RAS Mains Exam daily Practice 24/12/2018


Write short notes on Hadoti Plateau?

The region comprises of the eastern & southeastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti. It includes the Bhilwara, Karauli, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Baran & Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.

Population – 11% of total population of the Rajasthan State.

  • Area – 9% of total area of the Rajasthan State.
  • Rainfall – 80cm to 120cm
  • Soil – Black fertile soil.
  • Climate – Very humid.

This region is the north part of the ‘Malwa Plateau’ & it is also called the Hadoti Plateau or Lava Plateau.

The average height of this region is 500 meters.

The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary, which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border.

This area is drained by Chambal River & its tributaries.

Ther ‘Uppermal Plateau’ and ‘Mewar Plateau’ are the parts of Plateau of Hadoti.

‘Chandbadi’ is the highest part of this region.

The Hadoti Plateau is further divided into two regions –

(i) Vindhyan Scarp lands

(ii) Deccan Lava Plateau.

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is a dam across the Mahi River. It is situated 16 kilometres from Banswara town in Banswara district Rajasthan, India. The dam was constructed between 1972 and 1983 for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation and water supply. It is the second largest dam in Rajasthan. It is named after Jamnalal Bajaj.

The dam has an installed capacity of 140 MW

Write short notes on the tributaries of Kali Sindh River.

The Kali Sindh River tributaries are:


Originating from the northern slopes of Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh, it branches out from Kali Sindh River further flowing in Baran district of Rajasthan state. It flows through Jhalawar district and the Kota district of the state. The Parbati River catchment is approximately 3180 square miles. The river from these districts of Rajasthan finally merges at the right bank of Chambal River.


Pahuj River is the waterway flowing through the historical city of Jhansi situated in Uttar Pradesh. It is the tributary of Kali Sindh River that further joins the Yamuna River in Etawah of Uttar Pradesh state. The river has also been given another name “Pushpavati” in several religious texts. The river originates from the hills of Jhansi and Tikamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh.


Flowing from the state of Madhya Pradesh, Mahuar River is the tributary of Kali Sindh River. Summers can be really scorching here, all rock and heat. The only respite is this small watercourse called Mahuar. It is not a small river, but during summers the water levels dips. However, the river still runs deep enough to give a cool dip during scorching months.


Kunwari River often spelled as “Kwari river” flows in Bhind, Morena districts of Madhya Pradesh. The river has been branched out of Kali Sindh River and merges with Yamuna River in the Etawah district. Districts like Kailaras, Sheopur, Morena and Bijeypur are situated on the banks of this river.

Why do Western Ghats don’t have River Deltas whereas Eastern Ghats have?

Rivers form deltas when the flow (speed) of the river water slows to the extent such that the silt it carries gets heavier and the water cannot carry it forward to the sea.

Is the river long enough? The length (of the river) from the point of its origins to the sea should be long enough.

How fast does the water drain into the sea? If the water from the river drains too fast then it probably takes the silt along with it into the sea.

How flat is the land? If the land incline is too high, then the silt will be taken into the sea because it cannot fight against the gravitational force. Water falling down an incline is much faster than water flowing on plain ground.

In the case of Eastern Ghats (or east flowing rivers), all the three conditions are satisfied.

The Eastern Ghats are far away from both the seas (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal). Thus the rivers originating from the Eastern side of the Eastern Ghats are long enough. Or simply said, the East flowing rivers are longer in length compared to those which flow west. The length of Ganga is 2525 km while that of Narmada or Tapti is less than half of what Ganga is.

The Narmada’s average speed is higher compared to Ganga’s or Kaveri’s. Because the former travels a smaller distance over a more inclined terrain, and the latter covers a larger distance over a more flat terrain. The silt from Narmada flows directly into the Arabian sea,, while the silt from Kaveri and Ganga remains on the land (thus forming deltas- fertile lands for agriculture).

The Western Ghats are closer to the sea. This also explains why Mumbai and Mangalore receive much higher average rainfall compared to Chennai and Nellore. The clouds easily precipitate over Mumbai because the Western Ghats are much nearer to Mumbai. Any hill station like Matheran or Mahabaleshwar is much nearer to Mumbai compared to any popular hill station like Ooty or Munnar is from Chennai. This means that the incline of the land is larger in the Western coast. Thus the river directly drains faster into the Arabian Sea. Whereas Kaveri and Ganges flow very slowly as they near the coast. Thus the silt they carry becomes heavier and gets deposited in the delta region.

Which factors affect the land use pattern of India?

The land use pattern is determined by certain physical factors of the country such as topography, climate and soil types. The availability of geographical area determines its uses by the country. In India we have various forms of land like plains, plateaus, mountains, etc. which are kept in mind before planning the land use pattern.

There are certain human factors also affecting the land use pattern. They include population density of the country, technological capability and, culture and traditions of the country, etc. The economic development of the country depends on the technological development of the country thus leading to the planning of land use pattern.

Write any four characteristics of Arabian Sea branch of south West monsoon?

1. Progresses slowly as compared to the Bay of Bengal branch Causes more precipitation than the Bay of Bengal branch by June end.

2. It is three times stronger than the Bay of Bengal branch when obstructed by the Western Ghats; they cause heavy rainfall to the windward side of the Sahyadris.

3. It is also responsible for heavy rainfall in the western Himalayan region.

4. It does not cause much precipitation in the coastal areas in the absence of orographic features it results in medium rainfall in the Indo-Gangetic plains, once it reaches the Kutch peninsula.

Which are the left and Right side tributaries of Narmada River?

Tributaries of Narmada:

Left Side Tributaries:

  • Banjar River
  • Sher River
  • Burhner River
  • Shakkar River
  • Dudhi River
  • Tawa River
  • Ganjal River
  • Chhota Tawa River
  • Karjan River

Right Side Tributaries:

  • Hiran River
  • Tendon River
  • Choral River
  • Kolar River
  • Man River

Write Short notes on khadar and Bhangar Plains.

Difference between Bhangar and Khadar are as follows:


1. It is a highland compressed of old alluvium

2. It is always about the level of the flood plains.

3. It is often impregnated with calcareous concre­tions known as Kankar.

4. It is not much suited for cultivation.

5. It is known as ‘dhaya’ in Punjab.


1. It is lowland composed of old alluvium

2. It is flooded almost every year and new alluvium is deposited.

3. It is often characterised by clay soil which is very fertile.

4. Intensive agriculture is practised here.

5. It is called ‘bet’ in Punjab.

Discuss the evolution of centre-state relation in post independent India.

Our constitution adopted for federal system of polity. The Features have been taken from American, Canadian and Australian federalism.  Federalism in the Indian constitution is not a matter of administrative convenience, but it is the outcome of our own process and recognition of the ground realities. India adopted a system which if federal in normal times, but unitary in times of emergency.

  • Over the course of post independent history, Centre-state relations have undergone rapid change and it got stabilized by maturity shown by both the entities. Till the rule of Nehru, there was absolutely no confrontation between the centre and state.
  • As same party was in the power. Further cult politics dominated the era with no personality of equal caliber as that of Nehru.
  • This relationship got a jerk and entered into a confrontational phase. As non congress ministries were forming in the state.
  • This was the era when coalition politics was at its nascent stage. But Constitutional provisions were used in illogical manner like use of article 356. Post 1980 phase coincided with the economic liberalised era and its element was also seen in Indian polity also.
  • Very complex system of centre state relationship developed both at the centre and state. Now Coalition politics became an integral part of Indian polity.

Indian Ocean holds an important position for India. Elucidate

Significance for India:

Today, 95% of India’s trade by volume and 68% of trade by value come via the Indian Ocean. Additionally, 80% of India’s crude oil requirement—is imported by sea via the Indian Ocean. Today 40% of world trade passes through the Strait of Malacca and 40 percent of all traded crude oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz, the two crucial choke points in IOR. Hence from security point of view IOR is very crucial.  Further IOR has an implication over our economy too.

  • IOR hold potential for energy exploration, mineral resources and employment opportunities for Indian companies. India is world’s third largest oil importer with maximum import from West and South East Asian countries.
  • For this purpose, Indian Ocean is a very important medium for India’s energy security. Climate change has exacerbated the issue of cyclones and natural disaster.

IOR is important w.r.t cyclone and earthquake management. As these are regional phenomena so cooperation among countries certainly helps in combating disaster in the region. IOR has many island and archipelago this can provide sustainable solution for coastal area development. IOR can engage in cruise ship as done in Pacific Ocean. This provides ground for people to people contact and cultural engagement.

What is the importance of regulating act? What are the features of the act?

It was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.  First time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration in India.

  • The Act designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
  • Governor of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
  • Act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India Company.
  • The Act told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.

RBI has taken several steps to deal with stressed asset problems. Discuss the steps taken by the RBI. Also comment on their success.

Steps taken by RBI: 

Establishment of private Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs)

Many ARCs have been created, but they have solved only a small portion of the problem, buying up only about 5 percent of total NPAs.

  • Strategic debt restructuring scheme: under this creditors could take over firms that were unable to pay and sell them to new owners.
  • Sustainable structuring of stressed assets: under this creditors, could take over firms with debt reduction up to 50% in order to restore their financial viability.
  • Asset quality review: to stream line the balance sheet to reflect the true picture.
  • Indradhanush scheme: capital infusion in PSB’s

Analysis of the scheme:

Success of the schemes is limited. There are several reasons for this:

  • The Asset Quality Review (AQR) was meant to force banks to recognise the true state of their balance sheets but bank keep on ever greening loan.
  • The RBI has encouraged creditors to come together in Joint Lenders Forums, where decisions can be taken by 75 percent of creditors by value and 60 percent by number. But reaching agreement in these Forums has proved difficult, because different banks have different degrees of credit exposure, capital cushions, and incentives.
  • The S4A scheme recognizes that large debt reductions will be needed to restore viability in many cases. But public sector bankers are reluctant to grant write-downs, because there are no rewards for doing so.

Bisalpur Dam Project in Brief

Bisalpur Drinking water cum irrigation project is constructed across river Banas, a tributary of river Chambal near village Bisalpur of Deoli tehsil in Tonk district of Rajasthan. The dam is about 25 km from Deoli town on Jaipur Kota road.

The project comprises of concrete dam 574 meter long with maximum height of 38.50 meter with gross storage capacity of 1095.84 Mucm and live storage capacity of 1040.95 Mcum. Masonry gated ogee type spillway 338.0 meter long crest having 18 numbers of radial gates of size 15×14 meter to pass design discharge of 29046 cusec at MWL.

Right main canal is 51.64 km long with head discharge capacity of 18.34 cusec and Left bank canal is 19.0 km long with 2.25 cusec head discharge capacity to irrigate an area of 81,800 hectare (CCA) in Tonk district. The Ultimate irrigation potential of the project is 55,224 hectare.

In addition to the above the project provides 458.36 Mucm of drinking water for Jaipur, Ajmer, Beawar, Kishangarh, Nasirabad and other enroute cities/town/villages.

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