Mission Antyodaya

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Mission Antyodaya

  1. Mission Antyodaya is an accountability and convergence framework for transforming lives and livelihoods on measurable outcomes. Real Difference comes about through Convergence as it alone simultaneously addresses multi dimensions of poverty, Professionals, Institutions and Enterprises make it possible.
  2. Mission Antyodaya focuses on most backward districts.
  3. Ministries has been consistently been adopting new methodologies and technologies to enhance its service delivery capacity.
  4. The main advantage of this application is convergence of data from Gram Panchayat Level.
  5. The convergence of multiple schemes under a single scheme could enable the government to migrate all these to the digital Aadhar-enabled platform thereby contributing further to the Digital India mission aims.
  6. Over 25 Ministries/ Departments through specific programs are involved in Mission Antyodaya Project.

Chakma and Hajong Refugees

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Chakma and Hajong Refugees

  1. The Union government is considering granting citizenship to over a lakh Chakma and Hajong refugees, who have been living in India for over 50 years.
  2. The Chakmas and Hajongs lived in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, and had to flee when their land was submerged by the Kaptai dam project in the 1960s.
  3. Chakmas are predominantly Buddhists, while Hajongs are Hindus. They are found in northeast India, West Bengal, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
  4. Why are they called refugees?
  5. The Chakmas and Hajongs living in India are Indian citizens. Some of them, mostly from Mizoram, live in relief camps in southern Tripura due to tribal conflict with Mizos. These Indian Chakmas living in Tripura take part in Mizoram elections too. The Election Commission sets up polling booths in relief camps.
  1. In the 1960s, the Chakma refugees were accommodated in the relief camps constructed in the “vacant lands” of Tirap, Lohit and Subansiri districts of the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), a political division governed by the Union government.
  2. In 1972, NEFA was renamed Arunachal Pradesh and made a Union Territory, and subsequently, it attained statehood. The locals and regional political parties opposed re-settling refugees in their land fearing that it may change the demography of the State and that they may have to share the limited resources available for them.

NITI Aayog releases Strategy for New India @ 75

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NITI Aayog releases Strategy for New India @ 75

  1. NITI Aayog has tried to bring innovation, technology, enterprise and efficient management as the core of policy formulation and implementation.
  2. It contains four sections: Drivers, Infrastructure, Inclusion and Governance:
  3. Drivers: Focus here is on the engines of economic performance such as growth and employment, doubling of farmers’ incomes and promotion of sunrise sectors like fintech.
  4. Infrastructure: It deals with the physical foundations of growth which are crucial for Indian economic growth.
  5. Inclusion: It deals with the urgent task of investing in the development of the Human resource of the country. The three themes in this section consider three dimensions such as health, education, and mainstreaming of traditionally marginalized sections of the population.
  6. Governance: It talks about how the governance structures can be streamlined and processes optimized to achieve better developmental outcomes.

Global Skills Park (GSP) in Madhya Pradesh

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Global Skills Park (GSP) in Madhya Pradesh

  1. Government of India along with Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed a loan agreement to establish a Global Skills Park in the Madhya Pradesh.
  2. It will help in enhancing the quality of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System and create a more skilled workforce.
  3. It will engage with global TVET partners for advanced training at the GSP which help in foundation of best practices in TVET management, training infrastructure, industry cooperation, and quality assurance.
  4. It will be the first Multi Skills Park in India
  5. It will also include the Center for Occupational Skills Acquisition and the Center for Advanced Agricultural Training.

World Custom Organization

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World Customs Organization (WCO)

The 80th session of Policy Commission of the World Customs Organization (WCO) meeting was hosted by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC), India in Mumbai.

World Customs Organization (WCO)

  1. It was established in 1952 as the Customs Co-operation Council. In 1994, the Council agreed to adopt the working name ‘World Customs Organization’ to better reflect the growth in its worldwide membership.
  2. It is an independent intergovernmental body to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of Customs administrations.
  3. It is the only global organization which defines global standards and procedures for customs clearances at the border and their implementation.

India and WCO

  1. India is a member of the WCO since 1971.
  2. It is a part of the Asia Pacific region.
  3. India is currently vice-chair (regional head) of the Asia Pacific region of the World Customs Organisation (WCO) for a period of two years till June 2020.

North East Industrial Development Scheme (NEIDS)

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NEIDS: North East Industrial Development Scheme (NEIDS), 2017

  1. It covers eligible industrial units in the manufacturing and service sectors in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.
  2. It will help in promotion of Industrialization in North-East Region that will give boost to the employment and income generation.
  3. Total Outlay for the scheme is Rs 3000 cr with the time period extending from April 2017-March 2022.
  4. It comes under Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry
  5. The scheme provides for various soaps such as:
  6. Up-to Rs 5 Crore for 30% of the investment in plant & machinery as Central Capital Investment Incentive. Similarly, an interest incentive of 3% would be provided on working capital for 5 years as Central Interest Incentive.
  7. Reimbursement of 100% insurance premium for 5 years known as Central Comprehensive Insurance Incentive
  8. Employment Incentive under which additional 3.67% of the employer’s contribution to EPF in addition to Govt. bearing 8.33% Employee Pension Scheme (EPS) contribution of the employer in PMRPY.
  9. Income tax (Centre’s Share) and GST (of CGST & IGCST only) reimbursement for 5 years.
  10. Transport incentive on finished goods movement by Railways, Inland Waterways Authority & by air from the station/port/airport nearest to unit to the station/port/ airport nearest to the destination point.
  11. Also, under this scheme, a single unit can avail overall benefits up to Rs. 200 Crores.

India to Chair Kimberley Process

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  1. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) Plenary 2018 was held in Brussels, Belgium.
  2. European Union has passed on the Chairmanship of KPCS to India from 1st January 2019.
  3. India was the Vice-Chair during the period of 2017-2018.

Kimberley Process (KP):

  • It is a binding agreement that imposes extensive requirements on every participant to remove conflict diamonds from the global supply chain.
  • It has the underlying support of the United Nations mandate.

Conflict diamonds: Conflict diamonds are the ‘rough diamonds used to finance wars against governments’ around the world.

India’s Role:

India is the founding member of KPCS and is actively involved in KP activities to ensure that almost 99% of the diamond trade in the world is conflict free.

India is at the forefront in addressing the issue of differentiation between Natural Diamonds and Lab Grown Diamonds and ensures responsible business in this area.

India chaired the Ad hoc Committee on Review and Reform (AHCRR).

250-Important topics for UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2019

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The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) will be conducting the Civil Services Preliminary Exam commonly called the IAS Prelims Exam on 2 June 2019.  The candidates need to work on the most important topic for the IAS Preliminary Exam. There are certain topics which found their place each year in the IAS Preliminary Exam.  The candidates need to focus their preparation on these important topics so that you can improve your score in the IAS Preliminary Exam.

UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam 2019

Important Topics for IAS Prelims Exam – 2019

  1. Cyclone Fani (Basics of cyclone, types of cyclones, how they are named)
  2. Intellectual Property Rights
  3. Black Hole
  4. Amethi and Raebareli (Important institutions/industries in these regions)
  5. El-Nino Effect on Monsoon
  6. Space Debris
  7. Jammu & Kashmir (Places in news)
  8. Intelligence Satellite
  9. Kailash Mansarovar
  10. SHREYAS
  11. National War Memorial
  12. FATF: Noose Tightens for Pakistan: FATF
  13. Passport Ranking
  14. Dial 112
  15. Women pioneers in Science
  16. Digital Security
  17. RBI – Monetary Policy
  18. Shifting Magnetic North Pole
  19. Motion of Thanks
  20. Supreme Court
  21. BrahMos
  22. India’s Nuclear Policy
  23. Finance Commission
  24. India Strategic Overseas Fund
  25. Elections and Model Code of Conduct in India
  26. New India @75
  27. SDG India Index Baseline Report
  28. Move Summit Reports
  29. Hydrocarbon Vision 2030 for North-East
  30. The Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill 2018
  31. Geospatial Information Regulation Bill
  32. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojna (PM-KISAN)
  33. PMJAY
  34. Responsible use of plastic
  35. Netaji’s legacy
  36. Budget: Health & Sanitation
  37. Sardar Patel
  38. Budget: Agri Infrastructure
  39. Budget -Social Scheme
  40. Budget – Social Security
  41. North Sentinel Island
  42. 20 Years of International Space Station
  43. Ayushman India
  44. Oral Cancer
  45. Indo-Pacific: New Possibilities
  46. California Wildfires
  47. Mahaparv Chhath
  48. Indian Army in First World War
  49. Air Pollution
  50. Maneaters of India
  51. RBI Act Section – 7
  52. Restoring Balance of Bio Diversity
  53. Statue of Unity
  54. Ayodhya
  55. India’s Engineless ‘Train18’
  56. Moon: Made in China
  57. CBI
  58. Indian Police System
  59. Chandrayaan
  60. Sabarimala
  61. Strategic Petroleum Reserve I strategic oil reserves
  62. Sikkim: India’s First Organic State
  63. Industrial Revolution 4.0
  64. Lokanayak JP
  65. Cyclone Titli
  66. Zika Virus
  67. The Nobel Prize
  68. Gir Lions under Threat
  69. Gandhi and Swachh Bharat
  70. Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Day
  71. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay
  72. Interceptor Missile
  73. Improving Infant Mortality Rate
  74. NOTA
  75. HCNG: Fuel of the Future
  76. India Post Payments Bank
  77. BIMSTEC 2018
  78. Biofuel: Increasing Radius
  79. Sports Policy | National Sports Day
  80. Drone Policy
  81. Article 35-A
  82. Facial Recognition
  83. Gaganyaan
  84. Nanda Devi Mission
  85. Quit India Movement
  86. Meghalayan Age
  87. Discover Shale Oil
  88. Earth Overshoot day
  89. Assam Accord
  90. Missile Shield
  91. Asia Africa Growth Corridor
  92. India Post Payments Bank
  93. CRR, SLR, Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate, Bank Rate
  94. 4th Industrial Revolution
  95. New Silk Route
  96. Stand Up India Scheme
  97. BRI – Belt and Road Initiative and India
  98. Veto Powers of the UNSC Permanent Members
  99. Missile Technology Control Regime and India
  100. Brexit Issue
  101. India and NSG Membership dynamics
  102. Nuclear Security Summit
  103. International Solar Alliance
  104. Blood Moon
  105. Kargil War
  106. Privilege Motion
  107. Motor Vehicles Act 2017
  108. No confidence motion (Intent and Objective)
  109. BRICS Summit
  110. Golan Heights
  111. Mission Shakti
  112. Story of Bangladesh
  113. End of ISIS
  114. Lokpal
  115. The Electoral Reforms
  116. Virtual ID
  117. Mining Of Helium-3 on moon
  118. Sant Kabir
  119. Malaria Vaccine
  120. BRI Summit 2019
  121. Kimberley process
  122. World Heritage Day
  123. Western Disturbance
  124. Notre Dame
  125. Aviation Sector in Crisis
  126. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  127. Budget – Health
  128. Budget: Agriculture
  129. Operation Clean Air
  130. EWS Reservation
  131. JPC – Joint Parliamentary Committee
  132. Other side of Moon
  133. Brexit
  134. Pioneers of Aviation
  135. Rafale
  136. Air Pollution: ICMR Report
  137. Baba Saheb Ambedkar
  138. Augusta Westland Helicopter Case
  139. International Disability Day
  140. G-20 and India
  141. Kartarpur
  142. InSight on Mars
  143. Powers of Governor & Lt Governor
  144. Bank Merger policy
  145. SCO Summit 2018
  146. Oceans of Plastic
  147. S-400 Air Defence System
  148. Science of Monsoon
  149. Heat wave
  150. INSV Tarini
  151. Ayushman Bharat – National Health Protection Mission
  152. Indradhanush Scheme for Banks
  153. Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Karyakram
  154. SETU BHARATAM PROJECT
  155. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
  156. Gram Uday se Bharat Uday Abhiyaan
  157. Smart Cities Mission
  158. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
  159. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
  160. Project Sunrise   
  161. Ganga Gram Yojana
  162. Universal Basic Income
  163. Mission SHAKTI
  164. Zinc Deficiency and its effects
  165. Cauvery Water Dispute and Analysis
  166. Himalayas in India
  167. Different Indices related to Human Development
  168. Water Resources of India—River systems, Waterfalls
  169. Renewable Energy
  170. Food Web and Food Chain
  171. CoP24 Summit 2018
  172. 1857 Revolt and Associated Leaders
  173. Social Reforms in the Indian Society and related Acts
  174. Indian National Congress and its meetings
  175. India After the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi
  176. Life of Mahatma Gandhi and the Movements
  177. HSRA and associated leaders
  178. Bengal Partition and Delhi Darbar
  179. List of Governor General and Associated Works
  180. Puna Pact
  181. Simon Commission
  182. Education under British
  183. Agriculture Taxing Structure under Britishers
  184. Agrarian Revolts
  185. Gautama Buddha, Buddhist Councils and principles of Buddhism
  186. Jainism, its principles and 24 Jain Tirthankars
  187. Temple Architectures
  188. Mauryan Rule overview
  189. Ashokan Inscriptions
  190. West Nile Virus
  191. Potassium Bromate
  192. Zika Virus       
  193. IRNSS
  194. E-Way Bill
  195. Mehta panel submits 5-point plan to fight NPAs
  196. Chakma and Hajong Refugees
  197. The Manned Mission
  198. Yamuna Cleanup
  199. Coal Mining and Accidents
  200. Tsunami
  201. 3D Printing Technology
  202. DPSP—Uniform Civil Code, Animal Husbandry, Child Labour
  203. Union Executive—Prime Minister and Union Council of Ministers
  204. Types of Bills- Money Bill, Finance Bill, Private Member Bill
  205. Veto Powers of President
  206. State Judiciary
  207. Green Climate Fund
  208. GM Mustard Crop Approval and Other Issues
  209. Role of Governments in flood mitigation
  210. Gupta Rulers and its overview
  211. Accession of Qutub-ud-Din Aibak
  212. Vijay Nagar Empire-Harihara and Bukka
  213. Arts, Architecture and major achievement of Mughal Rulers
  214. Akhbar and his religious philosophy- in Details
  215. Aurangzeb and his Policies
  216. Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan and wars they fought
  217. Solid Waste Management in India  
  218. National Company Law Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal
  219. Animal Husbandry in India
  220. National Agriculture Market
  221. India to Chair Kimberley Process
  222. NABH (Nextgen Airports for Bharat) Nirman Initiative
  223. North East Industrial Development Scheme (NEIDS)
  224. World Custom Organization
  225. Global Skills Park (GSP) in Madhya Pradesh
  226. International Gita Mahotsav
  227. Boeing 737 Max
  228. Model Code of Conduct
  229. The History of Elections
  230. Spice 2000 – Smart Bomb | Spice 2000
  231. Permanent Commission for women in Armed Forces
  232. PM Shram Yogi Maan dhan Scheme
  233. Implications of Farm Loan Waiver
  234. Mission Antyodaya
  235. Umang-APP
  236. Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS)
  237. Article 35A
  238. State Flag Issue
  239. Mahashivratri
  240. Geneva Convention
  241. Nelson Mandela
  242. Monsoon Session of Parliament
  243. Mob Lynching
  244. 74th Constitutional Amendment
  245. Indian Medicines and global market
  246. Future of WTO
  247. Kailash Mansarovar Yatra
  248. Swami Vivekananda
  249. Startup Ranking
  250. Nari-Portal

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The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

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The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture

The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture is defined by the type of similar Ochre Pottery found at different sites. In 1951, B.B. Lal carried out small digs at Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu villages in Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh at spots where copper hoards had reportedly been discovered earlier. While B.B. Lal did not find any new copper objects, he came across weathered ochre-coloured pottery (OCP), and on that basis he suggested a probable correlation between the hoards and this pottery. Since then as many as 950 sites of OCP culture have been discovered from the different parts of western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.

  • Further, because of their discovery in groups, they have also been labelled as Copper Hoard Culture.

The highest Number of the OCP sites in Rajasthan is found in the district of Sikar followed by Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, Alwar and Bharatpur.

Features of OCP Culture:

 The hoards comprise a variety of objects like flat axes with Splayed sides and convex cutting edges, shouldered axes, bar Celts, double-edged axes and antenna-hilted swords.

  1. The pottery is ill-fired, ochrish red in colour, and heavily weathered, with the slip peeling off. The shapes comprise storage jars, vases, basins, bowls, dishes-on-stand and miniature pots; they are considerably similar to the Harappan pottery shapes.
  2. Occasionally the pottery is decorated with incised designs, graffiti and paintings in black pigment.
  3. OCP settlements are small in size and have thin habitation deposit. This indicates that habitation on them was of short duration. Because of the small size of excavations very little is known of the economy and material culture associated with this pottery.
  4.  Evidence was found regarding cultivation of rice and barley, domestication of cattle, rammed earth floors, post-holes, baked and unbaked bricks, terracotta human figurines and bangles, and beads of stone and bone.

Important Sites of OCP Culture: In Rajasthan, Ochre Colored Pottery sites have been discovered at Ganeshwar (Sikar)andJodhpura (Jaipur).

Ganeshwar (Sikar)

Ganeshwar is a village in Neem Ka Thana Tehsil in the Sikar District. Excavations have revealed ancient sites, with remains of a 4000 years old civilization. The site is located at source of river Kantali, which used to join river Drishadwati, near Soni-Bhadra on the north.

Historian R.L. Mishra wrote that, Red pottery with black portraiture was found which is estimated to be belonging to 2500–2000 BC was found when Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977.

Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. It mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

  • Copper objects, Microlith & pottery were found throughout the deposits.
  •  Copper objects included arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels.
  •  Microlith, discovered here, represent a highly evolved geometric industry, the principal tool types being blunted-back blades, obliquely-blunted blades, lunates, triangles and points. The raw materials employed for the industry include qarts, garnet, and occasionally jasper.
  • The Pottery found represents OCP culture and includes storage jars, vases, basins, bowls, lids and miniature pots.

Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

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Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

A number of Chalcolithic cultures have been discovered in northern, central and western India. The Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP) culture in the Punjab, Haryana, north-east Rajasthan and upper Ganga-Yamuna doab

  •  The Narhan culture and its variants in the northern Vindhyas and the middle and lower Ganga valley.
  • The Ahar culture in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.
  • The Kayatha and Malwa cultures in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Jorwe culture in western Maharashtra.

The Ahar culture, also known as the Banas culture, is a Chalcolithic Culture of southeastern, Rajasthan, lasting from 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley Civilization. The Main distribution of this culture seems to be concentrated in the river valleys of Banas and its tributaries namely Berach and Ahar. More than 90 sites of the culture have been identified till date, out of which, Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are prominent sites. These sites of Ahar culture provide important information about the transformation of life from hunting-gathering to agriculture in the Mewar region.

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture:

Houses: People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses and the houses were made of stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.

Pottery: Typical Ahar pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it in white pigment and has limited range of shapes, which include bowls, bowls-on-stands, elongated vases and globular vases.

Economy & Subsistence: The subsistence of Ahar-Banas people was based on cultivation, animal rearing and hunting. They sustained on a number of crops, including wheat and barley. The people of Ahar culture had trade links with the Harappans.

Technology: The technology of Ahar people was mostly based on copper. They exploited the copper ores of the Aravalli Range to make axes and other artefacts.However, the Neolithic trend of using polished stone tools continued in this period also and Microlithic tools of Silicious material were also very common.

Important Sites of Ahar-Banas Culture:

  1. Gilund
  2. Ahar
  3. Ojiyana
  4. Balathal
  5. Pachamta (Because, Excavation done in 2015)

Ahar-Banas is Culture and not Civilization. So what is the difference between Civilization & Culture?

  • Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization. Civilization includes (technology, forms of government etc, and even culture)
  •  Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture. Hence, Culture is earlier or a pre-condition for civilization to develop.
  • All Societies have culture but only a few have Civilization (example, Indus Valley Civilization).

1. Gilund (Rajsamand):

Gilund is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by

B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture. The archaeological site is also known as “Modiya Mangari“. Gilund is also famous for its celebration of “Khehkhara Utsav” (Next day of Diwali).

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture at Gilund: Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation can be divided into two Periods: Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2000 BCE and Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE

Period I:

  • Period I is Chalcolithic in character on account of the presence of a few Microlith along with copper.
  •  All through the period the residential houses are made of mud brick, the walls being plastered with mud. Within the houses are noticed circular clay-lined ovens and open mouthed chulhas.
  • The characteristic Pottery of Period-I is Black-and-Red Ware, painted over with linear and curvilinear designs in a creamish-white pigment, other wares include plain and painted black, burnished grey and red wares.
  •  Among the Terracotta figurines particularly noteworthy are the bull figurines with a prominent hump and long horns.

Period II

  • Period II of Gilund seems to have begun about the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., as indicated by the presence of bowls and dishes of grey ware.
  •  In the successive strata have been found Sunga and Kushana bowls in red ware, sprinklers in the Red Polished Ware, and bowls in kaolin ware and knife-edged bowls in red ware, indicating that this occupation continued up to the end of the 1st millennium A.D.

2. Balathal (Udaipur)

Balathal is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. It is located on banks of Katar River. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63. There were various ethno botanical remains recovered at Balathal and these include wheat, barley, Indian jujube, okra and Job’s tears as well as several varieties of millet, lentils and peas. The excavated remains also included domesticated animals such as sheep, goat and cattle. Archaeologists also discovered several burial sites where the earliest evidence of leprosy in South Asia was found. Apart from manufacturing of

Iron objects, Balathal people cultivated rice, Kodo millet and Bengal gram. They also bred animals, but their reliance over on wild animal was less. The Early Historic pottery of Balathal is generally drab and poor quality in comparison to Chalcolithic pottery. It consists four wares, namely Red, Grey, Black and Red, and Black. A number of stone objects made of locally available quartz or granite, and comprising saddle querns, rotary querns, hammer stones, mullers, pounders and sling balls have been found. Ornaments of the Balathal people included glass, terracotta and copper bangles and beads of terracotta, glass, shell and steatite and semi precious stones, including etched ones. A tiny piece of cotton cloth with matting-type weaving pattern was found. A number of terracotta human and animal figurines, the latter comprising bull, dog, goat and tortoise have been found. Other terracotta objects included weights, lamps, wheels and discs.

This was identified in the remains of an adult male buried sometime between 2500 and 2000 B.C. Balathal was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.

This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the early historic. Excavation at Balathal revealed a Chalcolithic period stretching from 3000 to 1500 BC and an early historic period dated to 5-3 century BC.

Chalcolithic Phase (3000 -1500 BC): Balathal was part of the Ahar-Banas Complex and can be connected to other Ahar-Banas culture sites through artifacts that have been discovered.

  •  The period is characterized by well-planned structures. The houses found at the site are square or rectangular made of mud brick and stones.
  •  Stone objects including saddle querns, mullers, rubber stone, hammer stone and copper objects including choppers, knives, razors, chisels and tanged arrowhead have been found.
  •  It has been determined that the people practiced agro-pastoralism, which is a mixture of both farming and herding animals. Pottery at the site has been thoroughly analyzed and tells much about life at this ancient site.

After the Chalcolithic period the site was abandoned for a long time till the early historic period.

Early Historic Phase (5 – 3 BC):

  • Excavation of early historic phase produced the evidence of large-scale use of iron implements, suggesting its important role in the economy of that period.
  • The people lived in wattle and daub houses and the floors were made of mud and stone rammed together.
  • Iron working in the form of furnaces with iron slags and abundant objects like nails, arrow head, lamps, needle, hoe, spatula, knife etc. are found on site.

Most peculiar item: A skeleton was found buried at Balathal believed to be 4,000 year old skeleton of a man believed to be 37 years when he died. The skeleton it provides the oldest evidence of leprosy in human beings.

3. Pachamta:

Recently in 2015, excavation was carried out at Pachamta, a village 100 km from Udaipur in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

Pachamta belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture. The Ahar culture, datable to 3,000-1,700 BCE, was Chalcolithic and its people had trade links with the Harappans.

Artefacts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan

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Different Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan are:-

  1. Kalibangan Civilizations
  2. Bhinmal Civilizations
  3. Gilund Civilizations
  4. Ganeshwar Civilizations
  5. Ishwal Civilizations
  6. Bairath Civilizations
  7. Balathal Civilizations
  8. Aahar River Civilizations
  9. Bagore Civilizations
  10. Rangmahal Civilizations
  11. Ojiyana Civilizations
  12. Nagari Civilizations
  13. Tilwara Civilizations
  14. Barore Civilizations

1. Kalibangan Civilizations

Kalibangan lies along the left bank of the dried-up bed of River Ghaggar (ancient name Saraswati. It is older than 4000 B.C. approx.

It was first discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1952 AD It comprises of three mounds, the larger one in the middle, the smaller in the west and the smallest in the east .

  • The excavations brought to light grid layout of a Harappan metropolis, perhaps truly it is the first city of the Indian culture heritage.
  • The significant part of the evidence, however, relates to the discovery of an early-Harappan settlement, immediately underlying the occupational remains of the Harappan citadel.
  • The pre-Harappan settlement was a fortified parallelogram, the fortification wall being made of mud-bricks.
  • The houses within the walled area were also made of mud-bricks. The distinctive trait of this period was the pottery which was significantly different from that of the succeeding Harappans.
  • An outstanding discovery was a ploughed field, showing a cross-grid of furrows, the southeast of the settlement outside the town-wall.
  • This is perhaps the earliest ploughed field excavated so far.  During the Harappan period, the structural pattern of the settlement was changed.
  • There were now two distinct parts: the citadel on the west and the lower city on the east. The former was situated atop the remains of the preceding occupations to gain an eminence over the lower city which was laid out on the natural plain towards the east.  The citadel complex was a fortified parallelogram, consisting of two equal but separately patterned parts.
  • The fortification was built throughout of mud-bricks.
  • The southern half of the citadel contained some five to six massive platforms, some of which may have been used for religious or ritual purposes.  The northern half of the citadel contained residential buildings of the elite.
  • The lower city was also fortified. Within the walled city, was a gridiron plan of streets running north-south and east-west, dividing the area into blocks.  The houses were built of mud-bricks, baked bricks being confined to drains, wells, sills, etc.   Beside the above two principal parts of the metropolis, there was also a third one, situated 80 m east of the lower city.
  • It consisted of a modest structure, containing four to five fire-altars and as such could have been used for ritualistic purposes.  Of the finds obtained from this excavation, a cylindrical seal and an incised terracotta cake are quite significant.
  • The cemetery of the Harappans was located to the west-southwest of the citadel
  • Three types of burials were attested: extended inhumation in rectangular or oval grave-pits- pot-burials in a circular pit and rectangular or oval grave-pits containing only pottery and other funerary objects.
  •  The Later two methods were unassociated with skeletal remains.

 2. Bhinmal Civilizations

  • It was explored by the Ratna Chandra Agrawal in 1953 -54 A.D.
  • The original name of Bhinmal was bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils.
  • It was the early capital of the kingdom of Gurjaradesa, a name derived from the Gurjara people.
  • The kingdom is first attested in Bana’s Harshacharita (7th century AD).
  • Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha’s father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD). The surrounding kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.
  • Located in Jalore district and reflects about the trade relations with Unani civilization.
  • Huen Shang has visited the ancient city.

3. Gilund Civilizations

At the ancient site of Gilund, two mounds labelled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’, measuring 45 ft and 25 ft respectively above the surrounding fields in height and covering an area of 500 X 250 yards were partially excavated by a team under the direction of B. B. Lal during 1959-60. Excavation was carried out at three different areas, designated as GLD-1 (with its extension GLD-1A), GLD-2 and GLD-3. The site was later revisited from 1999 to 2005 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania and the Deccan College in Pune, India.

Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation are divided into three phases: Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE, Middle Ahar-Banas 2500-2000 BCE, and Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2500 BCE. Here various housing structures have been uncovered, as well as large buildings with long parallel walls, workshops; refuse heaps, and an exterior wall surrounding the site. The workshop area has revealed that the occupants practiced small-scale craft production. Further analysis of the areas also shows that the inhabitants were agro-pastoralists, meaning that they mixed agricultural practices with livestock herding practices.

Artefact analysis has linked objects found at Gilund to the other sites in the Ahar-Banas Complex, as well as the site of Bagor. In addition, lithics at Gilund and Bagor were produced using the same techniques.

4. Ganeshwar Civilizations: – Excavations in the area revealed the remains of a 4,000-year-old civilization. Historian Ratan Lal Mishra writes that Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found there. Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period. Ganeshwar mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

The copper was obtained in the nearby Aravalli Range

5. Ishwal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Five stage settlement, Iron was melted about 500 B.C.

6. Bairath Civilizations: – Jaipur District near Beejak hills, Explored by Dayaram Sahani in 1937.

7. Balathal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored by V.N. Mishra in 1993. Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India.This site, located 6 km from Vallabhnagar town and 42 km from Udaipur. It’s famous for Ahar Culture.

8. Aahar River Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored by Kirti Vyas in 1953.

9. Bagore Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Explored by V.N. Mishra in 1967. Three stages of Settlements, ie 4480-3285 BC, 2765 BC -500 BC and 500 BC to 400 AD. The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic (pre-Harappa) archaeological site located on the Kothari River in the Bhilwara District of the Rajasthan region of western India. Bagor was excavated by Deccan College scholars such as Virendra Nath Misra and Vasanta Shinde in the 1960s and 1970s, who found evidence for the domestication of sheep, cattle and goats by the nomadic pastoralists of Bagor dating as early as 5000 to 3000 BC.

10. Rangmahal Civilizations: – This early historical site was excavated by the Swedish Archaeological Expedition, during 1952-4. The first settlement was laid around A.D. 250 during Kushana period and flourished up to the sixth or seventh century A.D. During excavations, coins of Kanishka III, besides the Murundas and three earlier coins of Kanishka I, Huvishka and Vasu-deva and a seal paleographical datable to A.D. 300, have been found. Excavation has revealed eight structural phases. The structures were built of mud-bricks of varying sizes but the normal size was about 32 x 23 x 7 cm. The bricks were laid in the English bond system. The floors were paved with mud-bricks. The houses were rectangular with north-south orientation. The site is famous for the manufacture of typical ceramic industry termed as Rang Mahal Ware culture. This distinctive pottery is wheel-made, reddish or pinkish in colour. The types include globular or oval jars and handy with pronounced rims, externally rusticated showing wavy ribs. In some cases the shoulder and the neck are painted in black-on-red polished surface, other types are spouted vase, sprinkler, cooking vessels, storage jars, beaker with or without handle, bowls of different varieties, lamp, incense-burner, etc. A few carinated handis have textile marks on the body. Moulded pottery is represented by the bowl and miniature basin. The decorations on the pottery are applied and incised patterns and paintings. The cultural assemblage also includes figurines in faience, terracotta animal figurines, carts and wheels, weights, balls, flesh-rubbers, discs, dice, votive tanks, potters stamps, pendants, ear-orinaments, beads of coral, paste, lapis lazuli and shell; rotary querns, mullers, pestles and bone and iron objects.

11. Ojiyana Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Previously the site was excavated in the season 1999-2000 which had revealed remains of Chalcolithic cultures. The recent excavation conducted at the site in 2000-01 has yielded white painted black and red wares, white painted terracotta bulls, cow figurines, copper chopper and beads of faience, carnelian, agate, shell, steatite, stone and terracotta and bangles and pendant of copper belonging to Chalcolithic cultures ranging from 3rd millennium B.C. to 2nd millennium B.C.

12. Nagari Civilizations: – It was one of the most important townships of the Mauryan era in Rajasthan, situated on the banks of river Bairach. It was formerly known as Majhimika/Madhyamika, which flourished from the Maurya to Gupta era. The excavations over here have unearthed many interesting facts and have showed signs of strong Hindu and Buddhist influence.

13. Tilwara Civilizations: – Tilwara is an archeological site from where evidence for the Mesolithic culture has been excavated.Its in Barmer district at the bank of river Luni.

14. Barore Civilizations: – Baror is situated on the right bank of dried up river Sarasvasti (modern Ghaggar) in Anupgarh Tehsil of Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. It is located about 13 km. north-east of Anupgarh and about 100 km. south-west of Kalibangan.

L.P. Tessitore (1916-17), Aurel Stein (1940-41) and A. Gosh surveyed this area and identified the archaeological importance of this region.

The excavation work at Baror added new chapter in the study of Harappan Civilization.

The mound of Baror roughly measures 200× 150 mts. and rises to a height of 11 mts. from its surrounding plain. The western portion of the mound is higher and seems to be the citadel whereas the eastern portion is lower indicating lower town.

On the basis of ceramic industries, antiquities and other material culture, recovered from the field-season’s work, a three-fold cultural sequence was established.

Archaeological Sites in Rajasthan: Ancient History

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Indus Valley Civilization: The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak. Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus and at Harappa further upstream. The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system. The social conditions of the citizens were comparable to those in Sumeria and superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These cities display a well-planned urbanization system.

Kalibangan:

Located on the bank of river Ghaghhar in Hanumangarh District.

Discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1953.

Excavated by Brijvasilal in 1961.

Evidence of ploughed field is found.

Evidence of growing Barley and Mustard are found.

Cylindrical seal of Mesopotamia is found here.

Houses were made from Raw bricks (Kachhi Int).

The drainage system was not properly developed.

Evidence of Earthquake.

Sothi (Sothi Civilization):

It was a rural civilization.

Located in Ganganagar District.

Situated on the plain of Ghaghhar and Chautang River.

It is also called Kalibanga 1st.

Historian mentioned it as the origin place of Harappan civilization.

Other Archaeological Sites

1. Ganeshwar: It isLocated on the bank of river Kantali in Sikar District.

Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture group has over 80 other sites currently identified. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Historian Ratna Chandra Agrawal wrote that Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period.

Ganeshwar saw three cultural phases: Period 1 (3800 BCE) which was characterized by hunting and gathering communities using chert tools; Period II (2800 BCE) shows the beginnings of metal work in copper and fired clay pottery; Period III (2000 BCE) featured a variety of pottery and copper goods being produced. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found here. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture.

2. Sunari: It islocated in Jhunjhunu district, as at other sites, the PGW culture (period I) issucceeded by Period II which is represented by unslipped ware though Black and Redand Black slipped wares of PGW period continue and a few NBP sherds are alsopresent. The important antiquities include a stone plaque bearing auspicious Buddhistsymbol, iron implements and copper objects. Period III is represented by typical potteryof the Sunga Kushana period and important finds include a seal with an inscription inBrahmi characters, terracotta animal figurines, and copper cast coins. It is situated on the bank of river Kantali in Jhunjhunu district and It is a Iron Age site.

3. Kurada

  • It is in Nagaur district and also Called Town of Tools.

4. Iswaal

  • Located in Udaipur district and Industrial Town (Because of Iron Mine in Ancient time)

5. Gardara

  • Located in Bundi district and Rock paintings of ancient India are found.

6. Jodhpura

The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Rajasthan, undertook excavation at Jodhpura located on Jaipur-Delhi highway. At Jodhpura Period III, represented by the PGW culture, is succeeded by periods of IV and V both Early Historic age. Period IV is marked by occurrence of NBP ware and unslipped red ware. Important finds of this period include iron arrow heads and nails, shell bangle, terracotta humped bull and stone bead. Period V is represented by Sunga Kushana pottery. The common shapes are bowl, lid cum bowl, and lipped bowl with small spouted channel. Some sherds are stamped with Triratna and Swastika symbols. Other finds of the period comprise iron implements, a terracotta ghata shaped bead, a stone bead and a copper coin.

  • It is located on the bank of river Sabi in Jaipur district.
  • This site is known for incised ware, Reserved Slipware, Copper Arrow heads and Celts.

Gupta Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Gupta Empire in Rajasthan                

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is called the Golden Age of India (there was peace, development and prosperity in the country) by some historians.

  • According to Prayag Prashashthi (Allahabad Inscription), Samundragupta defeated many republican kingdoms.
  • Samundra Gupta defeated Rudradaman II in 351 A.D. and captured southern Rajasthan.
  • Vikramaditya Defeated last Shaka ruler and whole Rajasthan came under Gupta dynasty.
  • Maximum Gupta period coins are found from Bayana (Bharatpur) belonging to Kumar Gupta.
  • Baran (Rajasthan) inscription mention about Gupta period.
  • Durga Temple (Kota) and Shiv Temple (Chachanura) are the best examples of Gupta Architecture.

Post Gupta Period (Huns, Vardhan and Gurjars)

  1. In 503 A.D, Toranmal of Hun Dynasty defeated Guptas and captured Rajasthan.
  2. Mihirkula built Shiva temple in Badauli.
  3. Later Mihikula was defeated by Narsingh Baladitya Gupta and Rajasthan was preoccupied by Guptas.
  4. The capital of Gurjar-Pratihar was Bhinmal.
  5. Chinese traveller Huang Tsang visited Bhinmal during his period.
  6. Brahmagupta belongs to Bhinmal.
  7. Gurjar Pratihar stopped Arab invasion from North West.

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Mauryan Period – Rajasthan

The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, 2,000 years back when he overthrew the Nanda King. His assistant was Chanakya, a shrewd advisor and strategic thinker. He has written a book called Arthashastra that comprises his thoughts on politics, economics, foreign affairs, administration, military arts, war and religion.

Chandragupta was succeeded by Bindusara, his son who extended the Mauryan Empire till Mysore. Bindusara was succeeded by his son Ashoka, who is regarded as the greatest ruler of the empire by many historians. He extended the Mauryan Empire till the modern-day Afghanistan, with Patliputra as capital.

The Mauryan Emperors appointed the family members to control the large empire. Only the capital Patliputra was controlled by the emperor while states like Ujjain and Taxila were governed by royal princes. The Emperors also appointed officials for collecting taxes, maintaining law and order and keeping a check on the activities of the subjects.

  1. Bairat (Viratnagar)

Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, Director of Archaeology and Historical Research of former Jaipur state, conducted excavations at Bairat sometime in the thirties of the last century. we know that the so called Bhabru Rock Edict found by Captain Burt in 1840 must have come from Bijak ki Pahari because this place alone has provided evidence of Mauryan period and also another Ashokan edict. This edict is the only known edict of Ashoka, which is inscribed on a stone slab (Shila phalaka) as distinguished from stone pillar (Shila Stambha) or rock. It also provides definite proofs of Ashoka’s faith in Buddhist religion and his consequent exhortation to monks and nuns and to laymen and laywomen to listen to and to study seven select passage from the Buddhist scriptures.

The principle monuments brought to light are numerous remnants of two Ashoka pillars, a temple of an entirely new type and a monastery both of which latter monuments must have been erected by Ashoka himself. It was capital of Matsya Mahajanapada.

  • It was a part of Mauryan Empire.
  • In 1837, Ashoka’s Rock Edict was discovered by Capt. Burj from Bijak-ki-Pahadi.
  • Evidence of the Buddhist stupa sites was found here.
  • In 634 A.D Huang Tsang visited Bairat.
  • Sculptures, coins, pottery, seals and metal objects were found from the excavation.
  • It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1936.
  • According to Maan Sarovar inscription of 713 A.D., Maan Maurya was the ruler of Bairat. This inscription also mentions the name of 4 rulers. Maheshwar, Bhoj, Bhim and Maan.

Post Mauryan Period

Post-Mauryan coinage refers to the period of coinage production in India, following the breakup of the Maurya Empire. The centralized Mauryan power ended during a Coup d’état in 185 BCE leading to the foundation of the Shunga Empire. King Ashoka ruled for 50 years and after the war of Kalinga, he led the path of peace and Buddhism. Since the successor of king Ashoka wasn’t capable of ruling the kingdom.

  • Greek ruler Menander attacked Rajasthan in 150 B.C.
  • 16 Greek coins were found from Bairat.
  • Coins were found from the Rang Mahal of Hanumangarh belonging to Kushan period.
  • The first Saka king in India was Maues who ruled in Gandhar and extended his power in northwest India.

Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan

  1. Matsya
  • Capital: – Viratnagar
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur
  1. Saurasena (Brajmandala)
  • Capital: – Mathura
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Karauli.
  1. Kuru
  • Capital: – Indraprastha (Delhi)
  • Present: – Delhi and northern Region of Rajasthan.
  1. Some Other Janapada Of Rajasthan

Shivi Janapada

  • Capital: – Madhyamika (Present name Nagari)
  • Present region: – Chittorgarh And Udaipur district
  • Rajasthan’s first excavated site.
  • Excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar.

Arjunayana Janapada

  • Present Alwar and Bharatpur District.
  • They emerged as political power During Sunga Period.

Malav Janapada

  • Present Jaipur and Tonk district.
  • Capital: – Nagar (Tonk)
  • They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali

Yaudheyas

  • Present Hanumangarh and Ganganagar district.
  • Kushana power was stopped by them.
  • They are mentioned in Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha of Panini.

Shalvya

  • Present Alwar district.

Rajanya

  • Present Jodhpur and Bikaner region.

Stone Age: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Stone Age: a prehistoric period when weapons and tools were made of stone or of organic materials such as bone, wood or horn.

  1. Paleolithic age: Paleolithic, The cultural period of the Stone Age that began about 2.5 to 2 million years ago, marked by the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone. The Paleolithic Period ended at different times in different parts of the world, generally around 10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East.

Paleolithic site in Rajasthan: Nagaur and Didwana.

  1. Mesolithic Age: Mesolithic, also called Middle Stone Age, ancient cultural stage that existed between the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), with its chipped stone tools, and the Neolithic (New Stone Age), with its polished stone tools. Most often used to describe archaeological assemblages from the Eastern Hemisphere, the Mesolithic is broadly analogous to the archaic culture of the Western Hemisphere. Mesolithic material culture is characterized by greater innovation and diversity than is found in the Paleolithic. Among the new forms of chipped stone tools were microliths, very small stone tools intended for mounting together on a shaft to produce a serrated edge.

Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan:

1. Bagor

  • On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwara District.
  • Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Tools are excavated in large numbers.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
  • Biggest Mesolithic Site in India.

2. Tilwara

  • On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
  • Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.

3. Chalcolithic Age: Chronology of Chalcolithic Settlement. The first metal age of India is called Chalcolithic Age which saw the use of copper along with stone. It was also called Stone-Copper Age.

 Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan (5, 00, 00 BC – 10,000 BC)

Man is said to have appeared in the early Pleistocene in Africa about 3 million (30 lakh) years ago. In India, based on recent evidence, man is said to have appeared 1.4 million (14 lakh) years back at Bori, Maharashtra.

  • This Man had no knowledge of cultivation and house building till 9000 years B.C. From there first appearance to beginning of 3000 BC man used tools & implements only made up of stone and so early phase of human existence has been Called as Stone-Age. Based on nature of stone tools and nature of change in climate the stone-age is divided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic age period to study history till 1000B.c.

The Paleolithic age has been divided into 3 sub-ages namely:

  • 5,00,000 BC – 1,00,000 BC: Lower Paleolithic or Early Old Stone Age
  • 1,00,000 BC – 40,000 BC: Middle Paleolithic or Middle Old Stone Age
  • 40,000 BC – 10,000 BC: Upper Paleolithic or Later Old Stone Age

1. Lower Paleolithic or Early Old Stone Age (5, 00,000 BC – 1, 00,000 BC)

Acheulian-Handaxes: These areSpecial characteristic stone tools – Hand axe and cleaver.Raw materials used for making stone tools included – quartzite, quartz and basalt. The sites of early Stone Age discovered in Rajasthan have been identified as belonging to Acheulian culture, named after French site of St. Acheul which was the first effective colonization of the Indian subcontinent.The Acheulian culture was a hunter-gatherer culture.Sites of lower-Paleolithic age are located in Nagaur and Didwana of Rajasthan, Barkhera, Bhimbetka and Putlikarar in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh.

2. Middle Paleolithic or Middle Old Stone Age (1, 00,000 BC – 40,000 BC)

 The Acheulian culture of Old Stone Age was slowly transformed into the middle Paleolithic by giving some of the tool types and by developing new tools & technology. Special characteristic of stone tools – Flakes.

  • In comparison to the lower Paleolithic era, the tools in middle Paleolithic became smaller, thinner and lighter.
  • The New raw materials used for making stone tools included fine-grained siliceous rocks like chert and jasper.
  • In our Rajasthan, sites of Middle Paleolithic age are located at Luni valley, around Didwana, Budha Pushkar.

3.  Upper Paleolithic or Later Old Stone Age (40,000 BC – 10,000 BC)           

 The tools of Upper Paleolithic Era are further refined upon the lower and middle periods and show a marked regional diversity with respect to the refinement of techniques and standardization of finished tool forms.

1. Special characteristic of stone tools of Upper Paleolithic age – Flakes and blades.

2. One important discovery is of the Ostrich egg shells at over 40 sites in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, which shows that ostrich, a bird adapted to arid climate.

3. The upper Paleolithic settlements also show a distinct trend of being associated with permanent sources of waters.

4. Society was ‘Band Society‘- small communities, usually consisting of less than 100 people. They were nomadic to some extent moving from one place to another.

5. The earliest form of art by humans also belongs to upper Paleolithic period in the form of rock Paintings (Bhimbetka).

6. Sites of Upper Paleolithic age in Rajasthan included Chittorgarh, Kota and basins of rivers Wagoon, kadamli, Sabarmati & Mahi.

4. Mesolithic-Middle Stone Age in Rajasthan (10,000 BC – 5,000 BC)

The last stage of Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age was followed by Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age in Rajasthan (in India). The transition from the Paleolithic period to Mesolithic period is marked by transition from Pleistocene period (2.58 million years ago – 10,000BC) to Holocene (10,000 BC – till now) and favorable changes in the climate. The climate became warmer and humid and there was expansion of flora and fauna contributed by increased rainfall. This led to availability of new resources to humans.

Tools of Mesolithic Age: The tools are Mesolithic age were smaller in size and better in finishing (more geometric) than the Paleolithic age and are called as Microlith.

  • The main tool types are backed blades, obliquely truncated blades, points, crescents, triangles and trapezes.
  • Some of the Microlith were used as components of spearheads, arrowheads, knives, sickles, harpoons and daggers.
  • Use of bow and arrows for hunting has been documented by Mesolithic man in rock art of the period.

Changes in Society of Mesolithic Age:

1. Domestication of Animals & Farming: The early period of Mesolithic age was based on the hunting, fishing and food gathering, slowly domestication of animals and cultivation of crops made their way into human life.

  •  The earliest evidence of domestication of animals has been provided by Adamagarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bagor in Rajasthan.
  • The first animals to be domesticated were dog, cattle, sheep and goat and the first crops to be cultivated were wheat and barley.

2. Nomadism to Sedentary settlements:

The favourable climate, better rainfalls, warm atmosphere and increased food security led to reduction in Nomadism to seasonally sedentary settlement and increased population.

They moved to new areas such as nearby rivers which provided water and First human colonization of the Ganga plains took place during this period.

 3. Beginning of customs

  • The Mesolithic age saw beginning of the tradition of various ways of intentional disposal of the dead.
  • Mesolithic human burials have been found at Bagor in Rajasthan, Langhnaj in Gujarat, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh etc.

 4. Emergence of Arts:

  • The rock painting of Mesolithic period is found in Adamagarh, Bhimbetka of Madhya Pradesh and Pratapgarh, Mirzapur of Rajasthan.
  • The paintings are made mostly in red and white pigments, made from the nodules found in rocks and earth. (Red made by minerals of iron oxide and white by limestone).
  • The subject matter of the paintings are mostly wild animals and hunting scenes, though there are some related to human social and religious life such as sex and child birth.

Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan:

  • The Pachpadra basin, Sojat Area & Tilwara of Rajasthan is rich Mesolithic sites and lot of Microlith has been discovered.
  • However, Bagor is the largest Mesolithic site in India.

Neolithic Age in Rajasthan (5,000 BC – 1,000 BC)

Neolithic or new Stone Age, which followed Mesolithic age, was the last phase of Stone Age. The Neolithic period began around 10700 to 9400 BC in Tell Qaramel in Northern Syria. In South Asia the date assigned to Neolithic period is 7000 BC and the earliest example is Mehrgarh Culture.

  Neolithic Revolution:

  • The human settlements in the Mesolithic era got more sedentary and people began settle down in agricultural communities which led to establishment of villages.
  • Man for first time domesticated cattle, sheep and goats.
  •  As efficiency of agriculture improved, man was able to produce surplus food. As a consequence, some people moved away from agriculture and new occupations like dancers, musicians, masonry came up.
  •  The people of this age used tools & implements of polished stone. Neolithic tool kit was composed of heavy ground tools – pestles, mortars, grinders and pounders – as also axes and sickles which have a characteristic sheen on them, the result of harvesting wild or domesticated plants and grasses.

The use of pottery and the wheel and the subsequent invention of crafts like spinning, weaving and bead making also serve to demonstrate the uniqueness of the Neolithic phase. This transition from hunting gathering to food production is called the Neolithic revolution.

Causes of Neolithic Revolution: Factors that pushed humans in vastly separated parts to adopt agriculture and animal domestication included:

i. Climatic change at the beginning of the Holocene period

ii. Increasing population density

iii. Evolving cultural and technological strategies of human groups.

Features of Mehrgarh Neolithic Culture:

Mehrgarh is located on bank of the Bolan River, a tributary of the Indus, at the eastern edge of the Baluchistan plateau overlooking the Indus plain. It is considered as the oldest agricultural settlement in the Indian subcontinent.

  • The main domesticated animals in Mehrgarh were cattle, sheep, goat and water buffalo while the main cultivated plants were wheat and barley.
  •  Houses made in mud and mud-bricks, created rooms to store grains, buried dead under floors of houses where they lived, used ornaments of steatite, turquoise, sea shells etc.
  • Domesticated cotton for the first time. Used pottery decorated with images of birds, animals.
  • Learnt use of making stone beads, copper smelting, timber, terracotta, commercial transactions.
  • The first evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in a living person was found in Mehrgarh.

Neolithic Age in Rajasthan

There are no significant Neolithic sites that fall in modern Rajasthan.

Economy of Rajasthan Study Notes with Practice MCQ

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                                    Economy of Rajasthan

Index

  1. Economic Terminology
  2. Rajasthan: an introduction to Economy
  3. Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan
  4. National Income: Basic Concepts
  5. Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
  6. Fiscal Policy of India: Meaning, Objectives and Impacts on the Economy
  7. Classification and Operations of Commercial Banks in India
  8. Money Supply and Inflation
  9. National Development Council
  10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Rajasthan
  11. Special Economic Zones – SEZ-Rajasthan
  12. Transport Infrastructure of Rajasthan
  13. Urban Infrastructure in Rajasthan
  14. Rural Development in Rajasthan
  15. Special Area Development Programmes
  16. National Family Health Survey-Rajasthan
  17. Skill development in Rajasthan
  18. Unemployment in Rajasthan
  19. Poverty in Rajasthan
  20. Agriculture Sector in Rajasthan
  21. Service Sector in Rajasthan
  22. Industrial Sector in Rajasthan
  23. Industries of Rajasthan
  24. Important Departments & Organisations
  25. Policies, Concessions & Facilities for Industries in Rajasthan
  26. Public Enterprises in State
  27. Economic Planning in Rajasthan
  28. Public Distribution System
  29. Current Affairs: Economy
  30. Practice Solved MCQ

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Lakes in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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 In Rajasthan, Lakes are divided into two categories

  • Saltwater Lake and
  • Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

Salt Water Lakes

Sambhar Lake

  • It is India’s largest inland Salt Water Lake.
  • It has been designated as a Ramsar site because this wetland is a favourite spot for migratory birds like Pink Flamingo.
  • The total area of the lake is 150 sq. km.
  • The lake receives water from five rivers Merta, Samand, Mantha, Roopangarh and khandel.

Didwana Lake

  • It is a natural lake, is located at Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
  • It is 2km broad and 4km long.
  • The Production of salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Pachpadra Lake

  • It is located in Barmer district.
  • This is also a Natural Lake, is a salt lake near Pachpadra in Barmer, Rajasthan.
  • Its sodium chloride level is marked at Approx 98%.
  • The total area of this Lake is 25 Sq. km.

      Lunkaransar Lake

  • It is located in Lunkaransar, 80 km away from Bikaner.
  • It is also Natural and a salt water lake.
  • Some other famous Salt Water Lakes are Phalodi, Kuchaman, Kovaad, Kachhor, Rewasa, etc.

2. Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

  • Due to the scarcity of water in Rajasthan, this freshwater lakes act as boons for people of Rajasthan.

Important Fresh Water Lakes of Rajasthan

Jaisamand Lake

  • It was constructed by Maharana Jaising by building the dam on Gomati River from 1685 to 1691.
  • It is located 51 km southeast of Udaipur.
  • It is also called Dhebar Lake.
  • It is the biggest natural lake of Rajasthan.

Rajsamand Lake

 It was constructed by Maharana Rajsingh in 1662.

On the bank of this, lakes many inscriptions are there which tells about the history of Mewar.

Pichhola Lake

  • Lake Pichhola, an artificial fresh water lake, situated on the heart of the Udaipur city in Rajasthan.
  • It was built in 1362 AD by a Banjara and & named after the nearby Picholi village.
  • There are four islands on the lake: Jag Niwas, where the Lake Palace is built, Jag Mandir, with the palace of the same name, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Vilas.
  • The Pichhola Lake and the Swaroop Sagar Lake are connected by an arched bridge built by Maharana Swaroop Singh during 1842-1861.
  • One has Jag Mandir (Temple) and second has Jag Nivas named palaces.

Fateh Sagar Lake

This is an artificial lake was initially built by Maharana Jai Singh in north-west of Udaipur in the year 1678 but it was reconstructed by Maharana Fateh Singh in 1888.

It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

There are Udaipur Solar Observatory, impressive water-jet fountain and Nehru Park – Popular picnic spot.

Anasagar Lake

It is an artificial lake situated in the city of Ajmer.

It was built by Arnoraja alias Anaji, the grandfather of Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1135 -1150 AD and is named after him.

The five Baradari or pavilions, between the garden and the lake, were built by Shahjahan in 1637. On its bank, there’s a garden called “Daulat Baug by Jehangir.

Pushkar Lake

  • It is located in Ajmer district surrounded by mountains.
  • This is also known as Pushkar Sarovar, is located in Pushkar.
  • Pushkar Lake is a sacred lake of the Hindus. The Hindu scriptures describe it as “Tirtha-Raj” – the king of Pilgrimage sites related to a water-body and relate it to the mythology of the creator-god Brahma, whose most prominent temple stands in Pushkar.
  • The Pushkar Lake finds mention on coins as early as the 4th century BC.

Siliserh Lake

  • It is located in Alwar district in between Aravalli Range.

Some other famous lakes are Navlakkha Lake (Bundi), Kolayat Lake (Bikaner), Shaiva Sagar (Dungarpur), Galati and Ramgarh (Jaipur), Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur), Kailana Lake (Jodhpur), etc.

River system: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

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RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
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(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
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RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
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RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
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RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
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RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
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RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

The Location of the great Indian watershed and the existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past Udai sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to Pratapgarh.

Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along with its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and Berach, Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.

The inland drainage system is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin, Barrah basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage basins. The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these rivers.

The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri, Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near the Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.

The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south, southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and has some important streams.

The river Chambal is the largest stream and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.

The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about 325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at 505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.

The river Chambal is joined by its first major tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj, after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas join the Chambal River on the left bank.

The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.

1. Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal

Chambal River

  • In the ancient time, it was called “Charmanyavati”.
  • It originates from Janapao Hills near Maanpur in Mahu, Madhya Pradesh.
  • It enters in Rajasthan near Chaurasigarh and makes the border of Kota and Bundi.
  • It passes through Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur and finally meets in Yamuna River.
  • Gandhi sagar, Jawahar sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Kota Barrage Dam are built on this river.
  • Banas, Kalisindh and Parvati are its tributaries.
  • Length- 965 Km & Length in Rajasthan-370Km

Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link

      The proposed Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link is one of the big projects being planned in the basin which will divert surplus waters of Parwati and Kalisindh to the Rana Pratap Sagar or Gandhi Sagar dam.

Banas River

  • It originates from Khamnor Hill near Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand.
  • It travels through Gogunda Plateau, Nathdwara, Rajsamand, Rel Magara, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Tonk and in Sawai Madhopur, it join the Stream of Chambal River.
  • It is also called ‘Hope of Forest (Van Ki Asha)’.
  • Bedach, Kothari, Khari, Mainal, Bandi, Dhundh and Morel are the tributaries of Banas River.

Banas River Basin

Banas lies completely within Rajasthan and has the largest catchment area (45,833 square km) in Rajasthan. Banas drains the east slope of the central portion of the Aravalli Range, and the basin includes all or part of Pali, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Tonk, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Dausa, Jaipur and Sawai Madhopur districts.

Kali Sindh River

  • It originates in dewas in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It passes through Jhalawar and Baran districts and meets Chambal River in Narena.
  • It is tributary of Chambal & it meet near Nonera village in Baran.
  • Paravan, Ujaad, Niwai and Aahu are its tributary rivers.

      Parban River is a tributary of Kali Sindh and it originates in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. Parban flows through Sehore, Shajapur and Rajgarh districts in Madhya Pradesh. It covers Jhalawar, Kota; Baran districts of Rajasthan and meets Kali Sindh in Baran district of Rajasthan.

Parvati River

  • It originates in Sihor region of Madhya Pradesh and flows in Baran and meets Chambal River near Paliya, Sawai Madhopur.
  • Origin- Northern slopes of Vindhyan Range Length in State- 65 Km
  • It is the tributary of Chambal and it meet near Poh village

Berach River

  • It Originates from Gogunda Hills, North of Udaipur
  • Districts- Udaipur, Chittorgarh
  • It is also known as Aayar River
  • It is a tributary of Banas River & it meet near Bigod.

It is known by name of Aayar River. It is called Berach after appearing from Udai Sagar Lake near Udaipur. It flows northeast through Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Bhilwara districts, joining the Banas near Bigod village of Bhilwara district.

Berach has significant historical significance with banks of Ahar having thrown up evidences of settlements dating back to the Harappan and pre-Harappan era’s cultural levels, thus exhibiting connection with Indus Valley civilization. Additionally, evidences of big palaces were found at Nagri, an ancient site around 16 km from Chittorgarh.         

Mez River

  • Originates from Bhilwara and meets Chambal near Lakheri in Bundi.
  • Mej River is a left bank tributary of Chambal River.
  • It originates near Mandalgarh in Bhilwara and joins Chambal in Kota. The catchment area of Mej River extends over Bhilwara, Bundi and Tonk districts of Rajasthan.

Vapani (Bahyani) River

  • Originates near Haripura village of Chittorgarh district and meets Chambal near Bhaisroadgarh.

Gambhiri River

Origin- Hills of Sawai Madhopur district

Districts- Karauli and Bharatpur

Dam- Panchna Dam in Sawai Madhopur Band Baretha has been built over it to tame its water.

It is a tributary of Yamuna River & it meet in Agra district.

It changes its course in many years.

Banganga River

  • It originates from Bairath Hills of Jaipur district.
  • Then it moves towards the east in Sawai Madhopur and then in Bharatpur meets in the Yamuna.
  • Banganga River Basin is located in the northeastern part of Rajasthan state with a total catchment area of 8,878.7 sq km. It is bounded by Ruparail and Sabi in its north; and the Shekhawati Basin in its west and the Gambhir and Banas River Basins in its south-southwest. The eastern border of the basin is marked by the Yamuna River Basin in Uttar Pradesh. Administratively, Banganga River Basin extends over parts of Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur Districts.

2. Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea

Luni River

  • It originates from Naag Hills of Ajmer, after that it moves towards Jodhpur, Pali, Barmer, and Jalore and enters in Gujarat in Kutchh.
  • It travels almost 320 km.
  • Its water is sweet up to Balotara and then it becomes salty.
  • Jawai, Liladi, Mithadi, Sukhadi, Bandi and Saagi are its tributaries.
  • Pali city is situated on the bank of Bandi River.
  • Sheoganj city is on the banks of Jawai River.
  • Jalore is on the bank of Sukri River

Mahi River

  • It began its journey from Mahu Hills of Madhya Pradesh and enters Rajasthan in Banswara district.
  • The  Mahi Bajaj  Sagar  Multipurpose project has been constructed on it near Borkhera village
  • It forms the border between Banswara and Dungarpur and enters Gujarat and ends its journey in Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay).
  • Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is constructed on this river near Banswara.
  • Its main tributaries are Soma, Jakham, Anas, Chap and Moren.

Sabarmati River

  • It originates near Udaipur and flows in Sirohi and then enters in Gujarat and ends its journey in Gulf of Cambay.
  • At the initial stage, it is called Vakal River.

3. Inland Rivers

Kantali River

  • It originates from Khandela Hills of Sikar district.
  • District-    Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Churu.
  • Finally terminates in the sand dunes of Churu
  • It travels 100 km and flowing from Sikar and Jhunjhunu, disappeared in the desert land.

Sota Sabi River

  • Origin- Sota from the hills of Bairath, Sabi from Sewar hills
  • In Rewari & Gurgaon it causes floods.
  • It originates from Sevar Hills and flows in banasur, Bahrod, Kishangarh, Mandawar and Tijara and disappeared in Haryana.

Kakani or Kakneya River

  • Originates from Kotari village and disappear after travelling some distance.
  • Origin- Kotari village
  • District- Jaisalmer
  • Fall into- Bhuj Lake.
  • It flows only during rainy season

Ghaghar River

  • It is considered the oldest river of India, i. e. Saraswati.
  • It flows from Haryana to Hanumangarh, Ganganagar Suratgarh, and Anupgarh and enters in Pakistan.
  • Origin- Kalka Hills (Himachal Pradesh) Length- 465 Km
  • It often causes floods during heavy rainfall It enters Rajasthan in Tibbi Tehsil (Ganganagar)
  • It finally enters into the Bhawalpur district of Pakistan where it lost in the vast array of sand dune.
  • It is also called Dead River.

Other Rivers

Khari River- Origin- Hills of Bijral village, North of Rajsamand district and it meets near Banas River near Deoli (Tonk).

Dai River

            Dai River originates in the southeastern slopes of the Aravalli Range, near Nasirabad Tehsil of Ajmer. It flows southeast and then east in Ajmer District and for a short distance through Tonk District, before joining Banas River near Bisalpur village in Tonk District.

Dheel River

            Dheel River originates in the plains near Bauli village in Tonk District. It flows generally from north to south through Jaipur, Tonk and Sawai Madhopur. It joins the Banas near Philpura village in Sawai Madhopur district. River Gudia is its tributary.

Morel River

            One branch of River Morel originates in the hills near Dharla and Chainpura villages in Bassi Tehsil of Jaipur District and the second branch makes by receiving water from the catchment area of foothills of Paplaj Mataji mountains, district Dausa.

            It flows southeast and then southwest to meet river Dhund, and then again southeast through Jaipur, Dausa and Sawai Madhopur, joining Banas river near Hadoli of Sawai Madhopur District.

 Kalisil River

            The River Kalisil originates in the hills near Rajpura village in Sawai Madhopur District. The river flows generally southwest, partly through hills and partly in the plains of Sawai Madhopur District, finally joining the Morel River.

Sarasvati and Drishadvati:  Ancient Indian River

Sarasvati River

(O Sarasvati, you the best of mothers, the best of rivers, the best of gods! Although we are of no repute, mother, grant us distinction.)

            During the vedic civilization, Aryans developed Rigveda, which describes about the ” Sapta Sindhu ” the seven rivers of NW India , traced from east to west as Sarasvati, Satadru ( Sutlej ), Vipasa (Beas), Parosni (Ravi) , Asikni (Chenab) Vitasta (Jhelum) and Sindhu (Indus) which started flowing consequent on the melting of the Himalayan glaciers at the end of Pleistocene.

Sarasvati River system is sequenced as Sutlej-Markanda-Drishadvati-Ghaggar-Hakra river channels which constituted the hydrological flows of Vedic Sarasvati River system traceable upstream: from

  • Sarasvati creek starting from Ad Badri at the foothills of the Siwalik ranges and Extending into the Bata Valley in upper reaches of the Himalayas, traceable into the Rupin-Supin glaciers close to Yamunotri glaciers.
  • Another glacier source from ManaSarovar yielded the River Sutlej which was a tributary of Vedic Sarasvati River System joining the latter southwards from Ropar at Shatrana (50 km. South of Patiala).

Humidity in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

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Humidity in Rajasthan

The relative humidity in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.

During the monsoon months, July to September the relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.

The annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.

The variation in the relative humidity is low during the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid region.

The main reason in this decline is the deforestation and other activities.

The diurnal variation in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the diurnal variation is highest.

Air temperature and relative humidity conditions

The pleasant winters in the state witness mean night temperatures above 4.7 C to 10.6 C. During summers the western Rajasthan becomes the hottest place in the country with mean maximum air temperatures varying from 38.6 C to 42.6 C in May. The recorded extreme temperatures in the state were -4.4 C to 50.0 C in the western Rajasthan and -2.8 C to 47.8 C in the eastern Rajasthan (as per Indian Meteorological Department, 2010).

The relative humidity in the arid region of Western Rajasthan is also quite high because of the unfavorable circulations of the atmosphere and low precipitation that occurs in the arid region as compared to other semi-arid and sub-humid regions.

Classification and distribution of soils in Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

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RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
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RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

What is Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme?

It is a Government of India’s scheme promoted by the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture. It will be implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments. A SHC is meant to give each farmer soil nutrient status of his holding and advice him on the dosage of fertilizers and also the needed soil amendments, that he should apply to maintain soil health in the long run.

What is a Soil Health Card?

SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients) ; S (Secondary- nutrient) ; Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients) ; and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.

How can a farmer use a SHC?

The card will contain an advisory based on the soil nutrient status of a farmer’s holding. It will show recommendations on dosage of different nutrients needed. Further, it will advise the farmer on the fertilizers and their quantities he should apply, and also the soil amendments that he should undertake, so as to realize optimal yields.

Will the farmer get a card every year and for every crop?

It will be made available once in a cycle of 3 years, which will indicate the status of soil health of a farmer’s holding for that particular period. The SHC given in the next cycle of 3 years will be able to record the changes in the soil health for that subsequent period.

What are the norms of sampling?

Soil samples will be drawn in a grid of 2.5 ha in irrigated area and 10 ha in rain- fed area with the help of GPS tools and revenue maps.

Who will draw the soil sample?

The State Government will collect samples through the staff of their Department of Agriculture or through the staff of an outsourced agency. The State Government may also involve the students of local Agriculture / Science Colleges.

What is the ideal time for soil sampling?

Soil Samples are taken generally two times in a year, after harvesting of Rabi and Kharif Crop respectively or when there is no standing crop in the field.

How will soil samples be collected from a farmer’s field?

Soil Samples will be collected by a trained person from a depth of 15-20 cm by cutting the soil in a “V” shape. It will be collected from four corners and the centre of the field and mixed thoroughly and a part of this picked up as a sample. Areas with shade will be avoided. The sample chosen will be bagged and coded. It will then be transferred to soil test laboratory for analysis.

What is a soil test laboratory?

It is a facility for testing the soil sample for 12 parameters as indicated in reply to question number 2. This facility can be static or mobile or it can even be portable to be used in remote areas.

Who and Where will the soil sample be tested?

The soil sample will be tested as per the approved standards for all the agreed 12 parameters in the following way:

  • At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture and by their own staff.
  • At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture but by the staff of the outsourced agency.
  • At the STLs owned by the outsourced agency and by their staff.
  • At ICAR Institutions including KVKs and SAUs.
  • At the laboratories of the Science Colleges/Universities by the students under supervision of a Professor/ Scientist.

1.   Old System of Soil Classification:

This system of soil classification is based on the soil as a natural body concept and has a strong genetic bias. According to this classification soils of Rajasthan are classified into eight soil groups.

1. Desert Soils

2. Dunes and Associated Soils

  • This type of soil covers most part of Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Churu.
  • These soils are yellowish brown in colour sandy to sany loam, deep and well drained
  • Calcium carbonate, sometime occur in the form of Kankar nodules which increases with depth.
  • Texture- loamy fine sand to coarse sand and may or may not be calcareous.
  • Cultivation is practiced in rainy season on the slopes of low to medium high dunes and usually rainfed Bajra or Kharif pulse are grown.
  • These have been grouped separately from desert soils as they are only deposited sand and little profile development has taken place.

3. Brown Soils

The brown soil covers most area of Tonk, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Chittorgarh district and the colour of soils ranges from grayish brown to yellow brown. Rabi crops are grown under irrigation.

Annual Rainfall- 50 cm to 75 cm is sufficient for Kharif crops and Texture- Sandy loam to clay loam.

Major area of these soils is in the catchment area of Banas River and they are rich in calcium salts but have poor organic matter Use of fertilizers becomes essential to get good harvest.

As the ground waters are saline, soils irrigate with these waters have accumulated salts and the Tank irrigated soils have also developed problem of high water table.

4. Sierozems

The Sierozems soil is found in most of the part of Pali, Nagaur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa districts it means this type of soil lies on both the side of Aravalli Hills and they are mostly yellowish brown.

  • The Annual Rainfall range is 50 cm to 70 cm and Texture- Sandy loam to Sandy clay
  • These soils are suitable for cultivation but for low rainfall and high evaporation.
  • Kharif crops are rainfed and Rabi crops are grown through well irrigation.
  • In the Kharif crops Bajra, Jowar, pulses are grown and in Rabi crops wheat, mustard & vegetables are grown.

5. Red Loams

This Soil Covered Part of Dungarpur, Banswara, Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Parent material of these soils is the red sandstone or yellow sandstone which is found in Vindyan rocks. Rainfall- 70 cm to 100 cm and Texture- Sandy loam to sandy.

These soils have rich content of iron-oxide and devoid of calcium salts because calcium salts soluble in water and are easily washed away.

These soils are reddish in colour with granular/crumb structure & well drained and it is suitable for maize, chilies, wheat, and barley and rapeseed cultivation.

6.   Hill Soils (Litho sols)

This type of soil found at the foot hills of Aravalli in Sirohi, Pali, Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara and Ajmer and its Colour is – Reddish to yellowish red to yellowish brown but the problem isSoil erosion due to water is another problem of these types of soils.

  • Texture- Sandy loam to clay and well drained.
  • Cultivation of crops in these soils is very much restricting due to shallow nature of these soils and presence of stones on the surface.

 7. Saline Sodic Soils (Solonchaks)

This type of soil found in the natural depressions like the Pachpadra, Sambhar, Deedwana, Ranns of Jalore and Barmer and Saline Sodic soils are seen in the far flood plains of river Ghaggar and in Luni Basin.

The Colour is dark grey to pale brown and Water table is sometime close to surface but Cultivation is not possible due to the impeded drainage and high degree of salinity and the only vegetation consists of some salt tolerant grasses and shrubs.

8. Alluvial Soils:

These soils cover a vast area in north western and south eastern plains of the State. These soils have been brought down by different modern and ancient rivers; therefore, different areas have soils of different characteristics depending upon the source from which the alluvium has been brought and deposited. In Rajasthan alluvial soils are found in the valleys of Ghaggar River, Banas and Chambal river basins and covered part of Sriganganagar, Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jaipur.

Soil Conversation Methods / Techniques in Rajasthan

Soil Conservation methods adopted in Rajasthan:

1.   Adequate Drainage: The solution for salinity & Alkanity of soil is to provide of soil is to provide adequate drainage.

2.   Afforestation: Large scale planting of saplings which act as wind breaks

3. Use of Gypsum: Use of gypsum which is abundantly and cheaply available in Rajasthan, is economical and long term solution to the problem

4.   Shelter Belts: In dry regions rows of trees are planted to check wind movement to protect soil cover.

5.   Grass Development: Plantation of trees & grasses on marginal and sub marginal land.

6.   Contour Barriers: Stone, gross, soils are used to build barrier along contours. Trenches are made in front of the boomers to collect water.

7.   Wind strip cropping: Grass and crop strip at right angle to wind direction.

8.   Stubble Mulching: Crop stubbles are left in the field and next crop planted with minimum tillage.

9.   Contour Bonding: Ravine land can be made cultivable by leveling followed by contour bonding. The medium and deep gullies can also be converted into productive wood lands.

10. Proper Drainage System in canal Project Area: The problem of water logging can be checked and overcome by introducing proper drainage system in the canal project area.

11. Rock Dam: Rock Dam is built to slow down its flow of water.

12. Dry Farming: D.F in and region is a method of conserving soil moisture preventing soil erosion.

13. Mulching: A layer of organic matter is made on soil. It helps to retain soil moisture.

14. Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternative rows to protect the soil form rain wash.

15. Contour Plugging: Plugging parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

16. Terrace Farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They reduce surface run off & soil erosion.

Distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.

There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of earlier.

The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.

The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.

The districts of Eastern plains i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur, South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.

The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur, Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.

The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.

The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e. Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.

The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43 cm in West Rajasthan.

In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.

The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100 years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.

Weather Seasons of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

The geographical diversity of the state causes varied weather conditions even during same season. However, Rajasthan has four distinct weather seasons:

1.   The Hot weather season (March to Mid June)

2.   The Season of general Rains or Rainy Season (June to September)

3.   The Season of Retreating Monsoon (October – November)

4.   The Cold Season (December to February)

The Hot Weather Season

The Hot whether season starts with movement of Sun toward the Tropic of Cancer in March. It ends in the month of June-July, when rainy seasons starts. In the months, the Sun overhead tropic of cancer so the temperature is Maximum in the month of June. The mean temperature of Rajasthan at this time is 38-39°C. However, the maximum temperature in western districts reaches at 45-50°C in day and minimum temperature 15-16°C.

  • The difference in temperature in sandy region is generally found 32-35°C. The Aravalli Range has lower temperature (30°C) due to its high elevation.

       Due to high temperature, the surface becomes very hot. Due to this, the hot and dry winds, known as ‘Loo’, blow from west to east direction.

Dry and hot winds known as ‘Loo’, blow in the afternoon, and very often, they continue to well into midnight. Dust storms in the evening are very common in May for south-eastern areas and in June for north-western part of state.

Average Mean Temperature: The maximum daily temperature in the western parts of Marusthali mainly at Bikaner, Phalodi, Barmer, and Jaisalmer goes upto 40-45 deg C.

Rainfall: Sometimes, the dust storms bring a welcome respite from the oppressing heat since they bring with them light rains and a pleasant cool breeze.

The Season of General Rains or Rainy Season

Due to high temperature in India in May – June, a center of low air pressure is created in the west and north-west India. While is temperature is low in Southern Hemisphere at this time, creates the high air pressure region.

The low air pressure created in the west and north-west India becomes so strong that it attracts the trade wind of Indian ocean coming from Southern hemisphere.

This southeast trade wind passes over the equatorial warm currents and brings the moisture in abundance. Then these winds enter the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and caught in the air circulation over India.

These trade winds follow the south-west direction. So monsoon created by these winds is known as South-west monsoons.

However these branches tries to reach low air pressure area, west and north-west India, the Rajasthan gets very less rainfall because of the following reasons:-

  • The Bay of Bengal branch already gives up its moisture during its passage through Ganga plain. Further, as Aravali range stretches from south-west to north-east direction, so western part of Rajasthan lies in leeward side of the Bay of Bengal branch and receives little or no rain from this branch.
  • The same Aravalli Range lies parallel to the direction of Arabian Sea branch and fails to interrupt this branch of monsoon. However, in the southern Aravallis, the mountains have slight east-west span thus Mount Abu in south receives highest rainfall.

The Season of Retreating Monsoon

The Months of October and November are known for Retreating Monsoons and it withdraws from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Ganga plain and the Central Highlands by the end of the month.

 By the end of September, the southwest monsoon becomes weak as the low Pressure trough of the Ganga plain starts Moving Southward in response to the Southward Movement of the Sun.

After 22nd September, the Sun begins to overhead in Southern Hemisphere. Due to this high air pressure area is created in southern hemisphere and low air pressure area in north and north-west India and due to this air Pressure difference, the monsoon retreat from western Rajasthan by the month of October.

The retreating south-west monsoon season is marked by clear sky and rise in temperature. The land is still moist. Due to this high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes oppressive. This Process is commonly known as ‘October heat’.

Average Mean Temperature: The temperature maximum ranging from 33-37 deg C and minimum ranging from 18 – 22 deg C.

The Cold Weather Season

This Season starts from December and continuous till February.

Average Mean Temperature: Ranges from 12 deg. C in North of State to 16 deg. C in the south in January.

Due to high air pressure in west and north-west India and low air pressure in Indian Ocean, the air flow from west and north-west India to Indian Ocean.

During this time, the north-western parts of India get the rainfall from shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the East Mediterranean Sea. This rainfall is also called ‘Mavath’.

During the cold season, the sun migrates to the southern hemisphere and creates high-pressure condition over the northern plain. As a result, winds start blowing from northwestern high pressure zone to the low air pressure zone over the Indian Ocean in the South.

shallow cyclonic depressions  at certain time interval originating over the East Mediterranean Sea and travelling eastwards across West Asia, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan before they reach the northwestern parts of India. On their way, the moisture content gets augmented from the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf in the south.

Temperature Variation in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Temperature Variation in Rajasthan

What causes temperature variation?

Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in earth’s energy balance, including:

  1. Variations in the sun’s energy reaching earth.
  2. Changes in the reflectivity of earth’s atmosphere and surface.
  3. Changes in the greenhouse effect, which affects the amount of heat retained by earth’s atmosphere.

There are different variations of the temperature range of daily and seasonal throughout the state, covering the most typical phenomenon of warm and dry continental climate. Summer begins in March while the temperature continues to rise gradually to April, May and June. To the west of Rajasthan and the eastern side of the aravali in Bikaner district, Phalodi, Jaisalmer and the Barmer, the maximum daytime temperature hovers around 40 ° C to 45 ° C. Sometimes it even reaches as high 48-49 ° C during the summer months. Summer nights see a significant drop in temperature with a minimum of daily temperature of about 20 ° C to 29 ° C. However, Udaipur and Mount Abu have a pleasant climate in the summer with a relatively low daily maximum temperature that reaches 38 ° C and 31.5 ° C respectively.

The Rajasthan state experiences more or less uniform day temperatures over the plains except during the winter when temperatures increase southwards and during monsoon season when temperatures increase northwards. During the southwest monsoon the night minimum temperatures are more or less uniform but generally they are lower in higher latitudes.

As compared to the plains the day and night temperatures over the plateau and at high level stations are lower. In the hottest month of May the mean maximum temperature is approximately around 41°C – 42°C in the plains but it is 2°C to 4°C lower in the elevated and plateau regions of the state. The Graph depicts the average mean temperature of Rajasthan district-wise from the year 1980 to 2009.

The mean minimum temperature in the coldest month of January in the state is 7.4°C which varies from 4°C in the north to 12°C in the south. With the arrival of western disturbances much lower winter temperature may be experienced. Minimum temperature 2°C – 5°C below the freezing point can be recorded at few stations of northern Rajasthan. In the past 50 years the lowest minimum temperature at a plain station ever recorded was -5.9°C at Jaisalmer on 12 January 1967 (12.8°C below the respective normal for the coldest month) while the hill station of Abu had recorded the lowest temperature of -7.4°C on 12 December 1994 (13.1°C below the respective normal for the coldest month).

The maximum temperature rise rapidly from February onwards till May and minimum temperature from February onwards till June. The increase in maximum in the period from January to May ranges from 13°C to 20°C at individual stations as we proceed from south to north of the state. From the beginning of June to the end of July, the maximum temperature falls by about 3°C to 7°C whereas the minimum temperature falls only by about 3°C to 5°C from June to September. A slight rise in the maximum temperature is experienced in the month of September due to increased insolation.

Post-September the night temperatures start falling rapidly while day temperatures too start falling rapidly after October and by January both attain their lowest values. There is about 8°C to 15°C fall in minimum temperature and maximum temperature fall by 5°C to 7°C. In both cases, the fall increases from southern parts of the state to the northern parts. Smallest diurnal range of temperature is experienced during July and August of about 9°C in the state. After the withdrawal of the monsoon the diurnal range of temperature increases. The diurnal range is greatest in November month.

Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan

1.  Temperature

2.  Rainfall

3.  Thunder Storms

4.  Wind

5.  Humidity

6.  Dust Storms

Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time.

Climatology or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography which is one of the Earth sciences.

Rajasthan Action Plan on Climate Change (RAPCC) builds on the key areas as identified Under the CCAR by prioritizing urgent areas of action in a phased and time-bound manner and it is in coherence with the Rajasthan State Environment Policy and Environment Mission while the RAPCC primarily focuses on risk reduction and adaptation measures. It also looks in to the co-benefits offered by specific strategies in the form of mitigation.

Task Force Constitution: The Rajasthan State Government established a ‘Climate Change and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Cell’ in the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB) to act as a nodal agency for coordinating issues related to climate change in the state. The Cell was constituted in April 2010 and was involved in the drafting of the CCAR. A Steering Committee has also been formed, headed by the Chief Secretary and Principal Secretaries of various key departments as members to monitor the implementation of various actions proposed under the Rajasthan Environment Mission. The state of Rajasthan has constituted a team to review the implementation of the Environment Mission. The composition of the Environment Mission includes:-

Chairperson: Chief Minister

 Convener: Principal Secretary, Environment

 Members: Ministers of the under-mentioned departments, Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries and Secretaries in-charge of the under mentioned departments:

1. Environment

2. Forests

3. Mines and Petroleum

4. Industries

5. Water Resources

6. Command Area Development

7. Agriculture

8. Urban Governance

9. Transport

10. Energy, renewable energy

11. Science and Technology

12. Plan

13. Finance

14. Policy Planning

The Steering Committee is chaired by the Chief Secretary, headed by the Principal Secretary of Environment and members from each designated department mentioned above. The Steering Committee includes participation from the non-governmental bodies. Their role is to review the implementation of each of the mission. For the implementation of the environment policy, Rajasthan environment mission and climate change agenda task forces have been constituted for different sectors viz.,

1. Industry

2. Water

3. Forestry and bio-diversity

4. Urban governance and sustainable habitat

5. Enhanced energy efficiency including solar energy

6. Strategic knowledge for climate change

The climate of Rajasthan state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus parameters have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.

However, three main approaches to climatic regions of Rajasthan are:

  1. Climatic regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity
  2. Koeppen’s classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
  3. Thornthwaite’s classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity

The distribution of climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature variations includes following divisions:

Arid Region:  A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Arid land or an arid climate is very dry because it has very little rain Water

The Arid region includes Jaisalmer district, northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and Southern parts of Ganganagar district and climate of the region is very severe and arid.

  1. Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.
  2. The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 35degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16 Deg Celsius.

Semi-arid Region: A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration but not as low as a desert climate; Semi-arid regions are those where rainfall is not enough to cover the growth needs of the vegetation all year round. That is aridity index (rainfall/potential evapotranspiration) is below 0.5 per cent.

The average temperature during winter season ranges between 10 deg C and 17 deg C and the summer season temperature range 32 deg C to 37 deg C.

  1. As the region has erratic as well as torrential rainfall it brings floods too each time and rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.
  2. The winter season is very short and arid in the northern parts of this region.
  3. This region comprises the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and Barmer districts.

Sub-humid Region: Regions where moisture in normally less than under humid conditions but still sufficient for the production of many agricultural crops without irrigation or drylands farming.

In the semi arid humid region, rainfall is meager and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few monsoon months only.

  1. The rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average temperature during summer season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is recorded 12 Deg C in northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.
  2. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi districts are included in this category.
  3. This region has Steppe type of vegetation.

Humid Region: A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined as large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters. This region receives winter rainfall associated with cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which varies from 60 to 80 cm and the deciduous trees dominate the region.

  • Humid region is found at the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and Rajsamand and the north-eastern parts of Udaipur.

Very Humid Region: Very humid region includes south-east Kota, Baran and Jhalawar, Banswara, south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the summers are very hot and winters are cold and dry.

  • Rainfall received is between 80 cm to 150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna type of vegetation is present in the region.

2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

Koeppen’s classification for the world climatic regions is totally based on the vegetation, as the effects of temperature and rainfall are directly evident and visible it. Here, the three categories are associated with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid) climates and Mild temperate climates respectively.

The classification of Rajasthan according to Koeppen’s is as follows:

Aw or Tropical Humid Region

  1. Winter season is arid and cool whereas summers experience scorching heat.
  2. Rainfall also mainly occurs in summer season.
  3. The temperature is more than 18 deg. C in the coldest month records.
  4. The southern parts of Dungarpur district and Banswara come under the region.
  5. Arid tropical grasslands and Savanna like region are found along with deciduous trees of monsoon type.

Bshw Climatic Region

  1. Vegetation is of steppe type characterized with thorny bushes and grasses.
  2. Region comprises the districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
  3. This climatic region is semi-arid, where winters are dry and even in summers there is no sufficient amount of rainfall.

Bwhw Climatic Region

  1. The region has arid-hot desert climate with very scanty rainfall.
  2. On the contrary the process of evaporation is very active.
  3. North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district are included in this category.
  4. Thus, these areas are known as desert region limited to western parts of Thar Desert.

Cwg Climatic Region

  1. The south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the part of the region.
  2. Seasonal winds do not bring rains to this region during winters.
  3. Rains are limited to few monsoon months only.

Plains of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Plains of Rajasthan/Eastern Plains of Rajasthan

Definition:

A plain is a broad area of relatively flat land. Plains are one of the major landforms or types of land on Earth. They cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. The plains exist on every continent.

How the Plain formed?

Plains form in many different ways. Some plains form as ice and water erodes or wears away the dirt and rock on higher land. Water and ice carry the bits of dirt, rock and other material called sediment, down hillsides to be deposited elsewhere. As layer upon layer of this sediment is laid down and formed the plains.

Volcanic activity can also form plains. Lava plains form when lava pushes up from below ground and flows across the land. The land area in a lava plain is often much darker than the surrounding soil. The dark land is a result of the lava, mostly dark-colored mineral called basalt that is broken down into tiny particles over millions of years.

The movement of rivers sometimes formed plains. Many rivers run through valleys. As rivers move from side to side they gradually erode the valley and creating broad plains.

As a river flood overflows the bank. The flood carries mud, sand and other sediment out over the land. After the water withdraws, the sediment remains. If a river floods repeatedly, over time this sediment will build up into a flood plain. Flood plains are often rich in nutrients and create fertile farmland.

Alluvial plains form at the base of mountains. Water carrying sediment flows downhill until it hits flat land. There it spreads out, depositing the sediment in the shape of a fan.

Many rivers deposit their sediment in the ocean. As the sediment builds up, it might eventually rise above sea level and forming a coastal plain.

Sediments: Sediment is a naturally occurring substance composed of small particles. It can be broken down by various processes such as erosion and weathering. Sediments can be transported through forces of water, wind, gravity, ice and the action of the particle.

Abyssal plains are found at the bottom of the ocean. These plains are 5,000 to 7,000 meters (16,400 to 23,000 feet) below sea level so scientists have a hard time studying them. But scientists say abyssal plains are among the flattest, smoothest places on Earth.

What are the Abyssal plains? – Large, relatively flat areas of ocean floor found at 5,000-6,000m below sea level. If sediments are discharged from a river and deposit relatively quick onto the plain they may form an abyssal plain.

Eastern Plains: The area on the northeast, east and southeast of the Aravalli range is known as the Eastern Plain and it covers 23% of the total area of Rajasthan.

The Vindhyan Plateau marks the southeastern limit of the plain and the western boundary is demarcated by the eastern edge of the Aravalli up to north of Udaipur.

This Plain is further subdivided into two physiographic units-

(i) The Banas Basin

(ii) The Chappan Plain

What is Basin?

A basin is a depression or dip in the earth’s surface. Basins are shaped like bowls with sides higher than the bottom. They can be oval or circular in shape similar to a sink or tub you might have in your own bathroom. The basins are filled with water or may be empty.

Basins are formed by forces above the ground (like erosion) or below the ground (like earthquakes). They can be created over thousands of years or almost overnight.

The major types of basins are river drainage basins, structural basins and ocean basins.

What is a River drainage basin?

  • A river drainage basin is an area drained by a river and all of its tributaries. The river basin is made up of many different watersheds.
  • A watershed is small version of a river basin. Every stream and tributary has its own watershed which drains to a larger stream or wetland. These streams, ponds, wetlands and lakes are part of a river basin.

(i) Banas River Basin

The great watershed of india runs in an easterly direction starting from Udai Sagar, east of Udaipur. The watershed acts as the southern boundary of the Mewar Plains and southern area of this watershed is known as the Chappan Plain. The region is marked by various types of erosional features produced in the granite and gneiss rocks mark the topography of the area. The soil is stony and the annual rainfall is about 73cm. It is a Peneplane rather than alluvial plain drained by Banas and its tributaries having an elevation of about 300 metre normally. The plain has been formed on the Archean gneiss and its slope gradually decreases toward east and north east. The Banas is super-imposed in a most striking manner.

This plain is poor; having thin soil but the numerous pegmatite and quartzite dykes facilitates the construction of tanks.

  • The area- 187400 Km³ is an elevated plain drained by Banas & its tributaries and it is essentially Peneplains (Peneplain is a low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion or it is a more or less level land surface produced by erosion over a long period, undisturbed by crustal movement).
  • It is a dissected in Mewar and flat in Malpura plain region.
  • Mewar plain gradually slope towards the east & north east.
  • The Banas & its tributaries Berach, Menal, Bandi, Mansi, Kothari and Khori flow through this plain.
  • It is flat upland which recognized a ―Tertiary Peneplane.
  • It is composed of schist & guess.
  • Banas plain slopes gradually towards northeast from the foot of the Aravalli range.

(ii) The Chappan Plains

  • It is lying east of the Mewar hills & south of the Banas plain in Dungarpur district. 
  • The central & eastern parts known as Chhappan
  • Average elevation is approximate 200-400 m
  • This dissected plain along with hill tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur are locally known as Bagar.
  • This plain drained by the tributaries of the Mahi River lies south of the great indian watershed in southeastern Udaipur, Banswara and the southern part of Chittorgarh district.

The Chappan area is deeply and intricately eroded resulting in the formation of separate hillocks, which is not identical to the Mewar plain in the north. This deeply dissected area is locally known as ‘Bagar’ and includes the hilly tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur.

Aravalli Range & Hilly Region: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Aravalli Range & Hilly Region

Aravalli: The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.

The principal and most dominant mountain range of Rajasthan is the Aravalli range. The geological history of the Aravalli range can be traced back probably close of the Dharwar times.

Rajasthan is the largest state in the Union of India and has more physical variations than any other state. It has regions of rolling sand dunes in the west to lofty rocks in the middle to fertile plains in the east. This range runs diagonally across the state from northeast near delhi and extends to southwest up to the Plains of Gujarat for a distance of about 692 km. The range runs from Khetri in the northeast to Khed Brahma in the Southwest within Rajasthan for a length of about 550 kilometers. It is composed of rocks belonging originally to the Delhi system, folded in a synclinorium occupying the site of the geosynclines which have been deeply eroded.

The whole of this Aravalli range and Hilly Region has been further subdivided into two physiographic units:

(i) Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau

This division constitutes east Sirohi, nearly the whole of Udaipur except a narrow belt in the east and whole of Dungarpur district.

The highest section of the Aravalli range known as ‘Bhorat’ Plateau lies northwest of Udaipur between Kumbhalgarh – Gogunda and the average elevation of this plateau is 1,225 metres.

(ii) North-Eastern Hilly Tract

Northern edge of Bhorat plateau marks the boundary of north eastern hilly tract in the southwest. North of Kumbhalgarh, especially at the Alwar hills the elevation varies between 550m to 670m.

Further north and northeast, the hills are broken and their elevation decreases in the final extension of hills south of delhi to about 306m above sea level. This level is about 60m to 90m above the surrounding plain.

Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau:

The eastern part along the Chambal River is covered by the Hadoti plateau. Four districts Kota, Baran, Bundi and Jhalawar are the part of this plateau. The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border. River Chambal drains in the large part of this area.

  • This region locally called Pathar and Uppermal
    • It comprises of the eastern & south-eastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti.
    • Bhilwara, Bundi, Kota, Baran and Jhalawar are the districts contain about 9.6% of the area of whole Rajasthan.
    • East of the plateau has a general slope toward Gwalior & catchment of Betwa river
    • The eastern, southern and south-west part bordered with Madhya pradesh.

The Plateau has been divided into two units

(a) Vindhyan Scrap Land

The scarp lands formed by massive sandstones separated by shale have an average elevation between 350m to 580m. The scarps are facing towards the south-southeast between the Banas and the Chambal and then it extend towards the east over Bundelkhand. A scarp block occupies the areas of Dholpur and Karauli. The region presents an undulating topography strewn with blocks, depressions and boulders.

(b) Deccan Lava Plateau

The Deccan Lava Plateau is also known as Pathar or Uppermal plateau. It is a wide stony upland including Kota-Bundi plateau section. The Chambal along with its tributaries Kali Sindh and Parbati form a triangular alluvial basin of 210m-275m at Kota and mostly black soil found in this region.

Western Sandy Plains: Geography of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Western Sandy Plains                            

(a) Sandy Arid Plains

  • Marusthali
  • Dune free Tract

(b) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar

  • Luni Basin or Godwar Tract
  • Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

Western Sandy Plain

The western Plain covers a large part of Rajasthan in the west and the northwest of the Aravalli axis. Its northern boundary is marked by Punjab and the southwest by Gujarat and the western boundary is the international boundary between India and Pakistan. The eastern boundary of the western sandy plain is marked by the Aravalli range’s western sub-montane zone up to the northern point of Udaipur district. Beyond which the boundary is marked by the great Indian watershed and 50cm isohyets.

The surface of western Rajasthan is covered with vast stretches of sand occasionally interrupted by rocky protruding right up to the Pakistan border.

The Northwestern division is sandy, poorly watered and sterile. The Rajasthan desert in the west has been subdivided into several natural regions because of the Aravalli hills and the rocky terrain of Barmer-Jaisalmer-Bikaner tract.

Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Jalore, Sirohi, Pali, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar district are part of western sandy plain and the Luni, Sukri & Jawai rivers flow in rainy season in this area.

Its eastern portion is known as Thar desert which is perfectly dry & with desert Plants and Western Sandy Plain & Pakistan face each other across International boundary for about 1070 Km.

The Western Sandy Plains are subdivided into two units:

 (a) Sandy Arid Plain: Minimum rainfall- 50 Cm

There are vast expanses of sand & rock outcrops mainly limestone are found in Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar.

It further divided in two small sub groups:

1. Marusthali

2. Dune Free Tract

1. Marusthali – (Thar Desert)  

  1. It covered Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Churu Area
  2. Height of sand dunes varies from 6 m to 60 m
  3. Length of sand dunes – 3 km to 5 km
  4. Towards west this sandy arid Marushthali is known as Thar Desert.
  5. The Shifting of sand dunes is locally terms as Dharians.

What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.

Dunes: In geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by Aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.

1. Longitudinal Dunes

  • These are mostly run from south west to north east
  • Parallel to the prevailing winds & mostly sword-shaped type.
  • Its Longer axis is parallel to the direction of wind

 2. Transverse Dunes

  • These types of dunes are formed across the wind direction.
  • Commonly found in eastern & northern parts of Marusthali.
  • Windward side is long & gently sloping, while leeward side is steep and abrupt.
  • These are also called U-shaped dunes.

 3. Crescent Shaped Dunes

  • The Width of these types of dunes varies from 100 m to 200 m height of dunes-10 m to 20 m.
  • The dunes have a gently sloping convex windward side & steep leeward
  • These are found in isolation or occasionally side by side in lines.

 2. Dune Free Tract

  • It is rocky but dune free tract.
  • Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Phalodi & Pokhran are known as dune free areas.
  • Limestone & Sandstone rocks exposes here belong to Jurassic & Eocene formations.
  • Gneiss, Grid conglomerate, schist & granite rocks are also exposed at places. 

(b) Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

The line dividing the Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer districts covered in semi arid.
  • Area – 7500 Sq. Km
  • Rainfall – 20 cm
  • Gullying has given rise to conglomerate landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.

Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.

Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:

1. Luni Basin: This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni River.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni river & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari river meets it.   

2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production & dairy.

Topography of the Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.

3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

4. Nagauri Upland: Average height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand hills & low depressions and the temperature being high, the evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt & Soda in the depression.