Write short Notes:-
1. Jakham Dam
- Jakham Dam is located in Pratapgarh District in Rajasthan. It is located in Anooppura village of Pratapgarh Tehsil; the dam is a main irrigation project of the area.
This dam is built on the Jakham River, which originates from a small village Jakhamia in Chhoti Sadri sub division. The Jakham dam’s foundation was laid on 14 May 1968 by then chief minister Mohan Lal Sukhadia.
- Bhiwadi is a city in Alwar district of Rajasthan state in India. It is an industrial hub in Rajasthan. It is part of the National Capital Region.
3. Kali Sindh River
- The Kali Sindh is a river in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. It belongs to the Ganges Basin. The Kali Sindh originates from Bagli (District Dewas) in Madhya Pradesh. It crosses the State Highway No 18 connecting Indore and state capital Bhopal near Sonkatch. The main tributaries of the Kali Sindh are Parwan, Niwaj and Ahu, Kuwari and Betwa Rivers.
It makes boundary of Shajapur and Rajgarh districts and enters Jhalawar and Kota districts of Rajasthan. The river then joins Chambal River at the downstream of Baran District in Rajasthan.
4. Palana Lignite Coal Fields
- Palana and Khari mines of Bikaner district in Rajasthan carry Lignite deposits (inferior quality of coal). The coal produced is mainly used in the thermal power plants and railways.
5. National Desert Park
- Desert National Park is situated in the West Indian state of Rajasthan near the Jaisalmer and Barmer. This is one of the largest national parks, covering an area of 3162 km². The Desert National Park is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert. Sand dunes form around 20% of the Park.
Despite a fragile ecosystem there is an abundance of birdlife. The region is a haven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. Many eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures are spotted here. Desert National Park has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old.
6. Irrigation by Persian Wheel
The Persian wheel method is popular in the central and eastern region where the ground water table is comparatively high. One Persian wheel can irrigate up to one hectare of land.
7. When was Hurda meeting organized? What were its objectives?
The land of Rajasthan has witnessed very few moments when its warriors united on a common issue shading all the differences. One such occasion was the battle of Khanwa when all the kings fought in unison against the mighty Mughal Babar. May be it was the charismatic leadership provided by Maharana Sangram Singh. But the bitter truth is that after Sangram Singh the threads of unity shattered. The death of Aurangzeb coincided with the rise of Maratha power.
- The Maratha power reached its zenith under the leadership of Peshwas. They used to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi as tax or tribute. In the first half of eighteenth century their interference in the politics of Rajasthan reached disturbing levels.
- They started plundering territories of Rajasthan inflicting defeats on various rulers. Even kingdoms of high stature like Mewar were humbled by the Marathas.
- At this time Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur tried to unite all Rajput rulers under one umbrella by convening Hurda Conference. It was attended by almost all Rajput kings.
8. What are the Problems of draughts and desertification in Rajasthan?
The major factors responsible for the desertification of Thar Desert of Rajasthan are climatic factors such as high temperature, low rainfall and high wind velocity and biotic factors like overgrazing of livestock (mainly cattle), intensive crop cultivation, indiscriminate deforestation and exploitation of natural.
9. What are the Causes of environmental pollution in the desert area of Rajasthan?
1. Wind erosion is a major problem in the desert regions of Rajasthan resulting in loss of top soil, damaging crop plants, and burying viable agricultural lands.
2. Water erosion tends to occur in the wetter parts of the arid zone and the semi-arid areas of India.
3. Rapid population growth contributes to land degradation in India. On one hand, the growing population has disrupted traditional systems of land tenure and inheritance extending agricultural activities to marginal lands which are much more vulnerable to land degradation. On the other hand, slums are built on some of the region’s best agricultural land. People have the imperative to produce more food on shrinking plots, and then turn to adopt intensive agricultural techniques which make soil resources face a constant danger of depletion.
4. Unsustainable land use can also lead to land degradation. Much of the land currently under cultivation was regarded, until recently, suitable only for animal husbandry, which causes two problems: first, growing food crops on such land has led to the development of unsustainable agricultural practices such as intensive irrigation and over-cropping; second, it has pressed grazers onto more marginal land which may lead to overgrazing. Both have contributed to the growing problem of erosion.
5. Irrigation of soils makes them prone to Stalinization, alkalinization or even water-logging.
6. Over-cropping reduces the available organic matter in the soil. Humus loss decreases the ability of the soil to hold water, speeds precipitation runoff, increases the chance of flooding and water erosion, and makes the area more vulnerable to drought.
7. Mine spoils are becoming a driver of land degradation in the arid lands of India.
8. Trade and globalization contribute to land degradation in India as well. The importance of cash crops and food crop exports is likely to grow. This development is predicted to force more food production onto marginal areas, which will augment existing problems, especially related to erosion.
10. What are the reasons for the development of cement industry in Rajasthan?
The industry depends upon the availability of limestone, clay or shale and gypsum. These natural materials are mined in different regions; as such factories are set up close to the sources of raw material.
Development of means of transport and availability of capital are other factors which determine development of cement industry. It is because of developmental work in the country, like construction of multipurpose river valley projects, means of transport, industries and housing activity. Rajasthan has rich potentials for cement manufacturing. Cement factories are located at Lakheri, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Banas, Beawar, Nimbahera and Sirohi.
11. Describe Aravali Hill Development Programme
- In the year 2000, Government of Rajasthan engaged ARAVALI to undertake a baseline study to demarcate the Magra Area and identify the development gaps and priority for its development.
- Based on the survey, the government allocated funds for the development of the area. In the year 2005, again Government of Rajasthan requested Aravali to prepare a proposal detailing out situational analysis and identifying appropriate solutions in terms of natural resource enhancement, infrastructure development and capacity building aspects and finally proposing a strategic plan of Bhilwara district.
12. Write short notes on Mansagar Lake
- Man Sagar Lake is an artificial lake, situated in Jaipur, the capital of the state of Rajasthan in India. It is named after Raja Man Singh, the then ruler of Amer, who constructed it in c. 1610 by damming the Dravyavati River.
- The Jal Mahal is situated in the middle of the lake.
Write short notes on the followings:
13. Ghatiyala Inscription
14. Ghosundi Inscription
15. BuchKalan Inscription
16. Ranthambore Fort
17. Chittorgarh Fort
18. Mandawa Fort
13. Ghatiyala Inscription
Ghantiyala or Ghatiyala is a village in Jodhpur Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient names are Rohimsakupaka, Rohimsakupaka and Rohimsaka.
The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in Ghatiyala, twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column is not far distant from an old ruined Jaina structure, now called Mata-ki-Sal.
14. Ghosundi Inscription
The earliest epigraphic evidence regarding the worship of Lord Narayana is found from the Ghosundi Stone Inscription of Maharaja Sarvatata of 1st Century B.C. Ghosundi is a village in the chittorgarh district of rajasthan.
The inscription record the erection of enclosing wall around the stone object of worship called Narayana Vatika for the divinities Sankarshana and Vasudeva by one Sarvatta who was a devotee of Bhagavat and had performed an Asvamedha Sacrifice.
15. BuchKalan Inscription
BuchKalan is an ancient historical town in Bilada tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Rajyaghangakam.
This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at BuchKalan in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabha mandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati.
16. Ranthambore Fort
Ranthambore Fort is housed in the wildlife sanctuary of the same name in Sawai Madhopur. Built in the 10th century by Nagil Jats, these are the oldest remnants of the royalty of Rajasthan. Built on two hills, the fort is mainly in ruins. Witnessing attacks of Mughals, British and ravages of time, few structures remain standing.
Attractions to check out are Hammir’s Court, Badal Mahal, Dhula Mahal, Ganesha temple, Jogi Mahal, Shiva Temple, Ramlal ji Temple and temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath. The roar of the Royal Bengal Tigers and the call of wild animals can be frequently heard. The calls are reminders that the fort is their territory.
Adventure is the allure of the fort. Now it is a free sanctuary of animals which was previously hunting grounds of the Royalty.
17. Chittorgarh Fort
One of the oldest forts in Rajasthan, Chittorgarh Fort is the origin of many stories of valor, courage and sacrifice. The impregnable fortress is one of the most significant places to learn the history of Rajasthan. The 7th century fort is the land of Meera Bai who drank poison than leave the love of her Lord Krishna, and, Rani Padmini and Karanavati who protected honor by jumping into the fire of Jauhar and the heroics of Gora, Badal and Panna Dhai.
- The UNESCO World Heritage Site is the breathing grounds of the romantic tales of Rajasthan.
- Sieged numerous times in various periods of history, a lot of stories lies within its boundaries. Check out the beautiful attractions of Rana Kumbha Mahal, Ratan Singh’s Palace, Badal Mahal, Rani Padmini’s Palace, Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal, etc.
- The Vijay Stambha and Kirti Stambha and several cenotaphs stand as memorials.
The temples of Kalika mata Temple, Adbuthnath Temple, Kumbha Shyam Temple, etc are worshipped by Hindus and Jains and still draw crowds. The seven gates of Chittorgarh deserve attention as they have lots of history associated with it.
18. Mehrangarh Fort
Mehrangarh Fort stands as one of the most important heritage sites of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The foundation of the fort was laid way back in 1458 by Rathore ruler, Rao Jodha. The Citadel of the Sun was not once sieged. The fort remains invincible and inspires awe from all. There are numerous mysteries and scandals hidden.
- What does not hide is its architectural splendor.
- The exquisite palaces of Moti Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Phool Mahal, Daulat Khana and Sileh Khana.
- The fort itself is a museum where the lifestyle of the Rathore clan and even Mughals is preserved. From weaponry, palanquins, cradles, musical instruments, furniture to the clothes of the era get an insight of the glorious era.
19. Taragarh Fort
Taragarh Fort in Bundi is one of the magnificent forts in Rajasthan. The fort overlooking the city of Bundi has sadly been ravaged by time but its charm does not fade. Built in 1354 A.D., the fort remains as glorious remnants of the Chauhan dynasty. The breathtaking views are delightful. The gateway to the fort is decked with stone statues of elephants.
- There are mainly 3 entries named Lakshmi Pol, Gagudi ki Phatak and Phuta Darwaza.
- Taragarh fort also houses an excellent network of tunnels which were saviors in times of need. The huge properly planned water reservoirs must be visited.
- The beautiful Rani Mahal was designed with murals; artwork and lattice artworks inspire awe.
- The Bhim Burj and Garbha Gunjan, the huge field cannons are few of the popular attractions.
20. Gagron Fort
One of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, the hill fort of Rajasthan is a beauty. The Gagron Fort is a beautiful site of archaeological importance. This structure is the epitome of a “Jal Durg” as it is surrounded by water on all sides.
- Built for protection from armies, in 1195 A.D by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire, the fort draws visitors and devotes from all over. Here also lies the tomb of a Sufi saint, Pipa Baba.
- The glory of the fort has been faded with time but its charm still lives. The Rajputana glory lives in these structures forgotten in the chapters of history.
21. Mandawa Fort
Founded in 18th Century by Nawal Singh, Mandawa Fort of Shekhawati is an impressive structure of heritage of Rajasthan. The exquisite artwork, architecture and the ambiance has been preserved beautifully and converted into a heritage hotel. The charm has been pleasantly treasured.
- The medieval themed rooms, balconies, the antique collection, the family portraits of the rulers and their belongings take you back in history.
- The grand archways and the paintings of Lord Krishna and his cows are a visual treat. Wander through areas opened for tourists and you shall witness the impressive aura and architecture of the Royal state of Rajasthan.
22. Write the Name of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan
There are eight world Heritage sites in Rajasthan Namely:
- Chittorgarh Fort
- Kumbhalgarh Fort
- Ranthambore Fort
- Jaisalmer Fort
- Gagron Fort
- Keoladeo National Park
- Jantar Mantar
- Amber Fort
23. Write in brief on e-waste management.
The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.
E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods
Major Toxins in E‐waste
• Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
• Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
• Mercury, chromium, lead, and Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.
Give an account of the following
24) Mahila e-Haat
25) Sakhi-one stop centres
26) Ujjwala scheme
Mahila-e-Haat: It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.
Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund
Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.
Give an account of the following:
29) Aspirational district programme
SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.
PRAGATI: Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.
Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters
30. Discuss the importance of Champaran Satyagraha.
This was the first experiment of novel method adopted by Gandhiji i.e. civil disobedience and passive resistance in the Champaran. This has huge historical significance as it marks the advent of Gandhiji in mainline politics and paved the ground for Gandhi ji popularity as leader. It also gave sanctions to the method adopted by Gandhiji.
Gandhiji was able to convince the administration that tinkathia was an exploitative system and need revamping. He became the member of the committee to make an enquiry. The recommendations of the committee were in the favour of Peasants and it recommended to abolish tinkathia and asked to compensate the peasants for illegal collection of rents and taxes.
First time rural problem in general and the problem of peasants were taken into consideration which were obscure hitherto in the Indian politics. It makes the way for participation of peasants in mass movements.
Give an account of the following:
31) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
32) Nagpur session of INC in 1920
33) Khilafat movement
34) Lahore conspiracy case
31) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
JBM: On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000. The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar.
32) Nagpur session of INC in 1920
Nagpur session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.
33) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.
34) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.
Give an account of following:
35) Hunter commission
36) Sadler commission
Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:
• Assess wood’s dispatch.
• To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.
Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work
Give an account of the following:
37) Vaikkom Satyagraha
38) Delhi proposal
39) Alipore conspiracy
40) Muzaffarpur conspiracy case
Vaikkom Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the princely state of Travancore.
Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.
The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging (1908).
It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack.
41. Discuss the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?
- The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
- Lack of leadership
- Internal rift in congress
- Congress failure to influence masses at large.
- It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
- Repression by Britishers was another reason
Give an account of following.
42) Project Tiger
43) Project Hangul
44) Sea Turtle Project
45) Project snow leopard
Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA
Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag) its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m
Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.
Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Prades
Define following term
46) Current account
47) Capital account
48) Balance of payment
49) Trade balance
Current account: Current account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in share.
Capital account: Capital account of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or liabilities of the residents of the country or its government
Balance of payments: The balance of payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world.
Trade balance: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments
50. What is a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the Benami transactions amendment act?
Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is made by another.
Effect on economy:
- Loss of revenue
- Generation of black money
- Moral hazard for honest tax payers
- Artificial inflationary tendencies
- Increase in the prices especially of real estate
Provisions of Benami amendment act:
- Establishment of adjudicating authority
- Case has to be decided in a year’s time
- Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two other members.
- Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these properties.
- Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.
51. What is Desai-Liaqat proposal?
M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.
Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:
- Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
- Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
- The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.
M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League