Explain the Health, Health Infrastructure and Health Policy of Rajasthan for Benefits of society?
- The State Government is having focus on the medical sector to promote health status of the people of the State especially for the weaker sections of the society.
- The State is committed to control and eradicate communicable and other diseases and for providing curative and preventive services to the people of the State.
- A number of initiatives have been taken to bring them into the mainstream.
- Medical & Health Department is committed to make Health facilities available to every common man of Rural and Urban areas in a planned manner for which medical infrastructure Development & Strengthening is being done in accordance with the National Health Policy through Health Institutions.
Medical Infrastructure in Rajasthan
- There are 16 Medical Colleges in Rajasthan, out of which eight are in the Government sector including one under Government Society and remaining eight are in the private sector.
- There are 15 Dental colleges in the state, one in Government sector and 14 in Private sector.
- The Government Medical Colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,450 students in UG, 829 students in PG course and 93 in Super-Specialty courses.
- The private medical colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,150 students in UG and 173 students in PG courses.
- The Government Dental College has an annual admission capacity of 40 UG and 14 PG students.
- The private dental colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,400 students in UG and 299 students in PG courses.
- For upgradation of 7 other district hospitals Alwar, Bharatpur, Churu, Barmer, Bhilwara, Pali and Dungarpur having bed capacity of 300 beds into medical colleges, except Alwar, construction is under progress in State.
- Establishment of state cancer institute under Sawai Man Singh (SMS) Medical College Jaipur, Two Tertiary Cancer Care Centers, one in Bikaner and other at Jhalawar are under process.
- Metro Manas Arogya Sansthan at Mansarovar Jaipur is running on PPP mode.
- The hospitals associated with Government Medical Colleges are playing a vital role in patient care for both indoor and outdoor patients and cater to the medical/health care needs of a large segment of the population.
AYURVED AND OTHER SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE
- Department of Ayurveda has been functioning in the State, since 1950.
- At present there are 118 Ayurvedic hospitals (out of which one is established at Bikaner House in Delhi), 3,577 Ayurvedic Dispensaries, 3 Yoga & Naturopathy Hospitals, 3 Yoga & Naturopathy Dispensaries with 1 Mobile Surgical Unit (200 bedded) and 13 Mobile Units are functioning in the State.
- 33 Aanchal Prasuta Kendra, 33 Jaravastha Janya Vyadhi Nivaran Kendra, 33 Panchkarma Kendra & 33 Yoga and Naturopathy Research Centers are also functioning in the State
Mukhya Mantri Nishulk Dava Yojna
- “Mukhya Mantri Nishulk Dava Yojna” was launched on 2ndOctober, 2011. The scheme aims to benefit all the patients coming to government hospitals.
- Under this scheme, all outdoor and indoor patients visiting medical college attached hospitals, district hospitals, community health centers, primary health centers and sub centers, are provided commonly used essential medicines, free of cost.
- Rajasthan Medical Services Corporation (RMSC) has been constituted as a central procurement agency for purchase of medicines and surgical sutures for medical department and Medical Education department.
- RMSC is supplying medicines etc. to all Government health institutions through District Drug Ware Houses (DDWH) established in all 33 districts of the State. Quality of drugs being supplied is ensured by testing of drugs at empanelled drug testing laboratories.
- The list of drugs which is provided by Free Drug Distribution Centers has been displayed in Government Medical Institutions.
- Medicines are available for Outdoor patients according to OPD timings and 24 hour for Indoor and Emergency patients.
- In this scheme, according to need of hospitals, 10 per cent of annual budget can be used for local purchase. Under the scheme, medicines for the treatment of critical and severe disease are also available like 37 drugs for Cancer, 53 drugs for heart diseases, 20 drugs for Diabetes and 20 drugs for Asthma. Under the scheme, E-Aushadhi software is established for tendering, indent sending, to know the status of drug consumption at medical hospitals, to ensure the quality of drugs, to submit the information about the debar medicines etc.
Nishulk Sanitary Napkins Distribution Scheme
- Government of Rajasthan started a scheme for free distribution of sanitary napkins to all school going girls of class 6 to 12 of rural areas and non-school going girls of 10 to 19 years age of BPL families.
- In this scheme Ist phase of the free sanitary napkins distribution scheme for adolescent school girls of rural area and non-school going girls of BPL families has been completed.
- About 20 lakh adolescent girls are being benefitted under the scheme.
These are the main objects of this scheme:-
- To make aware the adolescent girls of rural areas about menstrual hygiene.
- To improve the health of adolescent girls.
- To increase the attendance of adolescent girls in schools.
- To reduce the MMR and IMR in rural areas in the long term.
- To make clean and healthy Rajasthan.
Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana
- Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana was launched in the state on 13th December, 2015.
- The main objective of this scheme is to provide cashless healthcare services to the poor families (under selected families of NFSA – 2013 and RSBY) of Rajasthan thus providing social and financial security against illness to these families and reducing out of pocket expenditure.
- Around 97 lakh eligible families of Rajasthan are selected under the National Food Security Act (2013) and Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY).
Health Insurance cover of `30,000 (for general illnesses) and of 3.00 lakh (for critical illnesses) per family per year is provided on floater basis.
- Total 1,715 disease packages are offered under the scheme, for which reserved list include 1,148 secondary packages, 500 tertiary packages and 67 Government Medical Institution packages.
- Cashless IPD treatment facility is provided at empanelled hospitals.
- Includes 7 days pre- hospitalization and 15 days post- hospitalization expenses.
- No Third Party Administration (TPA).
- Presently, 499 Government and 674 private hospitals are empanelled for providing services under the scheme.
Write Short notes on Various Initiatives by Ministry of Drinking Water.
The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)
- The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing adequate and safe drinking water to the rural population of the country.
- The NRDWP is a component of Bharat Nirman which focuses on the creation of rural infrastructure.
- This has resulted in the provision of significant additional resources to the sector and for creating an environment for the development of infrastructure and capacities for the successful operation of drinking water supply schemes in rural areas.
Bharat Nirman was launched by the Government of India in 2005 as a programme to build rural infrastructure.
While Phase-I of the programme was implemented in the period 2005-06 to 2008-09, the Phase-II was implemented from 2009-10 to 2011-12. Rural drinking water is one of the six components of Bharat Nirman.
Funds provided under the NRDWP are counted towards the Bharat Nirman also and no additional funds are provided under Bharat Nirman
Scheme for providing safe drinking water supply through community water purification plants in fluoride, arsenic, uranium and other heavy/toxic metals and pesticide/fertilizer affected rural habitations in the country
The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) funds for supplying “safe” water in contaminated areas are being utilized by the States as a policy mostly for alternate safe Piped Water Supply (PWS) schemes including Multi village schemes (MVS) (i. e., from far away safe sources) the gestation period of such MVS projects is about 4-5 years.
Since the rural people cannot be put to risk due to consumption of unsafe drinking water in the interim period as also whereas all such Multi-Village Schemes carrying safe water from far away sources cannot be planned and completed in the span of 4-5 years due to huge funds involved, hence, the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation has submitted an EFC proposal to provide community water purification plants in fluoride, arsenic, uranium and other heavy/toxic metals and pesticide/fertilizer affected rural habitations in the country for providing safe drinking water immediately with an anticipated expenditure of total capital cost of Rs 3,600 crore with fund sharing pattern of 75:25 (90:10 in case of NE, J&K) between Centre and State in approx 20,000 habitations during the period 2014-15 to 2016-17.
Combined Water Supply Schemes (CWSS)
Combined Water Supply Schemes are being implemented where more than one local body, either rural or urban with a common source of water supply is involved with financial assistance under the Minimum Needs Programme, National Rural Drinking Water Programme and with funding from financial institutions like TUFIDCO, TNUIFSL, NABARD and Asian Development Bank.
During 2009 – 10 combined water supply schemes have been completed to benefit 4352 rural habitations and 41 towns at a cost of Rs. 795.04 crores. Presently Board is maintaining 422 CWSS in the state to serve 10,101 habitations benefiting populations of 131.59 lakhs which is about 20 percent of the state population.
What Is the Connection Between Zika, Microcephaly, and Pregnancy?
- Zika causes Microcephaly in babies born to infected pregnant women, the CDC confirmed this year. Microcephaly stunts a baby’s head growth, causing devastating, sometimes fatal brain damage, and it can result in miscarriage or stillbirth.
- The virus has caused panic in Brazil since it first appeared there in May 2015. More than 2,100 babies in Brazil have been born with Microcephaly or other birth defects linked to Zika. Brazil and several other nations have advised women to postpone pregnancy.
- Although there are many causes of Microcephaly in babies, including infections during pregnancy, genetic problems, and exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy, the CDC says research has provided enough evidence to show that Zika is among those causes. Research has suggested that infection during the earliest stages of pregnancy, when a baby’s organs are still forming, seems to be linked to the worst outcomes.
However, some studies are showing that fetuses can be harmed by infection later in pregnancy, and evidence is emerging that Microcephaly isn’t the only birth defect linked to Zika. In a November report, the CDC describes five types of birth defects, including severe Microcephaly that are unique to Zika or rarely occur with other infections in pregnant women. They are:
Decreased brain tissue with calcium deposits indicating brain damage
- Damage to the back of the eye
- Limited range of motion in joints, such as clubfoot
- Too much muscle tone, which restricts movement
- Those effects in babies are called congenital Zika syndrome.
What are El Nino and southern oscillation and how it affects the Indian Monsoon?
- El-Niño is the classical phenomenon where warming of Pacific Ocean takes place near the western coast of Peru and Equador.
- It occurs at every 3-4 years. It weakens the trade winds and changes in southern oscillation, thereby affects the rainfall pattern across the world.
- Southern oscillation: Southern oscillation is the alternating of sea level pressure between the eastern and western hemisphere. The southern oscillation is measured by observing the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin.
The effect of El Nino on Indian monsoon
- El Nino also leads to reversal of pressure difference between Indian and Pacific Ocean- known as Southern Oscillation.
- El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weakens the Trade winds, consequently less push to the South Western Monsoon Winds from Mascarene High to India, and therefore poor monsoon.
- Drought condition decreases the agriculture output, leads to food inflation.
- Declined supply of cotton, oilseeds and sugarcane negatively affects the textile, edible oil and food processing industries respectively.
What is Earthquake? List down the causes of Earthquake?
An earthquake is the shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface, caused by the sudden movement of a part of the earth’s crust. They result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves or earthquake waves.
Causes of the earthquake are as follows:
- Sudden slipping of rock formations along faults and fractures in the earth’s crust happen due to constant change in volume and density of rocks due to intense temperature and pressure in the earth’s interior.
- Volcanic activity also can cause an earthquake but the earthquakes of volcanic origin are generally less severe and more limited in extent than those caused by fracturing of the earth’s crust.
- Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move in relation to one another. The major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up Earth’s crust.
Plate tectonics: Slipping of land along the fault line along, convergent, divergent and transform boundaries cause earthquakes. Example: San Andreas Fault is a transform fault where Pacific plate and North American plate move horizontally relative to each other causing earthquakes along the fault lines.
Most earthquakes are causally related to compressional or tensional stresses built up at the margins of the huge moving lithosphere plates the immediate cause of most shallow earthquakes is the sudden release of stress along a fault, or fracture in the earth’s crust.
What is contract farming? What are its advantages?
Contract farming is a kind of system in which bulk purchaser enters into contract with farmers. It includes agro- processing, exporting and trading units. They purchase a specified quantity of any agricultural commodity at pre agreed price. Sponsor provides all kind of production support to the contracted farmers. This includes extension service also.
- This will help to provide sustainable source of livelihood. It will provide an alternative market mechanism.
- Exposure to international markets.
- More FDI in agro processing industries.
- Employment generation in Food processing industries
- Improvement in cold supply chain and hence reduction in wastages.
- Pooling of land will help in utilizing the land properly as 86% of the farmers in India are small and marginal farmers.
- Farmers no longer have to transport their produce to the mandis and hence reduction in the cost.
- Better access to technology, crop diversification, extension services
Explain: Prahaar, Sagarika, Shaurya
Prahaar – The Prahaar is India’s latest surface-to-surface missile with a range of 150 kms. The primary objective of the conventionally armed Prahaar missile is to bridge the gap between the unguided Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher (ranging 45 kms) and the guided Prithvi missile variants. Stated to be a unique missile, the Prahaar boasts of high maneuverability, acceleration and accuracy
Sagarika – It is a Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) with a range of 750 kms. Sagarika missile is being integrated with India’s nuclear powered Arihant-class submarine.
Shaurya – A variant of the K-15 Sagarika named Shaurya has been developed from ground up as a submarine-capable missile. This nuclear-capable missile aims to enhance India’s 2nd-strike capability. Shaurya missile can carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead over 750 kms and striking within 20-30 metres of its target.
What are seismic waves? Explain the different type of seismic waves?
Seismic waves are generated due to the release of the energy during an earthquake. They behave differently in different physical mediums and hence provide a good idea how the interior of earth must be.
Broadly there are three types of seismic waves:
- Primary waves: (P) – Waves are longitudinal waves. i.e. The motion of particles is in the direction of the propagation of the wave. These waves are the fastest of the three and are detected first. They have the shortest wavelength and highest frequency. They can travel in Solid, liquid and gaseous medium.
- Secondary waves: (S) – They are transverse waves i.e. the motion of the particles is Perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the waves. They are slower than P –waves. They have relatively longer wavelength and lower frequency than P – waves. These waves can travel only in solid medium.
- Surface waves: they are the slowest and are detected quite late. They travel only in upper layer or earth surface. They are the most destructive of the three waves. Even the surface waves are of two types – the one travelling in upper crust are called LOVE waves and the one travelling in lower crust are called RAYLEIGH waves.
Discuss the Challenges faced by the ECI? List down the reforms brought out by ECI for conducting free and fair elections.
ECI is entrusted with the responsibility of conducting free and fair elections. If democracy is a temple then EC is priest. But conducting elections for such diverse country and frequent elections is not without challenges. The major challenges with the ECI are as follows:
- The constitution has not prescribed the qualification of the members of the ECI.
- The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the EC.
- The Constitution has not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.
Lack of dedicated permanent staff
Expenses are not charged on consolidated fund of India.
Problem faced due to vast territory of India. Sometimes it becomes difficult to carry out elections in difficult terrain.
Some voters have trust deficit due to frequent use of money and muscle power. There are creditability issues with respect to expenditure during elections.
Recent allegation of fraud in EVM’s
- The reforms bring in by ECI So far:
- SVEEP (explain)
- Reforms in Nomination filling
National electoral roll purification and Authentication programme: building a completely error-free and authenticated electoral roll.
National voter’s service portal: to provide single window services to electors.
Mobile apps: Metadata, matdaan, Samadhaan, Sugam, Suvidha, E-netra.
The theoretical and cognitive systems of sociology are socially conditioned Explain.
Possible Sociological Discourses:
We need to concentrate on some of the essentials of sociological discourses to develop sociology in India.
- The development of sociology in India may be viewed in terms of the historicity of social conditions that have shaped the sociological perspectives from time to time. The theoretical and cognitive systems of sociology are socially conditioned (Singh, 1986).
- It is to be hoped that thinking in this direction will result in the concentration of contested themes and in the recovery of key Indian socio-cultural realities and textual traditions, traditions that have remained or continue to remain as an excluded part of hegemonic sociology or its margin (Nada rajah, 1996). Perhaps, this is the right time to resume the ‘Indian sociology’ by recognizing context and culture of the society and to overcome from the identification of sociology as solely a western.
- The production of sociological knowledge can be qualitatively changed with a sociological curriculum helping the multi- faceted contestation of western sociological knowledge. There is a need to consider not only the content of social science education in our universities but also the methodology used in the production of such knowledge (Nada rajah, 1996).
- Institutionalization of research requires a proper fit between the growing needs of theory and the increasing demands of society. Generally, public funds are made available by the government, UGC, ICSSR and other agencies in terms of the criteria set out for priorities. The question of priorities has to be answered in the context of the relevance of research.
- While paying attention to research priorities, the needs of individual scholars pursuing a promising but out-of-the- way enquiry should not be neglected. Research efforts involving interdisciplinary approach or bold methodological innovation should, on principle, be encouraged. The ICSSR standing committee has also recommended these suggestions in the eighties.
- To conclude, the history of the development of sociology has not been much encouraging. At its beginning anthropology and ethnology helped the colonial rule to establish its foundation. In other words, the discipline of sociology was partly responsible for the survival of colonialism and feudalism in princely states. The feudal mentality of Indian people is thus due to sociology, anthropology and ethnology. It must be said that this discipline has not been worth its salt in India.
- If we make a survey of the sociological literature which has cropped up during the last about 100 years does not take into account any massive event which took place in India. India’s freedom struggle was a long struggle and it sought the participation of the masses. All the people participated in the movement notwithstanding the plural character of the Indian society.
- It was a great event in the history of India. The sociologists did nothing to analyze the freedom struggle. It is difficult to find any book on sociology written by our so-called sociologists. When the masses were busy fighting for their freedom, our sociologists such as N.K. Bose and G.S. Ghurye were writing on caste and ethnicity. Such a record of sociology can easily be called ungrateful to the nation. How can we be proud of such sociologists?
- Another memorable event in India’s history has been the mass exodus of people from Pakistan after the division of country between India and Pakistan. Burning trains from Pakistan were coming to India and the blood-stained trains were leaving India for Pakistan. Lakhs of refugees crossed the borders. It never happened earlier but the sociologists who claimed to be the analysts of Indian society did not mention anything about this tragic event.
- Besides, an event, which is a remarkable in the building of our nation-state, is the era of building modern India. Nehruji and his generation of national leaders started Five-Year Plans for the development of industry and village agriculture. The sociologists again turned their eyes to this era of development.
- It is discouraging to learn that the sociologists observed silence on this process of development. However, the sociologists made some village studies. Actually, there was a flood of such studies. These studies made some contributions. But, these contributions have false theoretical claims. Dominant caste, sanskritization, westernization, parochialization and universalization are some of the contributions which have not proved to be of any help for the development of villages. They have proved to be Utopian for the nation.
- There are several problems for the country. The problems are multi-ethnic, multi-caste, multi-religion, multi-region and multi-linguistic. Economic problems coupled with unemployment are disasters. It is expected of sociology to analyze the social ills and bring out some solutions. In the present work, we are discussing social thinkers of contemporary India. They are also responsible to relax-in comfortable armchairs and enjoy the academic status.
What is the Varna system? Discuss the occupation and differentiation in castes in ancient and modern time with features.
The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas.
They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege.
The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. They are followed by the Vaishyas, or merchants, and the fourth are the Shudras, who are usually laborers, peasants, artisans, and servants. At the very bottom are those considered the Untouchables? These individuals perform occupations that are considered unclean and polluting, such as scavenging and skinning dead animals and are considered outcastes. They are not considered to be included in the ranked castes.
The four orders of society are believed to have originated from the self-sacrifice of Purusha-the creator, the primeval being and are mentioned in Rig Veda.
There seems to be a constant upward and downward social mobility between the different Varnas. When a lower Varna changed into a higher Varna, it was known as jatyutkarsa or uplift of the caste. On the other hand, if a person belonging to a higher Varna gradually descended into a lower Varna, it was known as jatyapakarsa or the degeneration of the caste. While the caste system is rigid without possibility of social mobility
Caste on the other hand may be defined as a hereditary endogenous group which decides the individual‟s status in the social stratification and his profession. Caste is also defined as an aggregate of persons whose share of obligations and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by magic and or religion.
Caste is basically a closed system of stratification, since members are recruited on the criteria of ascribed status. In other words, an individual becomes a member of a Caste in which he or she is born. Thus it is an ascribed status. Even if there is social mobility in the caste system through the process of Sanskritization, urbanization, etc it is only a positional change rather than a structural change.
The main features of caste system in Indian Society are –
- Endogamy and Hyper gamy
- Pre-fixed occupation of castes
- Restriction on food, drink, smoking etc.
- Distinction in customs, dress and speech
- Differentiation in rituals
- Caste based disabilities
- Theory of pollution
- Criteria of touchability and untouchability
- Concept of purity and impurity
- Claim of Divine creation
- Prohibition on marriages outside one’s own caste
- Location or residences.
The division of Indian society into various castes, together with the practice of untouchability, and the geographic isolation of some tribal communities has meant that these communities have lagged behind others in terms of educational and occupational attainment, political participation and with regard to opportunities for social mobility.
There were many movements and governmental actions that took place pre- and post- independence in order to overcome and attempt to eliminate the inequalities and injustices associated with the caste system. During the national movement, Gandhi began using the term “Harijans” (God’s people) to refer to the untouchables in order to encourage a shift towards positive attitude towards the lower castes. B.R. Ambedkar campaigned for greater rights for Dalits in British India, and even after independence.