Mission Antyodaya is an accountability and
convergence framework for transforming lives and livelihoods on measurable
outcomes. Real Difference comes about through Convergence as it alone
simultaneously addresses multi dimensions of poverty, Professionals,
Institutions and Enterprises make it possible.
Mission Antyodaya focuses on most backward
Ministries has been consistently been adopting new
methodologies and technologies to enhance its service delivery capacity.
The main advantage of this application is
convergence of data from Gram Panchayat Level.
The convergence of multiple schemes under a single
scheme could enable the government to migrate all these to the digital
Aadhar-enabled platform thereby contributing further to the Digital India
Over 25 Ministries/ Departments through specific
programs are involved in Mission Antyodaya Project.
The Union government is considering
granting citizenship to over a lakh Chakma and Hajong
refugees, who have been living in India for over 50 years.
The Chakmas and Hajongs lived in the Chittagong
Hill Tracts, and had to flee when their land was submerged by the
Kaptai dam project in the 1960s.
Chakmas are predominantly Buddhists, while Hajongs
are Hindus. They are found in northeast India, West Bengal, Bangladesh,
Why are they called refugees?
The Chakmas and Hajongs living in India are
Indian citizens. Some of them, mostly from Mizoram, live in relief camps in
southern Tripura due to tribal conflict with Mizos. These Indian Chakmas living
in Tripura take part in Mizoram elections too. The Election Commission sets up
polling booths in relief camps.
In the 1960s, the Chakma refugees were accommodated
in the relief camps constructed in the “vacant lands” of Tirap,
Lohit and Subansiri districts of the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency
(NEFA), a political division governed by the Union government.
In 1972, NEFA was renamed Arunachal Pradesh and
made a Union Territory, and subsequently, it attained statehood. The
locals and regional political parties opposed re-settling refugees in
their land fearing that it may change the demography of the State and that
they may have to share the limited resources available for them.
NITI Aayog has tried to bring innovation, technology, enterprise and efficient management as the core of policy formulation and implementation.
It contains four sections: Drivers, Infrastructure, Inclusion and Governance:
Drivers: Focus here is on the engines of economic performance such as growth and employment, doubling of farmers’ incomes and promotion of sunrise sectors like fintech.
Infrastructure: It deals with the physical foundations of growth which are crucial for Indian economic growth.
Inclusion: It deals with the urgent task of investing in the development of the Human resource of the country. The three themes in this section consider three dimensions such as health, education, and mainstreaming of traditionally marginalized sections of the population.
Governance: It talks about how the governance structures can be streamlined and processes optimized to achieve better developmental outcomes.
Government of India along with Asian Development
Bank (ADB) signed a loan agreement to establish a Global Skills Park in
the Madhya Pradesh.
It will help in enhancing the quality of Technical
and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System and create a more
It will engage with global TVET partners for
advanced training at the GSP which help in foundation of best practices in
TVET management, training infrastructure, industry cooperation, and
It will be the first Multi Skills Park in India
It will also include the Center for Occupational
Skills Acquisition and the Center for Advanced Agricultural Training.
80th session of Policy Commission of the World Customs Organization (WCO)
meeting was hosted by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC),
India in Mumbai.
Customs Organization (WCO)
It was established in 1952 as the Customs
Co-operation Council. In 1994, the Council agreed to adopt the working
name ‘World Customs Organization’ to better reflect the growth in its
It is an independent intergovernmental body to
enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of Customs administrations.
It is the only global organization which defines
global standards and procedures for customs clearances at the border and
India is a member of the WCO since 1971.
It is a part of the Asia Pacific region.
India is currently vice-chair (regional head) of the
Asia Pacific region of the World Customs Organisation (WCO) for a period
of two years till June 2020.
North East Industrial Development Scheme (NEIDS), 2017
It covers eligible industrial units in the
manufacturing and service sectors in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.
It will help in promotion of Industrialization in
North-East Region that will give boost to the employment and income
Total Outlay for the scheme is Rs 3000 cr with the
time period extending from April 2017-March 2022.
It comes under Department of Industrial Policy &
Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry
The scheme provides for various soaps such as:
Up-to Rs 5 Crore for 30% of the investment in plant
& machinery as Central Capital Investment Incentive. Similarly, an
interest incentive of 3% would be provided on working capital for 5 years
as Central Interest Incentive.
Reimbursement of 100% insurance premium for 5 years
known as Central Comprehensive Insurance Incentive
Employment Incentive under which additional 3.67% of
the employer’s contribution to EPF in addition to Govt. bearing 8.33%
Employee Pension Scheme (EPS) contribution of the employer in PMRPY.
Income tax (Centre’s Share) and GST (of CGST &
IGCST only) reimbursement for 5 years.
Transport incentive on finished goods movement by
Railways, Inland Waterways Authority & by air from the
station/port/airport nearest to unit to the station/port/ airport nearest
to the destination point.
Also, under this scheme, a single unit can avail
overall benefits up to Rs. 200 Crores.
The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) will be conducting the Civil Services Preliminary Exam commonly called the IAS Prelims Exam on 2 June 2019. The candidates need to work on the most important topic for the IAS Preliminary Exam. There are certain topics which found their place each year in the IAS Preliminary Exam. The candidates need to focus their preparation on these important topics so that you can improve your score in the IAS Preliminary Exam.
UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam 2019
Important Topics for
IAS Prelims Exam – 2019
Cyclone Fani (Basics of cyclone, types
of cyclones, how they are named)
Intellectual Property Rights
Amethi and Raebareli (Important
institutions/industries in these regions)
El-Nino Effect on Monsoon
Jammu & Kashmir (Places in news)
National War Memorial
FATF: Noose Tightens for Pakistan: FATF
Women pioneers in Science
RBI – Monetary Policy
Shifting Magnetic North Pole
Motion of Thanks
India’s Nuclear Policy
India Strategic Overseas Fund
Elections and Model Code of Conduct in
New India @75
SDG India Index Baseline Report
Move Summit Reports
Hydrocarbon Vision 2030 for North-East
The Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill
Geospatial Information Regulation Bill
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojna
Responsible use of plastic
Budget: Health & Sanitation
Budget: Agri Infrastructure
Budget -Social Scheme
Budget – Social Security
North Sentinel Island
20 Years of International Space Station
Indo-Pacific: New Possibilities
Indian Army in First World War
Maneaters of India
RBI Act Section – 7
Restoring Balance of Bio Diversity
Statue of Unity
India’s Engineless ‘Train18’
Moon: Made in China
Indian Police System
Strategic Petroleum Reserve I strategic
Sikkim: India’s First Organic State
Industrial Revolution 4.0
The Nobel Prize
Gir Lions under Threat
Gandhi and Swachh Bharat
Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Day
Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay
Improving Infant Mortality Rate
HCNG: Fuel of the Future
India Post Payments Bank
Biofuel: Increasing Radius
Sports Policy | National Sports Day
Nanda Devi Mission
Quit India Movement
Discover Shale Oil
Earth Overshoot day
Asia Africa Growth Corridor
India Post Payments Bank
CRR, SLR, Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate,
4th Industrial Revolution
New Silk Route
Stand Up India Scheme
BRI – Belt and Road Initiative and India
Veto Powers of the UNSC Permanent
Missile Technology Control Regime and
India and NSG Membership dynamics
Nuclear Security Summit
International Solar Alliance
Motor Vehicles Act 2017
No confidence motion (Intent and
Story of Bangladesh
End of ISIS
The Electoral Reforms
Mining Of Helium-3 on moon
BRI Summit 2019
World Heritage Day
Aviation Sector in Crisis
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Budget – Health
Operation Clean Air
JPC – Joint Parliamentary Committee
Other side of Moon
Pioneers of Aviation
Air Pollution: ICMR Report
Baba Saheb Ambedkar
Augusta Westland Helicopter Case
International Disability Day
G-20 and India
InSight on Mars
Powers of Governor & Lt Governor
Bank Merger policy
SCO Summit 2018
Oceans of Plastic
S-400 Air Defence System
Science of Monsoon
Ayushman Bharat – National Health
The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture is defined by the type of
similar Ochre Pottery found at different sites. In 1951, B.B. Lal carried out
small digs at Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu villages in Bijnor district of Uttar
Pradesh at spots where copper hoards had reportedly been discovered earlier.
While B.B. Lal did not find any new copper objects, he came across weathered
ochre-coloured pottery (OCP), and on that basis he suggested a probable correlation
between the hoards and this pottery. Since then as many as 950 sites of OCP
culture have been discovered from the different parts of western Uttar Pradesh,
Haryana and Rajasthan.
because of their discovery in groups, they have also been labelled as Copper
The highest Number of the OCP sites in
Rajasthan is found in the district of Sikar followed by Jaipur, Jhunjhunu,
Alwar and Bharatpur.
Features of OCP Culture:
The hoards comprise a variety of
objects like flat axes with Splayed sides and convex cutting edges, shouldered
axes, bar Celts, double-edged axes and antenna-hilted swords.
The pottery is ill-fired, ochrish red in
colour, and heavily weathered, with the slip peeling off. The shapes comprise
storage jars, vases, basins, bowls, dishes-on-stand and miniature pots; they
are considerably similar to the Harappan pottery shapes.
Occasionally the pottery is decorated with
incised designs, graffiti and paintings in black pigment.
OCP settlements are small in size and have thin
habitation deposit. This indicates that habitation on them was of short
duration. Because of the small size of excavations very little is known of the
economy and material culture associated with this pottery.
Evidence was found regarding cultivation of
rice and barley, domestication of cattle, rammed earth floors, post-holes,
baked and unbaked bricks, terracotta human figurines and bangles, and beads of
stone and bone.
Important Sites of OCP Culture: In Rajasthan, Ochre Colored Pottery sites
have been discovered at Ganeshwar (Sikar)andJodhpura (Jaipur).
Ganeshwar is a village in Neem Ka Thana Tehsil in the Sikar District.
Excavations have revealed ancient sites, with remains of a 4000 years old
civilization. The site is located at source of river Kantali, which used to
join river Drishadwati, near Soni-Bhadra on the north.
Historian R.L. Mishra wrote that, Red pottery with black portraiture was
found which is estimated to be belonging to 2500–2000 BC was found when
Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977.
Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar Jhunjhunu area
of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. It mainly supplied copper objects to
objects, Microlith & pottery were found throughout the deposits.
Copper objects included arrowheads,
spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels.
Microlith, discovered here, represent a highly
evolved geometric industry, the principal tool types being blunted-back blades,
obliquely-blunted blades, lunates, triangles and points. The raw materials
employed for the industry include qarts, garnet, and occasionally jasper.
Pottery found represents OCP culture and includes storage jars, vases, basins,
bowls, lids and miniature pots.
A number of
Chalcolithic cultures have been discovered in northern, central and western
India. The Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP) culture in the Punjab, Haryana,
north-east Rajasthan and upper Ganga-Yamuna doab
The Narhan culture and its variants in the northern
Vindhyas and the middle and lower Ganga valley.
culture in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.
Kayatha and Malwa cultures in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh.
culture in western Maharashtra.
The Ahar culture, also
known as the Banas culture, is a Chalcolithic Culture of southeastern, Rajasthan,
lasting from 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley
Civilization. The Main distribution of this culture seems to be concentrated in
the river valleys of Banas and its tributaries namely Berach and Ahar. More
than 90 sites of the culture have been identified till date, out of which,
Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are prominent sites. These sites of Ahar
culture provide important information about the transformation of life from
hunting-gathering to agriculture in the Mewar region.
of Ahar-Banas Culture:
Houses: People lived in single, double &
multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses and the houses were made of
stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.
Pottery: Typical Ahar pottery is a Black-and-Red ware
(BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it in white pigment and has
limited range of shapes, which include bowls, bowls-on-stands, elongated vases
and globular vases.
Economy & Subsistence: The subsistence of Ahar-Banas people was based on cultivation, animal
rearing and hunting. They sustained on a number of crops, including wheat and
barley. The people of Ahar culture had trade links with the Harappans.
technology of Ahar people was mostly based on copper. They exploited the copper
ores of the Aravalli Range to make axes and other artefacts.However,
the Neolithic trend of using polished stone tools continued in this period also
and Microlithic tools of Silicious material were also very common.
Ahar-Banas is Culture and not Civilization. So what is
the difference between Civilization & Culture?
by definition smaller than a civilization. Civilization includes (technology,
forms of government etc, and even culture)
Culture can grow and exist without residing in
a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without
the element of culture. Hence, Culture is earlier or a pre-condition for
civilization to develop.
Societies have culture but only a few have Civilization (example, Indus Valley
Gilund is an
archaeological site in Rajsamand district. There are three major rivers in the
area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach. Excavation carried out at
the site during 1959-60 by
B.B.Lal revealed two
mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds. The site is part of
Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture. The archaeological site is also known as
“Modiya Mangari“. Gilund is also famous for its celebration of
“Khehkhara Utsav” (Next day of Diwali).
of Ahar-Banas Culture at Gilund: Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of
occupation can be divided into two Periods: Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2000 BCE and Late
Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE
is Chalcolithic in character on account of the presence of a few Microlith
along with copper.
All through the period the residential houses
are made of mud brick, the walls being plastered with mud. Within the houses
are noticed circular clay-lined ovens and open mouthed chulhas.
characteristic Pottery of Period-I is Black-and-Red Ware, painted over with
linear and curvilinear designs in a creamish-white pigment, other wares include
plain and painted black, burnished grey and red wares.
Among the Terracotta figurines particularly
noteworthy are the bull figurines with a prominent hump and long horns.
of Gilund seems to have begun about the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., as
indicated by the presence of bowls and dishes of grey ware.
In the successive strata have been found Sunga
and Kushana bowls in red ware, sprinklers in the Red Polished Ware, and bowls
in kaolin ware and knife-edged bowls in red ware, indicating that this
occupation continued up to the end of the 1st millennium A.D.
Balathal is an
archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of
Udaipur district of Rajasthan. It is located on banks of Katar River. The site
was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63. There were various
ethno botanical remains recovered at Balathal and these include wheat, barley,
Indian jujube, okra and Job’s tears as well as several varieties of millet,
lentils and peas. The excavated remains also included domesticated animals such
as sheep, goat and cattle. Archaeologists also discovered several burial sites
where the earliest evidence of leprosy in South Asia was found. Apart from
Iron objects, Balathal
people cultivated rice, Kodo millet and Bengal gram. They also bred animals, but
their reliance over on wild animal was less. The Early Historic pottery of
Balathal is generally drab and poor quality in comparison to Chalcolithic pottery.
It consists four wares, namely Red, Grey, Black and Red, and Black. A number of
stone objects made of locally available quartz or granite, and comprising
saddle querns, rotary querns, hammer stones, mullers, pounders and sling balls
have been found. Ornaments of the Balathal people included glass, terracotta
and copper bangles and beads of terracotta, glass, shell and steatite and semi
precious stones, including etched ones. A tiny piece of cotton cloth with
matting-type weaving pattern was found. A number of terracotta human and animal
figurines, the latter comprising bull, dog, goat and tortoise have been found.
Other terracotta objects included weights, lamps, wheels and discs.
This was identified in
the remains of an adult male buried sometime between 2500 and 2000 B.C. Balathal
was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early
This ancient site was
occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the early historic.
Excavation at Balathal revealed a Chalcolithic period stretching from 3000 to
1500 BC and an early historic period dated to 5-3 century BC.
Chalcolithic Phase (3000 -1500 BC): Balathal was part of the Ahar-Banas Complex and can be connected
to other Ahar-Banas culture sites through artifacts that have been discovered.
The period is characterized by well-planned
structures. The houses found at the site are square or rectangular made of mud
brick and stones.
Stone objects including saddle querns,
mullers, rubber stone, hammer stone and copper objects including choppers,
knives, razors, chisels and tanged arrowhead have been found.
It has been determined that the people
practiced agro-pastoralism, which is a mixture of both farming and herding
animals. Pottery at the site has been thoroughly analyzed and tells much about
life at this ancient site.
After the Chalcolithic period the site was abandoned for a long time
till the early historic period.
of early historic phase produced the evidence of large-scale use of iron
implements, suggesting its important role in the economy of that period.
lived in wattle and daub houses and the floors were made of mud and stone
working in the form of furnaces with iron slags and abundant objects like
nails, arrow head, lamps, needle, hoe, spatula, knife etc. are found on site.
peculiar item: A skeleton
was found buried at Balathal believed to be 4,000 year old skeleton of a man
believed to be 37 years when he died. The skeleton it provides the oldest
evidence of leprosy in human beings.
Recently in 2015,
excavation was carried out at Pachamta, a village 100 km from Udaipur in
Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.
Pachamta belongs to
the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the
early and mature Harappan culture. The Ahar culture, datable to 3,000-1,700
BCE, was Chalcolithic and its people had trade links with the Harappans.
Artefacts such as
perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious
stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found
Different Ancient Civilizations of
Aahar River Civilizations
1. Kalibangan Civilizations
Kalibangan lies along the left bank of the dried-up bed
of River Ghaggar (ancient name Saraswati. It is older than 4000 B.C.
It was first discovered by Amlanand Ghosh
in 1952 AD It comprises of three mounds, the larger one in the
middle, the smaller in the west and the smallest in the east .
The excavations brought to light grid
layout of a Harappan metropolis, perhaps truly it is the first city of the
Indian culture heritage.
The significant part of the evidence,
however, relates to the discovery of an early-Harappan settlement, immediately
underlying the occupational remains of the Harappan citadel.
The pre-Harappan settlement was a fortified
parallelogram, the fortification wall being made of mud-bricks.
The houses within the walled area were also
made of mud-bricks. The distinctive trait of this period was the pottery
which was significantly different from that of the succeeding Harappans.
An outstanding discovery was a ploughed
field, showing a cross-grid of furrows, the southeast of the settlement outside
This is perhaps the earliest ploughed field
excavated so far. During the Harappan
period, the structural pattern of the settlement was changed.
There were now two distinct parts:
the citadel on the west and the lower city on the east. The former was situated
atop the remains of the preceding occupations to gain an eminence over the
lower city which was laid out on the natural plain towards the east. The citadel complex was a fortified
parallelogram, consisting of two equal but separately patterned parts.
The fortification was built throughout
The southern half of the citadel contained
some five to six massive platforms, some of which may have been used for
religious or ritual purposes. The
northern half of the citadel contained residential buildings of the elite.
The lower city was also fortified.
Within the walled city, was a gridiron plan of streets running north-south and
east-west, dividing the area into blocks.
The houses were built of mud-bricks, baked bricks being confined to
drains, wells, sills, etc. Beside the
above two principal parts of the metropolis, there was also a third one,
situated 80 m east of the lower city.
It consisted of a modest structure,
containing four to five fire-altars and as such could have been used for
ritualistic purposes. Of the finds
obtained from this excavation, a cylindrical seal and an incised terracotta
cake are quite significant.
The cemetery of the Harappans was
located to the west-southwest of the citadel.
Three types of burials were attested:
extended inhumation in rectangular or oval grave-pits- pot-burials in a
circular pit and rectangular or oval grave-pits containing only pottery and
other funerary objects.
The Later two methods were unassociated with
It was explored by the Ratna Chandra
Agrawal in 1953 -54 A.D.
The original name of Bhinmal was
bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils.
It was the early capital of the kingdom of
Gurjaradesa, a name derived from the Gurjara people.
The kingdom is first attested in Bana’s
Harshacharita (7th century AD).
Its king is said to have been subdued by
Harsha’s father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD). The surrounding
kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava
(western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and
Located in Jalore district and reflects
about the trade relations with Unani civilization.
has visited the ancient city.
3. Gilund Civilizations
At the ancient site of Gilund, two mounds labelled as
‘eastern’ and ‘western’, measuring 45 ft and 25 ft respectively above the
surrounding fields in height and covering an area of 500 X 250 yards were
partially excavated by a team under the direction of B. B. Lal during 1959-60.
Excavation was carried out at three different areas, designated as GLD-1 (with
its extension GLD-1A), GLD-2 and GLD-3. The site was later revisited from 1999
to 2005 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania and the Deccan College in
Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE.
These years of occupation are divided into three phases: Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700
BCE, Middle Ahar-Banas 2500-2000 BCE, and Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2500 BCE. Here
various housing structures have been uncovered, as well as large buildings with
long parallel walls, workshops; refuse heaps, and an exterior wall surrounding
the site. The workshop area has revealed that the occupants practiced
small-scale craft production. Further analysis of the areas also shows that the
inhabitants were agro-pastoralists, meaning that they mixed agricultural
practices with livestock herding practices.
Artefact analysis has linked objects found at Gilund to
the other sites in the Ahar-Banas Complex, as well as the site of Bagor. In
addition, lithics at Gilund and Bagor were produced using the same techniques.
4. Ganeshwar Civilizations:
– Excavations in the area revealed the remains of a 4,000-year-old
civilization. Historian Ratan Lal Mishra writes that Ganeshwar was excavated in
1977. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture. The period was
estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found
there. Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area
of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. Excavations revealed copper objects
including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths
and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan
period. Ganeshwar mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.
The copper was obtained in the nearby Aravalli Range
5. Ishwal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Five stage
settlement, Iron was melted about 500 B.C.
6. Bairath Civilizations: – Jaipur District near
Beejak hills, Explored by Dayaram Sahani in 1937.
7. Balathal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored
by V.N. Mishra in 1993. Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar
Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India.This site,
located 6 km from Vallabhnagar town and 42 km from Udaipur. It’s famous for
8. Aahar River Civilizations: – Udaipur,
Explored by Kirti Vyas in 1953.
9. Bagore Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Explored by
V.N. Mishra in 1967. Three stages of Settlements, ie 4480-3285 BC, 2765 BC -500
BC and 500 BC to 400 AD. The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic
(pre-Harappa) archaeological site located on the Kothari River in the Bhilwara
District of the Rajasthan region of western India. Bagor was excavated by
Deccan College scholars such as Virendra Nath Misra and Vasanta Shinde in the
1960s and 1970s, who found evidence for the domestication of sheep, cattle and
goats by the nomadic pastoralists of Bagor dating as early as 5000 to 3000 BC.
10. Rangmahal Civilizations: – This early
historical site was excavated by the Swedish Archaeological Expedition, during
1952-4. The first settlement was laid around A.D. 250 during Kushana period and
flourished up to the sixth or seventh century A.D. During excavations, coins of
Kanishka III, besides the Murundas and three earlier coins of Kanishka I,
Huvishka and Vasu-deva and a seal paleographical datable to A.D. 300, have been
found. Excavation has revealed eight structural phases. The structures were
built of mud-bricks of varying sizes but the normal size was about 32 x 23 x 7
cm. The bricks were laid in the English bond system. The floors were paved with
mud-bricks. The houses were rectangular with north-south orientation. The site
is famous for the manufacture of typical ceramic industry termed as Rang Mahal
Ware culture. This distinctive pottery is wheel-made, reddish or pinkish in
colour. The types include globular or oval jars and handy with pronounced rims,
externally rusticated showing wavy ribs. In some cases the shoulder and the
neck are painted in black-on-red polished surface, other types are spouted
vase, sprinkler, cooking vessels, storage jars, beaker with or without handle,
bowls of different varieties, lamp, incense-burner, etc. A few carinated handis
have textile marks on the body. Moulded pottery is represented by the bowl and
miniature basin. The decorations on the pottery are applied and incised
patterns and paintings. The cultural assemblage also includes figurines in
faience, terracotta animal figurines, carts and wheels, weights, balls,
flesh-rubbers, discs, dice, votive tanks, potters stamps, pendants,
ear-orinaments, beads of coral, paste, lapis lazuli and shell; rotary querns,
mullers, pestles and bone and iron objects.
11. Ojiyana Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Previously
the site was excavated in the season 1999-2000 which had revealed remains of
Chalcolithic cultures. The recent excavation conducted at the site in 2000-01
has yielded white painted black and red wares, white painted terracotta bulls,
cow figurines, copper chopper and beads of faience, carnelian, agate, shell,
steatite, stone and terracotta and bangles and pendant of copper belonging to
Chalcolithic cultures ranging from 3rd millennium B.C. to 2nd millennium B.C.
12. Nagari Civilizations: – It was one of the
most important townships of the Mauryan era in Rajasthan, situated on the banks
of river Bairach. It was formerly known as Majhimika/Madhyamika, which
flourished from the Maurya to Gupta era. The excavations over here have
unearthed many interesting facts and have showed signs of strong Hindu and
13. Tilwara Civilizations: – Tilwara is an
archeological site from where evidence for the Mesolithic culture has been
excavated.Its in Barmer district at the bank of river Luni.
14. Barore Civilizations: – Baror is situated on
the right bank of dried up river Sarasvasti (modern Ghaggar) in Anupgarh Tehsil
of Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. It is located about 13 km. north-east of
Anupgarh and about 100 km. south-west of Kalibangan.
L.P. Tessitore (1916-17), Aurel Stein (1940-41) and A.
Gosh surveyed this area and identified the archaeological importance of this
The excavation work at Baror added new chapter in the
study of Harappan Civilization.
The mound of Baror roughly measures 200× 150 mts. and
rises to a height of 11 mts. from its surrounding plain. The western portion of
the mound is higher and seems to be the citadel whereas the eastern portion is
lower indicating lower town.
On the basis of ceramic industries, antiquities and
other material culture, recovered from the field-season’s work, a three-fold
cultural sequence was established.
Indus Valley Civilization: The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak. Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus and at Harappa further upstream. The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system. The social conditions of the citizens were comparable to those in Sumeria and superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These cities display a well-planned urbanization system.
Located on the bank of river Ghaghhar in Hanumangarh District.
Discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1953.
Excavated by Brijvasilal in 1961.
Evidence of ploughed field is found.
Evidence of growing Barley and Mustard are found.
Cylindrical seal of Mesopotamia is found here.
Houses were made from Raw bricks (Kachhi Int).
The drainage system was not properly developed.
Evidence of Earthquake.
Sothi (Sothi Civilization):
It was a rural civilization.
Located in Ganganagar District.
Situated on the plain of Ghaghhar and Chautang River.
It is also called Kalibanga 1st.
Historian mentioned it as the origin place of Harappan civilization.
Other Archaeological Sites
It isLocated on
the bank of river Kantali in Sikar District.
is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri
copper belt in Rajasthan. The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture group has over 80
other sites currently identified. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC.
Historian Ratna Chandra Agrawal wrote that Ganeshwar was excavated in
1977. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads,
fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools,
Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period.
saw three cultural phases: Period 1 (3800 BCE) which was characterized
by hunting and gathering communities using chert tools; Period II (2800
BCE) shows the beginnings of metal work in copper and fired clay pottery; Period
III (2000 BCE) featured a variety of pottery and copper goods being produced.
Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found here. Red pottery was found
here with black portraiture.
It islocated in
Jhunjhunu district, as at other sites, the PGW culture (period I) issucceeded
by Period II which is represented by unslipped ware though Black and Redand
Black slipped wares of PGW period continue and a few NBP sherds are alsopresent.
The important antiquities include a stone plaque bearing auspicious Buddhistsymbol, iron implements and copper objects. Period III is represented by
typical potteryof the Sunga Kushana period and important finds include
a seal with an inscription inBrahmi characters, terracotta animal
figurines, and copper cast coins. It is situated on the bank of river Kantali
in Jhunjhunu district and It is a Iron Age site.
It is in Nagaur district and also Called Town of Tools.
Located in Udaipur district and Industrial Town (Because of Iron Mine
in Ancient time)
Located in Bundi district and Rock paintings of ancient India are
Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Rajasthan, undertook excavation
at Jodhpura located on Jaipur-Delhi highway. At Jodhpura Period III,
represented by the PGW culture, is succeeded by periods of IV and V both Early
Historic age. Period IV is marked by occurrence of NBP ware and unslipped red
ware. Important finds of this period include iron arrow heads and nails, shell
bangle, terracotta humped bull and stone bead. Period V is represented by Sunga
Kushana pottery. The common shapes are bowl, lid cum bowl, and lipped bowl with
small spouted channel. Some sherds are stamped with Triratna and Swastika
symbols. Other finds of the period comprise iron implements, a terracotta ghata
shaped bead, a stone bead and a copper coin.
It is located on the bank of river Sabi in Jaipur district.
This site is known for incised ware, Reserved Slipware, Copper Arrow
heads and Celts.
Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd
century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it
covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is called the Golden
Age of India (there was peace, development and prosperity in the country)
by some historians.
According to Prayag Prashashthi (Allahabad Inscription), Samundragupta
defeated many republican kingdoms.
Samundra Gupta defeated Rudradaman II in 351 A.D. and captured
Vikramaditya Defeated last Shaka ruler and whole Rajasthan came under
Maximum Gupta period coins are found from Bayana (Bharatpur) belonging
to Kumar Gupta.
Baran (Rajasthan) inscription mention about Gupta period.
Durga Temple (Kota) and Shiv Temple (Chachanura) are the best examples
of Gupta Architecture.
Post Gupta Period (Huns, Vardhan and Gurjars)
In 503 A.D, Toranmal of Hun Dynasty defeated Guptas and captured
Mihirkula built Shiva temple in Badauli.
Later Mihikula was defeated by Narsingh Baladitya Gupta and Rajasthan
was preoccupied by Guptas.
The capital of Gurjar-Pratihar was Bhinmal.
Chinese traveller Huang Tsang visited Bhinmal during his period.
Brahmagupta belongs to Bhinmal.
Gurjar Pratihar stopped Arab invasion from North West.
The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya,
2,000 years back when he overthrew the Nanda King. His assistant was Chanakya,
a shrewd advisor and strategic thinker. He has written a book called
Arthashastra that comprises his thoughts on politics, economics, foreign
affairs, administration, military arts, war and religion.
Chandragupta was succeeded by Bindusara, his son who
extended the Mauryan Empire till Mysore. Bindusara was succeeded by his son
Ashoka, who is regarded as the greatest ruler of the empire by many historians.
He extended the Mauryan Empire till the modern-day Afghanistan, with Patliputra
The Mauryan Emperors appointed the family members to
control the large empire. Only the capital Patliputra was controlled by the
emperor while states like Ujjain and Taxila were governed by royal princes. The
Emperors also appointed officials for collecting taxes, maintaining law and
order and keeping a check on the activities of the subjects.
Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, Director
of Archaeology and Historical Research of former Jaipur state, conducted
excavations at Bairat sometime in the thirties of the last century. we know
that the so called Bhabru Rock Edict found by Captain Burt in 1840 must
have come from Bijak ki Pahari because this place alone has provided
evidence of Mauryan period and also another Ashokan edict. This edict is the
only known edict of Ashoka, which is inscribed on a stone slab (Shila phalaka)
as distinguished from stone pillar (Shila Stambha) or rock. It also provides
definite proofs of Ashoka’s faith in Buddhist religion and his consequent
exhortation to monks and nuns and to laymen and laywomen to listen to and to
study seven select passage from the Buddhist scriptures.
principle monuments brought to light are numerous remnants of two Ashoka
pillars, a temple of an entirely new type and a monastery both of which latter monuments
must have been erected by Ashoka himself. It was capital of Matsya
It was a part of Mauryan Empire.
In 1837, Ashoka’s Rock Edict was discovered by Capt. Burj
Evidence of the Buddhist stupa sites was found here.
In 634 A.D Huang Tsang visited Bairat.
Sculptures, coins, pottery, seals and metal objects were
found from the excavation.
It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1936.
According to Maan Sarovar inscription of 713 A.D., Maan
Maurya was the ruler of Bairat. This inscription also mentions the name of 4
rulers. Maheshwar, Bhoj, Bhim and Maan.
Post Mauryan Period
coinage refers to the period of coinage production in India, following the
breakup of the Maurya Empire. The centralized Mauryan power ended during a Coup
d’état in 185 BCE leading to the foundation of the Shunga Empire. King
Ashoka ruled for 50 years and after the war of Kalinga, he led the path of
peace and Buddhism. Since the successor of king Ashoka wasn’t capable of ruling
Greek ruler Menander attacked Rajasthan in 150 B.C.
16 Greek coins were found from Bairat.
Coins were found from the Rang Mahal of Hanumangarh belonging to
The first Saka king in India was Maues who ruled in Gandhar and
extended his power in northwest India.
Stone Age: a prehistoric period
when weapons and tools were made of stone or of organic materials such as bone,
wood or horn.
Paleolithic, The cultural period
of the Stone Age that began about 2.5 to 2 million years ago, marked by
the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone. The Paleolithic Period
ended at different times in different parts of the world, generally around
10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East.
Paleolithic site in
Mesolithic Age: Mesolithic,
also called Middle Stone Age, ancient cultural stage that existed between
the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), with its chipped stone tools, and the
Neolithic (New Stone Age), with its polished stone tools. Most often used
to describe archaeological assemblages from the Eastern Hemisphere, the
Mesolithic is broadly analogous to the archaic culture of the Western
Hemisphere. Mesolithic material culture is characterized by greater
innovation and diversity than is found in the Paleolithic. Among the new
forms of chipped stone tools were microliths, very small stone tools
intended for mounting together on a shaft to produce a serrated edge.
Mesolithic sites in
On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwara District.
Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
Tools are excavated in large numbers.
Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
Biggest Mesolithic Site in India.
On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
3. Chalcolithic Age: Chronology of Chalcolithic Settlement. The first metal age of India is called Chalcolithic Age which saw the use of copper along with stone. It was also called Stone-Copper Age.
Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan (5, 00,
00 BC – 10,000 BC)
Man is said to have
appeared in the early Pleistocene in Africa about 3 million (30 lakh) years
ago. In India, based on recent evidence, man is said to have appeared 1.4
million (14 lakh) years back at Bori, Maharashtra.
had no knowledge of cultivation and house building till 9000 years B.C. From
there first appearance to beginning of 3000 BC man used tools & implements
only made up of stone and so early phase of human existence has been Called
as Stone-Age. Based on nature of stone tools and nature of change in
climate the stone-age is divided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic age
period to study history till 1000B.c.
The Paleolithic age has been divided into 3 sub-ages namely:
5,00,000 BC – 1,00,000 BC: Lower Paleolithic
or Early Old Stone Age
1,00,000 BC – 40,000 BC: Middle Paleolithic
or Middle Old Stone Age
40,000 BC – 10,000 BC: Upper Paleolithic or
Later Old Stone Age
These areSpecial characteristic stone
tools – Hand axe and cleaver.Raw materials used for making stone tools
included – quartzite, quartz and basalt. The sites of early Stone Age
discovered in Rajasthan have been identified as belonging to Acheulian culture,
named after French site of St. Acheul which was the first effective
colonization of the Indian subcontinent.The Acheulian culture was a
hunter-gatherer culture.Sites of lower-Paleolithic age are located in Nagaur
and Didwana of Rajasthan, Barkhera, Bhimbetka and Putlikarar in Raisen district
of Madhya Pradesh.
The Acheulian culture of Old Stone Age was
slowly transformed into the middle Paleolithic by giving some of the tool types
and by developing new tools & technology. Special characteristic of stone
tools – Flakes.
In comparison to the lower Paleolithic era,
the tools in middle Paleolithic became smaller, thinner and lighter.
The New raw materials used for making stone
tools included fine-grained siliceous rocks like chert and jasper.
In our Rajasthan, sites of Middle Paleolithic
age are located at Luni valley, around Didwana, Budha Pushkar.
The tools of Upper Paleolithic Era are further
refined upon the lower and middle periods and show a marked regional diversity
with respect to the refinement of techniques and standardization of finished
characteristic of stone tools of Upper Paleolithic age – Flakes and blades.
2. One important
discovery is of the Ostrich egg shells at over 40 sites in Rajasthan, Madhya
Pradesh and Maharashtra, which shows that ostrich, a bird adapted to arid
3. The upper
Paleolithic settlements also show a distinct trend of being associated with
permanent sources of waters.
4. Society was ‘Band
Society‘- small communities, usually consisting of less than 100 people.
They were nomadic to some extent moving from one place to another.
5. The earliest form
of art by humans also belongs to upper Paleolithic period in the form of rock
6. Sites of Upper
Paleolithic age in Rajasthan included Chittorgarh, Kota and basins of rivers
Wagoon, kadamli, Sabarmati & Mahi.
The last stage of Old
Stone Age or Paleolithic Age was followed by Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age in
Rajasthan (in India). The transition from the Paleolithic period to Mesolithic
period is marked by transition from Pleistocene period (2.58 million years ago
– 10,000BC) to Holocene (10,000 BC – till now) and favorable changes in the
climate. The climate became warmer and humid and there was expansion of flora
and fauna contributed by increased rainfall. This led to availability of new
resources to humans.
Tools of Mesolithic Age: The tools are Mesolithic age were smaller in
size and better in finishing (more geometric) than the Paleolithic age and are
called as Microlith.
tool types are backed blades, obliquely truncated blades, points, crescents,
triangles and trapezes.
the Microlith were used as components of spearheads, arrowheads, knives,
sickles, harpoons and daggers.
Use of bow
and arrows for hunting has been documented by Mesolithic man in rock art of the
Changes in Society of Mesolithic Age:
of Animals & Farming:The early period of Mesolithic
age was based on the hunting, fishing and food gathering, slowly domestication
of animals and cultivation of crops made their way into human life.
The earliest evidence of domestication of
animals has been provided by Adamagarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bagor in
animals to be domesticated were dog, cattle, sheep and goat and the first crops
to be cultivated were wheat and barley.
2. Nomadism to Sedentary settlements:
The favourable climate, better rainfalls,
warm atmosphere and increased food security led to reduction in Nomadism to
seasonally sedentary settlement and increased population.
They moved to new areas such as nearby rivers
which provided water and First human colonization of the Ganga plains took
place during this period.
Mesolithic age saw beginning of the tradition of various ways of intentional
disposal of the dead.
human burials have been found at Bagor in Rajasthan, Langhnaj in Gujarat, and
Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh etc.
4. Emergence of Arts:
painting of Mesolithic period is found in Adamagarh, Bhimbetka of Madhya
Pradesh and Pratapgarh, Mirzapur of Rajasthan.
paintings are made mostly in red and white pigments, made from the nodules
found in rocks and earth. (Red made by minerals of iron oxide and white by
matter of the paintings are mostly wild animals and hunting scenes, though
there are some related to human social and religious life such as sex and child
Neolithic or new Stone Age, which followed Mesolithic
age, was the last phase of Stone Age. The Neolithic period began around 10700
to 9400 BC in Tell Qaramel in Northern Syria. In South Asia the date assigned
to Neolithic period is 7000 BC and the earliest example is Mehrgarh Culture.
settlements in the Mesolithic era got more sedentary and people began settle
down in agricultural communities which led to establishment of villages.
first time domesticated cattle, sheep and goats.
As efficiency of agriculture improved, man was
able to produce surplus food. As a consequence, some people moved away from
agriculture and new occupations like dancers, musicians, masonry came up.
The people of this age used tools &
implements of polished stone. Neolithic tool kit was composed of heavy ground
tools – pestles, mortars, grinders and pounders – as also axes and sickles
which have a characteristic sheen on them, the result of harvesting wild or
domesticated plants and grasses.
The use of pottery and the wheel and the subsequent
invention of crafts like spinning, weaving and bead making also serve to
demonstrate the uniqueness of the Neolithic phase. This transition from hunting
gathering to food production is called the Neolithic revolution.
Causes of Neolithic Revolution: Factors that pushed humans in vastly
separated parts to adopt agriculture and animal domestication included:
i. Climatic change at the beginning of the Holocene period
ii. Increasing population density
iii. Evolving cultural and technological strategies of human groups.
Features of Mehrgarh Neolithic Culture:
Mehrgarh is located on bank of the Bolan River, a
tributary of the Indus, at the eastern edge of the Baluchistan plateau
overlooking the Indus plain. It is considered as the oldest agricultural
settlement in the Indian subcontinent.
domesticated animals in Mehrgarh were cattle, sheep, goat and water buffalo
while the main cultivated plants were wheat and barley.
Houses made in mud and mud-bricks, created
rooms to store grains, buried dead under floors of houses where they lived,
used ornaments of steatite, turquoise, sea shells etc.
cotton for the first time. Used pottery decorated with images of birds,
of making stone beads, copper smelting, timber, terracotta, commercial
The first evidence in human history for the
drilling of teeth in a living person was found in Mehrgarh.
Neolithic Age in Rajasthan
There are no significant Neolithic sites that fall in
Rajasthan, Lakes are divided into two categories
(Sweet) Water Lake
Salt Water Lakes
is India’s largest inland Salt Water Lake.
has been designated as a Ramsar site because this wetland is a favourite spot
for migratory birds like Pink Flamingo.
total area of the lake is 150 sq. km.
lake receives water from five rivers Merta, Samand, Mantha, Roopangarh and
is a natural lake, is located at Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
is 2km broad and 4km long.
Production of salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.
is located in Barmer district.
is also a Natural Lake, is a salt lake near Pachpadra in Barmer, Rajasthan.
sodium chloride level is marked at Approx 98%.
total area of this Lake is 25 Sq. km.
is located in Lunkaransar, 80 km away from Bikaner.
is also Natural and a salt water lake.
other famous Salt Water Lakes are Phalodi, Kuchaman, Kovaad, Kachhor, Rewasa,
2. Fresh (Sweet) Water
to the scarcity of water in Rajasthan, this freshwater lakes act as boons for
people of Rajasthan.
Important Fresh Water Lakes of Rajasthan
was constructed by Maharana Jaising by building the dam on Gomati River from
1685 to 1691.
is located 51 km southeast of Udaipur.
is also called Dhebar Lake.
is the biggest natural lake of Rajasthan.
constructed by Maharana Rajsingh in 1662.
On the bank of this, lakes many inscriptions are there
which tells about the history of Mewar.
Lake Pichhola, an artificial fresh water
lake, situated on the heart of the Udaipur city in Rajasthan.
It was built in 1362 AD by a Banjara and
& named after the nearby Picholi village.
There are four islands on the lake: Jag
Niwas, where the Lake Palace is built, Jag Mandir, with the palace of the same
name, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Vilas.
The Pichhola Lake and the Swaroop Sagar
Lake are connected by an arched bridge built by Maharana Swaroop Singh during
One has Jag Mandir (Temple) and second has
Jag Nivas named palaces.
Fateh Sagar Lake
This is an artificial lake was initially built by
Maharana Jai Singh in north-west of Udaipur in the year 1678 but it was
reconstructed by Maharana Fateh Singh in 1888.
It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught
and was initially called Connaught Bundh.
There are Udaipur Solar Observatory, impressive
water-jet fountain and Nehru Park – Popular picnic spot.
It is an artificial lake situated in the
city of Ajmer.
It was built by Arnoraja alias Anaji, the grandfather
of Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1135 -1150 AD and is named after him.
The five Baradari or pavilions, between the garden and
the lake, were built by Shahjahan in 1637. On its bank, there’s a garden called
“Daulat Baug by Jehangir.
is located in Ajmer district surrounded by mountains.
is also known as Pushkar Sarovar, is located in Pushkar.
Lake is a sacred lake of the Hindus. The Hindu scriptures describe it as
“Tirtha-Raj” – the king of Pilgrimage sites related to a water-body and
relate it to the mythology of the creator-god Brahma, whose most prominent
temple stands in Pushkar.
Pushkar Lake finds mention on coins as early as the 4th century BC.
is located in Alwar district in between Aravalli Range.
Some other famous lakes are Navlakkha Lake (Bundi),
Kolayat Lake (Bikaner), Shaiva Sagar (Dungarpur), Galati and Ramgarh (Jaipur),
Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur), Kailana Lake (Jodhpur), etc.
The Location of the great Indian watershed and the
existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of
Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide
due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from
the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the
southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of
Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past Udai
sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to Pratapgarh.
Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west
and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi
are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern
side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along with
its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and Berach,
Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins the river
Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.
The inland drainage system
is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is
that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies
west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin, Barrah
basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage basins.
The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these rivers.
The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer
is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the
southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur,
Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river
has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A
small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river
widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km
flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area
of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is
choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the
river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut
the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the
western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri,
Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams
contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river
Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near the
Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather
than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to
the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River
Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which
it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.
The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south,
southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and has
some important streams.
The river Chambal is the largest stream
and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the
Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might
occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.
The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of
the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about
325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both
the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at
505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.
The river Chambal is joined by its first major
tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati
joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it
bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj,
after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the
river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms
the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river
Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas join
the Chambal River on the left bank.
The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.
1. Rivers that
drain in the Bay of Bengal
the ancient time, it was called “Charmanyavati”.
originates from Janapao Hills near Maanpur in Mahu, Madhya Pradesh.
enters in Rajasthan near Chaurasigarh and makes the border of Kota and Bundi.
passes through Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur and finally meets in Yamuna
sagar, Jawahar sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Kota Barrage Dam are built on
Kalisindh and Parvati are its tributaries.
965 Km & Length in Rajasthan-370Km
The proposed Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal
link is one of the big projects being planned in the basin which will divert
surplus waters of Parwati and Kalisindh to the Rana Pratap Sagar or Gandhi
originates from Khamnor Hill near Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand.
travels through Gogunda Plateau, Nathdwara, Rajsamand, Rel Magara, Chittorgarh,
Bhilwara, Tonk and in Sawai Madhopur, it join the Stream of Chambal River.
is also called ‘Hope of Forest (Van Ki Asha)’.
Kothari, Khari, Mainal, Bandi, Dhundh and Morel are the tributaries of Banas
Banas River Basin
Banas lies completely within Rajasthan and has the largest
catchment area (45,833 square km) in Rajasthan. Banas drains the east slope of
the central portion of the Aravalli Range, and the basin includes all or part
of Pali, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Tonk, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Bundi, Chittorgarh,
Dausa, Jaipur and Sawai Madhopur districts.
Kali Sindh River
originates in dewas in Madhya Pradesh.
passes through Jhalawar and Baran districts and meets Chambal River in Narena.
is tributary of Chambal & it meet near Nonera village in Baran.
Ujaad, Niwai and Aahu are its tributary rivers.
is a tributary of Kali Sindh and it originates in Sehore district of Madhya
Pradesh. Parban flows through Sehore, Shajapur and Rajgarh districts in
Madhya Pradesh. It covers Jhalawar, Kota; Baran districts of Rajasthan and
meets Kali Sindh in Baran district of Rajasthan.
originates in Sihor region of Madhya Pradesh and flows in Baran and meets
Chambal River near Paliya, Sawai Madhopur.
Northern slopes of Vindhyan Range Length in State- 65 Km
is the tributary of Chambal and it meet near Poh village
It Originates from Gogunda Hills, North of
Districts- Udaipur, Chittorgarh
It is also known as Aayar River
It is a tributary of Banas River & it
meet near Bigod.
It is known by name of Aayar
River. It is called Berach after appearing from Udai Sagar Lake near
Udaipur. It flows northeast through Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Bhilwara
districts, joining the Banas near Bigod village of Bhilwara district.
Berach has significant historical
significance with banks of Ahar having thrown up evidences of settlements
dating back to the Harappan and pre-Harappan era’s cultural levels, thus
exhibiting connection with Indus Valley civilization. Additionally, evidences
of big palaces were found at Nagri, an ancient site around 16 km from
from Bhilwara and meets Chambal near Lakheri in Bundi.
River is a left bank tributary of Chambal River.
originates near Mandalgarh in Bhilwara and joins Chambal in Kota. The catchment
area of Mej River extends over Bhilwara, Bundi and Tonk districts of
Vapani (Bahyani) River
near Haripura village of Chittorgarh district and meets Chambal near
Origin- Hills of Sawai Madhopur district
Districts- Karauli and Bharatpur
Dam- Panchna Dam in Sawai Madhopur Band Baretha has
been built over it to tame its water.
It is a tributary of Yamuna River & it meet in Agra
It changes its course in many years.
originates from Bairath Hills of Jaipur district.
it moves towards the east in Sawai Madhopur and then in Bharatpur meets in the
River Basin is located in the northeastern part of Rajasthan state with a total
catchment area of 8,878.7 sq km. It is bounded by Ruparail and Sabi in its
north; and the Shekhawati Basin in its west and the Gambhir and Banas River
Basins in its south-southwest. The eastern border of the basin is marked by the
Yamuna River Basin in Uttar Pradesh. Administratively, Banganga River Basin
extends over parts of Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur
2. Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea
originates from Naag Hills of Ajmer, after that it moves towards Jodhpur, Pali,
Barmer, and Jalore and enters in Gujarat in Kutchh.
travels almost 320 km.
water is sweet up to Balotara and then it becomes salty.
Liladi, Mithadi, Sukhadi, Bandi and Saagi are its tributaries.
city is situated on the bank of Bandi River.
city is on the banks of Jawai River.
is on the bank of Sukri River
began its journey from Mahu Hills of Madhya Pradesh and enters Rajasthan in
The Mahi Bajaj
Sagar Multipurpose project has
been constructed on it near Borkhera village
forms the border between Banswara and Dungarpur and enters Gujarat and ends its
journey in Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay).
Bajaj Sagar Dam is constructed on this river near Banswara.
main tributaries are Soma, Jakham, Anas, Chap and Moren.
originates near Udaipur and flows in Sirohi and then enters in Gujarat and ends
its journey in Gulf of Cambay.
the initial stage, it is called Vakal River.
3. Inland Rivers
originates from Khandela Hills of Sikar district.
District- Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Churu.
terminates in the sand dunes of Churu
travels 100 km and flowing from Sikar and Jhunjhunu, disappeared in the desert
Sota Sabi River
Origin- Sota from the hills of Bairath,
Sabi from Sewar hills
In Rewari & Gurgaon it causes floods.
It originates from Sevar Hills and flows in
banasur, Bahrod, Kishangarh, Mandawar and Tijara and disappeared in Haryana.
Kakani or Kakneya River
from Kotari village and disappear after travelling some distance.
into- Bhuj Lake.
flows only during rainy season
is considered the oldest river of India, i. e. Saraswati.
flows from Haryana to Hanumangarh, Ganganagar Suratgarh, and Anupgarh and
enters in Pakistan.
Kalka Hills (Himachal Pradesh) Length- 465 Km
often causes floods during heavy rainfall It enters Rajasthan in Tibbi Tehsil
It finally enters into the Bhawalpur
district of Pakistan where it lost in the vast array of sand dune.
is also called Dead River.
Khari River-Origin- Hills of Bijral village, North of
Rajsamand district and it meets near Banas River near Deoli (Tonk).
Dai River originates in the southeastern
slopes of the Aravalli Range, near Nasirabad Tehsil of Ajmer. It flows
southeast and then east in Ajmer District and for a short distance through Tonk
District, before joining Banas River near Bisalpur village in Tonk District.
Dheel River originates in the plains near
Bauli village in Tonk District. It flows generally from north to south through
Jaipur, Tonk and Sawai Madhopur. It joins the Banas near Philpura village in
Sawai Madhopur district. River Gudia is its tributary.
One branch of River
Morel originates in the hills near Dharla and Chainpura villages in Bassi
Tehsil of Jaipur District and the second branch makes by receiving water from
the catchment area of foothills of Paplaj Mataji mountains, district Dausa.
It flows southeast and
then southwest to meet river Dhund, and then again southeast through
Jaipur, Dausa and Sawai Madhopur, joining Banas river near Hadoli of
Sawai Madhopur District.
The River Kalisil originates in the hills
near Rajpura village in Sawai Madhopur District. The river flows generally
southwest, partly through hills and partly in the plains of Sawai Madhopur
District, finally joining the Morel River.
Sarasvati and Drishadvati:
Ancient Indian River
(O Sarasvati, you the best of mothers, the best of rivers, the best of gods!
Although we are of no repute, mother, grant us distinction.)
During the vedic
civilization, Aryans developed Rigveda, which describes about the ” Sapta
Sindhu ” the seven rivers of NW India , traced from east to west as
Sarasvati, Satadru ( Sutlej ), Vipasa (Beas), Parosni (Ravi) , Asikni (Chenab)
Vitasta (Jhelum) and Sindhu (Indus) which started flowing consequent on the
melting of the Himalayan glaciers at the end of Pleistocene.
Sarasvati River system is sequenced as Sutlej-Markanda-Drishadvati-Ghaggar-Hakra
river channels which constituted the hydrological flows of Vedic Sarasvati
River system traceable upstream: from
creek starting from Ad Badri at the foothills of the Siwalik ranges and Extending
into the Bata Valley in upper reaches of the Himalayas, traceable into the
Rupin-Supin glaciers close to Yamunotri glaciers.
glacier source from ManaSarovar yielded the River Sutlej which was a tributary
of Vedic Sarasvati River System joining the latter southwards from Ropar at
Shatrana (50 km. South of Patiala).
The relative humidity
in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to
unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this
region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.
During the monsoon months, July to September the
relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is
about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in
West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the
humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity
percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows
a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.
The annual average of relative humidity
of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of
Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of
relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.
The variation in the relative humidity is low during
the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the
variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the
afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid
The main reason in this decline is the deforestation
and other activities.
The diurnal variation in
relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the
contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative
humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the
summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the
diurnal variation is highest.
Air temperature and relative humidity conditions
The pleasant winters in the state witness mean night
temperatures above 4.7 C to 10.6 C. During summers the western Rajasthan
becomes the hottest place in the country with mean maximum air temperatures
varying from 38.6 C to 42.6 C in May. The recorded extreme temperatures in the
state were -4.4 C to 50.0 C in the western Rajasthan and -2.8 C to 47.8 C in
the eastern Rajasthan (as per Indian Meteorological Department, 2010).
The relative humidity in the arid region of Western
Rajasthan is also quite high because of the unfavorable circulations of the
atmosphere and low precipitation that occurs in the arid region as compared to
other semi-arid and sub-humid regions.
It is a Government of India’s scheme promoted by the
Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture.
It will be implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State
and Union Territory Governments. A SHC is meant to give each farmer soil
nutrient status of his holding and advice him on the dosage of fertilizers and
also the needed soil amendments, that he should apply to maintain soil health
in the long run.
What is a Soil Health
SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed
over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with
respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients) ; S (Secondary-
nutrient) ; Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients) ; and pH, EC, OC (Physical
parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer
recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.
How can a farmer use a
The card will contain an advisory based on the soil
nutrient status of a farmer’s holding. It will show recommendations on dosage
of different nutrients needed. Further, it will advise the farmer on the
fertilizers and their quantities he should apply, and also the soil amendments
that he should undertake, so as to realize optimal yields.
Will the farmer get a card
every year and for every crop?
It will be made available once in a cycle of 3 years,
which will indicate the status of soil health of a farmer’s holding for that
particular period. The SHC given in the next cycle of 3 years will be able to
record the changes in the soil health for that subsequent period.
What are the norms of
Soil samples will be drawn in a grid of 2.5 ha in
irrigated area and 10 ha in rain- fed area with the help of GPS tools and
Who will draw the soil
The State Government will collect samples through the
staff of their Department of Agriculture or through the staff of an outsourced
agency. The State Government may also involve the students of local Agriculture
/ Science Colleges.
What is the ideal time for
Soil Samples are taken generally two times in a year,
after harvesting of Rabi and Kharif Crop respectively or when there is no
standing crop in the field.
How will soil samples be
collected from a farmer’s field?
Soil Samples will be collected by a trained person from
a depth of 15-20 cm by cutting the soil in a “V” shape. It will be collected
from four corners and the centre of the field and mixed thoroughly and a part
of this picked up as a sample. Areas with shade will be avoided. The sample
chosen will be bagged and coded. It will then be transferred to soil test
laboratory for analysis.
What is a soil test
It is a facility for testing the soil sample for 12
parameters as indicated in reply to question number 2. This facility can be
static or mobile or it can even be portable to be used in remote areas.
Who and Where will the
soil sample be tested?
The soil sample will be tested as per the approved
standards for all the agreed 12 parameters in the following way:
At the STLs owned by the Department of
Agriculture and by their own staff.
At the STLs owned by the Department of
Agriculture but by the staff of the outsourced agency.
At the STLs owned by the outsourced agency
and by their staff.
At ICAR Institutions including KVKs and
At the laboratories of the Science
Colleges/Universities by the students under supervision of a Professor/
System of Soil Classification:
This system of soil classification is based on the soil
as a natural body concept and has a strong genetic bias. According to this
classification soils of Rajasthan are classified into eight soil groups.
1. Desert Soils
2. Dunes and Associated Soils
This type of soil covers most part of Barmer,
Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Churu.
These soils are yellowish brown in
colour sandy to sany loam, deep and well drained
Calcium carbonate, sometime occur in the
form of Kankar nodules which increases with depth.
Texture- loamy fine sand to coarse sand and
may or may not be calcareous.
Cultivation is practiced in rainy season on
the slopes of low to medium high dunes and usually rainfed Bajra or Kharif
pulse are grown.
These have been grouped separately from
desert soils as they are only deposited sand and little profile development has
3. Brown Soils
The brown soil covers most area of Tonk, Bundi, Sawai
Madhopur, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Chittorgarh district and the colour of soils
ranges from grayish brown to yellow brown. Rabi crops are grown under
Annual Rainfall- 50 cm to 75 cm is sufficient for Kharif
crops and Texture- Sandy loam to clay loam.
Major area of these soils is in the catchment area of
Banas River and they are rich in calcium salts but have poor organic matter
Use of fertilizers becomes essential to get good harvest.
As the ground waters are saline, soils irrigate with these
waters have accumulated salts and the Tank irrigated soils have also developed
problem of high water table.
The Sierozems soil is found in most of the part of Pali,
Nagaur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa districts it means this type of soil lies on both
the side of Aravalli Hills and they are mostly yellowish brown.
The Annual Rainfall range is 50 cm to 70 cm
and Texture- Sandy loam to Sandy clay
These soils are suitable for cultivation
but for low rainfall and high evaporation.
Kharif crops are rainfed and Rabi crops are
grown through well irrigation.
In the Kharif crops Bajra, Jowar, pulses
are grown and in Rabi crops wheat, mustard & vegetables are grown.
5. Red Loams
This Soil Covered Part of Dungarpur, Banswara, Udaipur,
Chittorgarh and Parent material of these soils is the red sandstone or yellow
sandstone which is found in Vindyan rocks. Rainfall- 70 cm to 100 cm and Texture-
Sandy loam to sandy.
These soils have rich content of iron-oxide and devoid
of calcium salts because calcium salts soluble in water and are easily washed
These soils are reddish in colour with granular/crumb
structure & well drained and it is suitable for maize, chilies, wheat, and
barley and rapeseed cultivation.
Soils (Litho sols)
This type of soil found at the foot hills of Aravalli
in Sirohi, Pali, Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara and Ajmer
and its Colour is – Reddish to yellowish red to yellowish brown but the
problem isSoil erosion due to water is another problem of these types
Texture- Sandy loam to clay and well
Cultivation of crops in these soils is very
much restricting due to shallow nature of these soils and presence of stones on
Saline Sodic Soils (Solonchaks)
This type of soil found in the natural depressions like
the Pachpadra, Sambhar, Deedwana, Ranns of Jalore and Barmer and Saline Sodic
soils are seen in the far flood plains of river Ghaggar and in Luni Basin.
The Colour is dark grey to pale brown and Water
table is sometime close to surface but Cultivation is not possible due to the
impeded drainage and high degree of salinity and the only vegetation consists
of some salt tolerant grasses and shrubs.
8. Alluvial Soils:
These soils cover a vast area in north western and south eastern plains of the State. These soils have been brought down by different modern and ancient rivers; therefore, different areas have soils of different characteristics depending upon the source from which the alluvium has been brought and deposited. In Rajasthan alluvial soils are found in the valleys of Ghaggar River, Banas and Chambal river basins and covered part of Sriganganagar, Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jaipur.
Soil Conversation Methods / Techniques in
Soil Conservation methods adopted in
1. Adequate Drainage:
The solution for salinity & Alkanity of soil is to provide of soil is to
provide adequate drainage.
Large scale planting of saplings which act as wind breaks
3. Use of Gypsum: Use
of gypsum which is abundantly and cheaply available in Rajasthan, is economical
and long term solution to the problem
Belts: In dry regions rows of trees are planted to check wind movement to
protect soil cover.
Development: Plantation of trees & grasses on marginal and sub marginal
Barriers: Stone, gross, soils are used to build barrier along contours.
Trenches are made in front of the boomers to collect water.
7. Wind strip
cropping: Grass and crop strip at right angle to wind direction.
Mulching: Crop stubbles are left in the field and next crop planted with
Bonding: Ravine land can be made cultivable by leveling followed by contour
bonding. The medium and deep gullies can also be converted into productive wood
Drainage System in canal Project Area: The problem of water logging can be
checked and overcome by introducing proper drainage system in the canal project
11. Rock Dam: Rock
Dam is built to slow down its flow of water.
Farming: D.F in and region is a method of conserving soil moisture
preventing soil erosion.
13. Mulching: A
layer of organic matter is made on soil. It helps to retain soil moisture.
Different crops are grown in alternative rows to protect the soil form rain
Plugging: Plugging parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a
natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.
Farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that
flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They reduce surface run off &
There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall
over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive
rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of
Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more
rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and
West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.
There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall
over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer
districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts
of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of
The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and
Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.
The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran,
Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan
receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.
The districts of Eastern plains
i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur,
South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.
The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur,
Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part
of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.
The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu,
Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of
Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.
The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e.
Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western
Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.
The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the
Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli
hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43
cm in West Rajasthan.
In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer
district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive
annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of
these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.
The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100
years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas
it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.
The geographical diversity of the state causes varied
weather conditions even during same season. However, Rajasthan has four
distinct weather seasons:
1. The Hot
weather season (March to Mid June)
2. The Season of
general Rains or Rainy Season (June to September)
3. The Season of
Retreating Monsoon (October – November)
4. The Cold Season
(December to February)
The Hot Weather Season
The Hot whether season
starts with movement of Sun toward the Tropic of Cancer in March. It ends in
the month of June-July, when rainy seasons starts. In the months, the Sun
overhead tropic of cancer so the temperature is Maximum in the month of June.
The mean temperature of Rajasthan at this time is 38-39°C. However, the maximum
temperature in western districts reaches at 45-50°C in day and minimum
The difference in temperature in sandy
region is generally found 32-35°C. The Aravalli Range has lower temperature
(30°C) due to its high elevation.
Due to high temperature, the surface
becomes very hot. Due to this, the hot and dry winds, known as ‘Loo’,
blow from west to east direction.
Dry and hot winds known as ‘Loo’, blow in the
afternoon, and very often, they continue to well into midnight. Dust storms in
the evening are very common in May for south-eastern areas and in June for
north-western part of state.
Average Mean Temperature:
The maximum daily temperature in the western parts of Marusthali mainly at
Bikaner, Phalodi, Barmer, and Jaisalmer goes upto 40-45 deg C.
Rainfall: Sometimes, the
dust storms bring a welcome respite from the oppressing heat since they bring
with them light rains and a pleasant cool breeze.
The Season of General
Rains or Rainy Season
Due to high temperature in
India in May – June, a center of low air pressure is created in the west and
north-west India. While is temperature is low in Southern Hemisphere at this
time, creates the high air pressure region.
The low air pressure
created in the west and north-west India becomes so strong that it attracts the
trade wind of Indian ocean coming from Southern hemisphere.
This southeast trade wind
passes over the equatorial warm currents and brings the moisture in abundance.
Then these winds enter the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and caught in the air
circulation over India.
These trade winds follow
the south-west direction. So monsoon created by these winds is known as
However these branches tries
to reach low air pressure area, west and north-west India, the Rajasthan gets
very less rainfall because of the following reasons:-
The Bay of Bengal
branch already gives up its moisture during its passage through Ganga plain.
Further, as Aravali range stretches from south-west to north-east direction, so
western part of Rajasthan lies in leeward side of the Bay of Bengal branch and
receives little or no rain from this branch.
The same Aravalli Range
lies parallel to the direction of Arabian Sea branch and fails to interrupt
this branch of monsoon. However, in the southern Aravallis, the mountains have
slight east-west span thus Mount Abu in south receives highest rainfall.
The Season of Retreating
The Months of October and November are known for
Retreating Monsoons and it withdraws from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Ganga plain and the Central Highlands by the end of the month.
By the end of
September, the southwest monsoon becomes weak as the low Pressure trough of the
Ganga plain starts Moving Southward in response to the Southward Movement of
After 22nd September, the Sun begins to overhead in Southern
Hemisphere. Due to this high air pressure area is created in southern
hemisphere and low air pressure area in north and north-west India and due to
this air Pressure difference, the monsoon retreat from western Rajasthan by the
month of October.
The retreating south-west monsoon season is marked by
clear sky and rise in temperature. The land is still moist. Due to this
high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes oppressive. This Process is commonly
known as ‘October heat’.
Average Mean Temperature:
The temperature maximum ranging from 33-37 deg C and minimum ranging from 18 –
22 deg C.
The Cold Weather Season
This Season starts from December and continuous till
Average Mean Temperature:
Ranges from 12 deg. C in North of State to 16 deg. C in the south in January.
Due to high air pressure in west and north-west India
and low air pressure in Indian Ocean, the air flow from west and north-west
India to Indian Ocean.
During this time, the north-western parts of India get
the rainfall from shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the East
Mediterranean Sea. This rainfall is also called ‘Mavath’.
During the cold season, the sun migrates to the
southern hemisphere and creates high-pressure condition over the northern
plain. As a result, winds start blowing from northwestern high pressure zone to
the low air pressure zone over the Indian Ocean in the South.
shallow cyclonic depressions at certain time interval originating over the
East Mediterranean Sea and travelling eastwards across West Asia,
Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan before they reach the northwestern parts of
India. On their way, the moisture content gets augmented from the Caspian Sea
in the north and the Persian Gulf in the south.
Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in earth’s
energy balance, including:
in the sun’s energy reaching earth.
the reflectivity of earth’s atmosphere and surface.
the greenhouse effect, which affects the amount of heat retained by earth’s
There are different variations of the temperature range of daily and
seasonal throughout the state, covering the most typical phenomenon of warm and
dry continental climate. Summer begins in March while the temperature continues
to rise gradually to April, May and June. To the west of Rajasthan and the
eastern side of the aravali in Bikaner district, Phalodi, Jaisalmer and the
Barmer, the maximum daytime temperature hovers around 40 ° C to 45 ° C.
Sometimes it even reaches as high 48-49 ° C during the summer months. Summer nights
see a significant drop in temperature with a minimum of daily temperature of
about 20 ° C to 29 ° C. However, Udaipur and Mount Abu have a pleasant climate
in the summer with a relatively low daily maximum temperature that reaches 38 °
C and 31.5 ° C respectively.
The Rajasthan state
experiences more or less uniform day temperatures over
the plains except during the winter when temperatures increase southwards and
during monsoon season when temperatures increase northwards. During the
southwest monsoon the night minimum temperatures are more or less uniform but
generally they are lower in higher latitudes.
As compared to the plains
the day and night temperatures over the plateau and at high level stations are
lower. In the hottest month of May the mean maximum temperature is
approximately around 41°C – 42°C in the plains but it is 2°C to 4°C lower in
the elevated and plateau regions of the state. The Graph depicts the average
mean temperature of Rajasthan district-wise from the year 1980 to 2009.
The mean minimum
temperature in the coldest month of January in the
state is 7.4°C which varies from 4°C in the north to 12°C in the south. With
the arrival of western disturbances much lower winter temperature may be
experienced. Minimum temperature 2°C – 5°C below the freezing point can be
recorded at few stations of northern Rajasthan. In the past 50 years the lowest
minimum temperature at a plain station ever recorded was -5.9°C at Jaisalmer on
12 January 1967 (12.8°C below the respective normal for the coldest month)
while the hill station of Abu had recorded the lowest temperature of -7.4°C on
12 December 1994 (13.1°C below the respective normal for the coldest month).
The maximum temperature
rapidly from February onwards till May and minimum temperature from February
onwards till June. The increase in maximum in the period from January to May
ranges from 13°C to 20°C at individual stations as we proceed from south to
north of the state. From the beginning of June to the end of July, the maximum
temperature falls by about 3°C to 7°C whereas the minimum temperature falls
only by about 3°C to 5°C from June to September. A slight rise in the maximum
temperature is experienced in the month of September due to increased
Post-September the night
temperatures start falling rapidly while day temperatures too start falling
rapidly after October and by January both attain their lowest values. There is
about 8°C to 15°C fall in minimum temperature and maximum temperature fall by
5°C to 7°C. In both cases, the fall increases from southern parts of the state
to the northern parts. Smallest diurnal range of temperature is experienced
during July and August of about 9°C in the state. After the withdrawal of the
monsoon the diurnal range of temperature increases. The diurnal range is
greatest in November month.
factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan
is the statistics of weather over long periods of time. It is measured
by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric
pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other
meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time.
or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined
as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of
study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of
physical geography which is one of the Earth sciences.
Rajasthan Action Plan on
Climate Change (RAPCC) builds on the key areas as
identified Under the CCAR by prioritizing urgent areas of action in a phased
and time-bound manner and it is in coherence with the Rajasthan State
Environment Policy and Environment Mission while the RAPCC primarily focuses on
risk reduction and adaptation measures. It also looks in to the co-benefits
offered by specific strategies in the form of mitigation.
Force Constitution: The Rajasthan State Government
established a ‘Climate Change and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Cell’
in the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB) to act as a nodal agency
for coordinating issues related to climate change in the state. The Cell was
constituted in April 2010 and was involved in the drafting of the CCAR. A
Steering Committee has also been formed, headed by the Chief Secretary and
Principal Secretaries of various key departments as members to monitor the
implementation of various actions proposed under the Rajasthan Environment
Mission. The state of Rajasthan has constituted a team to review the
implementation of the Environment Mission. The composition of the Environment Mission
Convener: Principal Secretary, Environment
Members: Ministers of the
under-mentioned departments, Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries and
Secretaries in-charge of the under mentioned departments:
3. Mines and Petroleum
5. Water Resources
6. Command Area
8. Urban Governance
10. Energy, renewable
11. Science and Technology
14. Policy Planning
The Steering Committee
is chaired by the Chief Secretary, headed by the Principal Secretary of Environment
and members from each designated department mentioned above. The Steering
Committee includes participation from the non-governmental bodies. Their role
is to review the implementation of each of the mission. For the implementation
of the environment policy, Rajasthan environment mission and climate change agenda
task forces have been constituted for different sectors viz.,
3. Forestry and
4. Urban governance and
5. Enhanced energy
efficiency including solar energy
6. Strategic knowledge for
The climate of Rajasthan
state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus
parameters have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.
However, three main
approaches to climatic regions of Rajasthan are:
regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity
classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on
The distribution of climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature variations includes following divisions:
Arid Region: A region is arid when it is characterized by a
severe lack of available water to the extent of hindering or preventing the
growth and development of plant and animal life. Arid land or an arid climate
is very dry because it has very little rain Water
The Arid region includes Jaisalmer
district, northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of
Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and Southern parts of Ganganagar district and
climate of the region is very severe and arid.
less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less
than 20 cm rainfall.
average temperature during summer is recorded more than 35degree C and during
winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16 Deg Celsius.
Semi-arid Region: A
semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives
precipitation below potential evapotranspiration but not as low as a desert climate;
Semi-arid regions are those where rainfall is not enough to cover the growth
needs of the vegetation all year round. That is aridity index
(rainfall/potential evapotranspiration) is below 0.5 per cent.
The average temperature
during winter season ranges between 10 deg C and 17 deg C and the summer season
temperature range 32 deg C to 37 deg C.
the region has erratic as well as torrential rainfall it brings floods too each
time and rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.
winter season is very short and arid in the northern parts of this region.
region comprises the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and
Regions where moisture in normally less than under humid conditions but
still sufficient for the production of many agricultural crops without
irrigation or drylands farming.
In the semi arid humid
region, rainfall is meager and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few
monsoon months only.
rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average temperature during summer
season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is recorded 12 Deg C in
northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.
Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore
districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi
districts are included in this category.
region has Steppe type of vegetation.
Humid Region: A
humid continental climate is a climatic region defined as large seasonal
temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes
severely cold in the northern areas) winters. This region receives winter
rainfall associated with cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which
varies from 60 to 80 cm and the deciduous trees dominate the region.
Humid region is found at the districts of
Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and Rajsamand and the
north-eastern parts of Udaipur.
Very Humid Region:
Very humid region includes south-east Kota, Baran and Jhalawar, Banswara,
south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the summers are very
hot and winters are cold and dry.
Rainfall received is between 80 cm to
150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna
type of vegetation is present in the region.
2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic
regions of Rajasthan
for the world climatic regions is totally based on the vegetation, as the
effects of temperature and rainfall are directly evident and visible it. Here, the
three categories are associated with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid)
climates and Mild temperate climates respectively.
The classification of Rajasthan according to Koeppen’s is as follows:
Aw or Tropical Humid
season is arid and cool whereas summers experience scorching heat.
also mainly occurs in summer season.
temperature is more than 18 deg. C in the coldest month records.
southern parts of Dungarpur district and Banswara come under the region.
tropical grasslands and Savanna like region are found along with deciduous
trees of monsoon type.
is of steppe type characterized with thorny bushes and grasses.
comprises the districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar,
Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
climatic region is semi-arid, where winters are dry and even in summers there
is no sufficient amount of rainfall.
region has arid-hot desert climate with very scanty rainfall.
the contrary the process of evaporation is very active.
Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district
are included in this category.
these areas are known as desert region limited to western parts of Thar Desert.
Cwg Climatic Region
south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the part of the region.
winds do not bring rains to this region during winters.
A plain is a broad area of
relatively flat land. Plains are one of the major landforms or types of land on
Earth. They cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. The plains
exist on every continent.
How the Plain formed?
Plains form in many
different ways. Some plains form as ice and water erodes or wears away the dirt
and rock on higher land. Water and ice carry the bits of dirt, rock and other
material called sediment, down hillsides to be deposited elsewhere. As layer
upon layer of this sediment is laid down and formed the plains.
can also form plains. Lava plains form when lava pushes up from below ground
and flows across the land. The land area in a lava plain is often much darker
than the surrounding soil. The dark land is a result of the lava, mostly dark-colored
mineral called basalt that is broken down into tiny particles over millions of
The movement of rivers
sometimes formed plains. Many rivers run through valleys. As rivers move from
side to side they gradually erode the valley and creating broad plains.
As a river flood
overflows the bank. The flood carries mud, sand and other sediment out over the
land. After the water withdraws, the sediment remains. If a river floods
repeatedly, over time this sediment will build up into a flood plain. Flood
plains are often rich in nutrients and create fertile farmland.
Alluvial plains form
at the base of mountains. Water carrying sediment flows downhill until it hits
flat land. There it spreads out, depositing the sediment in the shape of a fan.
Many rivers deposit their sediment
in the ocean. As the sediment builds up, it might eventually rise above sea
level and forming a coastal plain.
is a naturally occurring substance composed of small particles. It can be
broken down by various processes such as erosion and weathering. Sediments can
be transported through forces of water, wind, gravity, ice and the action of
are found at the bottom of the ocean. These plains are 5,000 to 7,000 meters
(16,400 to 23,000 feet) below sea level so scientists have a hard time studying
them. But scientists say abyssal plains are among the flattest, smoothest
places on Earth.
What are the Abyssal plains? –
Large, relatively flat areas of ocean floor found at 5,000-6,000m below sea
level. If sediments are discharged from a river and deposit relatively quick
onto the plain they may form an abyssal plain.
Eastern Plains: The
area on the northeast, east and southeast of the Aravalli range is known as the
Eastern Plain and it covers 23% of the total area of Rajasthan.
The Vindhyan Plateau marks
the southeastern limit of the plain and the western boundary is demarcated by
the eastern edge of the Aravalli up to north of Udaipur.
This Plain is further
subdivided into two physiographic units-
(i) The Banas Basin
(ii) The Chappan Plain
What is Basin?
A basin is a depression or
dip in the earth’s surface. Basins are shaped like bowls with sides higher than
the bottom. They can be oval or circular in shape similar to a sink or tub you
might have in your own bathroom. The basins are filled with water or may be empty.
Basins are formed
by forces above the ground (like erosion) or below the ground (like
earthquakes). They can be created over thousands of years or almost overnight.
The major types of basins
are river drainage basins, structural basins and ocean basins.
What is a River drainage basin?
A river drainage basin is an area drained
by a river and all of its tributaries. The river basin is made up of many
A watershed is small version of a
river basin. Every stream and tributary has its own watershed which drains to a
larger stream or wetland. These streams, ponds, wetlands and lakes are part of
a river basin.
(i) Banas River Basin
The great watershed of india
runs in an easterly direction starting from Udai Sagar, east of Udaipur. The
watershed acts as the southern boundary of the Mewar Plains and southern area
of this watershed is known as the Chappan Plain. The region is marked by
various types of erosional features produced in the granite and gneiss rocks
mark the topography of the area. The soil is stony and the annual rainfall is
about 73cm. It is a Peneplane rather than alluvial plain drained by Banas and
its tributaries having an elevation of about 300 metre normally. The plain has
been formed on the Archean gneiss and its slope gradually decreases toward east
and north east. The Banas is super-imposed in a most striking manner.
This plain is poor; having
thin soil but the numerous pegmatite and quartzite dykes facilitates the
construction of tanks.
The area- 187400 Km³ is an elevated plain
drained by Banas & its tributaries and it is essentially Peneplains
(Peneplain is a low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion or it is a more
or less level land surface produced by erosion over a long period, undisturbed
by crustal movement).
It is a dissected in Mewar and flat in
Malpura plain region.
Mewar plain gradually slope towards the
east & north east.
The Banas & its tributaries Berach,
Menal, Bandi, Mansi, Kothari and Khori flow through this plain.
It is flat upland which recognized a ―Tertiary
composed of schist & guess.
Banas plain slopes gradually towards
northeast from the foot of the Aravalli range.
(ii) The Chappan Plains
It is lying east of the Mewar hills &
south of the Banas plain in Dungarpur district.
The central & eastern parts known as Chhappan
Average elevation is approximate 200-400 m
This dissected plain along with hill tracts
of Banswara and Dungarpur are locally known as Bagar.
This plain drained by the tributaries of
the Mahi River lies south of the great indian watershed in southeastern
Udaipur, Banswara and the southern part of Chittorgarh district.
The Chappan area is deeply
and intricately eroded resulting in the formation of separate hillocks, which
is not identical to the Mewar plain in the north. This deeply dissected area is
locally known as ‘Bagar’ and includes the hilly tracts of Banswara and
Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km in a
southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through
southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and
ending in Gujarat.
The principal and most
dominant mountain range of Rajasthan is the Aravalli range. The geological
history of the Aravalli range can be traced back probably close of the Dharwar
Rajasthan is the largest
state in the Union of India and has more physical variations than any other
state. It has regions of rolling sand dunes in the west to lofty rocks in the
middle to fertile plains in the east. This range runs diagonally across the
state from northeast near delhi and extends to southwest up to the Plains of
Gujarat for a distance of about 692 km. The range runs from Khetri in
the northeast to Khed Brahma in the Southwest within Rajasthan for a length of
about 550 kilometers. It is composed of rocks belonging originally to the Delhi
system, folded in a synclinorium occupying the site of the geosynclines which
have been deeply eroded.
The whole of this Aravalli
range and Hilly Region has been further subdivided into two physiographic
(i) Aravali Range and
This division constitutes
east Sirohi, nearly the whole of Udaipur except a narrow belt in the east and
whole of Dungarpur district.
The highest section of the
Aravalli range known as ‘Bhorat’ Plateau lies northwest of Udaipur
between Kumbhalgarh – Gogunda and the average elevation of this plateau is
(ii) North-Eastern Hilly
Northern edge of Bhorat plateau
marks the boundary of north eastern hilly tract in the southwest. North of
Kumbhalgarh, especially at the Alwar hills the elevation varies between 550m to
Further north and
northeast, the hills are broken and their elevation decreases in the final
extension of hills south of delhi to about 306m above sea level. This level is
about 60m to 90m above the surrounding plain.
The eastern part along the Chambal River is covered by the Hadoti plateau. Four districts Kota, Baran, Bundi and Jhalawar are the part of this plateau. The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border. River Chambal drains in the large part of this area.
region locally called Pathar and Uppermal
comprises of the eastern & south-eastern part of the state & is known
Bundi, Kota, Baran and Jhalawar are the districts contain about 9.6% of the
area of whole Rajasthan.
of the plateau has a general slope toward Gwalior & catchment of Betwa
eastern, southern and south-west part bordered with Madhya pradesh.
Plateau has been divided into two units
(a) Vindhyan Scrap Land
The scarp lands formed by
massive sandstones separated by shale have an average elevation between 350m to
580m. The scarps are facing towards the south-southeast between the Banas and
the Chambal and then it extend towards the east over Bundelkhand. A scarp block
occupies the areas of Dholpur and Karauli. The region presents an
undulating topography strewn with blocks, depressions and boulders.
(b) Deccan Lava Plateau
The Deccan Lava Plateau is
also known as Pathar or Uppermal plateau. It is a wide stony upland
including Kota-Bundi plateau section. The Chambal along with its tributaries
Kali Sindh and Parbati form a triangular alluvial basin of 210m-275m at Kota
and mostly black soil found in this region.
(b) Semi-Arid Transitional
Plains or Rajasthan Bagar
Luni Basin or Godwar Tract
Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati
Western Sandy Plain
The western Plain covers a
large part of Rajasthan in the west and the northwest of the Aravalli axis. Its
northern boundary is marked by Punjab and the southwest by Gujarat and the
western boundary is the international boundary between India and Pakistan. The
eastern boundary of the western sandy plain is marked by the Aravalli range’s
western sub-montane zone up to the northern point of Udaipur district. Beyond
which the boundary is marked by the great Indian watershed and 50cm isohyets.
The surface of western
Rajasthan is covered with vast stretches of sand occasionally interrupted by
rocky protruding right up to the Pakistan border.
The Northwestern division
is sandy, poorly watered and sterile. The Rajasthan desert in the west has been
subdivided into several natural regions because of the Aravalli hills and the
rocky terrain of Barmer-Jaisalmer-Bikaner tract.
Barmer, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Jalore, Sirohi, Pali, Jodhpur, Nagaur,
Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar district are part of western sandy
plain and the Luni, Sukri & Jawai rivers flow in rainy season in this area.
Its eastern portion is
known as Thar desert which is perfectly dry & with desert Plants and
Western Sandy Plain & Pakistan face each other across International
boundary for about 1070 Km.
The Western Sandy Plains
are subdivided into two units:
(a) Sandy Arid Plain:
Minimum rainfall- 50 Cm
There are vast expanses of
sand & rock outcrops mainly limestone are found in Jaisalmer, Barmer,
Bikaner, Churu, Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar.
It further divided in two
small sub groups:
2. Dune Free Tract
Marusthali – (Thar Desert)
It covered Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer,
Jodhpur, Nagaur and Churu Area
Height of sand dunes varies from 6 m to 60
Length of sand dunes – 3 km to 5 km
Towards west this sandy arid Marushthali is
known as Thar Desert.
The Shifting of sand dunes is locally terms
What are dunes? Explain
different type of dunes.
Dunes: In geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by Aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.
These are mostly run from south west to
Parallel to the prevailing winds &
mostly sword-shaped type.
Its Longer axis is parallel to the
direction of wind
2. Transverse Dunes
These types of dunes are formed across the
Commonly found in eastern & northern
parts of Marusthali.
Windward side is long & gently sloping,
while leeward side is steep and abrupt.
These are also called U-shaped
3. Crescent Shaped Dunes
The Width of these types of dunes varies
from 100 m to 200 m height of dunes-10 m to 20 m.
The dunes have a gently sloping convex
windward side & steep leeward
These are found in isolation or
occasionally side by side in lines.
2. Dune Free Tract
It is rocky but dune free tract.
Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Phalodi & Pokhran
are known as dune free areas.
Limestone & Sandstone rocks exposes
here belong to Jurassic & Eocene formations.
Gneiss, Grid conglomerate, schist &
granite rocks are also exposed at places.
(b) Semi-Arid Transitional
Plain or Rajasthan Bagar
The line dividing the
Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm
isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered
by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to
Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic
activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is
concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.
Gullying has given rise to conglomerate
landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.
Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.
Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:
1. Luni Basin: This
area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and
flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni River.
The Luni River originates
from western slopes of Naga hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake,
Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the
total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.
Basin is drained by the
Luni river & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its
source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari river meets it.
2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli
hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two
halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this
region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production
Topography of the
Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by
longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.
3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh
& Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or
river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river
which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain
is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large
part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is
fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found
on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.
4. Nagauri Upland: Average
height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in
this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand
hills & low depressions and the temperature being high, the
evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt &
Soda in the depression.