate steep undersea mountains that constrain its path and steer it north and south across the Southern Ocean.


What is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?


Antarctica is a frozen continent surrounded by icy waters. Moving northward, away from Antarctica, the water temperatures rise slowly at first and then rapidly across a sharp gradient. It is the ACC that maintains this boundary.


The ACC is created by the combined effects of strong westerly winds across the Southern Ocean, and the big change in surface temperatures between the Equator and the poles.


Ocean density increases as water gets colder and as it gets more salty. The warm, salty surface waters of the subtropics are much lighter than the cold, fresher waters close to Antarctica. The depth of constant density levels slopes up towards Antarctica. The westerly winds make this slope steeper, and the ACC rides eastward along it, faster where the slope is steeper and weaker where it’s flatter.

Fronts and bottom water:

In the ACC there are sharp changes in water density known as fronts. The Subantarctic Front to the north and Polar Front further south are the two main fronts of the ACC (the black lines in the images). Both are known to split into two or three branches in some parts of the Southern Ocean, and merge together in other parts. Scientists can figure out the density and speed of the current by measuring the ocean’s height, using altimeters.


The path of the ACC is a meandering one, because of the steering effect of the sea floor, and also because of instabilities in the current. The ACC also plays a part in the meridional (or global) overturning circulation, which brings deep waters formed in the North Atlantic southward into the Southern Ocean. Once there it becomes known as Circumpolar Deep Water, and is carried around Antarctica by the ACC. It slowly rises toward the surface south of the Polar Front.


Once it surfaces, some of the water flows northward again and sinks north of the Subarctic Front. The remaining part flows toward Antarctica where it is transformed into the densest water in the ocean, sinking to the sea floor and flowing northward in the abyss as Antarctic Bottom Water. These pathways are the main way that the oceans absorb heat and carbon dioxide and sequester it in the deep ocean.


Changing current:

The ACC is not immune to climate change. The Southern Ocean has warmed and freshened in the upper 2,000 m. rapid warming and freshening has also been found in the Antarctic Bottom Water, the deepest layer of the ocean.


Waters south of the Polar Front are becoming fresher due to increased rainfall there, and waters to the north of the Polar Front are becoming saltier due to increased evaporation. These changes are caused by human activity, primarily through adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and depletion of the ozone layer. The ozone hole is now recovering but greenhouse gases continue to rise globally.


Winds have strengthened by about 40% over the Southern Ocean over the past 40 years. Surprisingly, this has not translated into an increase in the strength of the ACC. Instead there has been an increase in eddies that move heat towards the pole, particularly in hotspots such as Drake Passage, Kerguelen Plateau, and between Tasmania and New Zealand.

Scientists have observed much change already. The question now is how this increased transfer of heat across the ACC will impact the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet, and consequently the rate of global sea-level rise.


What is Soil? Given an account on the types of soil in India?

Soil is defined as upper layer of the earth composed of loose surface material. It is a mixture of many substances including endless variety of minerals, remnants of plants and animals, water and air. It is the end product of continuing interaction between the parent material, local climate, plant and animal organisms and elevation of land.


According to ICAR Indian soils are classified as:-


  1. Alluvial soils:-Alluvial soils are formed mainly due to silt deposited by Indo Gangetic Brahmaputra Rivers. In coastal regions some alluvial deposits are formed due to wave action.


  1. Black soils:-The black soils are found mainly on the Deccan lava region covering large parts of Maharashtra, some parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and small parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The soils are formed by disintegration of volcanic basaltic lava. The colour of the soil is generally black due to presence of compounds of aluminium and iron.


  1. Red soils: – these soils are light textured with porous and friable structure and there is absence of lime Kankar and free carbonates. They have neutral to acidic reaction and are deficient in nitrogen humus, phosphoric acid and lime.


  1. Laterite and Lateritic soils:-These soils are red to reddish yellow in colour and low in N, P, K, lime and magnesia. These soils are formed in-situ under conditions of high rainfall with alternation dry and wet periods. On account of heavy rainfall there is an excessive leaching of soil colloids and silica hence the soils are porous.


  1. Forest and Mountain soils:-These soils occur at high elevations as well as at low elevations, where the rainfall is sufficient to support trees. These soils are very shallow, steep, stony, and infertile for the production of field crops. However, they serve a very useful purpose by supplying forest product such as timber and fuel.


  1. Arid and Desert soils:-These soils occur in western Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Kutchch, western Haryana and southern Punjab. The soil is sandy to gravelly with poor organic matter, low humus contents, infrequent rainfall, low moisture and long drought season. The soils exhibit poorly developed horizons.


  1. Saline and Alkaline soils:-These soils occur in areas having a little more rainfall than the areas of desert soils. They show white incrustation of salts of calcium & Magnesium and sodium on the surface. These are poor in drainage and are infertile.


  1. Peaty and Marshy soils:-These are soils with large amount of organic matter and considerable amount of soluble salts. The most humid regions have this type of soil. They are black, heavy and highly acidic. They are deficient in potash and phosphate.



What is navigation satellite? India launched IRNSS recently, what is IRNSS? What is its application?


Navigation satellite is a system which provides system of artificial satellite that helps in providing autonomous geospatial positioning. It helps to provide positioning information regarding local time to high precision. Global positioning system launched (GPS) by NASA is an example of it.

India Launched Indian regional navigation satellite system called IRNSS. It is a constellation of eight satellites. Three satellite in geostationary position and five satellites in geosynchronous position. It is designed to provide accurate positioning information upto 1500 km from its primary service area. IRNSS will provide two types of services namely standard positioning service which is provided to all users and restricted service which is encrypted service provided only to authorize users only.

Application of IRNSS:

  • Mapping and geodetic data capture.
  • Self reliance in navigation. Will help during war like situation
  • to boost disaster management
  • Terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation
  • Precision timing
  • Traffic management
  • Visual and voice navigation for drivers
  • Navigation for army, will boost national security


RAS Mains Paper-2 Important Notes

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes       




What are malware? What are its different types?

These are destructive software or malicious one which exists in the form of computer virus, computer worm, Trojan or Trojan horse which may get attached to email or gets in a file while downloading from a website or via compact discs. In the world of cyber era these software are highly dangerous. The types of Malware are as follows:

Computer Virus: It is a malicious programme which is written with the intention of slowing down the system operation or to delete the file. The reason they are called virus because they are easily spreads to other machines to which the communicate.

 Computer worm: It is a self-replicating malicious programme i.e. it multiplies on its own, such that it keeps on creating up its copies and eats up entire disc space or memory. It is self installing, harder to detect and it tries to erase or steal the data from the hard disk. It is more dangerous than virus Eg. ILOVEYOU, MSBlast etc

Trojan/Trojan horse: It is a malicious programme that comes to the system disguised as the useful application programme and when it is opened the Trojan starts executing and tries to destroy the file.

 Adware: It is advertising supported software. It is any software application in which advertisement banners are displayed while the programme is running. It generates the revenue by delivering the Add.

Spyware: It is computer software installed secretly on a Computer through user’s internet connection that secretly monitors user’s behaviour and transmits information gathered from the computer back to the unethical hacker.

 Ransomware: It is a subset of malware in which the data on victim’s computer is locked, typically by encryption and payment is demanded before the ransom data is decrypted and access return to the victim.


What is coral bleaching? What are the causes of coral bleaching? 

When there are changes in the condition like temperature, light or nutrients the symbiotic linkage between algae and zooxanthellae gets deteriorated, causing them to turn white.

  • In coral bleaching the density of zooxanthellae decline and the concentration of photosynthetic pigment decline which lead to decline in color. 20% of the coral reefs have already been destroyed so it is important to conserve them. There are various causes of coral bleaching which are summarised below:
  • Bleaching is mostly affected by the rising sea temperature. Corals have usually narrow range of temperature profile which increases their vulnerability whenever there is change in temperature. Up-welling and sudden drop in temperature is another cause of coral bleaching.
  • Another reason is sudden exposure to high tides or some major tectonic activity in the oceans. They are supposed to be one of the causes.
  • Sediment augmentation may be another reason. It can also be the cause of bleaching. Rapid dilution of sea water is another such cause.


List down the basic function of Panchayati Raj department in Rajasthan?


Decentralizing the decision making process is a fundamental policy of democratic setup. India achieved this by passing 73rd and 74th CAA. Rajasthan has always been pioneer in empowering local self government. Panchayati Raj system was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of the country, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, on 2nd October, 1959 in Nagaur, Rajasthan.

Basic Functions of Panchayati Raj Department/Institutions are:

  • To ensure the decentralization as per the spirit of 73rd constitutional amendment.
  • Effective Implementation of Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Rules.
  • All administrative/establishment matters including recruitments of PRI’s Functionaries.
  • Building up of the organizational capacity of PRIs, the professional capacity of Elected Representatives with special focuses on women representatives and the functionaries, so that they can perform their mandated roles effectively.
  • Institutionalizing and using integrated decentralized participatory planning through the Panchayati Raj Institutions and District Planning Committees for convergence of plethora of schemes and pooling of diverse resources for better outcomes.
  • Monitoring and implementation of various Schemes (FFC, SFC V, Untied Fund for PRIs)including State and Central flagship programmes [Swatch Bharat mission(Rural)] of the Government that directly touch the lives of the poor in rural areas and promote inclusive growth.
  • Mitigating regional backwardness through PRIs.
  • Access to sanitation and clean environmental facilities to all in a time bound manner with the functional arrangement for solid and liquid waste management.
  • To enable all households to have access to and use toilets and to ensure that all government schools and anganwadi’s have functional toilets, urinals.
  • Supporting the Panchayats to achieve transparency and accountability in their functioning through e-enablement.


Enumerate the difference between Himalayan and Peninsular drainage system?


S.No.        Himalayan drainage Peninsular drainage
1. Perennial in nature. Seasonal in nature
2. Both snow fed and monsoon n fed Monsoon fed
3. Voluminous Less voluminous
4. Very large command area Less Command area
5. Himalayan river exhibits antecedent character Consequent character is exhibited
6. All Himalayan rivers form delta at the mouth Form both delta and estuaries at the mouth
7. Navigable for huge distance as they entered in plain area. Not so navigable for long distance. Because of rapids, waterfall, cataracts
8 Hydroelectric potential is huge. But project feasibility is under question due to high seismic activity in the region. Hydroelectricity potential is low but it is advisable to harness it as rivers are flowing through stable land reform.
9. Himalayan rivers as they flow over long distance exhibit lot of meandering activity, sometimes to an extent that it led to the formation of oxbow lake Very less meandering because they are flowing in region where well defined slopes are there.
10. Very prone to floods-both in terms of frequency and intensity. Less prone to fluids both in terms of frequency and intensity.
11 Relatively low disputes Interstates disputes are more


What is groundwater contamination? What are the causes of ground water contamination?

Groundwater contamination is the adulteration of water because of the increase in the concentration of certain pollutants. The major pollutants contributing to contamination are Arsenic, fluoride, Iron, uranium, nitrate etc.

Causes of groundwater contamination are:

  1. Natural: Groundwater naturally contains high amount of pollutant due to geological formation. For example occurrence of fluoride is related to the abundance and solubility of fluoride containing mineral such as fluorite.
  2. Agriculture: Intensive use of agriculture has lead to the seepage of nitrate into groundwater. Exploitation by excessive use of irrigation is another reason as it leads to decline ungrounded water table.
  3. Industrial waste: Industrial waste is discharged without effluent treatment. They seep through the soil and pollute the groundwater.

Indiscriminate extraction of groundwater for irrigation purpose has led to the salinity problem. Excessive discharge of water from coastal region has led to the sea water intrusion hence it has also leaded to increase salinity.


Write Short notes on Maternity Benefit Amendment Act?

Answer: Important features of this Act are-

  1. The recently passed bill will amend the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
  2. It increases the paid maternity leave for pregnant women working in the organised sector from 12 weeks to 26 weeks.
  3. The 26 weeks of leave will be for the first two pregnancies.
  4. For the third child, it will be of 12 weeks and 6 weeks for the fourth.
  5. It allows 12 weeks of paid maternity leave to mothers who are adopting a child below the age of three months and also to commissioning mothers who opt for surrogacy.
  6. It mandates employers to allow a woman to work from home.
  7. Organisations which employ more than 30 women (or 50 people, whichever is less) will now have to provide a crèche.
  8. The mother is allowed to visit the crèche four times during the day.


  • In line with international practice.
  • Giving benefit to adoptive mothers and as well as women who get children using embryo transfer signals India is a progressive step.
  • Social security for working mothers.


What are the causes of diversity in Indian society?


    Historical reasons: oldest society in the world. Long time period had led to growth of various social institutions in its own way.

    Geographical reasons: Earlier the geographical barrier was difficult to crossed and hence become the cause for isolation and hence independent development which led to variety.

    Economic factors: Trade and commercial activities have carried Indians too far off areas throughout the ages. These groups maintain closer contact with outside world continuously brought new features.

  • During most of the phases of the Indian history, different political class and entities existed in India. Even at the time of Indian Independence, 565 princely states were there.
  • The political class had different set of rules and policies which led to different social-cultural practices.
  • The open and assimilatory outlook of Indian culture has also contributed to intensification of diversity.


Discuss the importance of animal husbandry sector with special reference to Rajasthan? Discuss the key initiative taken by Government of Rajasthan.


  1. Parallel to agriculture, animal husbandry is a key sector of rajasthan especially in arid and semi arid areas. It is not merely subsidiary to agriculture but a major component in Rajasthan economy. The importance of animal husbandry are:
  2. It provide insurance to the farmers in the Rainfed region. Especially for the semi arid and arid areas of Rajasthan.
  3. It act as a source of income and provide a kind of stability and sustainable livelihood.
  4. The state of Rajasthan is rich in live stock wealth. The state is endowed with finest drought hardy milch breeds (Rathi, Gir, Sahiwal and Tharparkar), dual purpose breed( kankrej and Haryana) and the famous drought breeds of nagori and malvi.
  5. The state contributes 12.73% of total milk production and 32.89 % of wool production to the nation total production.

Government of Rajasthan is also aware of the importance of this sector and hence it is giving thrust to the sector by taking following measures:

  • Efforts of the Animal Husbandry Department are focused on increasing the out stretch through creation of institutions and infrastructure to provide an integrated package of services for efficient health care and genetic improvement of livestock along with awareness building programmes to ensure better participation of the livestock owners.
  • Bhamashah Pashu Bima Yojna’ is being implemented in the State for the welfare of livestock breeders. Under this insurance scheme, 70 per cent subsidy on premium of cattle insurance for SC/ST/BPL livestock breeders and 50 per cent subsidy on premium of cattle insurance for general livestock breeders is provided.
  • Avika Kavach Bima Yojna’ is being implemented in the State for the welfare of sheep breeders.
  • Breed improvement programme has also been strengthened. Breeding services are being improved through extension of private integrated livestock development centres.
  • Under the mandate of Foot and Mouth Diseases (FMD), free Rajasthan FMD-CP is being implemented in the State with the assistance of Government of India.


What is OSIRIS-Rex mission and write down facts on asteroid Bennu?


 For the first time in more than two years, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft has unfurled its robotic arm and put it through a series of maneuvers to ensure its space-worthiness after being packed away for launch and a long flight to the asteroid Bennu.

This arm and its sampler head, known as the Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism or TAGSAM, is critical to the mission’s goal of retrieving at least 60 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and returning this sample to Earth by 2023.The collection device will act something like a reverse vacuum cleaner.

The launch of the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission took place on September 8, 2016. Since then, the spacecraft has been two years travelling through space to reach its target, primitive asteroid Bennu, in October and 2018.

About the mission:

OSIRIS-Rex stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security-Regolith Explorer.

OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, which previously sent the New Horizons spacecraft zooming by Pluto and the Juno spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter.

What will the OSIRIS-Rex do?

OSIRIS-REx will spend two years travelling towards Bennu, arriving at the asteroid in August 2018. The probe will orbit the asteroid for 3 years, conducting several scientific experiments, before returning to Earth, with the sample capsule expected to land in Utah, USA in September 2023.

Scientific Mission Goals:

During its three year orbit of Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will be conducting a range of scientific experiments in order to better understand the asteroid.

As part of this, the asteroid will be mapped using instruments on the probe, in order to select a suitable site for samples to be collected from.

The aim of the mission is to collect a sample of regolith- the loose, soil-like material which covers the surface of the asteroid.

In July 2020, the probe will move to within a few metres of Bennu, extending its robotic arm to touch the asteroid’s surface. The arm will make contact with the surface for just 5 seconds, during which a blast of nitrogen gas will be used to stir up the regolith, allowing it to be sucked into the sample collector.

OSIRIS-REx has enough nitrogen on board for 3 sample collection attempts, and NASA are hoping to collect between 60 and 2000g of regolith material to bring back to Earth.


Why was Bennu chosen?

Bennu was selected for a the OSIRIS-REx mission from over 500,000 known asteroids, due to it fitting a number of key criteria. These include:


Proximity to Earth: In order for OSIRIS-REx to reach its destination in a reasonable time frame, NASA needed to find an asteroid which had a similar orbit to Earth. Around 7000 asteroids are ‘Near-Earth Objects’ (NEOs), meaning they travel within around ~30million miles of the Earth. Out of these, just under 200 have orbits similar to Earth, with Bennu being one of these.


Small asteroids, those less than 200m in diameter, typically spin much faster than larger asteroids, meaning the regolith material can be ejected into space. Bennu is around 500m in diameter, so rotates slowly enough to ensure that the regolith stays on its surface.


Composition: Bennu is a primitive asteroid, meaning it hasn’t significantly changed since the beginning of the Solar System (over 4 billion years ago). It is also very carbon-rich, meaning it may contain organic molecules, which could have been precursors to life on Earth.


Additionally, Bennu is of interest as it is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA). Every 6 years, Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth, which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century.


Revolt of 1857 was a major landmark in National freedom struggle. What changes it brought to the governance system?

Revolt of 1857 was the  outburst of anger by the Indians against the exploitative policies of the Britishers. Even though  Britishers manage to suppress the revolt. It made them to look into administration and way of governance. As a result they brought “ Act for betterment of India” . This act replace the rule of company with the crown. Other salient features are as follows:

  • It abolished Court of directors and Board of director and commissioned a post of secretary of state who would be member of British cabinet. It was to be advised by council of 15 members, this is known as India council.
  • The Governor general received the new designation called the Viceroy. He was to be advised by council of 4 members. The viceroy retained overriding power.
  • The act put an end to the further annexation and conquest. Thus the princess, Zamidar remain the favorite children of British imperialism from now on.
  • To prevent any further revolt there were changes made in the Army composition. English to Indian ratio was kept at 1:2 in the Bengal army and 2:5 in Madras and Bombay armies. Strict European monopoly over key geographical locations and departments such as artillery, tanks and armed corps. The brought caste identity in recruitment.

Hence Crown took over the control of the British Empire and administration in India was made directly responsible to British crown. There was no betterment for Indians in the act.


What are the types of pressure groups? Discuss the significance of Pressure groups?


  • Pressure group is an organised group of people that wants to influence the policies or activities of those in able to make decision. This could be at a local, national or international level of government. There are various types of Pressure groups summarised below:
  • Social or Identity based groups: They have one particular identity. There are two types of this category. Community service like Singh Sabha movement and Mobilisation for political ends eg. RSS and VHP
  • Associational or Professional groups like FICCI, CII, bar council
  • Institutional groups – They exist within the government and exert pressure through government machinery. Example IAS lobby, IPS lobby etc
  • Ad hoc groups- formed for a specific purpose and dissolve after goal is achieved

Significance of pressure groups:

  • Serve as a channel of communication between state and citizen
  • They help to keep democracy alive between the elections.
  • It prevents the emergence of any dominate force in society.
  • They provide data information, technical inputs
  • They check the arbitrary use of state power.
  • They broaden the scope of popular participation.
  • They are reservoir of political leadership
  • Pressure group acts as legislatures behind legislators.


Explain the following terms: – write short notes         

 1) Taccavi

2) Repo rate

 3) Base rate

4) Marginal cost of fund based lending rate

  • Taccavi is agricultural loan given to poor cultivators to relieve their distress and enable them to pay land revenue in time.
  • Repo rate is the interest rate at which the RBI lends money to commercial banks. It is a monetary policy instrument which can be used to control the money supply and thereby inflation.
  • Base rate is the minimum rate set by the RBI below which banks are not allowed to lend to its customers. Banks calculate the lending rates to its customers based on the base rate.
  • The marginal cost of funds based lending rate (MCLR) refers to the minimum interest rate of a bank below which it cannot lend, except in some cases allowed by the RBI. It is an internal benchmark or reference rate for the bank. MCLR actually describes the method by which the minimum interest rate for loans is determined by a bank – on the basis of marginal cost or the additional or incremental cost of arranging one more rupee to the prospective borrower.


What is artificial intelligence? List down its application

Artificial intelligence is a way of programming a computer, robot to perform human like task such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making and translation between languages.

  1. Artificial intelligence has wide application cutting across all sectors:
  2. In agriculture artificial intelligence is used for precision farming. This will increase the productivity and lower the input cost. It also provides real time advisory.
  3. Health – Can be used for diagnosis, test and minor operation. It will help to achieve more efficiency in health sector.
  4. In education also customized learning, interactive and intelligent tutoring can be achieved. Eg- Parsons ‘write to learn’.
  5. Urban planning: In traffic management artificial intelligence can be used. In Kerala engineers have designed a robot to clean potholes. It will also help to fight social evil manual scavenging.
  6. In manufacturing sector it will help to develop good manufacturing practices. It will help to bring smoothness in supply chain. It will help to manage work floor in better way.
  7. In energy sector also it will help to develop energy infrastructure. In defence also it will help to man difficult areas and terrain. It will help to bring efficiency in cyber defence.


What are the causes of unemployment in India?

Even though India has experienced a high growth period in the last 15 years but its employment elasticity has remained on lower side. The period is sometimes termed as Jobless growth period. Following are the reasons for unemployment in India:

Low productivity in agriculture. Disguised unemployment in agriculture is a serious issue. More than 48% of work force is dependent on agriculture, but agriculture contributes only 14% of GDP to the

  • Every year 12.8 million work force is entering into work force but job creation is not upto that pace.
  • Manufacturing sector, which is an employment generator, is also passing through stagnant phase. Investment climate is passing through dormancy hence less job creation.
  • Globally there is tendency of protectionism going on. It is also creating hurdle in getting job. Like H1B issues, nitaqat law etc.
  • Now it is an era of technology, where industrial revolution 4.0 is coming. This revolution majorly relies on artificial intelligence, robotics and hence low job creation.

Real estate sector is under slowdown from a long time. Construction sector was one of the major absorber of migrated landless laborers. But this is also not able to create jobs.


A healthy infrastructure is must for a sustained economic growth. BharatMala project was one of the steps towards healthy infrastructure. What is BharatMala project? What are the challenges in its implementation?

BharatMala is an ambitious project to improve the road infrastructure in the country. It is an umbrella project under the Ministry of road transport and highways. It will subsume the unfinished project under National Highway development programme.

Under the plan the government intends to develop 83,677 km of highways and roads at an investment of around Rs 7 lakh crore over the next five years. The ambitious project also plans to create new industrial corridors and urban centres, which should enhance economic activity in the country.

It focuses on the new initiatives like development of Border and International connectivity roads, Coastal & port connectivity roads, improving efficiency of National Corridors, Economic corridors and others.  The government also expects that 70-80 per cent of freight traffic will move on national highways, up from 40 per cent now.

The funding will be a big issue. 15% is expected from private sector. But how this investment will be raised is yet to be cleared. Land acquisition and environment clearance is another issue. There are inherent issues with PPP models. To speed up the process of approvals, the government has already empowered NHAI to approve all Projects. Government need to improve its execution skills and work closely with state governments to realise the desired objectives.


What are the objectives and features of Pradhanmantri Krishi Sichai Yojana (PMKSY)?

According to the World Bank report, agriculture irrigated land is 36% of the total agricultural land. Most of the unirrigated area lies in the poverty hit areas like Vidarbha region, Budndhelkhand, Telangana plateau etc. As a result of this there is complete dependency on Monsoon which itself is no reliable. Hence Government came up with a plan to increase irrigated land and launched Pradhana Mantri Krishi Sichai Yojana.


  • To achieve convergence of investment in irrigation at the field level.
  • To enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
  • To attract greater Pvt Investment in Agriculture.
  • To explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri urban agriculture.

Features of Agriculture are as follows:

  • Long Term Irrigation Fund has been instituted under PMKSY in NABARD for funding and fast tracking the implementation of incomplete major and medium irrigation projects.
  • Water budgeting is done for all sectors namely, household, agriculture and industries.
  • Investments will happen at farm level.
  • PMKSY has been formulated amalgamating ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP); Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP); and On Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • A National Executive Committee (NEC) is to be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog to oversee programme implementation.


What is Respiratory system? Give an Overview of Respiration Process?


The respiratory system is the body system that brings air containing oxygen into the body and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

The job of the respiratory system is the exchange of gases between the body and the outside air. This process, called respiration, actually consists of two parts. In the first part, oxygen in the air is drawn into the body and carbon dioxide is released from the body through the respiratory tract. In the second part, the circulatory system delivers the oxygen to body cells and picks up carbon dioxide from the cells in return.

The respiration process contains basically four steps:


Respiration begins with ventilation. This is the process of moving air in and out of the lungs. The lungs are the organs in which gas exchange takes place between blood and air.

Pulmonary Gas exchange

Pulmonary gas exchange is the exchange of gases between inhaled air and the blood. It occurs in the alveoli of the lungs.  Alveoli (singular, alveolus) are grape-like clusters surrounded by networks of thin-walled pulmonary capillaries. After you inhale, there is a greater concentration of oxygen in the alveoli than in the blood of the pulmonary capillaries, so oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood across the capillaries.

Gas Transport

Pulmonary gas exchange is the exchange of gases between inhaled air and the blood. It occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Alveoli (singular, alveolus) are grape-like clusters surrounded by networks of thin-walled pulmonary capillaries.   After you inhale, there is a greater concentration of oxygen in the alveoli than in the blood of the pulmonary capillaries, so oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood across the capillaries

Peripheral Gas Exchange

The cells of the body have a much lower concentration of oxygen than does the oxygenated blood in the peripheral capillaries. Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the peripheral capillaries into body cells.  Carbon dioxide is produced by cells as a by-product of cellular respiration, so it is more concentrated in the cells than in the blood of the peripheral capillaries. As a result, carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction.


What are the constitutional safeguards there for SC and ST?

Social safeguards:

  • Art 17- abolition of untouchability
  • Art 23- Traffic in human beings and beggar
  • Art 24- prevent child labour. A substantial portion of child labor comes from SC and ST
  • Art 25(2)(b)- Hindu religious institution shall be open to all section without any discrimination.

Economic safeguards

  • Art 23
  • Art 24
  • Art 46 – The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the scheduled Tribes,
  • Art 15(4) – reservation of seats

Political safeguard:

  • Art 243D – in Panchayats seats reserved
  • Art 243 T- Municipality reservation
  • Art 332- seats reserved in Legislative assembly


Service safeguards

  • Art 16(4)- reservation in jobs
  • Art 16(4A)- promotions in jobs

Human rights safeguard:

  • National commission for SC- 338
  • National commission for ST- 338A


Big data is always in the news recently. What do you understand by the term bio data? What is its potential application?


Big data is the huge amount of data which is present in an unprocessed way. It is a complex data. Big data is characterised by 3 Vs ie. Volume of data, velocity of data i.e. processed and complex variety of data. Big data has various useful applications. The application of Big data can be seen in various fields. These are as follows:

  • Can utilise big data to analyse the performance of the schemes and policies. It will give them a chance to bring efficiency in the policies and programmes. It will act as a feedback mechanism.
  • Healthcare: it will help to create database of patients, public health monitoring, how to respond during epidemic, diagnosis and consulting, to create database of genomics.
  • Agriculture: Precision farming, scientific inputs, real optimization of farm machinery, automated irrigation recommendation, monitoring of grain prices and management of inventories etc.
  • E commerce: Consumer behaviour, to choose market models, real time feedback, forecasting the trend, Customer segmentation on the basis of preference.
  • Disaster management: efficiency in risk warning, early identification of disaster, improve response, post disaster assessment will be easier.
  • Social sector schemes: It will help to bring efficiency in social sector schemes by bringing efficiency in the feedback. Govt. can change the provisions by looking at the result.


What are the issues with Service sector in Rajasthan? Provide solution to address those issues?


The service sector provides a service, not an actual product that could be held in your hand. Activities in the service sector include retail, banks, hotels, real-estate, education, health, social work, computer services, recreation, media, communications, electricity, gas and water supply. Services contribute 47.41% to the GDP in Rajasthan. Even though service sector growth rate is 9.90% It is facing some issues such as:

  • Infrastructure bottlenecks: Power shortage, lack of quality roads and highways especially village roads is an issue.
  • There is a lack of adequate infrastructure which creates hurdles in setting up of Industries. Quality of soft skills is not developed to its potential. Rajasthan has huge potential for tourism. Hence, soft skills in Human resource can certainly boost up the sector.
  • Lack of scaling up of traditional industries like art and craft industries eg Bagru prints, Kishangarh paintings. Less use of Digital platform to provide commercial access to these products.
  • Service trade barriers, unavailability of single window clearance


  • Create investor friendly environment
  • Infrastructure enhancement: Like DMIC, make use of UDAAN scheme to utilise the potential of inactive airports.
  • World class institute for imparting soft skills to person engaged in hospitality sector.
  • Removal of trade barriers by providing single window clearance
  • Use cooperative federalism to learn from other developed state and use competitive federalism too attract investor from domestic and international arena.
  • Government of Rajasthan should come up with more innovative advertising skills like Jane kya dikh jaye for tourism


What is blockchain technology? List down advantage and application of the technology


A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. Constantly growing as ‘completed’ blocks (the most recent transactions) are recorded and added to it in chronological order; it allows market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central record-keeping. Each node (a computer connected to the network) gets a copy of the blockchain, which is downloaded automatically.


  • High security is the feature of blockchain technology.
  • Decentralized form of data. As a result there is no single point of failure of blockchain technology.
  • High quality data is produced in blockchain technology.


  • Health care: repository of electronic health record. Exchange of electronic health record, putting all medical licenses on a blockchain, fraudulent doctors can be prevented from practicing.
  • Education: student records, faulty records and educational certificate can be maintained. It cans simply the process of attestation.
  • Food processing: Will help to keep a track on food item from agricultural land to consumers. Whether the Good manufacturing practices, hygiene and health standards are followed or not. Recording of agricultural records.
  • Civil registration: birth, death, marriage, property certificate and records can be put up in blockchain. This can help make citizen records tamper-proof, resilient, secure and private, thus providing wide-ranging benefits for a variety of stake holder.
  • Banking sector: to make transaction hack proof.

(Daily) RAS Mains exam practice solved questions

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Recently RBI released report regarding demonetization, whether demonetization helped in curbing black money? Critically analyze


The issue of demonetization is back in the news due to RBI report highlighting that 99.2% of 500 and 1000 Rs notes in circulation have found their own back in Banking System.

Critically examine – you need to do is look at the good and bad of the topic in fair manner.

Bring out the findings of RBI report and assess what it implies.

Discuss the rationale given that suggests that demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money – increasing tax base, formalization of economy.

Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in penalizing all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetization worked as an unintended amnesty scheme etc.

Examine the other impacts of demonetization which negated any small gains that were made – slow down in GDP, loss of jobs etc.

Conclusions – Give a fair and balanced view on the success/failure of demonetization.


Explain the causes and Phases of Bijolia movement? 


The Bijolia movement was a peasant movement in the Bijolia Jagir of the former Mewar state (in present-day Rajasthan in India) against excessive land revenue exactions. Originating in the former Jagir (feudal estate) of Bijolia (near the town of Bijolia in Bhilwara district), the movement gradually spread to neighbouring Jagirs. Leadership to the movement was provided, at different times, by Sitaram Das, Vijay Singh Pathik, and Manikya lal Verma. The movement continued till 1941 after a bitter struggle lasting about half a century, gained national attention and resisted state oppression.

Causes of movement:

Excess land revenue and other taxes were the main cause. Rao salwal kishan singh ji started to collect Lagat (a kind of taxes) collected in extraordinary situation were become common affair.

Movement went through three phases which are summarised as follows:

Ist Phase (1897-1915)

In 1897, a delegation of peasants consisting of Nanji Patel of Berisal and Thakari Patel of Gopal Niwas went to Udaipur and attempted, in vain, to get an audience with the Maharana.

    The concessions granted in 1904 did not last. In 1906, Prithvi Singh ascended to the Jagir and withdrew the concessions granted in 1904 and instructed officials to collected increased taxes. Failing to get a hearing from the Jagirdar, some peasants chose not to cultivate their lands and migrated to neighboring Gwalior and Bundi.

2nd phase (1915-1923)

In 1916, war fund contributions were further imposed on the peasants who lead to renewed dissatisfaction. It was in 1916 that Bhoop Singh alias Vijai Singh Pathik arrived in Bijolia and organized the peasants under the Bijolia Kisan Panchayat to oppose payments to the war fund and other taxes.

 Leaders of the Bijolia movement attempted to obtain the support of the Indian National Congress (INC).In December 1919, Pathik succeeded in putting a resolution before the INC in support of the Bijolia peasants, but the resolution failed, largely because the INC leadership disfavored agitation in the princely states.

Finally, the Bijolia Agreement was signed on February 11, 1922. The agreement brought about the following changes: reduction in amount of talwar bandhi, no taxes when there was no cultivation, reduction in chatoondtax tax and land revenue, etc.

3rd phase (1923-1941)

 By 1928, there was a general complain among the peasants of Bijolia that the agreement of 1922 had been violated by the Jagirdar. The peasants also complained that taxes on unirrigated lands were very high and Jagir authorities were interfering in the affairs of the Bijolia Kisan Panchayat.


What is the Ilbert bill controversy?


  • The Ilbert Bill was introduced in 1883 for British India by Lord Ripon.


  • The Bill gave Indian judges and magistrates the power to try British offenders in criminal cases at the District level.


  • The introduction of the bill led to intense opposition in Britain and from British settlers in India. The Bill played on racial tensions.


  • White opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill. This enraged the Indians.


  • The bitter controversy deepened antagonism between the British and Indians and was a prelude to the formation of the Indian National Congress.


Write short Note on Medieval Indo-Islamic Architecture.


  • With establishment of Turkish rule in India, a new phase coming in history of Indian art and architecture. Turks brought Islamic style of architecture in India. This new style easy significantly different from traditional Indian style. But over a period of time both style underwent assimilation.

Essential feature of Indo -Islamic architecture were

Islamic architecture characterised by uses of arches, domes and minarets. Arches were used for making doors. Dome was used to make roof and minarets were erected in 4 corners of building

  • Assimilation of Indian style i.e. trabeate architecture, use of columns and pillars
  • Use of lime mortar as binding agent. Which provided solidarity to the monuments and buildings
  • Charbhagi style brought by Babar added to the beauty of monuments.
  • Double dome architecture was another significant feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Eg. Humayun Tomb, Taj Mahal etc.
  • Use of new techniques like Pietra deura, calligraphy technique, arabesque etc.
  • Elements of Indian architecture like Jali, Chatra, jharaokha, chajja etc.

Right from the beginning of Turkish rule to the age of Mughal rule, process of assimilation of Indian and Islamic continued and it lead to the genesis of new kind of architecture in India. It represents our unique, assimilative cultural identity.


Examine the role of Praja Mandal Movements in Rajasthan’s political awakening. What was the role of Smt. Vijaya Bahin Bhavsar?


In 1927, the All India States People’s Conference was held in Bombay after which the congress allowed people from different Princely States to join the party and the Indian freedom Struggle. In 1927 itself, the Akhil Bhartiya Desi Rajya Lok Parishad or All India Native States Public Council was established in Bombay and Vijay Singh Pathik became its chairperson. In Rajasthan, Rajputana Desi Lok Parishad or Rajputana Native States Public Council was established. These councils laid the foundation for Praja Mandal movement in Rajasthan.

Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:

  • The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism.
  • The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights.
  • The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic (fundamental) rights.

Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:

The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states.

They established schools, used Khadi, encouraged cottage industries and started agitation against the Untouchability.

Contribution of Praja Mandal:

The Praja Mandal movement not only created a political awakening among the people in the Indian States but also fought for their rights, their share in the government and their dynamic participation in the future political set up of the country. Other contributions included:

  • Improvement in Education
  • Rise of social equality
  • The most important contribution of this organisation was to break the insularity of the peasant movements by linking them with one another in different princely states, as well as with peasant movements in British India.



What are the Jataka tales?


What are Jatakas in history?


About the Jataka Tales Part of the canon of sacred Buddhist literature, this collection of some 550 anecdotes and fables depicts earlier incarnations. sometimes as an animal, sometimes as a human of the being who would become Siddhartha Gautama, the future Buddha.

Jataka is a type of literature from India also known as the Jatakas or the Jataka tales. They contain stories of the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. These include Buddha in both animal and human forms. These stories are extremely popular and are valued in all branches of Buddhism.


Write down the major painting schools of Rajasthan? What are the salient features of Rajasthani and Jain school of miniature paintings?

Answer: –

In the preceding decades of sixteenth Century, the Rajput schools of art began to expand characteristic styles joining aboriginal as well as distant authorities into exclusive styles. Rajasthani painting comprises of 4 major schools that have numerous imaginative styles within them that can be outlined to the different princely states that utilized these artists.

The Major Painting schools of Rajasthan are:


Rajasthani School of miniature paintings 

The decline of the Mughal miniature paintings resulted in the rise of the Rajasthani School. Rajasthani School of painting can be further divided into various schools depending on the region they were created in. The Mewar School, Marwar School, Hadoti School, Dhundar School, Kangra and Kullu Schools of art are all part of Rajasthani School of painting. Like the Mughal Emperors, the Rajput rulers were also lovers of art and gave their patronage to miniature paintings.

Each Rajputana kingdom had its own distinct style with a few common features. Apart from depicting stories from the Ramayana and the royal lifestyle of kings and queens, Rajasthani miniature paintings often portrayed the legacy of present and past rulers. They also portrayed social values and the changes introduced by kings for the betterment of society. The background of the paintings formed a special feature of the Rajasthani School. Colors used were often bold and contrasting in nature. Natural colors, extracted from plants, minerals, shells, gold, silver and precious stones, were used. The preparation of colors itself would often take weeks and only fine brushes were used. The difficult art of miniature painting still exists in Rajasthan where the painters often use paper, ivory and silk as their canvas. However, natural colors are no longer used as they have been replaced by artificial colors.

Jain School of miniature paintings

One of the earliest schools of miniature paintings in India, the Jain School of painting gained prominence in the 11th century A.D when religious texts like ‘Kalpa Sutra’ and ‘Kalkacharya Katha’ were portrayed in the form of miniature paintings. Like other schools of miniature paintings, Jain School too, displayed its art works on palm leaves, but started using paper from the late 12th century. Natural colors including gold and silver were used to depict the stories. Some of the exclusive features of these paintings include portrayal of enlarged eyes, square shaped hands and portrayal of stylish figures. Also, the colors used were often vibrant and most often than not, colors like green, red, gold and blue were used. The paintings often displayed male figures and goddesses of the Tirthankara. Also, the goddesses shown in the paintings were often heavily ornamented. These paintings began to decline during the late 16th century.


RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-I





Tell us the Historical Formation of Rajasthan/Explain the integration of Rajasthan?

Rajasthan is one of the 29 states of the Indian Union. During the British rule this part of the land was known as RAJPUTANA i.e. the land of Rajputs, who was the main rulers of the various feudal states existing at that time. Rajasthan was formed as State from the seven stages which are discussed given below:

  1. Matsya Union

The division of India was manifested by communal agitation on a great scale that overwhelmed the nation. Bharatpur and Alwar were also not secured of these riots. In March 17, 1948, Indian Government took over the supervision of these states as the rulers failed to uphold peace. Neighboring regions to these states were Karauli and Dholpur. On Government advice, all four states agreed to come together to form the Matsya Union.

  1. Rajasthan Union

On March 25, 1948, ten more states namely Kushalgarh, Banswara, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Tonk, Shahpura, Pratapgarh, Dungarpur and Kishangarh of southern and South-eastern Rajputana joined together to structure another union that is named East Rajasthan.

  1. United State of Rajasthan

Subsequently, the Udaipur state (Mewar) also got united in Rajasthan union on April 18, 1948. The name was then changed to United Rajasthan. Therefore 15 states of Rajasthan created their own association.

  1. Greater Rajasthan

On March 30, 1949 the four states viz. Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer joined this integration and the region came to be known as the Greater Rajasthan. The principalities of Neemrana and Lawa also joined this.  March 30th is now celebrated as the Rajasthan day.

  1. United state of Greater Rajasthan

On May 15, 1949, the Matsya Union was amalgamated into Greater Rajasthan and thereafter the confederation was named as the united state of Greater Rajasthan.

  1. United Rajasthan

The only state, Sirohi, had not joined the federation so far. Sirohi state joined the federation on January 26, 1950.

  1. Re-organized Rajasthan

Ajmer-Merwara region was for long period of time under unswerving British rule and it was fused with Rajasthan in November, 1956 on the proposal of the statement of State Reorganization Commission. Madhya Pradesh’s Bhanpura tehsil and Gujarat’s Abu Tehsil were also merged with Rajasthan at that time.

What is high powered money? How can it be used as a regulatory mechanism by the RBI?


  • In simple terms High Powered Money (HPM) is the net or total liability of the monetary authority of any nation.
  • In India it is the liability of RBI.
  • It is simply the sum of all currency in circulation with the people of country; cash kept in the commercial bank vaults along with the deposits of govt. of the country and commercial banks.
  • The term liability basically means that when people/govt/commercial banks produce the currency/claims.
  • The RBI has to pay value equal to currency/claim.
  • The RBI uses this H.P.M. for regulation of money supply in the economy. By controlling the money supply RBI regulates (i.e tries to regulate) the inflation in economy.

RBI uses the H.P.M for process of money creation. Money creation will increase the supply of money in economy.

When RBI needs to pump extra money in economy it injects a certain amount of high powered money (Say H) into economy. (By purchase of govt bonds/assests etc)

This money increases the total money supply in nation but by what amount??It increases money supply (say M) by not ‘H’, but by a larger amount.

This increased addition of money supply (over the injected value of H) is due to the factor called Money Multiplier!!!

The value of money multiplier is determined by two factors, which are:

  1. CDR: i.e cash-to-deposit ration. It is the ratio of amount of money people tend to keep with themselves as cash and the amount they deposit in bank acc.
  2. RDR: Reserve-to-deposit ratio. It is the ratio of amount of money that a bank will keep in its vault (or as reserve with RBI) to the amount of the deposits received by them.

CDR is a behavioral patter of people which can’t be regulated by RBI (eg people will save more during festive season or for upcoming marriage in family etc) However, RDR can be regulated by RBI.

Depending upon the values of RDR and CDR, the amount of money supply increased in economy is determined.

Money multiplier is given as

Money Multiplier= (1+CDR)/ (CDR+RDR)

[Theoretically, Money multiplier is ratio of money in economy i.e money supply (M) to the amount of high powered money (H)]

 So when RBI injects H amount as HPM, the actual increase in money supply is – Money Multiplier*H.

Note: Value of money multiplier is greater than one as the value of RDR is less than 1.

Thus when RBI needs to reduce inflation it will reduce HPM in eco to slow down money creation by commercial banks .This will reduce the overall money supply leading to low purchasing power. Which in turn lower the demands and hence cut inflation?

Similarly to increase the price levels in eco RBI will inject more of HPM to increase money supply (which will increase purchasing power of the people thereby increasing demand).

  • HPM is only one of the ways used by RBI to regulate economy. It has many powerful ways like SLR, CRR etc. to regulate economy.
  • Commercial banks play a very important role in the process of money creation. (By giving out loans for further investments etc)

What are the salient features of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana?


Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:-Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

Due to the improved features of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY), the scheme has been received very well and has been opted for by 27 States and Union Territories in one or more seasons since inception.

  • The first year of scheme launch i.e. 2016-17 was a good monsoon year, despite which claim ratio was as high as 73%. Further in certain States claim ratios were to the extent of 114% in Andhra Pradesh, 135% in Karnataka, 132% in Kerala and 286% in Tamil Nadu.
  • Overall Rs. 15349.68 crore were paid to 139 lakh farmer applicants in 2016-17 alone.

PMFBY is an actuarial premium based scheme under which farmer has to pay maximum premium of 2% for Kharif, 1.5% for Rabi food & oilseed crops and 5% for annual commercial/horticultural crops and remaining part of the actuarial/bided premium is shared equally by the Centre and State Government. One of the objectives of the scheme is to facilitate prompt claims settlement. Towards this the scheme guidelines provide that claims must be settled within two months of harvest subject to timely provision of both yield data and share of premium subsidy by the State Government.


RAS Mains Paper-2 Important Notes


RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes       






What is Make in India, Start-up India and Stand up India? Write down the advantages, drawbacks in context of India.



Abstract: The government launched “Make in India” initiative which aims at promoting India as an investment destination and to establish India as a global hub for manufacturing, design and innovation. The initiative aims to provide favorable environment to the business community so that they can devote their resources, efforts and energy in productive work. A number of steps have been taken by the government to improve the ease of doing business in the country. Rules and procedures have been simplified and a number of products have been taken off licensing requirements. The Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) worked with a group of highly specialised agencies to build brand new infrastructure, including a dedicated help desk and a mobile-first website that packed a wide array of information into a simple, sleek menu. Government has opened up a number of sectors for FDI. The Stand up India Scheme is being launched to promote entrepreneurship among people from schedule caste/schedule tribe and woman who will be provided loans starting from Rs 10 lakhs to Rs 100 lakhs.

The Make in India initiative was launched by Prime Minister in September 2014 as part of a wider set of Nation-building initiatives. Devised to transform India into a global design and manufacturing hub, Make in India was a timely response to a critical situation: by 2013, the much-hyped emerging markets bubble had burst, and India’s growth rate had fallen to its lowest level in a decade. The promise of the BRICS Nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) had faded, and India was tagged as one of the so-called ‘Fragile Five’. Global investors debated whether the world’s largest democracy was a risk or an opportunity. India’s 1.2 billion citizens questioned whether

India was too big to succeed or too big to fail. India was on the brink of severe economic failure.

  • Understanding the major initiatives with respect to manufacturing
  • Steps taken by government to strengthen secondary sector

Make in India was launched by PM against the backdrop of this crisis, and quickly became a rallying cry for India’s innumerable stakeholders and partners. It was a powerful, galvanising call to action to India’s citizens and business leaders, and an invitation to potential partners and investors around the world. But, Make in India is much more than an inspiring slogan. It represents a comprehensive and unprecedented overhaul of out-dated processes and policies. Most importantly, it represents a complete change of the Government’s mindset – a shift from issuing authority to business partner, in keeping with Prime Minister’s tenet of ‘Minimum Government, Maximum Governance’.

  1. PLAN

To start a movement, a strategy is needed that inspires, empowers and enables in equal measure. Make in India needed a different kind of campaign: instead of the typical statistics-laden newspaper advertisements, this exercise required messaging that was informative, well-packaged and most importantly, credible. It had to

(a) Inspire confidence in India’s capabilities amongst potential partners abroad, the Indian business community and citizens at large

 (b) Provide a framework for a vast amount of technical information on 25 industry sectors; and (c) reach out to a vast local and global audience via social media and constantly keep them updated about opportunities, reforms, etc.


The Make in India initiative has been built on layers of collaborative effort. DIPP initiated this process by inviting participation from Union Ministers, Secretaries to the Government of India, state governments, industry leaders, and various knowledge partners.

Under this initiative, the Government intends to provide a robust infrastructure to business through development of various facilities and institutions. Government also aims at developing industrial corridors and smart.

The Stand up India Scheme is being launched to promote entrepreneurship among people from schedule caste/schedule tribe and woman who will be provided loans starting from Rs 10 lakhs to Rs 100 lakhs.

  • Cities to provide a Conducive working environment with state-of-the-art technology
  • Efforts are being made to provide skilled manpower through a national skill development programme. Innovation is encouraged through better management of patent and trademarks registration.
  • Government has opened up a number of sectors for FDI. The Policy in defence sector has been liberalized and FDI cap has been raised from 26% to 49%. 100% FDI has been allowed in defence sector for modern & state of the art technology on case to case basis.
  • 100% FDI under automatic route has been permitted in construction, operation and maintenance in Rail Infrastructure projects.
  • Further, liberalization norms for Insurance and Medical Devices have been done. ‘Make in India’ program represents an attitudinal shift in how India relates to investors; not as a permit issuing authority, but as a true business partner. An Investor Facilitation Cell has been created in ‘Invest India’.
  • A dedicated team of the Investor Facilitation Cell is there to guide and assist first-time investors.

It is time for India to focus on building competitive advantage on global scale in sectors where we have a large domestic market and certain inherent capabilities. Strategy is all about making choices. The top five priority industries are- Defence, electronics hardware, construction, health care and agro-industries.

However, for India to become a manufacturing nation, it has to quickly move beyond rhetoric to create a clear strategy and favourable policy environment for manufacturing to take off.

  • National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) but it needs to foster a more vibrant think tank in its place.
  • A close dialogue and partnership between government and the private sector, both domestic and foreign, is critical.
  • Indian companies along with Chinese, Japanese, German, American and Swedish companies are all vital partners and we must create an environment that is open and welcoming.
  • Startup India campaign was launched on 16th January 2016 to promote bank financing for start-up ventures to boost entrepreneurship and encourage start-ups with jobs creation.
  • Stand up India was launched on 5th April 2016 to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST

The economy of any country depends on its countrymen. Larger the number of employed or working people better be the economy. The Indian government realized that Indian people have the potential to work hardly, all they need is, a promising start up. Many people dream of starting up their own business, but due to financial or other similar issues are unable to do so. So, Indian govt. in the leadership of Narendra Modi has decided to offer a gift as a nation wise program- “Start up India”.

Start up India” is a revolutionary scheme that has been started to help the people who wish to start their own business. These people have ideas and capability, so the government will give them support to make sure they can implement their ideas and grow. Success of this scheme will eventually make India, a better economy and a strong nation.


During his speech at the event, Mr. Modi said that we are trying to make the young job creators rather than job seekers. Technology is evolving with the pace faster than ever. This has given birth to various new businesses like E-commerce, internet marketing etc. So, there is a great scope of development in such areas. Those who plan to start new business are eligible to apply. Startup means an entity, incorporated or registered in India:

  • Not prior to five years,
  • With annual turnover not exceeding INR 25 crore in any preceding financial year, and
  • Working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property.
  • Provided that such entity is not formed by splitting up, or reconstruction, of a business already in existence.
  • Provided also that an entity shall cease to be a Startup if its turnover for the previous financial years has exceeded INR 25 crore or it has completed 5 years from the date of incorporation/ registration. Provided further that a Startup shall be eligible for tax benefits only after it has obtained certification from the Inter-Ministerial Board, setup for such Purpose.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the ‘Stand up India’ scheme on April 2016 as part of the Government’s efforts to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST Communities.

The scheme offers bank loans of between ₹10 lakh (US$15,000) and ₹1 crore (US$150,000) for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and women setting up new enterprises outside of the farm sector. Debit Card (Ru Pay) for withdrawal of working capital.


  1. SC/ST and/or Women entrepreneurs, above 18 years of age.
  2. Loans under the scheme is available for only green field project. Green field signifies, in this context, the first time venture of the beneficiary in the manufacturing or services or trading sector.
  3. In-case of non-individual enterprises, 51% of the shareholding and controlling stake should be held by either SC/ST and/or Women Entrepreneur.
  4. Borrower should not be in default to any bank/financial institution.

Start up India Stand up India Scheme – Action Plan in Detail

  • E- Registration will be done. The application forms for startup India will be made available in April 2016
  • A self certification system will be launched
  • A dedicated web portal and mobile app will be developed
  • Arrangement of self certificate based compliance
  • No inspection during the first 3 years
  • 80 percent reduction in the application fee of startup patent
  • Easy exit policy
  • Inclusion of Credit Guarantee Fund
  • Relaxation in Income Tax for first three year
  • Special Arrangement for Female applicants
  • Introduction of Atal Innovation Mission. Innovation courses will be started for the students                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8. CHALLENGES FACED BY GOVERNMENT:
  • Fund- 10,000 crore rupees were allocated for this through SIDBI. But bank only puts 15% of total corpus while 85% is put by venture capitalists. VCs are required to get registered with SEBI.
  • Partnered initiative- Government is partnering with NITs, IIITs, IISERs and NIPERs to setup 75 start-ups.
  • But reform in education is necessary to build entrepreneurship from the starting.
  • Ease of doing business is promoted to generate business friendly environment. Still ranked 130 in World Bank Report.
  • Single portal system was launched to avoid red tapism and lengthy process.

India is ranked 132nd out of 185 economies in Doing Business 2013 by the World Bank. India’s restrictions on foreign equity ownership are greater than the average of the countries covered by the Investing across Sectors indicators in the South Asia region and of the BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, and China) countries. India imposes restrictions on foreign equity ownership in many sectors, and in particular in the service industries. Sectors such as railway freight transportation and forestry are dominated by public monopolies and are closed to foreign equity participation. With the exception of certain activities specified by law, foreign ownership in the agriculture sector is also not allowed. These restrictions need to be eased for making India better place for doing business.

Infrastructure tops the list of most surveys on doing business in India. In particular, chronic deficiencies in transportation and power impose prohibitive costs and lower business competitiveness. Multiple enterprise surveys have identified electricity as the biggest constraint. Further, India lags behind on every measure of transport connectivity. Though there have been considerable recent successes spurred by private participation, much needs to be done. However, introduction of UDAY scheme is a good step in this regard. SC and ST community are still far behind to avail these facilities due to many problems like lack of education, social obligations, awareness etc. Gender bias leads gender-gap, according to NSSO only 14% established business is run by women entrepreneurs.

But government initiatives like Start up India and Stand up India are generating hope for better future by Encouragement.

Sound macroeconomic policies are necessary to create a low-inflation, low-interest rate and high-growth environment that is essential for the country’s global manufacturing competitiveness. Given the huge size and vast diversity of the country, a diagnostic for each state may be a more prudent strategy. In any case, instead of big-bang reforms, sustained efforts in multiple directions, which cumulatively generate large effects, are required to relax these constraints so that we can realise the goal of making in India.

What were the Causes and Consequences of First World War?


First World War (World War I) is considered as one of the largest wars in history. The world’s great powers assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (British Empire, France and the Russian Empire) versus the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). World War-I lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

The Two Groups: Allies vs Central Powers

Causes of the First World War

In the background there were many conflicts between European nations. Nations grouped among themselves to form military alliances as there were tension and suspicion among them. The causes of the First World War were:

(1) Conflict between Imperialist countries: Ambition of Germany

  • Conflict between old imperialist countries (Eg: Britain and France) vs new imperialist countries (Eg: Germany).
  • Germany ship – Imperator
  • German railway line – from Berlin to Baghdad

(2) Ultra Nationalism

  • Pan Slav movement – Russian, Polish, Czech, Serb, Bulgaria and Greek.
  • Pan German movement.

(3) Military Alliance

  • Triple Alliance or Central Powers (1882) – Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary.
  • Triple Entente or Allies (1907) – Britain, France, Russia.

Note: Although Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive, against the terms of the alliance. These alliances were reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, while the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.

(4) International Anarchy

  • Secret agreement between Britain and France allowing Britain to control Egypt and France to take over Morocco.
  • Germany opposed, but settled with a part of French Congo.
  • Hague conference of 1882 and 1907 failed to emerge as an international organisation.

(5) Balkan Wars

Many Balkan nations (Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Montenegro) were under the control of Turkey. They defeated Turkey in the First Balkan War. The subsequent war was between the Balkan countries themselves – Eg:  Serbia vs Bulgaria.

Defeated countries like Turkey and Bulgaria sought German help.

(6) Alsace-Loraine

During German unification, Germany got Alsace-Loraine from France. France wanted to capture Alsace-Loraine back from Germany.

(7) Immediate Cause: assassination of Francis Ferdinand

Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian native (in Bosnia). Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July, 1914. [Reason for assassination: Annexation by Austria the Bosnia-Herzegovina, against the congress of Berlin, 1878]

The Course of the War

Group 1 (Allies): Serbia, Russia, Britain, France, USA, Belgium, Portugal, Romania etc

Group 2 (Central Powers): Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Bulgaria etc.

War on Western Side: Battle of Marne.

War on Eastern Side: Battle of Tennenberg (Russia was defeated).

War on the Sea: Batter of Dogger Bank (Germany was defeated), Battle of Jutland (Germany retreated).

USA entered in 1917.

Russia withdrew in 1917 after October Revolution.

Treaty of Versailles, Paris

Germany signed a treaty with Allies (Triple Entente) on 28th June 1919. It was signed at Versailles, near Paris. (14 points)

Leaders: Clemenceau – France, Lloyd George – Britain, Woodrow Wilson – USA, Orlando – Italy.

Treaties after World War I

  • Treaty of Paris – with Germany
  • Treaty of St. Germaine – with Austria
  • Treaty of Trianon- with Hungary
  • Treaty of Neuilly – with Bulgaria
  • Treaty of Severes – with Turkey

Consequences of First World War

  • Rule of King ended in Germany: Germany became a republic on November 1918. The German Emperor Kaiser William II fled to Holland.
  • Around 1 crore people were killed.
  • Unemployment and famine.
  • The fall of Russian empire after October revolution (1917) which resulted in the formation of USSR (1922)
  • Emergence of USA as a super power.
  • Beginning of the end of European supremacy.
  • Japan became a powerful country in Asia.
  • Poland, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia became new independent states.
  • Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – became independent.
  • Rule of Ottomans came to an end in Turkey.
  • New boundary lines were drawn for Austria, Germany and Turkey.
  • Strengthened independence movements in Asia and Africa.
  • League of Nations came into being.
  • Germany had to return Alsace-Loraine to France.
  • German colonies were shared.
  • Germany gave up Saar coal field.
  • Germany gave up Polish Corridor, and made city of Danzig independent.
  • Monarchy was abolished in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Russia.
  • The harsh clauses of the Treaty of Versailles finally resulted in the Second World War.


Akbar’s Pragmatic Rajput Policy and its Significance. Analyse


Akbar was a great pragmatist. He was the first Muslim ruler to realize that without the help of the Rajput’s, no permanent empire could be set up in India.

Accordingly, he took measures to secure their cooperation. He treated them as very trustworthy friends and not mere vassals. He abandoned the old policy of repression and persecution of the Rajput’s.

Broadly speaking Akbar’s policy was based on diplomacy and force – the two potent weapons of state craft. But he realized more on diplomacy.


Significance of the Rajput Policy of Akbar:


  1. Expansion of Akbar’s influence

The policy of friendship contributed to the extension of the Mughal Empire. The Rajput’s had become the ‘Sword and Shield’ of Akbar.


  1. Military help

The Rajput rulers provided strong military help to Akbar in waging wars and conquering several territories.


  1. Strengthening of administration

Akbar was able to secure the services of Rajput’s in the efficient running of the administration. Some of the Rajput Governors of Mughal provinces proved very helpful.


  1. Advantages to Rajputs

The Rajput rulers got honour, high offices, big Jagirs and confidential posts in the royal service. They were also free to devote their resources on welfare pursuits in place of war adventures.


  1. Cultural integration

According to Dr. Ishwari Prasad, “A new culture – Indo-Muslim culture” was born. Akbar gave encouragement to Sanskrit, Hindi and other regional languages. There is no doubt that the Rajput’s made great contribution in the field of Akbar’s expansion of empire, statecraft, administration, cultural, economic and social progress.


UP Police में सिपाही भर्ती शुरू, कांस्टेबल और पीएसी के 49568 पदों पर होगी भर्ती

उत्तर प्रदेश में सिविल पुलिस एवं पीएसी में सिपाही के 49,568 पदों पर भर्ती के लिए ऑनलाइन आवेदन 19 नवंबर से लिए जाएंगे। उत्तर प्रदेश पुलिस भर्ती एवं प्रोन्नति बोर्ड ने शुक्रवार को यह ऐलान किया। कुछ तकनीकी दिक्कतों से पूर्व में घोषित तिथि पर आवेदन की प्रक्रिया शुरू नहीं हो पाई थी। आवेदन की अंतिम तिथि व ऑनलाइन आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने की अंतिम तिथि भी 8 दिसंबर 2018 होगी।

  1. शैक्षणिक योग्यता – उम्मीदवार किसी मान्यता प्राप्त बोर्ड से 12वीं पास हो।
  2. आयु संबंधी योग्यता – पुरुष अभ्यर्थी ने दिनांक 1 जुलाई, 2018 को 18 वर्ष की आयु पूरी कर ली हो और 22 वर्ष की आयु प्राप्त न की हो। यानी जन्म 02 जुलाई, 1996 से पहले और 1 जुलाई, 2000 के बाद का नहीं होना चाहिए।

महिला अभ्यर्थी ने दिनांक 1 जुलाई, 2018 को 18 वर्ष की आयु पूरी कर ली हो और 25 वर्ष की आयु प्राप्त न की हो। यानी जन्म 02 जुलाई, 1993 से पहले और 1 जुलाई, 2000 के बाद का नहीं होना चाहिए।

एससी, एसटी, ओबीसी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों को आयु में 5-5 वर्ष की छूट दी जाएगी।

होम गार्ड्स को आयु में तीन वर्ष की छूट मिलेगी।

  1. शारीरिक मानक

पुरुषों के लिए

– सामान्य, ओबीसी, एससी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई कम से कम 168 सेमी. होनी चाहिए। सीना बिना फुलाए कम से कम 79 सेमी. हो और फुलाकर कम से कम 84 सेमी हो।

– एसटी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई 160 सेमी. होनी चाहिए। सीना बिना फुलाए कम से कम 77 सेमी. हो और फुलाकर कम से कम 82 सेमी हो।

महिलाओं के लिए

– सामान्य, ओबीसी, एससी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई कम से कम 152 सेमी. होनी चाहिए। – एसटी  वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई कम से कम 147 सेमी. होनी चाहिए।

– वजन कम से कम 40 किलोग्राम हो

  1. चयन- उम्मीदवारों का चयन लिखित परीक्षा और शारीरिक दक्षता परीक्षा में प्रदर्शन के आधार पर होगा। पहले लिखित परीक्षा होगी जिसमें ऑब्जेक्टिव प्रश्न पूछे जाएंगे। लिखित परीक्षा में सफल उम्मीदवारों को शारीरिक दक्षता परीक्षा के लिए बुलाया जाएगा।
  2. आवेदन शुल्क

ऑफलाइन (ई-चालान) आवेदन शुल्क 10 दिसंबर तक जमा होगा। सभी श्रेणी के लिए आवेदन शुल्क 400 रुपये तय किया गया है।

  1. यूं करें आवेदन

अभ्यर्थी को बोर्ड की वेबसाइट पर जाकर All Notification/Advertisement को क्लिक करना होगा। उसके बाद आरक्षी नागरिक पुलिस एवं आरक्षी प्रादेशिख आर्म्ड कान्सटेबुलरी के लिए Candidate’s Registration पर क्लिक कर आगे की प्रक्रियाओं को पूरा करें

  1. आवेदन शुल्क का भुगतान डेबिट कार्ड/क्रेडिट कार्ड/इंटरनेट बैंकिंग का उपयोग करके या ऑफलाइन ई-चालान के माध्यम से करना होगा।
  2. पहले जारी किए गए नोटिफिकेश के मुताबिक लिखित परीक्षा 45 जनवरी 2019 को कराई जाएगी। जून 2019 के तीसरे सप्ताह में परीक्षा परिणाम घोषित कर दिया जाएगा।
  3. फाइनल मेरिट लिस्ट लिखित परीक्षा के प्राप्तांकों के आधार पर निकाली जाएगी।
  4. इस भर्ती में कोई इंटरव्यू नहीं होगा।


सिविल पुलिस एवं पीएसी में सिपाही के 49568 पदों पर भर्ती के लिए आनलाइन आवेदन की नई तिथि घोषित कर दी गई है। कुछ तकनीकी दिक्कतों के कारण पूर्व में घोषित तिथि पर आवेदन की प्रक्रिया शुरू नहीं हो पाई थी।

उत्तर प्रदेश पुलिस भर्ती एवं प्रोन्नति बोर्ड ने शुक्रवार को भर्ती के लिए आवेदन का नया कार्यक्रम घोषित कर दिया। इसके मुताबिक आनलाइन आवेदन की शुरुआत 19 नवंबर से होगी। आवेदन की अंतिम तिथि 8 दिसंबर 2018 होगी। आनलाइन आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने की अंतिम तिथि भी 8 दिसंबर 2018 होगी, जबकि आफलाइन (ई-चालान) आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने की अंतिम तिथि 10 दिसंबर 2018 होगी। भर्ती प्रक्रिया में सभी श्रेणी के अभ्यर्थियों के लिए आवेदन शुल्क 400 रुपये तय किया गया है।

For More Detail go to official site:

बोर्ड के अपर सचिव ने बताया कि सिविल पुलिस में सिपाही के 31360 पदों में से 15681 पद अनारक्षित, 8467 पद अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग, 6585 पद अनुसूचित जाति और 627 पद अनुसूचित जनजाति के लिए आरक्षित हैं। इसी तरह पीएसी में सिपाही के 18208 पदों में से 9104 पद अनारक्षित, 4916 पद अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग, 3824 पद अनुसूचित जाति और 364 पद अनुसूचित जनजाति के लिए आरक्षित हैं। सिविल पुलिस में सिपाही के पदों पर भर्ती के लिए पुरुष व महिला दोनों आवेदन कर सकते हैं, जबकि पीएसी में सिपाही के पदों पर केवल पुरुष अभ्यर्थी ही आवेदन कर सकेंगे।

UPPSC Mains Exam 2016 Result Declared


UPPSC Mains Result: परीक्षा के 2 साल बाद घोषित हुआ रिजल्ट, पर करें चेक

UPPSC Mains Result 2016: लोक सेवा आयोग ने शुक्रवार को सम्मिलित राज्य प्रवर अधीनस्थ सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा 2016 (पीसीएस मेन्स 2016) का परिणाम घोषित कर दिया।

UPPSC Mains Result 2016: लोक सेवा आयोग ने शुक्रवार को सम्मिलित राज्य प्रवर अधीनस्थ सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा 2016 (पीसीएस मेन्स 2016) का परिणाम घोषित कर दिया। डिप्टी कलेक्टर और डिप्टी एसपी समेत विभिन्न प्रकार के 633 पदों के लिए 1993 अभ्यर्थियों को सफल किया गया है। जो अब इंटरव्यू में शामिल होंगे। इंटरव्यू की तिथि अभी घोषित नहीं की गई है। इस परीक्षा में भाग लेने वाले उम्मीदवार आयोग की वेबसाइट पर जाकर नतीजे चेक कर सकते हैं।

परीक्षा के दो साल बाद घोषित हुआ परिणाम

पीसीएस 2016 की प्रारंभिक परीक्षा बीस मार्च 2016 को हुई थी। कुल  436413 आवेदकों में से 250696 परीक्षा में शामिल हुए थे। प्रारंभिक परीक्षा का परिणाम 27 मई 2016 को घोषित किया गया था। मुख्य परीक्षा के लिए 14615 अभ्यर्थियों को सफल किया गया था। मुख्य परीक्षा बीस सितंबर से आठ अक्तूबर 2016 के बीच इलाहाबाद और लखनऊ में आयोजित हुई थी।  इसमें 12901 परीक्षार्थी शामिल हुए थे। लिखित परीक्षा के दो साल बाद मुख्य परीक्षा का परिणाम घोषित किया जा सका।


RAS Mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behavior Study Notes



Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple-intelligence
Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.
Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-III Free Study Notes

RPSC RAS/RTS free Study material in Hindi में सभी महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स को कवर किया गया है। इस पोस्ट में RAS की तेयारी करने वाले अभ्यर्थीयो के लिए अलग अलग कोचिंग संस्थानो के नोट्स उपलब्ध करवा रहे ताकि आप Syllabus को अच्छे से समझ सके। मुख्यतः मुख्य परीक्षा हेतु नोट्स है लेकिन प्रारम्भिक परीक्षाओं में भी इनकी भूमिका रहती है।

RPSC ने RAS/RTS Prelims/Mains Exam 2018  हमारे द्वारा उपलब्ध करवाए नोट्स में उत्कर्ष जोधपुर, निर्माण जयपुर, गितांजलि जयपुर इत्यादि संस्थानो के नोट्स है

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Paper 3rd :

  1. Geetanjali notes
  2. जिला प्रशासन, जिलाधीश, पुलिसअधीक्षक की भूमिका, उपखंड एवं तहसील
  3. ethics ( लोक प्रशासन ) by utkarsh Jodhpur
  4. Rajasthan polity
  5. public Administration by utkarsh
  6. Ras mains Law notes by GIA
  7. General studies notes by Geetanjali IAS Academy
  8. RAS mains notes part-2 By GIA
  9. international Relations 

RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Study Notes


RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Free Notes Paper-II

RPSC RAS/RTS free Study Material in Hindi में सभी महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स को कवर किया गया है। इस पोस्ट में RAS की तेयारी करने वाले अभ्यर्थीयो के लिए अलग अलग कोचिंग संस्थानो के नोट्स उपलब्ध करवा रहे ताकि आप Syllabus को अच्छे से समझ सके। मुख्यतः मुख्य परीक्षा हेतु नोट्स है लेकिन प्रारम्भिक परीक्षाओं में भी इनकी भूमिका रहती है।

RPSC ने RAS/RTS Prelims/Mains 2018 हमारे द्वारा उपलब्ध करवाए नोट्स में उत्कर्ष जोधपुर, निर्माण जयपुर, गितांजलि जयपुर इत्यादि संस्थानो के नोट्स है।

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II

  1. Science and Technology (जैव प्रौद्योगिकी) by Nirman IAS Jaipur
  2. Science, Economics, Geography by GIA
  3. General studies by Nirman IAS ( चलते-चलते)
  4. Rajasthan Geography (river, pond, lake )
  5. Rajasthan Geography- forest 
  6. Rajasthan geography ( राजस्थान: स्थिति, आकार, विस्तार, भौतिक स्वरूप )
  7. Rajasthan mineral (खनिज)


RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes       



RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Free Study Material

RPSC RAS/RTS free Study material in Hindi/English में सभी महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स को कवर किया गया है। इस पोस्ट में RAS की तेयारी करने वाले अभ्यर्थीयो के लिए अलग अलग कोचिंग संस्थानो के नोट्स उपलब्ध करवा रहे ताकि आप Syllabus को अच्छे से समझ सके। मुख्यतः मुख्य परीक्षा हेतु नोट्स है लेकिन प्रारम्भिक/Prelims परीक्षाओं में भी इनकी भूमिका रहती है।

RPSC ने RAS/RTS Mains Exam हमारे द्वारा उपलब्ध करवाए नोट्स में उत्कर्ष जोधपुर, निर्माण जयपुर, गितांजलि जयपुर इत्यादि संस्थानो के नोट्स है।


ईमेल से सब्स्क्राइब कर लीजिए ताकि नए पोस्ट से अपडेट रह सके।

  1. History by Nirman IAS ( चलते-चलते)
  2. History, Culture by GIA 
  3. Rajasthan Art, Printing, handicraft 
  4. राजस्थान देवी – देवता 
  5. राजस्थान: स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन, जनजागरणव राजनीतिक एकीकरण
  6. Heritage of Rajasthan
  7. लोक देवता, क्षेत्रीय बोलिया, वेशभूषा, संत-समुदाय, पर्व-मेले , साहित्य-नाट्य-नृत्य आदि
  8. Rajasthan History ( प्राचीन एवं मध्यकालीन भारत )

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-I



RPSC RAS Mains Paper-II Unit-3 World Geography Notes

General Studies Paper-II- RAS/RTS Mains Examination
Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)
Part A- World
• Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers
• Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact
• Earth and its Geological time scale
• Current Geopolitical Problems



RAS Mains General Studies Paper-II Unit-III Part-A World Geography Notes

RAS/RTS Mains General Studies Paper-II

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

  • Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers
  • Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact
  • Earth and its Geological time scale
  • Current Geopolitical Problems

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-I



Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers:-

Landforms are the natural features and shapes existent on the face of the earth.

  • Landforms possess many different physical characteristics and are spread out throughout the planet. Together, landforms constitute a specific terrain and their physical arrangement in the landscape forms what is termed as topography.
  • The physical features of landforms include slope, elevation, rock exposure, stratification and rock type. Oceans and continents illustrate the largest grouping of landforms. They are they further subcategorized into many different landforms based on their physical features and shapes. Examples of distinctive landforms include mountains, valleys, plateaus, glaciers, hills, loess, deserts, shorelines, and plains. Features such as volcanoes, lakes, rivers, mid-ocean ridges, and the great ocean basins are also part of landform features.

The earth has an infinite variety of landforms.  Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat. These landforms are a result of two processes. Within the earth, a continuous movement is taking place. The first or the internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places. The second or the external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion. The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms depending on elevation and slope as mountains, plateaus and plains.

Different Major Landforms on Earth

Major types of landforms on earth include mountains, valleys, plateaus, glaciers, hills, loess, plains and desserts.


A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.

  • The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher than the clouds.
  • As you go higher, the climate becomes colder. In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
  • There are some mountains we cannot see as they are under the sea. Because of harsh climate, less people live in the mountain areas.
  • Since the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming. Mountains may be arranged in a line known as range. Many mountain systems consist of a series of parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometres.
  • The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively. Mountains vary in their heights and shape.

There are three types of mountains

  1. Fold Mountains
  2. Block Mountains
  3. Volcanic Mountains

The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world.

  • The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation.
  • They are very old fold mountains. Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
  • The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben.
  • The Rhine valley and the Vosges Mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems. Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity.
  • Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.
  • The mountains are a storehouse of water.
  • Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity.
  • The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like gum, raisins, etc.
  • Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty. Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.


Hills are raised areas on the surface of the earth with distinctive summits, but are not as high as mountains. Hills are created as a result of accumulation of rock debris or sand deposited by wind and glaciers.

  • They can also be created by faulting when the faults go slightly upwards. Hills are generally present in low mountain valleys and plains.
  • The Black Hills are the most known. Deep erosions of areas previously raised by the earth’s crust disturbances carry most of the soil away leaving behind a hill.
  • Human activities may also create hill when soils are dug and piled giant masses. Volcanic eruptions as well create hills after the eruption when the molten materials or lava cools and hardens in a pile.

RPSC RAS Mains Paper-2 Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes





A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.

  • The height of plateaus often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres. Plateaus, like mountains may be young or old.
  • The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus. The East African Plateau in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and the Western plateau of Australia are other examples.
  • The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to 6,000 metres above the mean sea level.
  • Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits. As a result, many of the mining areas in the world are located in the plateau areas. The African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.
  • In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau. In the plateau areas, there may be several waterfalls as the river falls from a great height.
  • In India, the Hundru falls in the Chhotanagpur plateau on the river Subarnarekha and the Jog falls in Karnataka are examples of such waterfalls. The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that is fertile and good for cultivation.



Plains are large stretches of flat land.

  • They are, generally, not more than 200 metres above mean sea level.
  • Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating.
  • Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.
  • The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them.
  • They carry forward the eroded material.
  • Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys.
  • It is from these deposits that plains are formed. Generally, plains are very fertile Construction of transport network is easy.
  • Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China. Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation.
  • There is great concentration of people as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.Because of fertile soils, the land is highly productive for cultivation. In India too, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated regions of the country.



Masses of ice moving as sheets over the land (continental glacier or piedmont glacier if a vast sheet of ice is spread over the plains at the foot of mountains) or as linear flows down the slopes of mountains in broad trough-like valleys (mountain and valley glaciers) are called glaciers.

  • The movement of glaciers is slow unlike water flow. The movement could be a few centimetres to a few metres a day or even less or more.
  • Glaciers move basically because of the force of gravity.Erosion by glaciers is tremendous because of friction caused by sheer weight of the ice. The material plucked from the land by glaciers (usually large-sized angular blocks and fragments) get dragged along the floors or sides of the valleys and cause great damage through abrasion and plucking.
  • Glaciers can cause significant damage to even un-weathered rocks and can reduce high mountains into low hills and plains.
  • As glaciers continue to move, debris gets removed, divides get lowered and eventually the slope is reduced to such an extent that glaciers will stop moving leaving only a mass of low hills and vast outwash plains along with other depositional features.




Cirques are the most common of landforms in glaciated mountains. The cirques quite often are found at the heads of glacial valleys. The accumulated ice cuts these cirques while moving down the mountain tops. They are deep, long and wide troughs or basins with very steep concave to vertically dropping high walls at its head as well as sides.

  • A lake of water can be seen quite often within the cirques after the glacier disappears. Such lakes are called cirque or tarn lakes. There can be two or more cirques one leading into another down below in a stepped sequence.
  • Horns and Serrated Ridges Horns form through head ward erosion of the cirque walls. If three or more radiating glaciers cut headward until their cirques meet, high, sharp pointed and steep sided peaks called horns form.
  • The divides between cirque side walls or head walls get narrow because of progressive erosion and turn into serrated or saw-toothed ridges sometimes referred to as arêtes with very sharp crest and a zig-zag outline.


Glacial Valleys/Troughs

Glaciated valleys are trough-like and U-shaped with broad floors and relatively smooth, and steep sides. The valleys may contain littered debris or debris shaped as moraines with swampy appearance.

  • There may be lakes gouged out of rocky floor or formed by debris within the valleys. There can be hanging valleys at an elevation on one or both sides of the main glacial valley.
  • The faces of divides or spurs of such hanging valleys opening into main glacial valleys are quite often truncated to give them an appearance like triangular facets. Very deep glacial troughs filled with sea water and making up shorelines (in high latitudes) are called fjords/fiords.
  • Depositional Landforms the unassorted coarse and fine debris dropped by the melting glaciers is called glacial till. Most of the rock fragments in till are angular to subangular in form. Streams form by melting ice at the bottom, sides or lower ends of glaciers.
  • Some amount of rock debris small enough to be carried by such melt-water streams is washed down and deposited. Such glaciofluvial deposits are called outwash deposits. Unlike till deposits, the outwash deposits are roughly stratified and assorted. The rock fragments in outwash deposits are somewhat rounded at their edges.



They are long ridges of deposits of glacial till. Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end (toe) of the glaciers. Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys.

  • The lateral moraines may join a terminal moraine forming a horse-shoe shaped ridge. There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley.
  • These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glaciofluvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers.
  • Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley floors. Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines.
  • The moraine in the centre of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.



Deserts are the hot and dry areas of the world. They are the arid and semi-arid lands with little or no vegetation. Deserts constitute approximately 20% of the earth’s total land cover and are distinguished by little or no rainfall.

  • The deserts are divided into four major categories including the Semi-Arid Deserts, the Hot and Dry Deserts, the Cold Deserts, and the Coastal Deserts.
  • These deserts are located in different areas of the world. Deserts experience very high temperatures, less cloud cover, low humidity, low atmospheric pressure, and very little rain, which makes them have very little vegetation cover.
  • The soil cover is also rocky and shallow and with very little organic matter and as such, it only supports a few plants adapted to the conditions. Plants such as cacti and short shrubs are the ones adapted to the desert conditions because they can conserve water and tolerate the high temperatures.
  • Animals in the deserts include insects, small carnivores, snakes, lizards, and birds adapted to survive with very little water. These animals hide during the day till nightfall to avoid the heat. An example of a desert is the Sahara of North Africa.



A lake (from Latin lacus) is a large body of water (larger and deeper than a pond) within a body of land. As a lake is separated from the ocean, it is not a sea. Some lakes are very big, and people in the past sometimes called them seas. Lakes do not flow, like rivers, but many have rivers flowing into and out of them.

Lakes are classified into various types based on their origin or mode of formation. Here is a description of these different types of lakes:


Meteorite (extraterrestrial impact/ crater) lake

Meteorite lakes are formed in the depressions made on land by the impact of a meteor or asteroid crashing on to the Earth’s surface.

  • Over the years, precipitation accumulates in the natural depression, creating a lake. The Lonar Crater Lake, a saline soda lake located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, is an example of a meteorite lake.A study of the sediments at the bottom of such lakes often yields valuable information about extraterrestrial objects.

Anthropogenic lakes

Such lakes are created as a direct or indirect result of human activities. The most common origin of anthropogenic lakes is the creation of reservoirs by damming a river or stream.

  • Such reservoir lakes serve several purposes like the generation of hydroelectricity, storage of water for future needs, Pisciculture, etc.
  • Often, sites excavated by people are left abandoned and are filled up with water from underground aquifers or precipitation, resulting in the formation of man-made lakes.


Shoreline lakes

Shoreline lakes are formed along the coastline or between islands and mainland mainly due to the deposition of sediments by rivers, wave action or ocean currents that result in the creation of a water body separated from a larger water body by such deposits.

  • For examples, when estuaries are blocked or beach ridges grow by the action of sea currents, shoreline lakes are created.
  • Similarly, the meeting of two spits dividing a larger lake results in a shoreline lake.
  • When two spits or tom bolos connect the island to the mainland, the lake that is formed in between the two spits or tom bolos is also a shoreline lake.


Aeolian lakes

Lakes produced as a result of the action of winds are called Aeolian lakes. Such lakes are usually formed in arid environments where layers of wind-blown sand act as a natural dam in a lake basin, giving birth to an Aeolian lake. Such lakes are also formed due to the accumulation of water via precipitation in the cavity between two sand dunes. Such lakes are called interduneal lakes. An example of an Aeolian lake is Moses Lake in Washington, US.


Solution lakes

A solution lake is formed when the bedrock is soluble and the dissolution of the bedrock by Precipitation and percolating water results in the formation of hollows or cavities that can give birth to a lake.

  • The accumulation of precipitation in the cavity can fill it up to create a lake. Also, if the soluble bedrock collapses to form sinkholes in a region where ground water is close to the surface then the water can fill up the sinkhole creating a solution lake.
  • Such lakes are common in areas with Karst topography. Solution lakes are found in many parts of Florida and Croatia’s Dalmatian coast.


Landslide lakes

Landslide lakes are created when a river is naturally dammed by the deposition of debris resulting from a rock avalanche, landslide, mudflow, or volcanic eruption.

  • Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions often lead to the formation of such lakes. These lakes are also known as debris dams or barrier lakes.
  • Landslides triggered by earthquakes or heavy rainfall are the most common cause of formation of a landslide lake (about 84% of such lakes result from this cause). Volcanic eruptions are responsible for the formation of 7% of lakes of this type.
  • Landslide lakes usually do not last for long as they are of a rather ‘loose nature.’ Often flooding with a high number of casualties is the end consequence.
  • Floods originating from landslide dams result in either back flooding during the time of formation of the lake or downstream flooding at the time of failure.
  • The SoI Dam located in Tajikistan is a landslide dam triggered by an earthquake, the highest known of its kind.

Fluvial lakes

The flow of a river is usually not straight but the river bends and meanders throughout its course due to the uneven and non-uniform topography of the land. As the river flows, a number of lakes are formed by the running water and are called the fluvial lakes. The oxbow lake is a classic example of a fluvial lake. Carter Lake in Iowa, US, is an example of an oxbow lake.

Tectonic lakes

Tectonic lakes often result in the formation of some of the deepest and largest lakes in the world. As the name suggests, such lakes are formed by the tectonic movements of the Earth’s crust like tilting, folding, faulting, etc. Lake Baikal, the Caspian Sea, and the Sea of Aral are some of the examples of tectonic lakes.

Glacial lakes

Glacial lakes are formed from a melted glacier. As glaciers flow down, the erosive action of the glaciers often creates natural depressions in the bedrock below the glaciers.

  • When the glaciers recede like during the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago, patches of ice in the depression on bedrock created by glacial erosion are left behind.
  • Once the ice in these depressions melts, glacial lakes are created. Glacial lakes are quite common and most of North America’s and Europe’s lakes have a glacial origin. The Great Lakes of North America and the lakes of England’s Lake District are all examples of glacial lakes.

Volcanic lakes

Lakes with a volcanic origin are known as volcanic lakes. These lakes are usually formed in volcanic calderas or craters or when lahars or lava flows interrupt the flow of a river or stream. Volcanic lakes are formed in volcanic craters or calderas when the rate of precipitation is higher than the rate of loss of water via evaporation or drainage through an outlet.

  • An example of a lake formed in a caldera is the Crater Lake which is present within Mount Manama’s caldera in Oregon,
  • The Malheur Lake in Oregon is an example of a volcanic lake that was formed by the damming of a river, the Malheur River, by lava flow.

Organic lakes

Organic lakes are formed by the action of flora or fauna.

  • These lakes are relatively small in size and quite rare in occurrence. An example of an organic lake is a reservoir created by the damming of a river by the action of beavers. Coral lakes or dams created by vegetative growth also lead to the formation of organic lakes.

RRB Group D Exam 14 November Question Analysis All Shift

Railways RRB Group D exam is taking place today i.e 14th November 2018. The RRB Group D exam is scheduled in 3 shifts from 9AM, 12:30PM, and 4:00PM. Read this article about RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 with questions asked. Furthermore, go through the RRB Group D expected cut off and RRB Group D difficulty level. Analyse your paper with this article about the RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018.

Memory – Based Paper for RRB Group D

Check the below link to know the questions asked in RRB Group D Exam. You can practice for the next exam with this Memory Based Paper. So, make your preparation and practice more rigorous and tough with this free test. Try to solve the questions as if you are giving the actual exam!

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 1st Shift

General Science

  • What is present in Solar Energy?
  • What is the main component of Natural Gas? – Methane
  • What is called as Protein factory? – Ribosomes
  • Gases around the earth form what? – Atmosphere
  • Rusting of an Iron is an example of? – Oxidation
  • What is present in hemoglobin? Options: 1. Copper 2. Iron – Iron



Profit and Loss



General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • Where is Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre located? – Thiruvananthapuram
  • Which National Park is famous for one horn Rhino? – Kaziranga National Park
  • Baburnaman was written in which language? – Turkey
  • Ravichandran Ashwin became the fastest bowler to reach the 300 test wickets, he has broken whose record? – Dennis Lillie
  • Who is the current CEO of Amazon? – Jeff Bezos
  • Who is the current CEO of Microsoft? – Satya Nadella
  • Who is India’s current Attorney General? – K.K Venugopal
  • Where did International Film Festival of India 2017 held? – Goa
  • What is the Capital of Cuba? – Havana
  • When is World Radio day? – 13th February
  • Where is Dudhwa National Park situated? – Uttar Pradesh
  • Who is the Chairperson of National Commission for Women? – Rekha Sharma
  • Who has the right to resolve Lok Sabha? – Prime Minister

General Intelligence & Reasoning

To be updated.

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 2nd Shift


Profit and Loss


General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • Muskaan Kirar is related to which game? – Archery
  • Recently, due to some security issues Google has announced to close their product? Options: a) Google drive b) Youtube c) Google Plus d) Google Docs – Google Plus
  • Who is the first Indian Gymnast to participate in Olympics? – Deepa Karmakar
  • Which is the state animal of Andhra Pradesh? – Blackbuck
  • Who is Presiding over Lok Sabha? – Sumitra Mahajan
  • Which is the hottest planet in the Solar System? – Venus
  • Which movie received Best Social Film Award in National Film Award 2017?
  • Which country hosted the Asia Cricket Cup 2018? – UAE
  • What is the capital of Uganda? – Kampala

General Science

  • Who discovered DNA? – Watson and Crick
  • Non active elements are placed in which group? – 18th Group

General Intelligence & Reasoning

Calendar – 3 Qs

Blood relation – 3 Qs

Analogy – 2 Qs

Mirror image – 2 Qs

General Science

  • Cusec is used to measure what?
  • Who discovered Blind language? – Louis Braille
  • Calorimeter is made of which metal? – Copper
  • What is the pH value of Blood?


Profit and Loss based question.

Mensuration – 2 Qs

General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • What is artificial rayon called as? – Silk
  • Which is the best soil for the production of wheat? – Jallod
  • Which country is the leading producer of Bauxite in the world? – China
  • Which island is called as White island? – Antarctica
  • Keoladeo National Park is situated in which state? – Rajasthan
  • Who is the Rajyapal of Tamil Nadu? – Banwari Lala Purohit
  • What is the currency of Britain? – Pound Sterling
  • Suzuki is the company of which country? – Japan
  • Who is the Chairperson of Indian Table Tennis? – Dushyant Chautala
  • When is World Diabetes Day? – 14th Nov
  • When is the 11th World Hindi Convention held? – Mauritius

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 2nd Shift

General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • Which country hosted the 2018 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) summit? – Nepal
  • Who was the first British Viceroy of India? – Lord Canning
  • Which gas is released when metals react with water? – Hydrogen and Nitrogen
  • Where is Aravalli range located? – Rajasthan
  • What is the unit of acceleration? – m/s2
  • Who started the Swasthya Bacche Abhiyaan? – Prakash Javadekar
  • Fastest cricketer to score century? – AB De Villiers
  • Omar Abdullah of J& K belongs to which party? – Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC)
  • Shooting World Cup 2018 will be held in which country?
  • General Science
  • What is the maximum number of elements in the Periodic table?
  • Who is the Author of Origin of Species? – Charles Darwin


  • The principal which will amount to Rs. 270.40 in 2 years at the rate of 4% per annum. What is the compound interest ?
  • Compound Interest on a sum of money for 2 years at 4% per annum is Rs. 2448. Simple interest on the same sum of money at the same rate of interest for 2 years will be how much?

General Intelligence & Reasoning

To be updated.

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 3rd Shift