Current Affairs & GK Notes 29-30 November 2018

Arvind Saxena appointed as Chairman of UPSC

Saxena will have tenure till August 7, 2020, when he attains the age of 65 years. He has been working as acting head of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) since June 20. He took over charge from Vinay Mittal who had completed his term. Saxena joined the UPSC as a member on May 8, 2015. Prior to joining the UPSC, he was working as director of the Aviation Research Centre (ARC).

 

Maharashtra approves 16% Maratha quota

The Maharashtra assembly has unanimously approved 16% reservation for the Maratha community in jobs and educational institutes. Following this, the total reservation in the state for OBC, SC/ST groups, other minor social groups, and the Marathas will be 68%. The government created a separate category called socially and Educationally Backward Class (SEBC).

 

BCCI announces two-year ban for age frauds

From the 2018-19 season, any cricketer who is found guilty of tampering his/her date of birth will be disqualified and barred from participating in any BCCI tournament for a period of 2 years i.e. 2018-19 and 2019-20 seasons. Earlier, a cricketer faced a ban of one year. In September, the BCCI had banned a Meghalaya-bound Delhi player, Jaskirat Singh Sachdeva, for producing a fake birth certificate to play in an Under-19 tournament.

 

Electric cars set to replace diesel, petrol vehicles in Telangana State offices

The Telangana government offices are soon to make way for electric cars as the State aims at promoting non-polluting vehicles. The government has brought in the Electric Mobility Policy 2018-2023 to encourage the use of carbon-free cars. It has followed it up by signing with the Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL). The EESL in principle has agreed to invest a whopping Rs.10, 250 crore in the State to procure 1, 00,000 cars. The State has sought support from two automobile companies, the Mahindra and the Tata and Sons, to provide 100 cars before the end of December. The two signature electric cars, the Mahindra Verito, and the Tata Tigor, can be charged for six hours with AC charger and 90 minutes with DC charger and can travel for 100-110 km. It is expected that the introduction of electric cars could provide smart solutions to the concerns over increasing carbon emissions and pave way for cleaner cities, apart from rising in fuel prices. It is estimated that 2.5 kg of carbon and 60 grams of nitrogen are emitted for every litre of diesel. There is a rise in the incidence of lung cancer and respiratory diseases.

 

CSIR to Establish a High-End Skill Development Centre in Chandigarh

CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR-IMTECH) announced a new partnership with Merck, a leading German science and Technology Company, to establish a ‘High End Skill Development Centre’ in CSIR-IMTECH, Chandigarh. This ‘High End Skill Development Centre’ will enrich skills by conducting workshops, trainings and seminar series on cutting edges life science processes, tools and techniques.

 

G-20 Summit 2018 begins in Argentina

The 2018 G-20 Summit began on November 28, 2018 in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is the 13th meeting of Group of Twenty (G20) and the first G20 summit to be hosted in South America. Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be representing India at the Summit and is scheduled to meet US President Donald Trump, Chinese President Xi Jinping, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, Argentina President Mauricio Macri, Chilean President Sebastian Pinera and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, on the sidelines of the summit. Member Countries: The members of the G20 consist of 19 individual countries plus the European Union (EU). The 19 member countries of the forum are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States.

 

Miko-2 IIT-Bombay graduates launch Indias first advanced personal robot for kids

Graduates of Indian Institute of Technology – Bombay (IIT-B) who are Co-founders of a start-up called Emotix have launched India’s first advanced personal robot Miko 2 for Kids. IIT Bombay graduates Snehi Rajkumar Vaswani along with his batch mates Prashant Iyengar and Chintan Raikar have founded the Tech start-up Emotix. Miko 2 is India’s first advanced robot that can see, hear, sense, express, talk, recognize faces, remember names, Identify moods and initiate a conversation.

 

LG Appoints Brian Kwon as Mobile Business President

 

  • LG Electronics has announced that it has appointed Brian Kwon as the new president. He is replacing Hwang Jeong-hwan after one year.
  • Brian Kwon is head of LG’s home entertainment business, from December 1.
  • It comes after LG’s mobile business posted a loss of $410 million this year, including a $130.5 million net loss in the last quarter.

 

Azim Premji Conferred Highest French Civilian Honour

 

  • IT czar and philanthropist Azim Premji was bestowed with the highest French civilian distinction Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour). Premji, who is the chairman of Bengaluru-headquartered IT major Wipro, received the distinction from the Ambassador of France to India Alexandre Ziegler in Bengaluru.

 

  • The award was bestowed on Azim Premji for his outstanding contribution to developing the information technology industry in India, his economic outreach in France, and his laudable contribution to society as a philanthropist through the Azim Premji Foundation and Azim Premji University.

 

 IFFI 2018: Donbass Wins the Golden Peacock

 

  • Donbass directed by Sergei Loznitsa has won the coveted Golden Peacock Award at the 49th International Film Festival of India (IFFI), which concluded in Goa on November 28, 2018.

 

  • The Golden Peacock Award carries a cash prize of Rs 4 million (Rs 40 lakhs) to be shared equally between the Producer and the Director, Trophy and the citation.

 

Government Launches Bhasha Sangam

 

  • The government has launched a unique initiative called Bhasha Sangam to introduce school students to 22 Indian languages. The initiative, under Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat, was active for the period between 22nd November – 21st December

 

  • Bhasha Sangam is a programme for schools and educational institutions to provide multilingual exposure to students in Indian languages. Another objective of Bhasha Sangam is to enhance linguistic tolerance and respect and promote national integration.

 

India-United Kingdom Exercise KONKAN-18 Held at Goa

 

  • Naval exercise between India and the United Kingdom, KONKAN held in Goa this year. Both Navies have, over the years, undertaken bilateral activities such as training exchanges and technical cooperation. The Bilateral KONKAN exercise provides a platform for the two Navies to periodically exercise at sea and in harbour, so as to build interoperability and share best practices.

 

  • The KONKAN series of exercises commenced in 2004, and since then has grown in scale. The Royal Navy will be represented by HMS Dragon, a Type 45 Class Destroyer equipped with an integral Wildcat helicopter.

 

Himachal Pradesh first state to launch single emergency number ‘112’

 

Himachal Pradesh became the first state to launch a pan-India single emergency number ‘112’ where all kinds of immediate help can be sought in urgent matters. Under this project, an Emergency Response Centre (ERC) has been established in Shimla along with 12 district command centres (DCCs), covering the entire state. The ERC has been integrated with police (100), fire (101), health (108) and women (1090) helpline numbers to provide emergency services through the emergency number ‘112’. The central government has allocated Rs 321.69 crore under Nirbhaya Fund for implementation of ERSS project across the country.

 

IAS Ranbir Singh appointed as Chief Electoral Officer of Delhi

 

IAS Officer, Ranbir Singh served as the commissioner of East Delhi Municipal Corporation was appointed as the Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) of Delhi. Ranbir Singh will succeed Vijay Kumar Dev who had been appointed as the chief secretary of the Delhi Government.

 

Vijay Varma and P. Rajkumar were awarded the Asian of the Year awards

 

Indian Navy commander Vijay Varma and Captain P. Rajkumar were among those honored at the ‘Asian of The Year’ awards at Singapore on 28th November. The two were acknowledged for their selfless service and bravery in rescue operations during the Kerala floods. They were awarded for their death-defying rescue flying during the floods in Kerala earlier this year. Others awarded included the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre), and Singapore NGO Mercy Relief, who operated amid large-scale flooding, earthquakes and a variety of other disasters.

 

Govt launched ‘Paisa’ portal for affordable credit and interest subvention access

 

The government launched a centralised electronic platform for processing interest subvention on bank loans to beneficiaries under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM), called ‘Paisa’ PAiSA, or `Portal for Affordable Credit and Interest Subvention Access’, is a web platform designed and developed by Allahabad Bank, which is the nodal bank.

 

Lancet Countdown 2018 report Indians faced almost 60 mn heat wave exposure events in 2016, says journal Average length of heat waves in India ranged from 3-4 days compared with the global average of 0.8-1.8 days.

Indian policy makers must take a series of initiatives to mitigate the increased risks to health, and the loss of labour hours due to a surge in exposure to heat wave events in the country over the 2012-2016 Periods Connect to the report.

From 2014-2017, the average length of heat waves in India ranged from 3-4 days compared to the global average of 0.8-1.8 days, and Indians were exposed to almost 60 million heat wave exposure events in 2016, a jump of about 40 million from 2012

Heat waves

Heat waves are associated with increased rates of heat stress and heat stroke, worsening heart failure and acute kidney injury from dehydration.

Children, the elderly and those with pre-existing morbidity are particularly vulnerable.

Almost 153 billion hours of labour were lost globally in 2017 due to heat, an increase of 62 billion hours from the year 2000.

India amongst the countries who most experience high social and economic costs from climate change

 

Science and Technology

India’s heaviest communication satellite GSAT-11 to orbit in space on December 5

  • The satellite will support BharatNet connecting gram panchayat for e-governance and digital platforms; VSAT terminals and for enterprise network and consumer broadband applications.
  • India’s heaviest communication satellite with high throughput GSAT-11 will be put into orbit by an Ariane-5 rocket of Arianespace from French Guiana
  • According to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the GSAT-11 weighing 5,854 kg is the heaviest satellite built by it.
  • The satellite is scheduled for launch onboard Ariane-5 launch vehicle from French Guiana.
  • The satellite will be initially placed in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit and will subsequently be raised to geostationary orbit by firing the satellite’s onboard motor.

According to ISRO, GSAT-11 is the forerunner in a series of advanced communications satellites with multi-spot beam antenna coverage over Indian mainland and islands.

  • The satellite with a mission life of 15 years will have 32 user beams (Ku band) and eight hub beams (Ka band) and the throughput data rate of 16 Gbps.
  • GSAT-11 will play a vital role in providing broadband services across the country. It will also provide a platform to demonstrate new generation applications.
  • The Indian space agency said the GSAT-11 will be used to meet the increased data demands with high data rates over regions using spot beams.
  • The satellite will support BharatNet connecting gram panchayat for e-governance and digital platforms; VSAT terminals and for enterprise network and consumer broadband applications.
  • In April 2018, ISRO had recalled GSAT-11 from Arianespace’s rocket port in French Guiana for further tests, to be on the safe side.

The ISRO’s move to call back GSAT-11 for further tests and be doubly sure of its performance may be due to the loss of the recently launched GSAT-6A satellite, soon after it was put into orbit on March 29.

ISRO suspected the failure of the power system in the satellite for the loss of communication link.

The satellites are powered by solar panels that charge the onboard batteries. The batteries are fully charged when the satellite is loaded on to the rocket.

According to experts, the power system could have failed due to some short-circuiting or arcing resulting in what is known in the space terminology ‘loss of lock’ or loss of contact with the ground station. Satellites in space are locked to ground stations for tracking and other purposes.

On March 29, Indian rocket Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) slung GSAT-6A in its intended orbit. From there the satellite was to be taken up further to its orbital slot by firing its onboard motors.

The first orbit raising operation was successfully carried out by firing the onboard motors for around 36 minutes on March 30 mornings. The second orbit raising operation of GSAT-6A satellite was also successful as its motors were fired for about 53 minutes on March 31. After that, the communication link got snapped.

 

ISRO PSLV-C43 HySIS Mission

 

The countdown for the launch of PSLV-C43/HySIS mission began yesterday

The agency further added that it will be the 45th flight of PSLV while the PSLV-C43 will carry India’s earth observation satellite named HySIS along with 30 co-passenger satellites from eight other countries.

HySIS is an earth observation satellite which has been developed by ISRO while it is also the primary satellite onboard the PSLV-C43 rocket with a total mass of around 380 kgs.

The co-passengers of HySIS will include 1 Micro as well as 29 Nano satellites from 8 different countries.

These countries include United States of America (with 23 satellites), Canada, Columbia, Australia, Finland, Netherlands, Malaysia and Spain (with one satellite each).

The mission life of the HySIS satellite is estimated to be 5 years while the primary goal of the observation satellite is to study earth’s surface in visible, near infrared as well as shortwave infrared regions present in the electromagnetic spectrum.

The HySIS satellite will be placed in 636 kilometre polar sun synchronous orbit aka SSO while it will have an inclination of 97.957 degrees.

PSLV is a four stage launch vehicle compromising of alternating solid and liquid stages. On the other hand, the PSLV-C43 rocket is the Core Alone version of PSLV, which also happens to the lightest version of the launch vehicle.

 

Workhorse launch vehicle PSLV C-43 injects Hyper Spectral Imaging Satellite into space

Nearly three minutes after lift-off on Thursday, India’s workhorse launch vehicle, the PSLV, carrying 31 satellites on board soared in a trajectory crossing the path of the Sun and sped to inject India’s Hyper Spectral Imaging Satellite (HySIS), being dubbed ‘Sharp Eye’, towards the launcher’s intended first orbit.

 

Over the course of the next one hour, the team at Mission Control waited for the PSLV C-43 to come up on the other side of the Equator to insert 30 small satellites from various countries into another orbit as requested by the customers. The 30 satellites were part of a commercial launch.

 

In its 13th flight of the Core-Alone version and 45th launch of the PSLV, ISRO carried one satellite each from Australia, Canada, Colombia, Finland, Malaysia, Netherlands and Spain, and 23 satellites from the U.S. on board as co-passengers of the HySIS.

 

At 9.57 a.m., the rocket lifted off from the first launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR and here. A little over 17 minutes later, the HySIS was injected into a precise orbit of 636 km from Earth. The HySIS is an Earth Observation satellite primarily to assist in a wide range of applications in agriculture, forestry, geological environments and coastal zones, among others.

 

Lauding the ISRO team for making HySIS, Mr. Sivan said the satellite was state-of-the-art technology. The heart of the system required for the HySIS satellite is basically an optical imaging detector chip. This chip has been indigenously designed by Space Application Centre of ISRO and fabricated at our semi-conductor lab at Chandigarh. I am sure that team ISRO can be proud that they are really giving an excellent space asset to India.

 

Explaining the one-hour wait for the vehicle to come up on the other side and to insert the commercial satellites, Mr. Sivan said the PSLV first travelled Southward and injected the HySIS around 27 degree South of the Equator.

Indian healthcare and agriculture sectors need a federal institution similar to the GST Council to coordinate State and Central policies and schemes.

Speaking at the Confederation of Indian Industry’s Health Summit on Thursday, Mr. Jaitley said the GST Council, which comprised the Union and State Finance Ministers, was a successful experiment in practical federalism.

 

There are two other institutions which eminently require federal institutions of this kind. The GST was constitutionally provided for, but political maturity can impose on government to try that experiment. One is healthcare and one is agriculture.

 

Sustainable Blue Economy Conference

  • Nairobi, capital of Kenya

Organizing agencies

  • It was organized by Kenya and co hosted by Japan and Canada.

Theme: The Blue Economy and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

  • It was held on momentum of UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2015 Climate Change Conference in Paris and UN Ocean Conference 2017 ‘Call to Action.
  • Over 17,000 plus participants from some 184 countries had participated in the conference.
  • India was represented Union Minister for Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Nitin Gadkari.

Blue Economy

  • It is economic benefit and value that is realized from Earth’s coastal and marine environment.
  • Sustainable Blue Economy is marine-based economy that provides social and economic benefits for current and future generations, restores, protects and maintains diversity, productivity and resilience of marine ecosystems.

Source:The Hindu+PIB

RPSC RAS Mains Previous Papers For General Studies Paper I

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

 

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

 

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.

  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.

  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.

  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture, Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance

  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.

  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

 

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

 

 

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

           

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.

  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.

  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues

  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country

  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century

  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

 

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

 

  • Renaissance and Reformation.

  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution

  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa

  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives

  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments

  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India

  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.

  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

 

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

 

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.

  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.

  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.

  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.

  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.

  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

 

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

 

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

 

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values

  • Caste Class & Occupation

  • Sanskritization

  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha

  • Secularism

  • Issues and Problems of Society.

  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.

  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion

  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital

  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication

  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management

  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning

  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

 

To Download RPSC RAS Mains Previous Papers For General Studies Paper I:Click Here

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

 

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

 

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.

  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.

  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.

  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance

  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.

  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

 

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

 

 

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

           

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.

  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.

  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues

  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country

  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century

  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

 

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

 

  • Renaissance and Reformation.

  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution

  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa

  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives

  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments

  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India

  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.

  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

 

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

 

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.

  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.

  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.

  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.

  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.

  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

 

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

 

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

 

 

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values

  • Caste Class & Occupation

  • Sanskritization

  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha

  • Secularism

  • Issues and Problems of Society.

  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.

  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion

  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital

  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication

  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management

  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning

  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

Current Affair & GK Notes 23-24-25 November 2018

Amur Falcons Landing in Nagaland

Amur Falcon

  • A small slender bird of prey, with long, pointed wings, the Amur falcon is noteworthy for undertaking one of the most arduous annual migrations of any bird of prey.
  • The male is a largely dark grey bird with a chestnut lower belly and thighs and a white under wing, visible in flight.

Amur falcons from Siberia form clouds above Pangti village in Nagaland.

  • In October flocks of Amur falcons from Siberia start landing in a tiny village called Pangti, near the Doyang reservoir, in Wokha district of Nagaland.
  • Tens of thousands of these small raptors (Falco amurensis) frolic in the village for about two months before they head for warmer climes in Kenya and South Africa in a non-stop flight over the Arabian Sea.
  • The falcon is protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • In all probability, the Doyang reservoir, surrounded by hills, hosts the single largest congregation of Amur falcons anywhere in the world. The abundance of water and insects to feed on is a magnet for the birds.
  • The Nagaland government hosted the first Amur Falcon Conservation Week from November 8 to 10.

Till 2012, thousands of them would not make that onward journey. They would be hunted down by the villagers for their meat. The same hunters have now turned the birds’ protectors. Concerted efforts by the State government and non-governmental organisations, with the cooperation of the villagers, have paid off. Bano Haralu, managing trustee of the Nagaland Wildlife and Biodiversity Trust, has been the lead player in the conservation efforts. The village council offers her support.

 

Sherpa, an anti-corruption NGO from French seeking a probe into Rafale deal and the choice of Anil Ambani as the offset partner.

  • In month September 2016, Indian and France government signed a €7.87 billion Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) for 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets in fly-away condition.

 

  • Pressure continues to mount over allegations of corruption in the purchase of Rafale fighter jets from France from both within and outside the country.
  • According to French news portal Mediapart, a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) has approached the National Financial Prosecutor’s office, seeking a probe into the allegations of money laundering and corruption in the deal and the choice of Anil Ambani as the offset partner.
  • Controversy surrounding the Rafale deal has steadily grown over last few months.

 

Sherpa, an anti-corruption NGO, lodged the complaint with the National Financial Prosecutor’s Office highlighting “potential acts of corruption, granting of undue advantages, influence peddling, complicity of these offences and money laundering.

The complaint sought an investigation into the circumstances under which 36 combat aircraft were sold by France to India in 2016 and the choice of Anil Ambani’s Reliance Defence as the offset partner which had no experience in the manufacture of fighter jets and was registered only “twelve days” before the announcement of the deal in 2015.

 

  • The Supreme Court has heard arguments in the case and reserved its verdict on whether it merits a court-monitored investigation.

 

Cyclone Gaja made landfall and swirled through the fertile Cauvery delta

 

November 16, Vedaranyam, the tip of the nose of peninsular India stretching into the Bay of Bengal, was in the eye of a storm when Cyclone Gaja made landfall and swirled through the fertile Cauvery delta in Tamil Nadu. The cyclone left the delta battered like no other in more than half-a-century.

 

  • The cyclone with high velocity winds gusting up to 120 km an hour sheared trees, huts, tiled houses and every other structure in its path.
  • Almost the entire delta spread over Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur and Thanjavur districts, considered the granary of the State, the neighbouring Padukottai and even interior Tiruchi and Dindigul districts staggered under its impact as the cyclone made its way to the Arabian Sea in Kerala.

What was the impact of this cyclone?

  • The cyclone swept in wind and water, destroying lakhs of trees, including coconut, banana, cashew, mango, jackfruit, casuarinas, betel vine, eucalyptus, teak and sugarcane on thousands of hectares.
  • The paddy crop of the samba/thaladi seasons was also damaged in some places.
  • Boats and huts of fishermen were destroyed.
  • The Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, a Ramsar site (a wetland of international importance for conservation), was ravaged.
  • Carcasses of blackbuck, spotted deer, feral horses and birds were washed on the shores of Karaikkal in Puducherry.
  • Scores of villages were wiped out and thousands rendered homeless.
  • The steel roofs of petrol stations, grain storage godowns and other buildings were blown away. Nearly a lakh tonne of stocks in salt pans in Vedaranyam were washed away. Over 3.41 lakh houses with thatched or tiled roofs were damaged, according to an estimate. More than 3.78 lakh persons were accommodated in over 550 relief centres. Over 92,500 birds and 12,200 heads of cattle perished.
  • .A few elders compared the devastation to a cyclone in the 1950s.
  • Every family was left counting its losses.
  • The coconut growing belt of Padukottai, Peravurani and Orathanadu in Thanjavur district took a severe beating. “Coconut growers are ruined.

 

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana

As per the latest data released by the Centre for Digital Financial Inclusion (CDFI) that uses technology for financial inclusion, the government has transferred over Rs 1,600 crore to eligible mothers under Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana through direct benefit transfer so far. Rs 16,04,66,63,000 have been transferred through direct benefit transfer to 48.5 lakh women.

 

CAS (Common Application Software) System:

  • CDFI is a non-profit organisation.
  • It had conceptualized, designed and implemented the PMMVY-CAS (Common Application Software) System through which disbursements were made.

 

 Facts of Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) is a maternity benefit rechristened from erstwhile Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY). The IGMSY was launched in 2010.
  • The scheme is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women of 19 years of age or above for first live birth.
  • It provides partial wage compensation to women for wage-loss during childbirth and childcare and to provide conditions for safe delivery and good nutrition and feeding practices.

 

Exceptions: The maternity benefits under Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) are available to all Pregnant Women & Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) except those in regular employment with the Central Government or State Government or Public Sector Undertaking or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force.

Funding: The scheme is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under which cost sharing ratio between the Centre and the States & UTs with Legislature is 60:40 while for North-Eastern States & three Himalayan States; it is 90:10.

It is 100% Central assistance for Union Territories without Legislature.

 

Relocating monkeys could spread infection

Bonnet macaques living near people have more intestinal parasites than those living in forests, shows a study recently published in PLOS ONE. So monkeying around by relocating such commensal macaques could spread parasites to wild macaques and other forest species.

 

  • Just like big cats or jumbos, monkeys too are sometimes relocated to forests from human-dominated areas.

Instances of relocation

  • To find out, researchers from Coimbatore’s Bharathiar University and Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History first compiled information on instances of primate relocation in India and found that of the 25 relocations between 1998 and 2017 (none of which attempted to relocate the entire group or screen the monkeys for diseases or end parasite infections), 13 were of bonnet macaques across south India.

 

  • Focusing on bonnet macaques and their gastrointestinal parasites (end parasites, which can be transmitted to other macaques in the vicinity through faeces or water) the team followed 20 macaque troops across Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in 2014-15 and collected 161 macaque poop samples to study parasites levels.
  • For comparison, they also followed macaques in the forests of Karnataka’s Sirsi–Honnavara between 2015 and 2016 and collected 205 poop samples. They quantified parasite eggs and cysts in these samples.
  • They found as many as 24 end parasites (19 taxa of helminthes or worms and five taxa of protozoans) in both urban (commensal monkeys living near humans) and forest macaques. Almost all macaque groups had at least one endoparasite in them.
  • They found that the amount of food that an urban macaque group availed from human-dominated areas determined the number of endoparasite taxa and levels of endoparasites in them.
  • Macaque groups that accessed such food from dumps and other areas had more species of endoparasites.
  • Immature macaques had the highest levels of endoparasites.
  • Endoparasite levels across seasons revealed that the parasites persisted in the monkeys every month.
  • The species richness of endoparasites was highest in summer.

 

Parasite transfer

Relocating such infected monkeys to the wild as part of conflict mitigation measures could transfer new parasites into wild populations in the area, write the authors. Just like in people, higher parasite loads in animals can affect physiological functions.

 

Austria withdraw from UN New Migration Fact

  • The Austrian government decided to withdraw from the new migration pact of the United Nations. The U.S., Hungary, the Czech Republic and, most recently, Australia and Poland, had done the same, and it is not a coincidence that politics in most of these countries is dominated by right-wing leaders.
  • The UN’s Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migrations is aiming to make migration all over the world safer.
  • We view some points of the migration pact as very critical, such as the mixing up of seeking protection with labour migration.
  • The Chancellor also said Austria’s “sovereign migration policy” is endangered by the pact. Since Mr. Kurz’s government, consisting of his Conservative Party and the far-right Freedom Party, came to power a year ago, several controversial policies have been adapted.
  • Many Austrians believe that their country is isolating itself with this decision. “I think it is sad and embarrassing. Austria is already making a lot of negative headlines with this government. But this step is a new peak. Our country now appears to be heading backwards; we are now on the same level with Donald Trump and Viktor Orbán.

The UN pact, which is not binding, addresses issues such as how to protect migrants and how to integrate them into new countries or how to return them to their original home countries.

Far-right blogs and social media warriors close to the Freedom Party have mounted criticism against the pact in recent months. Many of these sites started to spread misinformation, often quoting context-less or wrongly translated passages from the document.

Source: The Hindu+PIB

 

Izzat Ghar

The Government of India has restricted the practice of manual scavenging from 2013. So in order to compliance the Indian Railways has decided to introduce bio-toilets in the trains.

 

  • This is an Eco-friendly bio toilet
  • Set up in Hubballi Railway Station
  • This bio toilet is made free to all railway passengers and general public
  • It ensure that the area is free of open defecation

 

What is Bio-toilet?

  • Bio-toilet is a decomposition mechanized toilet system which decomposes human excretory waste in the digester tank using high graded bacteriaand further converting it into Carbon dioxide gas, methane gas and water. 
  1. Only 15% of People in the world have a flush toilet.
  2. It will be surprised to know that only 3% peoples of ruralIndia and 25% of urban Indians have flush toilets.

Indian Railways have said that its goal is to install 1,440,000 bio-toilets in all 55,000 coaches under the “Clean Rail-Clean India” program by the end of 2019. More than 49,000 bio-toilets have been installed by the Indian Railways in the passenger coach till October 31, 2016.

 

How bio toilet works?

  • Bio-digester technologytreats human waste at the source.
  • A collection of anaerobic bacteriathat has been adapted to work at temperatures as low as -5°C and as high as 50°C act as inoculates or seed material to the bio-digesters and convert the organic human waste into water, methane, and carbon-dioxide gases.

 

Bio toilet is completely different toilet as compare to the traditional. It saves a lot of water and helps in keep our environment clean.

The anaerobic process inactivates the Pathogens responsible for water-borne diseases and treats the shit without the use of an external energy source.

The bio-digester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria. The water trap system in the toilet prevents air from getting into the tank, the human waste is processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.

 

After the completion of this process methane, carbon dioxide and water remains. These gases are left in the environment whereas water can be Recycled and used in toilets again.

 

What are the benefits of Bio-Toilets?

 

  1. Human excreta were released on the rail tracks directly causing damage to the metal of Railway tracks as well as spreading the dirt in the environment. It will not happen in bio toilets
  2. Traditional toilets spent approx 5-6 liters of water in one flush, while vacuum-based bio-toilets needed just half a liter of water.
  3. Indian railway stations will now become clean and which will support “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” of the Government of India.
  4. These bio toilets will provide respite to those who manually clean the dirt/shit at the platforms.
  5. By this initiatives those disease caused by pollute environment will overcome and the massage of clean and healthy country will become.

 

Kartarpur corridor

Between India and Pakistan Letters exchanged to build infrastructure for Sikh pilgrims to visit holy place

  • India and Pakistan exchanged letters committing to build the required infrastructure for visa-free direct travel by Sikh pilgrims to Pakistan’s Kartarpur Sahib Gurudwara, allowing them to mark the 550th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Devin November 2019.
  • Pakistani Minister described the move as the victory of peace lobbiesin both countries.
  • Pilgrims on the Indian side will take from Dera Guru Nanak Dev in Gurdaspur district, will lead directly to the border, and from the Pakistani side of the border directly to the Kartarpur Darbar Sahib

 

American killed in the restricted zone in Andamans by Sentinelese

Who is the Sentinelese?

  • The Sentinelese is a Negrito tribe who live on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans.
  • The inhabitants are connected to the Jarawaon the basis of physical, as well as linguistic similarities, said by researchers. Based on carbon dating of kitchen middens by the Anthropological Survey of India, Sentinelese presence was confirmed in the islands to 2,000 years ago.

How are they protected?

  • The Govt. of India issued the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Regulation (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes), 1956 to declare the traditional areas occupied by the tribes as reserves, and prohibited entry of all persons except those with authorization.
  • Photographing or filming the tribe members is also an offence.
  • The rules were amended later to enhance penalties. But restricted area permits were relaxed for some islands recently.

 

How many are there?

  • In 1991 their head count was put at 23. Census 2001 counted 39 inhabitants.

(RPSC) RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-3

Explain the Health, Health Infrastructure and Health Policy of Rajasthan for Benefits of society?

Answer:-

  • The State Government is having focus on the medical sector to promote health status of the people of the State especially for the weaker sections of the society.
  • The State is committed to control and eradicate communicable and other diseases and for providing curative and preventive services to the people of the State.
  • A number of initiatives have been taken to bring them into the mainstream.
  • Medical & Health Department is committed to make Health facilities available to every common man of Rural and Urban areas in a planned manner for which medical infrastructure Development & Strengthening is being done in accordance with the National Health Policy through Health Institutions.

Medical Infrastructure in Rajasthan

  • There are 16 Medical Colleges in Rajasthan, out of which eight are in the Government sector including one under Government Society and remaining eight are in the private sector.
  • There are 15 Dental colleges in the state, one in Government sector and 14 in Private sector.
  • The Government Medical Colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,450 students in UG, 829 students in PG course and 93 in Super-Specialty courses.
  • The private medical colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,150 students in UG and 173 students in PG courses.
  • The Government Dental College has an annual admission capacity of 40 UG and 14 PG students.
  • The private dental colleges have an annual admission capacity of 1,400 students in UG and 299 students in PG courses.
  • For upgradation of 7 other district hospitals Alwar, Bharatpur, Churu, Barmer, Bhilwara, Pali and Dungarpur having bed capacity of 300 beds into medical colleges, except Alwar, construction is under progress in State.
  • Establishment of state cancer institute under Sawai Man Singh (SMS) Medical College Jaipur, Two Tertiary Cancer Care Centers, one in Bikaner and other at Jhalawar are under process.
  • Metro Manas Arogya Sansthan at Mansarovar Jaipur is running on PPP mode.
  • The hospitals associated with Government Medical Colleges are playing a vital role in patient care for both indoor and outdoor patients and cater to the medical/health care needs of a large segment of the population.

AYURVED AND OTHER SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE

  • Department of Ayurveda has been functioning in the State, since 1950.
  • At present there are 118 Ayurvedic hospitals (out of which one is established at Bikaner House in Delhi), 3,577 Ayurvedic Dispensaries, 3 Yoga & Naturopathy Hospitals, 3 Yoga & Naturopathy Dispensaries with 1 Mobile Surgical Unit (200 bedded) and 13 Mobile Units are functioning in the State.
  • 33 Aanchal Prasuta Kendra, 33 Jaravastha Janya Vyadhi Nivaran Kendra, 33 Panchkarma Kendra & 33 Yoga and Naturopathy Research Centers are also functioning in the State

Mukhya Mantri Nishulk Dava Yojna

  • “Mukhya Mantri Nishulk Dava Yojna” was launched on 2ndOctober, 2011. The scheme aims to benefit all the patients coming to government hospitals.
  • Under this scheme, all outdoor and indoor patients visiting medical college attached hospitals, district hospitals, community health centers, primary health centers and sub centers, are provided commonly used essential medicines, free of cost.
  • Rajasthan Medical Services Corporation (RMSC) has been constituted as a central procurement agency for purchase of medicines and surgical sutures for medical department and Medical Education department.
  • RMSC is supplying medicines etc. to all Government health institutions through District Drug Ware Houses (DDWH) established in all 33 districts of the State. Quality of drugs being supplied is ensured by testing of drugs at empanelled drug testing laboratories.
  • The list of drugs which is provided by Free Drug Distribution Centers has been displayed in Government Medical Institutions.
  • Medicines are available for Outdoor patients according to OPD timings and 24 hour for Indoor and Emergency patients.
  • In this scheme, according to need of hospitals, 10 per cent of annual budget can be used for local purchase. Under the scheme, medicines for the treatment of critical and severe disease are also available like 37 drugs for Cancer, 53 drugs for heart diseases, 20 drugs for Diabetes and 20 drugs for Asthma. Under the scheme, E-Aushadhi software is established for tendering, indent sending, to know the status of drug consumption at medical hospitals, to ensure the quality of drugs, to submit the information about the debar medicines etc.

 

Nishulk Sanitary Napkins Distribution Scheme

  • Government of Rajasthan started a scheme for free distribution of sanitary napkins to all school going girls of class 6 to 12 of rural areas and non-school going girls of 10 to 19 years age of BPL families.
  • In this scheme Ist phase of the free sanitary napkins distribution scheme for adolescent school girls of rural area and non-school going girls of BPL families has been completed.
  • About 20 lakh adolescent girls are being benefitted under the scheme.

These are the main objects of this scheme:-

  • To make aware the adolescent girls of rural areas about menstrual hygiene.
  • To improve the health of adolescent girls.
  • To increase the attendance of adolescent girls in schools.
  • To reduce the MMR and IMR in rural areas in the long term.
  • To make clean and healthy Rajasthan.

 

Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana

  • Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana was launched in the state on 13th December, 2015.
  • The main objective of this scheme is to provide cashless healthcare services to the poor families (under selected families of NFSA – 2013 and RSBY) of Rajasthan thus providing social and financial security against illness to these families and reducing out of pocket expenditure.
  • Around 97 lakh eligible families of Rajasthan are selected under the National Food Security Act (2013) and Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY).

Health Insurance cover of `30,000 (for general illnesses) and of 3.00 lakh (for critical illnesses) per family per year is provided on floater basis.

  • Total 1,715 disease packages are offered under the scheme, for which reserved list include 1,148 secondary packages, 500 tertiary packages and 67 Government Medical Institution packages.
  • Cashless IPD treatment facility is provided at empanelled hospitals.
  • Includes 7 days pre- hospitalization and 15 days post- hospitalization expenses.
  • No Third Party Administration (TPA).
  • Presently, 499 Government and 674 private hospitals are empanelled for providing services under the scheme.

 

Write Short notes on Various Initiatives by Ministry of Drinking Water.

 

The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)

  • The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing adequate and safe drinking water to the rural population of the country.
  • The NRDWP is a component of Bharat Nirman which focuses on the creation of rural infrastructure.
  • This has resulted in the provision of significant additional resources to the sector and for creating an environment for the development of infrastructure and capacities for the successful operation of drinking water supply schemes in rural areas.

 

Bharat Nirman

 

Bharat Nirman was launched by the Government of India in 2005 as a programme to build rural infrastructure.

While Phase-I of the programme was implemented in the period 2005-06 to 2008-09, the Phase-II was implemented from 2009-10 to 2011-12. Rural drinking water is one of the six components of Bharat Nirman.

Funds provided under the NRDWP are counted towards the Bharat Nirman also and no additional funds are provided under Bharat Nirman

 

Scheme for providing safe drinking water supply through community water purification plants in fluoride, arsenic, uranium and other heavy/toxic metals and pesticide/fertilizer affected rural habitations in the country

 

The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) funds for supplying “safe” water in contaminated areas are being utilized by the States as a policy mostly for alternate safe Piped Water Supply (PWS) schemes including Multi village schemes (MVS) (i. e., from far away safe sources) the gestation period of such MVS projects is about 4-5 years.

Since the rural people cannot be put to risk due to consumption of unsafe drinking water in the interim period as also whereas all such Multi-Village Schemes carrying safe water from far away sources cannot be planned and completed in the span of 4-5 years due to huge funds involved, hence, the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation has submitted an EFC proposal to provide community water purification plants in fluoride, arsenic, uranium and other heavy/toxic metals and pesticide/fertilizer affected rural habitations in the country for providing safe drinking water immediately with an anticipated expenditure of total capital cost of Rs 3,600 crore with fund sharing pattern of 75:25 (90:10 in case of NE, J&K) between Centre and State in approx 20,000 habitations during the period 2014-15 to 2016-17.

 

Combined Water Supply Schemes (CWSS)

 

Combined Water Supply Schemes are being implemented where more than one local body, either rural or urban with a common source of water supply is involved with financial assistance under the Minimum Needs Programme, National Rural Drinking Water Programme and with funding from financial institutions like TUFIDCO, TNUIFSL, NABARD and Asian Development Bank.

During 2009 – 10 combined water supply schemes have been completed to benefit 4352 rural habitations and 41 towns at a cost of Rs. 795.04 crores. Presently Board is maintaining 422 CWSS in the state to serve 10,101 habitations benefiting populations of 131.59 lakhs which is about 20 percent of the state population.

 

What Is the Connection Between Zika, Microcephaly, and Pregnancy?

  • Zika causes Microcephaly in babies born to infected pregnant women, the CDC confirmed this year. Microcephaly stunts a baby’s head growth, causing devastating, sometimes fatal brain damage, and it can result in miscarriage or stillbirth.
  • The virus has caused panic in Brazil since it first appeared there in May 2015. More than 2,100 babies in Brazil have been born with Microcephaly or other birth defects linked to Zika. Brazil and several other nations have advised women to postpone pregnancy.
  • Although there are many causes of Microcephaly in babies, including infections during pregnancy, genetic problems, and exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy, the CDC says research has provided enough evidence to show that Zika is among those causes. Research has suggested that infection during the earliest stages of pregnancy, when a baby’s organs are still forming, seems to be linked to the worst outcomes.

However, some studies are showing that fetuses can be harmed by infection later in pregnancy, and evidence is emerging that Microcephaly isn’t the only birth defect linked to Zika. In a November report, the CDC describes five types of birth defects, including severe Microcephaly that are unique to Zika or rarely occur with other infections in pregnant women. They are:

Decreased brain tissue with calcium deposits indicating brain damage

  • Damage to the back of the eye
  • Limited range of motion in joints, such as clubfoot
  • Too much muscle tone, which restricts movement
  • Those effects in babies are called congenital Zika syndrome.

 

What are El Nino and southern oscillation and how it affects the Indian Monsoon?

Answer:-

  • El-Niño is the classical phenomenon where warming of Pacific Ocean takes place near the western coast of Peru and Equador.
  • It occurs at every 3-4 years. It weakens the trade winds and changes in southern oscillation, thereby affects the rainfall pattern across the world.
  • Southern oscillation: Southern oscillation is the alternating of sea level pressure between the eastern and western hemisphere. The southern oscillation is measured by observing the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin.

 

The effect of El Nino on Indian monsoon

  • El Nino also leads to reversal of pressure difference between Indian and Pacific Ocean- known as Southern Oscillation.
  • El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weakens the Trade winds, consequently less push to the South Western Monsoon Winds from Mascarene High to India, and therefore poor monsoon.
  • Drought condition decreases the agriculture output, leads to food inflation.
  • Declined supply of cotton, oilseeds and sugarcane negatively affects the textile, edible oil and food processing industries respectively.

 

What is Earthquake? List down the causes of Earthquake?

An earthquake is the shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface, caused by the sudden movement of a part of the earth’s crust. They result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves or earthquake waves.

Causes of the earthquake are as follows:

  • Sudden slipping of rock formations along faults and fractures in the earth’s crust happen due to constant change in volume and density of rocks due to intense temperature and pressure in the earth’s interior.
  • Volcanic activity also can cause an earthquake but the earthquakes of volcanic origin are generally less severe and more limited in extent than those caused by fracturing of the earth’s crust.
  • Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move in relation to one another. The major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up Earth’s crust.

Plate tectonics: Slipping of land along the fault line along, convergent, divergent and transform boundaries cause earthquakes. Example: San Andreas Fault is a transform fault where Pacific plate and North American plate move horizontally relative to each other causing earthquakes along the fault lines.

Most earthquakes are causally related to compressional or tensional stresses built up at the margins of the huge moving lithosphere plates the immediate cause of most shallow earthquakes is the sudden release of stress along a fault, or fracture in the earth’s crust.

 

What is contract farming? What are its advantages?

Contract farming is a kind of system in which bulk purchaser enters into contract with farmers. It includes agro- processing, exporting and trading units.  They purchase a specified quantity of any agricultural commodity at pre agreed price. Sponsor provides all kind of production support to the contracted farmers. This includes extension service also.

Advantage:

  • This will help to provide sustainable source of livelihood. It will provide an alternative market mechanism.
  • Exposure to international markets.
  • More FDI in agro processing industries.
  • Employment generation in Food processing industries
  • Improvement in cold supply chain and hence reduction in wastages.
  • Pooling of land will help in utilizing the land properly as 86% of the farmers in India are small and marginal farmers.
  • Farmers no longer have to transport their produce to the mandis and hence reduction in the cost.
  • Better access to technology, crop diversification, extension services

 

Explain: Prahaar, Sagarika, Shaurya

Prahaar – The Prahaar is India’s latest surface-to-surface missile with a range of 150 kms. The primary objective of the conventionally armed Prahaar missile is to bridge the gap between the unguided Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher (ranging 45 kms) and the guided Prithvi missile variants. Stated to be a unique missile, the Prahaar boasts of high maneuverability, acceleration and accuracy

Sagarika – It is a Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) with a range of 750 kms. Sagarika missile is being integrated with India’s nuclear powered Arihant-class submarine.

Shaurya – A variant of the K-15 Sagarika named Shaurya has been developed from ground up as a submarine-capable missile. This nuclear-capable missile aims to enhance India’s 2nd-strike capability. Shaurya missile can carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead over 750 kms and striking within 20-30 metres of its target.

 

What are seismic waves? Explain the different type of seismic waves?

Seismic waves are generated due to the release of the energy during an earthquake. They behave differently in different physical mediums and hence provide a good idea how the interior of earth must be.

Broadly there are three types of seismic waves:

  1. Primary waves: (P) – Waves are longitudinal waves. i.e. The motion of particles is in the direction of the propagation of the wave. These waves are the fastest of the three and are detected first. They have the shortest wavelength and highest frequency. They can travel in Solid, liquid and gaseous medium.
  2. Secondary waves: (S) – They are transverse waves i.e. the motion of the particles is Perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the waves. They are slower than P –waves. They have relatively longer wavelength and lower frequency than P – waves. These waves can travel only in solid medium.
  3. Surface waves: they are the slowest and are detected quite late. They travel only in upper layer or earth surface. They are the most destructive of the three waves. Even the surface waves are of two types – the one travelling in upper crust are called LOVE waves and the one travelling in lower crust are called RAYLEIGH waves.

 

Discuss the Challenges faced by the ECI? List down the reforms brought out by ECI for conducting free and fair elections.

 

ECI is entrusted with the responsibility of conducting free and fair elections. If democracy is a temple then EC is priest.  But conducting elections for such diverse country and frequent elections is not without challenges. The major challenges with the ECI are as follows:

Constitutional loopholes:

  • The constitution has not prescribed the qualification of the members of the ECI.
  • The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the EC.
  • The Constitution has not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.

Capacity:

Lack of dedicated permanent staff

Expenses are not charged on consolidated fund of India.

Problem faced due to vast territory of India. Sometimes it becomes difficult to carry out elections in difficult terrain.

Perception:

Some voters have trust deficit due to frequent use of money and muscle power. There are creditability issues with respect to expenditure during elections.

Recent allegation of fraud in EVM’s

  • The reforms bring in by ECI So far:
  • SVEEP (explain)
  • NOTA
  • VVPAT
  • Reforms in Nomination filling
  • EVM

National electoral roll purification and Authentication programme: building a completely error-free and authenticated electoral roll.

National voter’s service portal: to provide single window services to electors.

Mobile apps: Metadata, matdaan, Samadhaan, Sugam, Suvidha, E-netra.

 

The theoretical and cognitive systems of sociology are socially conditioned Explain.

Possible Sociological Discourses:

We need to concentrate on some of the essentials of sociological discourses to develop sociology in India.

They are:

  • The development of sociology in India may be viewed in terms of the historicity of social conditions that have shaped the sociological perspectives from time to time. The theoretical and cognitive systems of sociology are socially conditioned (Singh, 1986).
  • It is to be hoped that thinking in this direction will result in the concentration of contested themes and in the recovery of key Indian socio-cultural realities and textual tradi­tions, traditions that have remained or continue to remain as an excluded part of hegemonic sociology or its margin (Nada rajah, 1996). Perhaps, this is the right time to resume the ‘Indian sociology’ by recognizing context and culture of the society and to overcome from the identification of sociology as solely a western.
  • The production of sociological knowledge can be qualitatively changed with a sociological curriculum helping the multi- faceted contestation of western sociological knowledge. There is a need to consider not only the content of social science education in our universities but also the methodology used in the production of such knowledge (Nada rajah, 1996).
  • Institutionalization of research requires a proper fit between the growing needs of theory and the increasing demands of society. Generally, public funds are made available by the government, UGC, ICSSR and other agencies in terms of the criteria set out for priorities. The question of priorities has to be answered in the context of the relevance of research.
  • While paying attention to research priorities, the needs of individual scholars pursuing a promising but out-of-the- way enquiry should not be neglected. Research efforts involving interdisciplinary approach or bold methodological innovation should, on principle, be encouraged. The ICSSR standing committee has also recommended these suggestions in the eighties.
  • To conclude, the history of the development of sociology has not been much encouraging. At its beginning anthropology and ethnology helped the colonial rule to establish its foundation. In other words, the discipline of sociology was partly responsible for the survival of colonialism and feudalism in princely states. The feudal mentality of Indian people is thus due to sociology, anthro­pology and ethnology. It must be said that this discipline has not been worth its salt in India.
  • If we make a survey of the sociological literature which has cropped up during the last about 100 years does not take into account any massive event which took place in India. India’s freedom struggle was a long struggle and it sought the participation of the masses. All the people participated in the movement notwithstanding the plural character of the Indian society.
  • It was a great event in the history of India. The sociologists did nothing to analyze the freedom struggle. It is difficult to find any book on sociology written by our so-called sociologists. When the masses were busy fighting for their freedom, our sociologists such as N.K. Bose and G.S. Ghurye were writing on caste and ethnicity. Such a record of sociology can easily be called ungrateful to the nation. How can we be proud of such sociologists?
  • Another memorable event in India’s history has been the mass exodus of people from Pakistan after the division of country between India and Pakistan. Burning trains from Pakistan were coming to India and the blood-stained trains were leaving India for Pakistan. Lakhs of refugees crossed the borders. It never happened earlier but the sociologists who claimed to be the analysts of Indian society did not mention anything about this tragic event.
  • Besides, an event, which is a remarkable in the building of our nation-state, is the era of building modern India. Nehruji and his generation of national leaders started Five-Year Plans for the devel­opment of industry and village agriculture. The sociologists again turned their eyes to this era of development.
  • It is discouraging to learn that the sociologists observed silence on this process of devel­opment. However, the sociologists made some village studies. Actually, there was a flood of such studies. These studies made some contributions. But, these contributions have false theoretical claims. Dominant caste, sanskritization, westernization, parochialization and universalization are some of the contributions which have not proved to be of any help for the development of villages. They have proved to be Utopian for the nation.
  • There are several problems for the country. The problems are multi-ethnic, multi-caste, multi-religion, multi-region and multi-linguistic. Economic problems coupled with unemployment are disasters. It is expected of sociology to analyze the social ills and bring out some solutions. In the present work, we are discussing social thinkers of contemporary India. They are also responsible to relax-in comfortable armchairs and enjoy the academic status.

 

What is the Varna system? Discuss the occupation and differentiation in castes in ancient and modern time with features.

 

The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas.

They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege.

The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. They are followed by the Vaishyas, or merchants, and the fourth are the Shudras, who are usually laborers, peasants, artisans, and servants. At the very bottom are those considered the Untouchables? These individuals perform occupations that are considered unclean and polluting, such as scavenging and skinning dead animals and are considered outcastes. They are not considered to be included in the ranked castes.

The four orders of society are believed to have originated from the self-sacrifice of Purusha-the creator, the primeval being and are mentioned in Rig Veda.

There seems to be a constant upward and downward social mobility between the different Varnas. When a lower Varna changed into a higher Varna, it was known as jatyutkarsa or uplift of the caste. On the other hand, if a person belonging to a higher Varna gradually descended into a lower Varna, it was known as jatyapakarsa or the degeneration of the caste. While the caste system is rigid without possibility of social mobility

Caste on the other hand may be defined as a hereditary endogenous group which decides the individual‟s status in the social stratification and his profession. Caste is also defined as an aggregate of persons whose share of obligations and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by magic and or religion.

Caste is basically a closed system of stratification, since members are recruited on the criteria of ascribed status. In other words, an individual becomes a member of a Caste in which he or she is born. Thus it is an ascribed status. Even if there is social mobility in the caste system through the process of Sanskritization, urbanization, etc it is only a positional change rather than a structural change.

The main features of caste system in Indian Society are

  • Hierarchy
  • Endogamy and Hyper gamy
  • Pre-fixed occupation of castes
  • Restriction on food, drink, smoking etc.
  • Distinction in customs, dress and speech
  • Differentiation in rituals
  • Caste based disabilities
  • Theory of pollution
  • Criteria of touchability and untouchability
  • Concept of purity and impurity
  • Claim of Divine creation
  • Prohibition on marriages outside one’s own caste
  • Location or residences.

The division of Indian society into various castes, together with the practice of untouchability, and the geographic isolation of some tribal communities has meant that these communities have lagged behind others in terms of educational and occupational attainment, political participation and with regard to opportunities for social mobility.

There were many movements and governmental actions that took place pre- and post- independence in order to overcome and attempt to eliminate the inequalities and injustices associated with the caste system. During the national movement, Gandhi began using the term “Harijans” (God’s people) to refer to the untouchables in order to encourage a shift towards positive attitude towards the lower castes. B.R. Ambedkar campaigned for greater rights for Dalits in British India, and even after independence.

(Yearbook) Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs PDF 2019

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  • Madhya Pradesh tops in digital initiative
  • Khajuraho dance festival organised in Madhya Pradesh
  • Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav begins in Madhya Pradesh
  • Madhya Pradesh’s first butterfly park comes up in Raisen
  • Madhya Pradesh’s Kadaknath chicken gets Geographical Indication tag
  • Madhya Pradesh announces pension for single women
  • MP government launches “pollution metre” app to spread awareness against pollution
  • Indian, Vietnamese armies hold first military exercise ‘VINBAX’
  • Madhya Pradesh Waqf Board appoints first all transgender Waqf panel
  • Chambal river water is equally shared by both the states
  • Over 4K papers-filed, RO to check nominations
  • Madhya Pradesh on 3rd position in milk production in India
  • MP Govt takes serious note on Zika virus
  • Madhya Pradesh becomes first state to achieve complete door-to-door garbage
  • Madhya Pradesh has become the first state in India to completely implement door-to- door garbage collection in all areas under urban bodies.
  • PM Narendra Modi attends Annual DGP Conference at BSF Academy in Tekanpur
  • Crime data under cloak ahead of polls
  • India and ADB Signs $110 Million Loan to Improve Rural Connectivity in Madhya Pradesh
  • Women still get raw deal in Chhattisgarh politics

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-2

What is black money? Discuss its implication in context of India?

Black money is defined  as assets or resources that have neither been reported to the public authorities at the time of their generation nor disclosed at any point of time during the possession. The problem with  black money is huge . It has serious socio-political and economic implications. According to sources the estimate of GDP is to the extent of 60% of GDP.

The implications of Black money are:

Political:

  • Black money infusion into the economy lead to the weakening of institutions
  • The trust on the institution decreases.
  • Transnational crimes increase as they act as a source of terror funding and anti-national activities. Black money also affects the elections.
  • Especially in a country like India, it infuses money power. Money power does not allow genuine candidates to compete in the election.

Economic

  • Corruption raises its ugly head.
  • Black money also leads to inflationary tendencies in the market.
  • It also effects the transmission of monetary policies.
  • It also demoralized the genuine tax payer. Loss of tax revenue is also its serious implication. It brings inefficiency in the economic architecture.

 Social

  • Black money leads to widening of inequality.
  • Concentration of wealth in the few increases.
  • So it destroyed the work ethics.

Thus Black money is a menace to society its implication does not restrict to economy but it has wider connotation.

 

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

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Write short notes on Neemchuna and Mev Farmers Movement.

Neemchuna Farmers Movement, 1925

  • Maharaja Jai Singh of Alwar increased the Lagaan rates in 1924.
  • Rajput peasants of Khalsa lands in Alwar started the movement & took to arm rebellion.

 

  • Government setup an enquiry commission but meanwhile Maharaj decided to crush revolt by force.
  • On 14th May 1925 forces opened fire on around 800 farmers gathered at Neemchuna.
  • Mahatma Gandhi considered this masaccare as even extreme of Jallianwallah Bagh and termed it “Dyrism Double Distilled” in Young India.

 

Mev Farmers Movement, 1932-35

  • In 1932 farmers of Kishangarh, Ramgarh, Laxmangarh & Tijara (Mev Region) started movement under leadership of Mohd. Ali.
  • In 1933, in Alwar demands of farmers were agreed.
  • However, in Bharatpur Farmers stopped paying land revenue for Kharif crops but government did not let the movement to succeed.
  • Gradually the movement turned communal and leader Anjuman Khaidm-ul-Islam raised demands for separate schools for Muslims, significant place for Urdu language and jobs to Muslims in Govt.

 

Why desert are on the western margins of the continent?

 

A glance at the world map reveals that most of the desert region is on the western part of the continent for example Mohave Desert in North America, Atacama in Southern America, Namib, Sahara in Africa, Arabian in west Asia.

The reasons for such homogeny are:

  • The hot desert lies astride the Horse latitudes or the sub tropical high pressure belts where the air is descending, a condition least favourable for precipitation of any kind to take place.
  • The rain bearing Trade winds blow off-shore and the wester lies that are on shore blow outside the desert limits. Whatever winds reach the desert blow from cooler to warmer regions, and their relative humidity is lowered, making condensation almost impossible. The relative humidity reaches to about 30%. This makes condition for drought.
  • On the western coast, the presence of cold currents gives rise to mists and fogs by chilling the oncoming air. This air is later warmed by contact with the hot land, and little rain falls. The desiccating effect of the cold Peruvian current along the Chilean coast is so pronounced that the mean annual rainfall for the Atacama Desert is not more than half an inch.

 

Explain the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its role in keeping Antarctica frozen?

 

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current or ACC is changing as the world’s climate warms. Scientists are studying the current to find out how it might affect the future of Antarctica’s ice sheets, and the world’s sea levels.

It’s significance:

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, or ACC, is the strongest ocean current on our planet. It extends from the sea surface to the bottom of the ocean, and encircles Antarctica. It is vital for Earth’s health because it keeps Antarctica cool and frozen.

 

The ACC carries an estimated 165 million to 182 million cubic metres of water every second (a unit also called a “Sverdrup”) from west to east, more than 100 times the flow of all the rivers on Earth. It provides the main connection between the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

 

The tightest geographical constriction through which the current flows is Drake Passage, where only 800 km separates South America from Antarctica. While elsewhere the ACC appears to have a broad domain, it must also navigate steep undersea mountains that constrain its path and steer it north and south across the Southern Ocean.

 

What is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?

 

Antarctica is a frozen continent surrounded by icy waters. Moving northward, away from Antarctica, the water temperatures rise slowly at first and then rapidly across a sharp gradient. It is the ACC that maintains this boundary.

 

The ACC is created by the combined effects of strong westerly winds across the Southern Ocean, and the big change in surface temperatures between the Equator and the poles.

 

Ocean density increases as water gets colder and as it gets more salty. The warm, salty surface waters of the subtropics are much lighter than the cold, fresher waters close to Antarctica. The depth of constant density levels slopes up towards Antarctica. The westerly winds make this slope steeper, and the ACC rides eastward along it, faster where the slope is steeper and weaker where it’s flatter.

Fronts and bottom water:

In the ACC there are sharp changes in water density known as fronts. The Subantarctic Front to the north and Polar Front further south are the two main fronts of the ACC (the black lines in the images). Both are known to split into two or three branches in some parts of the Southern Ocean, and merge together in other parts. Scientists can figure out the density and speed of the current by measuring the ocean’s height, using altimeters.

 

The path of the ACC is a meandering one, because of the steering effect of the sea floor, and also because of instabilities in the current. The ACC also plays a part in the meridional (or global) overturning circulation, which brings deep waters formed in the North Atlantic southward into the Southern Ocean. Once there it becomes known as Circumpolar Deep Water, and is carried around Antarctica by the ACC. It slowly rises toward the surface south of the Polar Front.

 

Once it surfaces, some of the water flows northward again and sinks north of the Subarctic Front. The remaining part flows toward Antarctica where it is transformed into the densest water in the ocean, sinking to the sea floor and flowing northward in the abyss as Antarctic Bottom Water. These pathways are the main way that the oceans absorb heat and carbon dioxide and sequester it in the deep ocean.

 

Changing current:

The ACC is not immune to climate change. The Southern Ocean has warmed and freshened in the upper 2,000 m. rapid warming and freshening has also been found in the Antarctic Bottom Water, the deepest layer of the ocean.

 

Waters south of the Polar Front are becoming fresher due to increased rainfall there, and waters to the north of the Polar Front are becoming saltier due to increased evaporation. These changes are caused by human activity, primarily through adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and depletion of the ozone layer. The ozone hole is now recovering but greenhouse gases continue to rise globally.

 

Winds have strengthened by about 40% over the Southern Ocean over the past 40 years. Surprisingly, this has not translated into an increase in the strength of the ACC. Instead there has been an increase in eddies that move heat towards the pole, particularly in hotspots such as Drake Passage, Kerguelen Plateau, and between Tasmania and New Zealand.

Scientists have observed much change already. The question now is how this increased transfer of heat across the ACC will impact the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet, and consequently the rate of global sea-level rise.

 

What is Soil? Given an account on the types of soil in India?

Soil is defined as upper layer of the earth composed of loose surface material. It is a mixture of many substances including endless variety of minerals, remnants of plants and animals, water and air. It is the end product of continuing interaction between the parent material, local climate, plant and animal organisms and elevation of land.

 

According to ICAR Indian soils are classified as:-

 

  1. Alluvial soils:-Alluvial soils are formed mainly due to silt deposited by Indo Gangetic Brahmaputra Rivers. In coastal regions some alluvial deposits are formed due to wave action.

 

  1. Black soils:-The black soils are found mainly on the Deccan lava region covering large parts of Maharashtra, some parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and small parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The soils are formed by disintegration of volcanic basaltic lava. The colour of the soil is generally black due to presence of compounds of aluminium and iron.

 

  1. Red soils: – these soils are light textured with porous and friable structure and there is absence of lime Kankar and free carbonates. They have neutral to acidic reaction and are deficient in nitrogen humus, phosphoric acid and lime.

 

  1. Laterite and Lateritic soils:-These soils are red to reddish yellow in colour and low in N, P, K, lime and magnesia. These soils are formed in-situ under conditions of high rainfall with alternation dry and wet periods. On account of heavy rainfall there is an excessive leaching of soil colloids and silica hence the soils are porous.

 

  1. Forest and Mountain soils:-These soils occur at high elevations as well as at low elevations, where the rainfall is sufficient to support trees. These soils are very shallow, steep, stony, and infertile for the production of field crops. However, they serve a very useful purpose by supplying forest product such as timber and fuel.

 

  1. Arid and Desert soils:-These soils occur in western Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Kutchch, western Haryana and southern Punjab. The soil is sandy to gravelly with poor organic matter, low humus contents, infrequent rainfall, low moisture and long drought season. The soils exhibit poorly developed horizons.

 

  1. Saline and Alkaline soils:-These soils occur in areas having a little more rainfall than the areas of desert soils. They show white incrustation of salts of calcium & Magnesium and sodium on the surface. These are poor in drainage and are infertile.

 

  1. Peaty and Marshy soils:-These are soils with large amount of organic matter and considerable amount of soluble salts. The most humid regions have this type of soil. They are black, heavy and highly acidic. They are deficient in potash and phosphate.

 

 

What is navigation satellite? India launched IRNSS recently, what is IRNSS? What is its application?

 

Navigation satellite is a system which provides system of artificial satellite that helps in providing autonomous geospatial positioning. It helps to provide positioning information regarding local time to high precision. Global positioning system launched (GPS) by NASA is an example of it.

India Launched Indian regional navigation satellite system called IRNSS. It is a constellation of eight satellites. Three satellite in geostationary position and five satellites in geosynchronous position. It is designed to provide accurate positioning information upto 1500 km from its primary service area. IRNSS will provide two types of services namely standard positioning service which is provided to all users and restricted service which is encrypted service provided only to authorize users only.

Application of IRNSS:

  • Mapping and geodetic data capture.
  • Self reliance in navigation. Will help during war like situation
  • to boost disaster management
  • Terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation
  • Precision timing
  • Traffic management
  • Visual and voice navigation for drivers
  • Navigation for army, will boost national security

 

RAS Mains Paper-2 Important Notes

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What are malware? What are its different types?

These are destructive software or malicious one which exists in the form of computer virus, computer worm, Trojan or Trojan horse which may get attached to email or gets in a file while downloading from a website or via compact discs. In the world of cyber era these software are highly dangerous. The types of Malware are as follows:

Computer Virus: It is a malicious programme which is written with the intention of slowing down the system operation or to delete the file. The reason they are called virus because they are easily spreads to other machines to which the communicate.

 Computer worm: It is a self-replicating malicious programme i.e. it multiplies on its own, such that it keeps on creating up its copies and eats up entire disc space or memory. It is self installing, harder to detect and it tries to erase or steal the data from the hard disk. It is more dangerous than virus Eg. ILOVEYOU, MSBlast etc

Trojan/Trojan horse: It is a malicious programme that comes to the system disguised as the useful application programme and when it is opened the Trojan starts executing and tries to destroy the file.

 Adware: It is advertising supported software. It is any software application in which advertisement banners are displayed while the programme is running. It generates the revenue by delivering the Add.

Spyware: It is computer software installed secretly on a Computer through user’s internet connection that secretly monitors user’s behaviour and transmits information gathered from the computer back to the unethical hacker.

 Ransomware: It is a subset of malware in which the data on victim’s computer is locked, typically by encryption and payment is demanded before the ransom data is decrypted and access return to the victim.

 

What is coral bleaching? What are the causes of coral bleaching? 

When there are changes in the condition like temperature, light or nutrients the symbiotic linkage between algae and zooxanthellae gets deteriorated, causing them to turn white.

  • In coral bleaching the density of zooxanthellae decline and the concentration of photosynthetic pigment decline which lead to decline in color. 20% of the coral reefs have already been destroyed so it is important to conserve them. There are various causes of coral bleaching which are summarised below:
  • Bleaching is mostly affected by the rising sea temperature. Corals have usually narrow range of temperature profile which increases their vulnerability whenever there is change in temperature. Up-welling and sudden drop in temperature is another cause of coral bleaching.
  • Another reason is sudden exposure to high tides or some major tectonic activity in the oceans. They are supposed to be one of the causes.
  • Sediment augmentation may be another reason. It can also be the cause of bleaching. Rapid dilution of sea water is another such cause.

 

List down the basic function of Panchayati Raj department in Rajasthan?

 

Decentralizing the decision making process is a fundamental policy of democratic setup. India achieved this by passing 73rd and 74th CAA. Rajasthan has always been pioneer in empowering local self government. Panchayati Raj system was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of the country, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, on 2nd October, 1959 in Nagaur, Rajasthan.

Basic Functions of Panchayati Raj Department/Institutions are:

  • To ensure the decentralization as per the spirit of 73rd constitutional amendment.
  • Effective Implementation of Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Rules.
  • All administrative/establishment matters including recruitments of PRI’s Functionaries.
  • Building up of the organizational capacity of PRIs, the professional capacity of Elected Representatives with special focuses on women representatives and the functionaries, so that they can perform their mandated roles effectively.
  • Institutionalizing and using integrated decentralized participatory planning through the Panchayati Raj Institutions and District Planning Committees for convergence of plethora of schemes and pooling of diverse resources for better outcomes.
  • Monitoring and implementation of various Schemes (FFC, SFC V, Untied Fund for PRIs)including State and Central flagship programmes [Swatch Bharat mission(Rural)] of the Government that directly touch the lives of the poor in rural areas and promote inclusive growth.
  • Mitigating regional backwardness through PRIs.
  • Access to sanitation and clean environmental facilities to all in a time bound manner with the functional arrangement for solid and liquid waste management.
  • To enable all households to have access to and use toilets and to ensure that all government schools and anganwadi’s have functional toilets, urinals.
  • Supporting the Panchayats to achieve transparency and accountability in their functioning through e-enablement.

 

Enumerate the difference between Himalayan and Peninsular drainage system?

 

S.No.        Himalayan drainage Peninsular drainage
1. Perennial in nature. Seasonal in nature
2. Both snow fed and monsoon n fed Monsoon fed
3. Voluminous Less voluminous
4. Very large command area Less Command area
5. Himalayan river exhibits antecedent character Consequent character is exhibited
6. All Himalayan rivers form delta at the mouth Form both delta and estuaries at the mouth
7. Navigable for huge distance as they entered in plain area. Not so navigable for long distance. Because of rapids, waterfall, cataracts
8 Hydroelectric potential is huge. But project feasibility is under question due to high seismic activity in the region. Hydroelectricity potential is low but it is advisable to harness it as rivers are flowing through stable land reform.
9. Himalayan rivers as they flow over long distance exhibit lot of meandering activity, sometimes to an extent that it led to the formation of oxbow lake Very less meandering because they are flowing in region where well defined slopes are there.
10. Very prone to floods-both in terms of frequency and intensity. Less prone to fluids both in terms of frequency and intensity.
11 Relatively low disputes Interstates disputes are more

 

What is groundwater contamination? What are the causes of ground water contamination?

Groundwater contamination is the adulteration of water because of the increase in the concentration of certain pollutants. The major pollutants contributing to contamination are Arsenic, fluoride, Iron, uranium, nitrate etc.

Causes of groundwater contamination are:

  1. Natural: Groundwater naturally contains high amount of pollutant due to geological formation. For example occurrence of fluoride is related to the abundance and solubility of fluoride containing mineral such as fluorite.
  2. Agriculture: Intensive use of agriculture has lead to the seepage of nitrate into groundwater. Exploitation by excessive use of irrigation is another reason as it leads to decline ungrounded water table.
  3. Industrial waste: Industrial waste is discharged without effluent treatment. They seep through the soil and pollute the groundwater.

Indiscriminate extraction of groundwater for irrigation purpose has led to the salinity problem. Excessive discharge of water from coastal region has led to the sea water intrusion hence it has also leaded to increase salinity.

 

Write Short notes on Maternity Benefit Amendment Act?

Answer: Important features of this Act are-

  1. The recently passed bill will amend the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
  2. It increases the paid maternity leave for pregnant women working in the organised sector from 12 weeks to 26 weeks.
  3. The 26 weeks of leave will be for the first two pregnancies.
  4. For the third child, it will be of 12 weeks and 6 weeks for the fourth.
  5. It allows 12 weeks of paid maternity leave to mothers who are adopting a child below the age of three months and also to commissioning mothers who opt for surrogacy.
  6. It mandates employers to allow a woman to work from home.
  7. Organisations which employ more than 30 women (or 50 people, whichever is less) will now have to provide a crèche.
  8. The mother is allowed to visit the crèche four times during the day.

Benefits                                                               

  • In line with international practice.
  • Giving benefit to adoptive mothers and as well as women who get children using embryo transfer signals India is a progressive step.
  • Social security for working mothers.

 

What are the causes of diversity in Indian society?

 

    Historical reasons: oldest society in the world. Long time period had led to growth of various social institutions in its own way.

    Geographical reasons: Earlier the geographical barrier was difficult to crossed and hence become the cause for isolation and hence independent development which led to variety.

    Economic factors: Trade and commercial activities have carried Indians too far off areas throughout the ages. These groups maintain closer contact with outside world continuously brought new features.

  • During most of the phases of the Indian history, different political class and entities existed in India. Even at the time of Indian Independence, 565 princely states were there.
  • The political class had different set of rules and policies which led to different social-cultural practices.
  • The open and assimilatory outlook of Indian culture has also contributed to intensification of diversity.

 

Discuss the importance of animal husbandry sector with special reference to Rajasthan? Discuss the key initiative taken by Government of Rajasthan.

 

  1. Parallel to agriculture, animal husbandry is a key sector of rajasthan especially in arid and semi arid areas. It is not merely subsidiary to agriculture but a major component in Rajasthan economy. The importance of animal husbandry are:
  2. It provide insurance to the farmers in the Rainfed region. Especially for the semi arid and arid areas of Rajasthan.
  3. It act as a source of income and provide a kind of stability and sustainable livelihood.
  4. The state of Rajasthan is rich in live stock wealth. The state is endowed with finest drought hardy milch breeds (Rathi, Gir, Sahiwal and Tharparkar), dual purpose breed( kankrej and Haryana) and the famous drought breeds of nagori and malvi.
  5. The state contributes 12.73% of total milk production and 32.89 % of wool production to the nation total production.

Government of Rajasthan is also aware of the importance of this sector and hence it is giving thrust to the sector by taking following measures:

  • Efforts of the Animal Husbandry Department are focused on increasing the out stretch through creation of institutions and infrastructure to provide an integrated package of services for efficient health care and genetic improvement of livestock along with awareness building programmes to ensure better participation of the livestock owners.
  • Bhamashah Pashu Bima Yojna’ is being implemented in the State for the welfare of livestock breeders. Under this insurance scheme, 70 per cent subsidy on premium of cattle insurance for SC/ST/BPL livestock breeders and 50 per cent subsidy on premium of cattle insurance for general livestock breeders is provided.
  • Avika Kavach Bima Yojna’ is being implemented in the State for the welfare of sheep breeders.
  • Breed improvement programme has also been strengthened. Breeding services are being improved through extension of private integrated livestock development centres.
  • Under the mandate of Foot and Mouth Diseases (FMD), free Rajasthan FMD-CP is being implemented in the State with the assistance of Government of India.

 

What is OSIRIS-Rex mission and write down facts on asteroid Bennu?

 

 For the first time in more than two years, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft has unfurled its robotic arm and put it through a series of maneuvers to ensure its space-worthiness after being packed away for launch and a long flight to the asteroid Bennu.

This arm and its sampler head, known as the Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism or TAGSAM, is critical to the mission’s goal of retrieving at least 60 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and returning this sample to Earth by 2023.The collection device will act something like a reverse vacuum cleaner.

The launch of the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission took place on September 8, 2016. Since then, the spacecraft has been two years travelling through space to reach its target, primitive asteroid Bennu, in October and 2018.

About the mission:

OSIRIS-Rex stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security-Regolith Explorer.

OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, which previously sent the New Horizons spacecraft zooming by Pluto and the Juno spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter.

What will the OSIRIS-Rex do?

OSIRIS-REx will spend two years travelling towards Bennu, arriving at the asteroid in August 2018. The probe will orbit the asteroid for 3 years, conducting several scientific experiments, before returning to Earth, with the sample capsule expected to land in Utah, USA in September 2023.

Scientific Mission Goals:

During its three year orbit of Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will be conducting a range of scientific experiments in order to better understand the asteroid.

As part of this, the asteroid will be mapped using instruments on the probe, in order to select a suitable site for samples to be collected from.

The aim of the mission is to collect a sample of regolith- the loose, soil-like material which covers the surface of the asteroid.

In July 2020, the probe will move to within a few metres of Bennu, extending its robotic arm to touch the asteroid’s surface. The arm will make contact with the surface for just 5 seconds, during which a blast of nitrogen gas will be used to stir up the regolith, allowing it to be sucked into the sample collector.

OSIRIS-REx has enough nitrogen on board for 3 sample collection attempts, and NASA are hoping to collect between 60 and 2000g of regolith material to bring back to Earth.

 

Why was Bennu chosen?

Bennu was selected for a the OSIRIS-REx mission from over 500,000 known asteroids, due to it fitting a number of key criteria. These include:

 

Proximity to Earth: In order for OSIRIS-REx to reach its destination in a reasonable time frame, NASA needed to find an asteroid which had a similar orbit to Earth. Around 7000 asteroids are ‘Near-Earth Objects’ (NEOs), meaning they travel within around ~30million miles of the Earth. Out of these, just under 200 have orbits similar to Earth, with Bennu being one of these.

 

Small asteroids, those less than 200m in diameter, typically spin much faster than larger asteroids, meaning the regolith material can be ejected into space. Bennu is around 500m in diameter, so rotates slowly enough to ensure that the regolith stays on its surface.

 

Composition: Bennu is a primitive asteroid, meaning it hasn’t significantly changed since the beginning of the Solar System (over 4 billion years ago). It is also very carbon-rich, meaning it may contain organic molecules, which could have been precursors to life on Earth.

 

Additionally, Bennu is of interest as it is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA). Every 6 years, Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth, which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century.

 

Revolt of 1857 was a major landmark in National freedom struggle. What changes it brought to the governance system?

Revolt of 1857 was the  outburst of anger by the Indians against the exploitative policies of the Britishers. Even though  Britishers manage to suppress the revolt. It made them to look into administration and way of governance. As a result they brought “ Act for betterment of India” . This act replace the rule of company with the crown. Other salient features are as follows:

  • It abolished Court of directors and Board of director and commissioned a post of secretary of state who would be member of British cabinet. It was to be advised by council of 15 members, this is known as India council.
  • The Governor general received the new designation called the Viceroy. He was to be advised by council of 4 members. The viceroy retained overriding power.
  • The act put an end to the further annexation and conquest. Thus the princess, Zamidar remain the favorite children of British imperialism from now on.
  • To prevent any further revolt there were changes made in the Army composition. English to Indian ratio was kept at 1:2 in the Bengal army and 2:5 in Madras and Bombay armies. Strict European monopoly over key geographical locations and departments such as artillery, tanks and armed corps. The brought caste identity in recruitment.

Hence Crown took over the control of the British Empire and administration in India was made directly responsible to British crown. There was no betterment for Indians in the act.

 

What are the types of pressure groups? Discuss the significance of Pressure groups?

 

  • Pressure group is an organised group of people that wants to influence the policies or activities of those in able to make decision. This could be at a local, national or international level of government. There are various types of Pressure groups summarised below:
  • Social or Identity based groups: They have one particular identity. There are two types of this category. Community service like Singh Sabha movement and Mobilisation for political ends eg. RSS and VHP
  • Associational or Professional groups like FICCI, CII, bar council
  • Institutional groups – They exist within the government and exert pressure through government machinery. Example IAS lobby, IPS lobby etc
  • Ad hoc groups- formed for a specific purpose and dissolve after goal is achieved

Significance of pressure groups:

  • Serve as a channel of communication between state and citizen
  • They help to keep democracy alive between the elections.
  • It prevents the emergence of any dominate force in society.
  • They provide data information, technical inputs
  • They check the arbitrary use of state power.
  • They broaden the scope of popular participation.
  • They are reservoir of political leadership
  • Pressure group acts as legislatures behind legislators.

 

Explain the following terms: – write short notes         

 1) Taccavi

2) Repo rate

 3) Base rate

4) Marginal cost of fund based lending rate

  • Taccavi is agricultural loan given to poor cultivators to relieve their distress and enable them to pay land revenue in time.
  • Repo rate is the interest rate at which the RBI lends money to commercial banks. It is a monetary policy instrument which can be used to control the money supply and thereby inflation.
  • Base rate is the minimum rate set by the RBI below which banks are not allowed to lend to its customers. Banks calculate the lending rates to its customers based on the base rate.
  • The marginal cost of funds based lending rate (MCLR) refers to the minimum interest rate of a bank below which it cannot lend, except in some cases allowed by the RBI. It is an internal benchmark or reference rate for the bank. MCLR actually describes the method by which the minimum interest rate for loans is determined by a bank – on the basis of marginal cost or the additional or incremental cost of arranging one more rupee to the prospective borrower.

 

What is artificial intelligence? List down its application

Artificial intelligence is a way of programming a computer, robot to perform human like task such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making and translation between languages.

  1. Artificial intelligence has wide application cutting across all sectors:
  2. In agriculture artificial intelligence is used for precision farming. This will increase the productivity and lower the input cost. It also provides real time advisory.
  3. Health – Can be used for diagnosis, test and minor operation. It will help to achieve more efficiency in health sector.
  4. In education also customized learning, interactive and intelligent tutoring can be achieved. Eg- Parsons ‘write to learn’.
  5. Urban planning: In traffic management artificial intelligence can be used. In Kerala engineers have designed a robot to clean potholes. It will also help to fight social evil manual scavenging.
  6. In manufacturing sector it will help to develop good manufacturing practices. It will help to bring smoothness in supply chain. It will help to manage work floor in better way.
  7. In energy sector also it will help to develop energy infrastructure. In defence also it will help to man difficult areas and terrain. It will help to bring efficiency in cyber defence.

 

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

Even though India has experienced a high growth period in the last 15 years but its employment elasticity has remained on lower side. The period is sometimes termed as Jobless growth period. Following are the reasons for unemployment in India:

Low productivity in agriculture. Disguised unemployment in agriculture is a serious issue. More than 48% of work force is dependent on agriculture, but agriculture contributes only 14% of GDP to the

  • Every year 12.8 million work force is entering into work force but job creation is not upto that pace.
  • Manufacturing sector, which is an employment generator, is also passing through stagnant phase. Investment climate is passing through dormancy hence less job creation.
  • Globally there is tendency of protectionism going on. It is also creating hurdle in getting job. Like H1B issues, nitaqat law etc.
  • Now it is an era of technology, where industrial revolution 4.0 is coming. This revolution majorly relies on artificial intelligence, robotics and hence low job creation.

Real estate sector is under slowdown from a long time. Construction sector was one of the major absorber of migrated landless laborers. But this is also not able to create jobs.

 

A healthy infrastructure is must for a sustained economic growth. BharatMala project was one of the steps towards healthy infrastructure. What is BharatMala project? What are the challenges in its implementation?

BharatMala is an ambitious project to improve the road infrastructure in the country. It is an umbrella project under the Ministry of road transport and highways. It will subsume the unfinished project under National Highway development programme.

Under the plan the government intends to develop 83,677 km of highways and roads at an investment of around Rs 7 lakh crore over the next five years. The ambitious project also plans to create new industrial corridors and urban centres, which should enhance economic activity in the country.

It focuses on the new initiatives like development of Border and International connectivity roads, Coastal & port connectivity roads, improving efficiency of National Corridors, Economic corridors and others.  The government also expects that 70-80 per cent of freight traffic will move on national highways, up from 40 per cent now.

The funding will be a big issue. 15% is expected from private sector. But how this investment will be raised is yet to be cleared. Land acquisition and environment clearance is another issue. There are inherent issues with PPP models. To speed up the process of approvals, the government has already empowered NHAI to approve all Projects. Government need to improve its execution skills and work closely with state governments to realise the desired objectives.

 

What are the objectives and features of Pradhanmantri Krishi Sichai Yojana (PMKSY)?

According to the World Bank report, agriculture irrigated land is 36% of the total agricultural land. Most of the unirrigated area lies in the poverty hit areas like Vidarbha region, Budndhelkhand, Telangana plateau etc. As a result of this there is complete dependency on Monsoon which itself is no reliable. Hence Government came up with a plan to increase irrigated land and launched Pradhana Mantri Krishi Sichai Yojana.

Objective:

  • To achieve convergence of investment in irrigation at the field level.
  • To enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
  • To attract greater Pvt Investment in Agriculture.
  • To explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri urban agriculture.

Features of Agriculture are as follows:

  • Long Term Irrigation Fund has been instituted under PMKSY in NABARD for funding and fast tracking the implementation of incomplete major and medium irrigation projects.
  • Water budgeting is done for all sectors namely, household, agriculture and industries.
  • Investments will happen at farm level.
  • PMKSY has been formulated amalgamating ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP); Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP); and On Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • A National Executive Committee (NEC) is to be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog to oversee programme implementation.

 

What is Respiratory system? Give an Overview of Respiration Process?

 

The respiratory system is the body system that brings air containing oxygen into the body and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

The job of the respiratory system is the exchange of gases between the body and the outside air. This process, called respiration, actually consists of two parts. In the first part, oxygen in the air is drawn into the body and carbon dioxide is released from the body through the respiratory tract. In the second part, the circulatory system delivers the oxygen to body cells and picks up carbon dioxide from the cells in return.

The respiration process contains basically four steps:

Ventilation

Respiration begins with ventilation. This is the process of moving air in and out of the lungs. The lungs are the organs in which gas exchange takes place between blood and air.

Pulmonary Gas exchange

Pulmonary gas exchange is the exchange of gases between inhaled air and the blood. It occurs in the alveoli of the lungs.  Alveoli (singular, alveolus) are grape-like clusters surrounded by networks of thin-walled pulmonary capillaries. After you inhale, there is a greater concentration of oxygen in the alveoli than in the blood of the pulmonary capillaries, so oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood across the capillaries.

Gas Transport

Pulmonary gas exchange is the exchange of gases between inhaled air and the blood. It occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Alveoli (singular, alveolus) are grape-like clusters surrounded by networks of thin-walled pulmonary capillaries.   After you inhale, there is a greater concentration of oxygen in the alveoli than in the blood of the pulmonary capillaries, so oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood across the capillaries

Peripheral Gas Exchange

The cells of the body have a much lower concentration of oxygen than does the oxygenated blood in the peripheral capillaries. Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the peripheral capillaries into body cells.  Carbon dioxide is produced by cells as a by-product of cellular respiration, so it is more concentrated in the cells than in the blood of the peripheral capillaries. As a result, carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction.

 

What are the constitutional safeguards there for SC and ST?

Social safeguards:

  • Art 17- abolition of untouchability
  • Art 23- Traffic in human beings and beggar
  • Art 24- prevent child labour. A substantial portion of child labor comes from SC and ST
  • Art 25(2)(b)- Hindu religious institution shall be open to all section without any discrimination.

Economic safeguards

  • Art 23
  • Art 24
  • Art 46 – The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the scheduled Tribes,
  • Art 15(4) – reservation of seats

Political safeguard:

  • Art 243D – in Panchayats seats reserved
  • Art 243 T- Municipality reservation
  • Art 332- seats reserved in Legislative assembly

 

Service safeguards

  • Art 16(4)- reservation in jobs
  • Art 16(4A)- promotions in jobs

Human rights safeguard:

  • National commission for SC- 338
  • National commission for ST- 338A

 

Big data is always in the news recently. What do you understand by the term bio data? What is its potential application?

 

Big data is the huge amount of data which is present in an unprocessed way. It is a complex data. Big data is characterised by 3 Vs ie. Volume of data, velocity of data i.e. processed and complex variety of data. Big data has various useful applications. The application of Big data can be seen in various fields. These are as follows:

  • Can utilise big data to analyse the performance of the schemes and policies. It will give them a chance to bring efficiency in the policies and programmes. It will act as a feedback mechanism.
  • Healthcare: it will help to create database of patients, public health monitoring, how to respond during epidemic, diagnosis and consulting, to create database of genomics.
  • Agriculture: Precision farming, scientific inputs, real optimization of farm machinery, automated irrigation recommendation, monitoring of grain prices and management of inventories etc.
  • E commerce: Consumer behaviour, to choose market models, real time feedback, forecasting the trend, Customer segmentation on the basis of preference.
  • Disaster management: efficiency in risk warning, early identification of disaster, improve response, post disaster assessment will be easier.
  • Social sector schemes: It will help to bring efficiency in social sector schemes by bringing efficiency in the feedback. Govt. can change the provisions by looking at the result.

 

What are the issues with Service sector in Rajasthan? Provide solution to address those issues?

 

The service sector provides a service, not an actual product that could be held in your hand. Activities in the service sector include retail, banks, hotels, real-estate, education, health, social work, computer services, recreation, media, communications, electricity, gas and water supply. Services contribute 47.41% to the GDP in Rajasthan. Even though service sector growth rate is 9.90% It is facing some issues such as:

  • Infrastructure bottlenecks: Power shortage, lack of quality roads and highways especially village roads is an issue.
  • There is a lack of adequate infrastructure which creates hurdles in setting up of Industries. Quality of soft skills is not developed to its potential. Rajasthan has huge potential for tourism. Hence, soft skills in Human resource can certainly boost up the sector.
  • Lack of scaling up of traditional industries like art and craft industries eg Bagru prints, Kishangarh paintings. Less use of Digital platform to provide commercial access to these products.
  • Service trade barriers, unavailability of single window clearance

Solution:

  • Create investor friendly environment
  • Infrastructure enhancement: Like DMIC, make use of UDAAN scheme to utilise the potential of inactive airports.
  • World class institute for imparting soft skills to person engaged in hospitality sector.
  • Removal of trade barriers by providing single window clearance
  • Use cooperative federalism to learn from other developed state and use competitive federalism too attract investor from domestic and international arena.
  • Government of Rajasthan should come up with more innovative advertising skills like Jane kya dikh jaye for tourism

 

What is blockchain technology? List down advantage and application of the technology

 

A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. Constantly growing as ‘completed’ blocks (the most recent transactions) are recorded and added to it in chronological order; it allows market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central record-keeping. Each node (a computer connected to the network) gets a copy of the blockchain, which is downloaded automatically.

Adv:

  • High security is the feature of blockchain technology.
  • Decentralized form of data. As a result there is no single point of failure of blockchain technology.
  • High quality data is produced in blockchain technology.

Application:

  • Health care: repository of electronic health record. Exchange of electronic health record, putting all medical licenses on a blockchain, fraudulent doctors can be prevented from practicing.
  • Education: student records, faulty records and educational certificate can be maintained. It cans simply the process of attestation.
  • Food processing: Will help to keep a track on food item from agricultural land to consumers. Whether the Good manufacturing practices, hygiene and health standards are followed or not. Recording of agricultural records.
  • Civil registration: birth, death, marriage, property certificate and records can be put up in blockchain. This can help make citizen records tamper-proof, resilient, secure and private, thus providing wide-ranging benefits for a variety of stake holder.
  • Banking sector: to make transaction hack proof.

(Daily) RAS Mains exam practice solved questions

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Recently RBI released report regarding demonetization, whether demonetization helped in curbing black money? Critically analyze

Answer:-

The issue of demonetization is back in the news due to RBI report highlighting that 99.2% of 500 and 1000 Rs notes in circulation have found their own back in Banking System.

Critically examine – you need to do is look at the good and bad of the topic in fair manner.

Bring out the findings of RBI report and assess what it implies.

Discuss the rationale given that suggests that demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money – increasing tax base, formalization of economy.

Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in penalizing all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetization worked as an unintended amnesty scheme etc.

Examine the other impacts of demonetization which negated any small gains that were made – slow down in GDP, loss of jobs etc.

Conclusions – Give a fair and balanced view on the success/failure of demonetization.

 

Explain the causes and Phases of Bijolia movement? 

 

The Bijolia movement was a peasant movement in the Bijolia Jagir of the former Mewar state (in present-day Rajasthan in India) against excessive land revenue exactions. Originating in the former Jagir (feudal estate) of Bijolia (near the town of Bijolia in Bhilwara district), the movement gradually spread to neighbouring Jagirs. Leadership to the movement was provided, at different times, by Sitaram Das, Vijay Singh Pathik, and Manikya lal Verma. The movement continued till 1941 after a bitter struggle lasting about half a century, gained national attention and resisted state oppression.

Causes of movement:

Excess land revenue and other taxes were the main cause. Rao salwal kishan singh ji started to collect Lagat (a kind of taxes) collected in extraordinary situation were become common affair.

Movement went through three phases which are summarised as follows:

Ist Phase (1897-1915)

In 1897, a delegation of peasants consisting of Nanji Patel of Berisal and Thakari Patel of Gopal Niwas went to Udaipur and attempted, in vain, to get an audience with the Maharana.

    The concessions granted in 1904 did not last. In 1906, Prithvi Singh ascended to the Jagir and withdrew the concessions granted in 1904 and instructed officials to collected increased taxes. Failing to get a hearing from the Jagirdar, some peasants chose not to cultivate their lands and migrated to neighboring Gwalior and Bundi.

2nd phase (1915-1923)

In 1916, war fund contributions were further imposed on the peasants who lead to renewed dissatisfaction. It was in 1916 that Bhoop Singh alias Vijai Singh Pathik arrived in Bijolia and organized the peasants under the Bijolia Kisan Panchayat to oppose payments to the war fund and other taxes.

 Leaders of the Bijolia movement attempted to obtain the support of the Indian National Congress (INC).In December 1919, Pathik succeeded in putting a resolution before the INC in support of the Bijolia peasants, but the resolution failed, largely because the INC leadership disfavored agitation in the princely states.

Finally, the Bijolia Agreement was signed on February 11, 1922. The agreement brought about the following changes: reduction in amount of talwar bandhi, no taxes when there was no cultivation, reduction in chatoondtax tax and land revenue, etc.

3rd phase (1923-1941)

 By 1928, there was a general complain among the peasants of Bijolia that the agreement of 1922 had been violated by the Jagirdar. The peasants also complained that taxes on unirrigated lands were very high and Jagir authorities were interfering in the affairs of the Bijolia Kisan Panchayat.

 

What is the Ilbert bill controversy?

 

  • The Ilbert Bill was introduced in 1883 for British India by Lord Ripon.

 

  • The Bill gave Indian judges and magistrates the power to try British offenders in criminal cases at the District level.

 

  • The introduction of the bill led to intense opposition in Britain and from British settlers in India. The Bill played on racial tensions.

 

  • White opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill. This enraged the Indians.

 

  • The bitter controversy deepened antagonism between the British and Indians and was a prelude to the formation of the Indian National Congress.

 

Write short Note on Medieval Indo-Islamic Architecture.

 

  • With establishment of Turkish rule in India, a new phase coming in history of Indian art and architecture. Turks brought Islamic style of architecture in India. This new style easy significantly different from traditional Indian style. But over a period of time both style underwent assimilation.

Essential feature of Indo -Islamic architecture were

Islamic architecture characterised by uses of arches, domes and minarets. Arches were used for making doors. Dome was used to make roof and minarets were erected in 4 corners of building

  • Assimilation of Indian style i.e. trabeate architecture, use of columns and pillars
  • Use of lime mortar as binding agent. Which provided solidarity to the monuments and buildings
  • Charbhagi style brought by Babar added to the beauty of monuments.
  • Double dome architecture was another significant feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Eg. Humayun Tomb, Taj Mahal etc.
  • Use of new techniques like Pietra deura, calligraphy technique, arabesque etc.
  • Elements of Indian architecture like Jali, Chatra, jharaokha, chajja etc.

Right from the beginning of Turkish rule to the age of Mughal rule, process of assimilation of Indian and Islamic continued and it lead to the genesis of new kind of architecture in India. It represents our unique, assimilative cultural identity.

 

Examine the role of Praja Mandal Movements in Rajasthan’s political awakening. What was the role of Smt. Vijaya Bahin Bhavsar?

 

In 1927, the All India States People’s Conference was held in Bombay after which the congress allowed people from different Princely States to join the party and the Indian freedom Struggle. In 1927 itself, the Akhil Bhartiya Desi Rajya Lok Parishad or All India Native States Public Council was established in Bombay and Vijay Singh Pathik became its chairperson. In Rajasthan, Rajputana Desi Lok Parishad or Rajputana Native States Public Council was established. These councils laid the foundation for Praja Mandal movement in Rajasthan.

Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:

  • The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism.
  • The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights.
  • The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic (fundamental) rights.

Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:

The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states.

They established schools, used Khadi, encouraged cottage industries and started agitation against the Untouchability.

Contribution of Praja Mandal:

The Praja Mandal movement not only created a political awakening among the people in the Indian States but also fought for their rights, their share in the government and their dynamic participation in the future political set up of the country. Other contributions included:

  • Improvement in Education
  • Rise of social equality
  • The most important contribution of this organisation was to break the insularity of the peasant movements by linking them with one another in different princely states, as well as with peasant movements in British India.

 

 

What are the Jataka tales?

Or

What are Jatakas in history?

 

About the Jataka Tales Part of the canon of sacred Buddhist literature, this collection of some 550 anecdotes and fables depicts earlier incarnations. sometimes as an animal, sometimes as a human of the being who would become Siddhartha Gautama, the future Buddha.

Jataka is a type of literature from India also known as the Jatakas or the Jataka tales. They contain stories of the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. These include Buddha in both animal and human forms. These stories are extremely popular and are valued in all branches of Buddhism.

 

Write down the major painting schools of Rajasthan? What are the salient features of Rajasthani and Jain school of miniature paintings?

Answer: –

In the preceding decades of sixteenth Century, the Rajput schools of art began to expand characteristic styles joining aboriginal as well as distant authorities into exclusive styles. Rajasthani painting comprises of 4 major schools that have numerous imaginative styles within them that can be outlined to the different princely states that utilized these artists.

The Major Painting schools of Rajasthan are:

  • MEWAR SCHOOL OF PAINTING
  • MARWAR SCHOOL OF PAINTING
  • HADOTI SCHOOL OF PAINTING
  • DHUNDAR SCHOOL OF PAINTING
  • KANGRA SCHOOL OF PAINTINGS

Rajasthani School of miniature paintings 

The decline of the Mughal miniature paintings resulted in the rise of the Rajasthani School. Rajasthani School of painting can be further divided into various schools depending on the region they were created in. The Mewar School, Marwar School, Hadoti School, Dhundar School, Kangra and Kullu Schools of art are all part of Rajasthani School of painting. Like the Mughal Emperors, the Rajput rulers were also lovers of art and gave their patronage to miniature paintings.

Each Rajputana kingdom had its own distinct style with a few common features. Apart from depicting stories from the Ramayana and the royal lifestyle of kings and queens, Rajasthani miniature paintings often portrayed the legacy of present and past rulers. They also portrayed social values and the changes introduced by kings for the betterment of society. The background of the paintings formed a special feature of the Rajasthani School. Colors used were often bold and contrasting in nature. Natural colors, extracted from plants, minerals, shells, gold, silver and precious stones, were used. The preparation of colors itself would often take weeks and only fine brushes were used. The difficult art of miniature painting still exists in Rajasthan where the painters often use paper, ivory and silk as their canvas. However, natural colors are no longer used as they have been replaced by artificial colors.

Jain School of miniature paintings

One of the earliest schools of miniature paintings in India, the Jain School of painting gained prominence in the 11th century A.D when religious texts like ‘Kalpa Sutra’ and ‘Kalkacharya Katha’ were portrayed in the form of miniature paintings. Like other schools of miniature paintings, Jain School too, displayed its art works on palm leaves, but started using paper from the late 12th century. Natural colors including gold and silver were used to depict the stories. Some of the exclusive features of these paintings include portrayal of enlarged eyes, square shaped hands and portrayal of stylish figures. Also, the colors used were often vibrant and most often than not, colors like green, red, gold and blue were used. The paintings often displayed male figures and goddesses of the Tirthankara. Also, the goddesses shown in the paintings were often heavily ornamented. These paintings began to decline during the late 16th century.

 

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Tell us the Historical Formation of Rajasthan/Explain the integration of Rajasthan?

Rajasthan is one of the 29 states of the Indian Union. During the British rule this part of the land was known as RAJPUTANA i.e. the land of Rajputs, who was the main rulers of the various feudal states existing at that time. Rajasthan was formed as State from the seven stages which are discussed given below:

  1. Matsya Union

The division of India was manifested by communal agitation on a great scale that overwhelmed the nation. Bharatpur and Alwar were also not secured of these riots. In March 17, 1948, Indian Government took over the supervision of these states as the rulers failed to uphold peace. Neighboring regions to these states were Karauli and Dholpur. On Government advice, all four states agreed to come together to form the Matsya Union.

  1. Rajasthan Union

On March 25, 1948, ten more states namely Kushalgarh, Banswara, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Tonk, Shahpura, Pratapgarh, Dungarpur and Kishangarh of southern and South-eastern Rajputana joined together to structure another union that is named East Rajasthan.

  1. United State of Rajasthan

Subsequently, the Udaipur state (Mewar) also got united in Rajasthan union on April 18, 1948. The name was then changed to United Rajasthan. Therefore 15 states of Rajasthan created their own association.

  1. Greater Rajasthan

On March 30, 1949 the four states viz. Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer joined this integration and the region came to be known as the Greater Rajasthan. The principalities of Neemrana and Lawa also joined this.  March 30th is now celebrated as the Rajasthan day.

  1. United state of Greater Rajasthan

On May 15, 1949, the Matsya Union was amalgamated into Greater Rajasthan and thereafter the confederation was named as the united state of Greater Rajasthan.

  1. United Rajasthan

The only state, Sirohi, had not joined the federation so far. Sirohi state joined the federation on January 26, 1950.

  1. Re-organized Rajasthan

Ajmer-Merwara region was for long period of time under unswerving British rule and it was fused with Rajasthan in November, 1956 on the proposal of the statement of State Reorganization Commission. Madhya Pradesh’s Bhanpura tehsil and Gujarat’s Abu Tehsil were also merged with Rajasthan at that time.

What is high powered money? How can it be used as a regulatory mechanism by the RBI?

 

  • In simple terms High Powered Money (HPM) is the net or total liability of the monetary authority of any nation.
  • In India it is the liability of RBI.
  • It is simply the sum of all currency in circulation with the people of country; cash kept in the commercial bank vaults along with the deposits of govt. of the country and commercial banks.
  • The term liability basically means that when people/govt/commercial banks produce the currency/claims.
  • The RBI has to pay value equal to currency/claim.
  • The RBI uses this H.P.M. for regulation of money supply in the economy. By controlling the money supply RBI regulates (i.e tries to regulate) the inflation in economy.

RBI uses the H.P.M for process of money creation. Money creation will increase the supply of money in economy.

When RBI needs to pump extra money in economy it injects a certain amount of high powered money (Say H) into economy. (By purchase of govt bonds/assests etc)

This money increases the total money supply in nation but by what amount??It increases money supply (say M) by not ‘H’, but by a larger amount.

This increased addition of money supply (over the injected value of H) is due to the factor called Money Multiplier!!!

The value of money multiplier is determined by two factors, which are:

  1. CDR: i.e cash-to-deposit ration. It is the ratio of amount of money people tend to keep with themselves as cash and the amount they deposit in bank acc.
  2. RDR: Reserve-to-deposit ratio. It is the ratio of amount of money that a bank will keep in its vault (or as reserve with RBI) to the amount of the deposits received by them.

CDR is a behavioral patter of people which can’t be regulated by RBI (eg people will save more during festive season or for upcoming marriage in family etc) However, RDR can be regulated by RBI.

Depending upon the values of RDR and CDR, the amount of money supply increased in economy is determined.

Money multiplier is given as

Money Multiplier= (1+CDR)/ (CDR+RDR)

[Theoretically, Money multiplier is ratio of money in economy i.e money supply (M) to the amount of high powered money (H)]

 So when RBI injects H amount as HPM, the actual increase in money supply is – Money Multiplier*H.

Note: Value of money multiplier is greater than one as the value of RDR is less than 1.

Thus when RBI needs to reduce inflation it will reduce HPM in eco to slow down money creation by commercial banks .This will reduce the overall money supply leading to low purchasing power. Which in turn lower the demands and hence cut inflation?

Similarly to increase the price levels in eco RBI will inject more of HPM to increase money supply (which will increase purchasing power of the people thereby increasing demand).

  • HPM is only one of the ways used by RBI to regulate economy. It has many powerful ways like SLR, CRR etc. to regulate economy.
  • Commercial banks play a very important role in the process of money creation. (By giving out loans for further investments etc)

What are the salient features of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana?

 

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:-Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

Due to the improved features of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY), the scheme has been received very well and has been opted for by 27 States and Union Territories in one or more seasons since inception.

  • The first year of scheme launch i.e. 2016-17 was a good monsoon year, despite which claim ratio was as high as 73%. Further in certain States claim ratios were to the extent of 114% in Andhra Pradesh, 135% in Karnataka, 132% in Kerala and 286% in Tamil Nadu.
  • Overall Rs. 15349.68 crore were paid to 139 lakh farmer applicants in 2016-17 alone.

PMFBY is an actuarial premium based scheme under which farmer has to pay maximum premium of 2% for Kharif, 1.5% for Rabi food & oilseed crops and 5% for annual commercial/horticultural crops and remaining part of the actuarial/bided premium is shared equally by the Centre and State Government. One of the objectives of the scheme is to facilitate prompt claims settlement. Towards this the scheme guidelines provide that claims must be settled within two months of harvest subject to timely provision of both yield data and share of premium subsidy by the State Government.

 

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What is Make in India, Start-up India and Stand up India? Write down the advantages, drawbacks in context of India.

 

  1. ABOUT MAKE IN INDIA PROGRAM

Abstract: The government launched “Make in India” initiative which aims at promoting India as an investment destination and to establish India as a global hub for manufacturing, design and innovation. The initiative aims to provide favorable environment to the business community so that they can devote their resources, efforts and energy in productive work. A number of steps have been taken by the government to improve the ease of doing business in the country. Rules and procedures have been simplified and a number of products have been taken off licensing requirements. The Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) worked with a group of highly specialised agencies to build brand new infrastructure, including a dedicated help desk and a mobile-first website that packed a wide array of information into a simple, sleek menu. Government has opened up a number of sectors for FDI. The Stand up India Scheme is being launched to promote entrepreneurship among people from schedule caste/schedule tribe and woman who will be provided loans starting from Rs 10 lakhs to Rs 100 lakhs.

The Make in India initiative was launched by Prime Minister in September 2014 as part of a wider set of Nation-building initiatives. Devised to transform India into a global design and manufacturing hub, Make in India was a timely response to a critical situation: by 2013, the much-hyped emerging markets bubble had burst, and India’s growth rate had fallen to its lowest level in a decade. The promise of the BRICS Nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) had faded, and India was tagged as one of the so-called ‘Fragile Five’. Global investors debated whether the world’s largest democracy was a risk or an opportunity. India’s 1.2 billion citizens questioned whether

India was too big to succeed or too big to fail. India was on the brink of severe economic failure.

  1. OBJECTIVE
  • Understanding the major initiatives with respect to manufacturing
  • Steps taken by government to strengthen secondary sector
  1. PROCESS

Make in India was launched by PM against the backdrop of this crisis, and quickly became a rallying cry for India’s innumerable stakeholders and partners. It was a powerful, galvanising call to action to India’s citizens and business leaders, and an invitation to potential partners and investors around the world. But, Make in India is much more than an inspiring slogan. It represents a comprehensive and unprecedented overhaul of out-dated processes and policies. Most importantly, it represents a complete change of the Government’s mindset – a shift from issuing authority to business partner, in keeping with Prime Minister’s tenet of ‘Minimum Government, Maximum Governance’.

  1. PLAN

To start a movement, a strategy is needed that inspires, empowers and enables in equal measure. Make in India needed a different kind of campaign: instead of the typical statistics-laden newspaper advertisements, this exercise required messaging that was informative, well-packaged and most importantly, credible. It had to

(a) Inspire confidence in India’s capabilities amongst potential partners abroad, the Indian business community and citizens at large

 (b) Provide a framework for a vast amount of technical information on 25 industry sectors; and (c) reach out to a vast local and global audience via social media and constantly keep them updated about opportunities, reforms, etc.

  1. PARTNERSHIPS

The Make in India initiative has been built on layers of collaborative effort. DIPP initiated this process by inviting participation from Union Ministers, Secretaries to the Government of India, state governments, industry leaders, and various knowledge partners.

Under this initiative, the Government intends to provide a robust infrastructure to business through development of various facilities and institutions. Government also aims at developing industrial corridors and smart.

The Stand up India Scheme is being launched to promote entrepreneurship among people from schedule caste/schedule tribe and woman who will be provided loans starting from Rs 10 lakhs to Rs 100 lakhs.

  • Cities to provide a Conducive working environment with state-of-the-art technology
  • Efforts are being made to provide skilled manpower through a national skill development programme. Innovation is encouraged through better management of patent and trademarks registration.
  • Government has opened up a number of sectors for FDI. The Policy in defence sector has been liberalized and FDI cap has been raised from 26% to 49%. 100% FDI has been allowed in defence sector for modern & state of the art technology on case to case basis.
  • 100% FDI under automatic route has been permitted in construction, operation and maintenance in Rail Infrastructure projects.
  • Further, liberalization norms for Insurance and Medical Devices have been done. ‘Make in India’ program represents an attitudinal shift in how India relates to investors; not as a permit issuing authority, but as a true business partner. An Investor Facilitation Cell has been created in ‘Invest India’.
  • A dedicated team of the Investor Facilitation Cell is there to guide and assist first-time investors.

It is time for India to focus on building competitive advantage on global scale in sectors where we have a large domestic market and certain inherent capabilities. Strategy is all about making choices. The top five priority industries are- Defence, electronics hardware, construction, health care and agro-industries.

However, for India to become a manufacturing nation, it has to quickly move beyond rhetoric to create a clear strategy and favourable policy environment for manufacturing to take off.

  • National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) but it needs to foster a more vibrant think tank in its place.
  • A close dialogue and partnership between government and the private sector, both domestic and foreign, is critical.
  • Indian companies along with Chinese, Japanese, German, American and Swedish companies are all vital partners and we must create an environment that is open and welcoming.
  1. START-UP INDIA & STAND UP INDIA
  • Startup India campaign was launched on 16th January 2016 to promote bank financing for start-up ventures to boost entrepreneurship and encourage start-ups with jobs creation.
  • Stand up India was launched on 5th April 2016 to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST

The economy of any country depends on its countrymen. Larger the number of employed or working people better be the economy. The Indian government realized that Indian people have the potential to work hardly, all they need is, a promising start up. Many people dream of starting up their own business, but due to financial or other similar issues are unable to do so. So, Indian govt. in the leadership of Narendra Modi has decided to offer a gift as a nation wise program- “Start up India”.

Start up India” is a revolutionary scheme that has been started to help the people who wish to start their own business. These people have ideas and capability, so the government will give them support to make sure they can implement their ideas and grow. Success of this scheme will eventually make India, a better economy and a strong nation.

  1. START UP INDIA SCHEME – FROM JOB SEEKERS TO JOB CREATORS:

During his speech at the event, Mr. Modi said that we are trying to make the young job creators rather than job seekers. Technology is evolving with the pace faster than ever. This has given birth to various new businesses like E-commerce, internet marketing etc. So, there is a great scope of development in such areas. Those who plan to start new business are eligible to apply. Startup means an entity, incorporated or registered in India:

  • Not prior to five years,
  • With annual turnover not exceeding INR 25 crore in any preceding financial year, and
  • Working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property.
  • Provided that such entity is not formed by splitting up, or reconstruction, of a business already in existence.
  • Provided also that an entity shall cease to be a Startup if its turnover for the previous financial years has exceeded INR 25 crore or it has completed 5 years from the date of incorporation/ registration. Provided further that a Startup shall be eligible for tax benefits only after it has obtained certification from the Inter-Ministerial Board, setup for such Purpose.
  1. STAND UP INDIA:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the ‘Stand up India’ scheme on April 2016 as part of the Government’s efforts to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST Communities.

The scheme offers bank loans of between ₹10 lakh (US$15,000) and ₹1 crore (US$150,000) for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and women setting up new enterprises outside of the farm sector. Debit Card (Ru Pay) for withdrawal of working capital.

Eligibility

  1. SC/ST and/or Women entrepreneurs, above 18 years of age.
  2. Loans under the scheme is available for only green field project. Green field signifies, in this context, the first time venture of the beneficiary in the manufacturing or services or trading sector.
  3. In-case of non-individual enterprises, 51% of the shareholding and controlling stake should be held by either SC/ST and/or Women Entrepreneur.
  4. Borrower should not be in default to any bank/financial institution.

Start up India Stand up India Scheme – Action Plan in Detail

  • E- Registration will be done. The application forms for startup India will be made available in April 2016
  • A self certification system will be launched
  • A dedicated web portal and mobile app will be developed
  • Arrangement of self certificate based compliance
  • No inspection during the first 3 years
  • 80 percent reduction in the application fee of startup patent
  • Easy exit policy
  • Inclusion of Credit Guarantee Fund
  • Relaxation in Income Tax for first three year
  • Special Arrangement for Female applicants
  • Introduction of Atal Innovation Mission. Innovation courses will be started for the students                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8. CHALLENGES FACED BY GOVERNMENT:
  • Fund- 10,000 crore rupees were allocated for this through SIDBI. But bank only puts 15% of total corpus while 85% is put by venture capitalists. VCs are required to get registered with SEBI.
  • Partnered initiative- Government is partnering with NITs, IIITs, IISERs and NIPERs to setup 75 start-ups.
  • But reform in education is necessary to build entrepreneurship from the starting.
  • Ease of doing business is promoted to generate business friendly environment. Still ranked 130 in World Bank Report.
  • Single portal system was launched to avoid red tapism and lengthy process.
  1. CONCLUSION

India is ranked 132nd out of 185 economies in Doing Business 2013 by the World Bank. India’s restrictions on foreign equity ownership are greater than the average of the countries covered by the Investing across Sectors indicators in the South Asia region and of the BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, and China) countries. India imposes restrictions on foreign equity ownership in many sectors, and in particular in the service industries. Sectors such as railway freight transportation and forestry are dominated by public monopolies and are closed to foreign equity participation. With the exception of certain activities specified by law, foreign ownership in the agriculture sector is also not allowed. These restrictions need to be eased for making India better place for doing business.

Infrastructure tops the list of most surveys on doing business in India. In particular, chronic deficiencies in transportation and power impose prohibitive costs and lower business competitiveness. Multiple enterprise surveys have identified electricity as the biggest constraint. Further, India lags behind on every measure of transport connectivity. Though there have been considerable recent successes spurred by private participation, much needs to be done. However, introduction of UDAY scheme is a good step in this regard. SC and ST community are still far behind to avail these facilities due to many problems like lack of education, social obligations, awareness etc. Gender bias leads gender-gap, according to NSSO only 14% established business is run by women entrepreneurs.

But government initiatives like Start up India and Stand up India are generating hope for better future by Encouragement.

Sound macroeconomic policies are necessary to create a low-inflation, low-interest rate and high-growth environment that is essential for the country’s global manufacturing competitiveness. Given the huge size and vast diversity of the country, a diagnostic for each state may be a more prudent strategy. In any case, instead of big-bang reforms, sustained efforts in multiple directions, which cumulatively generate large effects, are required to relax these constraints so that we can realise the goal of making in India.

What were the Causes and Consequences of First World War?

 

First World War (World War I) is considered as one of the largest wars in history. The world’s great powers assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (British Empire, France and the Russian Empire) versus the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). World War-I lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

The Two Groups: Allies vs Central Powers

Causes of the First World War

In the background there were many conflicts between European nations. Nations grouped among themselves to form military alliances as there were tension and suspicion among them. The causes of the First World War were:

(1) Conflict between Imperialist countries: Ambition of Germany

  • Conflict between old imperialist countries (Eg: Britain and France) vs new imperialist countries (Eg: Germany).
  • Germany ship – Imperator
  • German railway line – from Berlin to Baghdad

(2) Ultra Nationalism

  • Pan Slav movement – Russian, Polish, Czech, Serb, Bulgaria and Greek.
  • Pan German movement.

(3) Military Alliance

  • Triple Alliance or Central Powers (1882) – Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary.
  • Triple Entente or Allies (1907) – Britain, France, Russia.

Note: Although Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive, against the terms of the alliance. These alliances were reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, while the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.

(4) International Anarchy

  • Secret agreement between Britain and France allowing Britain to control Egypt and France to take over Morocco.
  • Germany opposed, but settled with a part of French Congo.
  • Hague conference of 1882 and 1907 failed to emerge as an international organisation.

(5) Balkan Wars

Many Balkan nations (Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Montenegro) were under the control of Turkey. They defeated Turkey in the First Balkan War. The subsequent war was between the Balkan countries themselves – Eg:  Serbia vs Bulgaria.

Defeated countries like Turkey and Bulgaria sought German help.

(6) Alsace-Loraine

During German unification, Germany got Alsace-Loraine from France. France wanted to capture Alsace-Loraine back from Germany.

(7) Immediate Cause: assassination of Francis Ferdinand

Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian native (in Bosnia). Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July, 1914. [Reason for assassination: Annexation by Austria the Bosnia-Herzegovina, against the congress of Berlin, 1878]

The Course of the War

Group 1 (Allies): Serbia, Russia, Britain, France, USA, Belgium, Portugal, Romania etc

Group 2 (Central Powers): Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Bulgaria etc.

War on Western Side: Battle of Marne.

War on Eastern Side: Battle of Tennenberg (Russia was defeated).

War on the Sea: Batter of Dogger Bank (Germany was defeated), Battle of Jutland (Germany retreated).

USA entered in 1917.

Russia withdrew in 1917 after October Revolution.

Treaty of Versailles, Paris

Germany signed a treaty with Allies (Triple Entente) on 28th June 1919. It was signed at Versailles, near Paris. (14 points)

Leaders: Clemenceau – France, Lloyd George – Britain, Woodrow Wilson – USA, Orlando – Italy.

Treaties after World War I

  • Treaty of Paris – with Germany
  • Treaty of St. Germaine – with Austria
  • Treaty of Trianon- with Hungary
  • Treaty of Neuilly – with Bulgaria
  • Treaty of Severes – with Turkey

Consequences of First World War

  • Rule of King ended in Germany: Germany became a republic on November 1918. The German Emperor Kaiser William II fled to Holland.
  • Around 1 crore people were killed.
  • Unemployment and famine.
  • The fall of Russian empire after October revolution (1917) which resulted in the formation of USSR (1922)
  • Emergence of USA as a super power.
  • Beginning of the end of European supremacy.
  • Japan became a powerful country in Asia.
  • Poland, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia became new independent states.
  • Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – became independent.
  • Rule of Ottomans came to an end in Turkey.
  • New boundary lines were drawn for Austria, Germany and Turkey.
  • Strengthened independence movements in Asia and Africa.
  • League of Nations came into being.
  • Germany had to return Alsace-Loraine to France.
  • German colonies were shared.
  • Germany gave up Saar coal field.
  • Germany gave up Polish Corridor, and made city of Danzig independent.
  • Monarchy was abolished in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Russia.
  • The harsh clauses of the Treaty of Versailles finally resulted in the Second World War.

 

Akbar’s Pragmatic Rajput Policy and its Significance. Analyse

 

Akbar was a great pragmatist. He was the first Muslim ruler to realize that without the help of the Rajput’s, no permanent empire could be set up in India.

Accordingly, he took measures to secure their cooperation. He treated them as very trustworthy friends and not mere vassals. He abandoned the old policy of repression and persecution of the Rajput’s.

Broadly speaking Akbar’s policy was based on diplomacy and force – the two potent weapons of state craft. But he realized more on diplomacy.

 

Significance of the Rajput Policy of Akbar:

 

  1. Expansion of Akbar’s influence

The policy of friendship contributed to the extension of the Mughal Empire. The Rajput’s had become the ‘Sword and Shield’ of Akbar.

 

  1. Military help

The Rajput rulers provided strong military help to Akbar in waging wars and conquering several territories.

 

  1. Strengthening of administration

Akbar was able to secure the services of Rajput’s in the efficient running of the administration. Some of the Rajput Governors of Mughal provinces proved very helpful.

 

  1. Advantages to Rajputs

The Rajput rulers got honour, high offices, big Jagirs and confidential posts in the royal service. They were also free to devote their resources on welfare pursuits in place of war adventures.

 

  1. Cultural integration

According to Dr. Ishwari Prasad, “A new culture – Indo-Muslim culture” was born. Akbar gave encouragement to Sanskrit, Hindi and other regional languages. There is no doubt that the Rajput’s made great contribution in the field of Akbar’s expansion of empire, statecraft, administration, cultural, economic and social progress.

 

UP Police में सिपाही भर्ती शुरू, कांस्टेबल और पीएसी के 49568 पदों पर होगी भर्ती

उत्तर प्रदेश में सिविल पुलिस एवं पीएसी में सिपाही के 49,568 पदों पर भर्ती के लिए ऑनलाइन आवेदन 19 नवंबर से लिए जाएंगे। उत्तर प्रदेश पुलिस भर्ती एवं प्रोन्नति बोर्ड ने शुक्रवार को यह ऐलान किया। कुछ तकनीकी दिक्कतों से पूर्व में घोषित तिथि पर आवेदन की प्रक्रिया शुरू नहीं हो पाई थी। आवेदन की अंतिम तिथि व ऑनलाइन आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने की अंतिम तिथि भी 8 दिसंबर 2018 होगी।

  1. शैक्षणिक योग्यता – उम्मीदवार किसी मान्यता प्राप्त बोर्ड से 12वीं पास हो।
  2. आयु संबंधी योग्यता – पुरुष अभ्यर्थी ने दिनांक 1 जुलाई, 2018 को 18 वर्ष की आयु पूरी कर ली हो और 22 वर्ष की आयु प्राप्त न की हो। यानी जन्म 02 जुलाई, 1996 से पहले और 1 जुलाई, 2000 के बाद का नहीं होना चाहिए।

महिला अभ्यर्थी ने दिनांक 1 जुलाई, 2018 को 18 वर्ष की आयु पूरी कर ली हो और 25 वर्ष की आयु प्राप्त न की हो। यानी जन्म 02 जुलाई, 1993 से पहले और 1 जुलाई, 2000 के बाद का नहीं होना चाहिए।

एससी, एसटी, ओबीसी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों को आयु में 5-5 वर्ष की छूट दी जाएगी।

होम गार्ड्स को आयु में तीन वर्ष की छूट मिलेगी।

  1. शारीरिक मानक

पुरुषों के लिए

– सामान्य, ओबीसी, एससी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई कम से कम 168 सेमी. होनी चाहिए। सीना बिना फुलाए कम से कम 79 सेमी. हो और फुलाकर कम से कम 84 सेमी हो।

– एसटी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई 160 सेमी. होनी चाहिए। सीना बिना फुलाए कम से कम 77 सेमी. हो और फुलाकर कम से कम 82 सेमी हो।

महिलाओं के लिए

– सामान्य, ओबीसी, एससी वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई कम से कम 152 सेमी. होनी चाहिए। – एसटी  वर्ग के उम्मीदवारों की लंबाई कम से कम 147 सेमी. होनी चाहिए।

– वजन कम से कम 40 किलोग्राम हो

  1. चयन- उम्मीदवारों का चयन लिखित परीक्षा और शारीरिक दक्षता परीक्षा में प्रदर्शन के आधार पर होगा। पहले लिखित परीक्षा होगी जिसमें ऑब्जेक्टिव प्रश्न पूछे जाएंगे। लिखित परीक्षा में सफल उम्मीदवारों को शारीरिक दक्षता परीक्षा के लिए बुलाया जाएगा।
  2. आवेदन शुल्क

ऑफलाइन (ई-चालान) आवेदन शुल्क 10 दिसंबर तक जमा होगा। सभी श्रेणी के लिए आवेदन शुल्क 400 रुपये तय किया गया है।

  1. यूं करें आवेदन

अभ्यर्थी को बोर्ड की वेबसाइट http://prpb.gov.in पर जाकर All Notification/Advertisement को क्लिक करना होगा। उसके बाद आरक्षी नागरिक पुलिस एवं आरक्षी प्रादेशिख आर्म्ड कान्सटेबुलरी के लिए Candidate’s Registration पर क्लिक कर आगे की प्रक्रियाओं को पूरा करें

  1. आवेदन शुल्क का भुगतान डेबिट कार्ड/क्रेडिट कार्ड/इंटरनेट बैंकिंग का उपयोग करके या ऑफलाइन ई-चालान के माध्यम से करना होगा।
  2. पहले जारी किए गए नोटिफिकेश के मुताबिक लिखित परीक्षा 45 जनवरी 2019 को कराई जाएगी। जून 2019 के तीसरे सप्ताह में परीक्षा परिणाम घोषित कर दिया जाएगा।
  3. फाइनल मेरिट लिस्ट लिखित परीक्षा के प्राप्तांकों के आधार पर निकाली जाएगी।
  4. इस भर्ती में कोई इंटरव्यू नहीं होगा।

 

सिविल पुलिस एवं पीएसी में सिपाही के 49568 पदों पर भर्ती के लिए आनलाइन आवेदन की नई तिथि घोषित कर दी गई है। कुछ तकनीकी दिक्कतों के कारण पूर्व में घोषित तिथि पर आवेदन की प्रक्रिया शुरू नहीं हो पाई थी।

उत्तर प्रदेश पुलिस भर्ती एवं प्रोन्नति बोर्ड ने शुक्रवार को भर्ती के लिए आवेदन का नया कार्यक्रम घोषित कर दिया। इसके मुताबिक आनलाइन आवेदन की शुरुआत 19 नवंबर से होगी। आवेदन की अंतिम तिथि 8 दिसंबर 2018 होगी। आनलाइन आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने की अंतिम तिथि भी 8 दिसंबर 2018 होगी, जबकि आफलाइन (ई-चालान) आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने की अंतिम तिथि 10 दिसंबर 2018 होगी। भर्ती प्रक्रिया में सभी श्रेणी के अभ्यर्थियों के लिए आवेदन शुल्क 400 रुपये तय किया गया है।

For More Detail go to official site: http://uppbpb.gov.in/

बोर्ड के अपर सचिव ने बताया कि सिविल पुलिस में सिपाही के 31360 पदों में से 15681 पद अनारक्षित, 8467 पद अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग, 6585 पद अनुसूचित जाति और 627 पद अनुसूचित जनजाति के लिए आरक्षित हैं। इसी तरह पीएसी में सिपाही के 18208 पदों में से 9104 पद अनारक्षित, 4916 पद अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग, 3824 पद अनुसूचित जाति और 364 पद अनुसूचित जनजाति के लिए आरक्षित हैं। सिविल पुलिस में सिपाही के पदों पर भर्ती के लिए पुरुष व महिला दोनों आवेदन कर सकते हैं, जबकि पीएसी में सिपाही के पदों पर केवल पुरुष अभ्यर्थी ही आवेदन कर सकेंगे।

UPPSC Mains Exam 2016 Result Declared

UPPSC Mains Result: परीक्षा के 2 साल बाद घोषित हुआ रिजल्ट, uppsc.up.nic.in पर करें चेक

UPPSC Mains Result 2016: लोक सेवा आयोग ने शुक्रवार को सम्मिलित राज्य प्रवर अधीनस्थ सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा 2016 (पीसीएस मेन्स 2016) का परिणाम घोषित कर दिया।

UPPSC Mains Result 2016: लोक सेवा आयोग ने शुक्रवार को सम्मिलित राज्य प्रवर अधीनस्थ सेवा मुख्य परीक्षा 2016 (पीसीएस मेन्स 2016) का परिणाम घोषित कर दिया। डिप्टी कलेक्टर और डिप्टी एसपी समेत विभिन्न प्रकार के 633 पदों के लिए 1993 अभ्यर्थियों को सफल किया गया है। जो अब इंटरव्यू में शामिल होंगे। इंटरव्यू की तिथि अभी घोषित नहीं की गई है। इस परीक्षा में भाग लेने वाले उम्मीदवार आयोग की वेबसाइट uppsc.up.nic.in पर जाकर नतीजे चेक कर सकते हैं।

परीक्षा के दो साल बाद घोषित हुआ परिणाम

पीसीएस 2016 की प्रारंभिक परीक्षा बीस मार्च 2016 को हुई थी। कुल  436413 आवेदकों में से 250696 परीक्षा में शामिल हुए थे। प्रारंभिक परीक्षा का परिणाम 27 मई 2016 को घोषित किया गया था। मुख्य परीक्षा के लिए 14615 अभ्यर्थियों को सफल किया गया था। मुख्य परीक्षा बीस सितंबर से आठ अक्तूबर 2016 के बीच इलाहाबाद और लखनऊ में आयोजित हुई थी।  इसमें 12901 परीक्षार्थी शामिल हुए थे। लिखित परीक्षा के दो साल बाद मुख्य परीक्षा का परिणाम घोषित किया जा सका।

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RAS Mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behavior Study Notes

RAS MAINS EXAM PAPER-3 STUDY NOTES

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Behavior:-
Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple-intelligence
Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.
Law:-
Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-III Free Study Notes

RPSC RAS/RTS free Study material in Hindi में सभी महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स को कवर किया गया है। इस पोस्ट में RAS की तेयारी करने वाले अभ्यर्थीयो के लिए अलग अलग कोचिंग संस्थानो के नोट्स उपलब्ध करवा रहे ताकि आप Syllabus को अच्छे से समझ सके। मुख्यतः मुख्य परीक्षा हेतु नोट्स है लेकिन प्रारम्भिक परीक्षाओं में भी इनकी भूमिका रहती है।

RPSC ने RAS/RTS Prelims/Mains Exam 2018  हमारे द्वारा उपलब्ध करवाए नोट्स में उत्कर्ष जोधपुर, निर्माण जयपुर, गितांजलि जयपुर इत्यादि संस्थानो के नोट्स है

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Paper 3rd :

  1. Geetanjali notes
  2. जिला प्रशासन, जिलाधीश, पुलिसअधीक्षक की भूमिका, उपखंड एवं तहसील
  3. ethics ( लोक प्रशासन ) by utkarsh Jodhpur
  4. Rajasthan polity
  5. public Administration by utkarsh
  6. Ras mains Law notes by GIA
  7. General studies notes by Geetanjali IAS Academy
  8. RAS mains notes part-2 By GIA
  9. international Relations 

RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Study Notes

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Free Notes Paper-II

RPSC RAS/RTS free Study Material in Hindi में सभी महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स को कवर किया गया है। इस पोस्ट में RAS की तेयारी करने वाले अभ्यर्थीयो के लिए अलग अलग कोचिंग संस्थानो के नोट्स उपलब्ध करवा रहे ताकि आप Syllabus को अच्छे से समझ सके। मुख्यतः मुख्य परीक्षा हेतु नोट्स है लेकिन प्रारम्भिक परीक्षाओं में भी इनकी भूमिका रहती है।

RPSC ने RAS/RTS Prelims/Mains 2018 हमारे द्वारा उपलब्ध करवाए नोट्स में उत्कर्ष जोधपुर, निर्माण जयपुर, गितांजलि जयपुर इत्यादि संस्थानो के नोट्स है।

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II

  1. Science and Technology (जैव प्रौद्योगिकी) by Nirman IAS Jaipur
  2. Science, Economics, Geography by GIA
  3. General studies by Nirman IAS ( चलते-चलते)
  4. Rajasthan Geography (river, pond, lake )
  5. Rajasthan Geography- forest 
  6. Rajasthan geography ( राजस्थान: स्थिति, आकार, विस्तार, भौतिक स्वरूप )
  7. Rajasthan mineral (खनिज)

RPSC RAS MAINS EXAM PAPER-II COMPLETE STUDY NOTES

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes       

RAS MAINS EXAM PAPER-2 COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL DOWNLOAD

RAS MAINS PAPER-2 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY NOTES DOWNLOAD

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Free Study Material

RPSC RAS/RTS free Study material in Hindi/English में सभी महत्वपूर्ण टॉपिक्स को कवर किया गया है। इस पोस्ट में RAS की तेयारी करने वाले अभ्यर्थीयो के लिए अलग अलग कोचिंग संस्थानो के नोट्स उपलब्ध करवा रहे ताकि आप Syllabus को अच्छे से समझ सके। मुख्यतः मुख्य परीक्षा हेतु नोट्स है लेकिन प्रारम्भिक/Prelims परीक्षाओं में भी इनकी भूमिका रहती है।

RPSC ने RAS/RTS Mains Exam हमारे द्वारा उपलब्ध करवाए नोट्स में उत्कर्ष जोधपुर, निर्माण जयपुर, गितांजलि जयपुर इत्यादि संस्थानो के नोट्स है।

RPSC RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM FREE STUDY MATERIAL IN HINDI/ENGLISH

ईमेल से सब्स्क्राइब कर लीजिए ताकि नए पोस्ट से अपडेट रह सके।

  1. History by Nirman IAS ( चलते-चलते)
  2. History, Culture by GIA 
  3. Rajasthan Art, Printing, handicraft 
  4. राजस्थान देवी – देवता 
  5. राजस्थान: स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन, जनजागरणव राजनीतिक एकीकरण
  6. Heritage of Rajasthan
  7. लोक देवता, क्षेत्रीय बोलिया, वेशभूषा, संत-समुदाय, पर्व-मेले , साहित्य-नाट्य-नृत्य आदि
  8. Rajasthan History ( प्राचीन एवं मध्यकालीन भारत )

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-I

 

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RPSC RAS Mains Paper-II Unit-3 World Geography Notes

General Studies Paper-II- RAS/RTS Mains Examination
Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)
Part A- World
• Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers
• Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact
• Earth and its Geological time scale
• Current Geopolitical Problems

 

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RAS Mains General Studies Paper-II Unit-III Part-A World Geography Notes

RAS/RTS Mains General Studies Paper-II

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

  • Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers
  • Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact
  • Earth and its Geological time scale
  • Current Geopolitical Problems

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam 2018 Paper-I

 

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Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers:-

Landforms are the natural features and shapes existent on the face of the earth.

  • Landforms possess many different physical characteristics and are spread out throughout the planet. Together, landforms constitute a specific terrain and their physical arrangement in the landscape forms what is termed as topography.
  • The physical features of landforms include slope, elevation, rock exposure, stratification and rock type. Oceans and continents illustrate the largest grouping of landforms. They are they further subcategorized into many different landforms based on their physical features and shapes. Examples of distinctive landforms include mountains, valleys, plateaus, glaciers, hills, loess, deserts, shorelines, and plains. Features such as volcanoes, lakes, rivers, mid-ocean ridges, and the great ocean basins are also part of landform features.

The earth has an infinite variety of landforms.  Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat. These landforms are a result of two processes. Within the earth, a continuous movement is taking place. The first or the internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places. The second or the external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion. The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms depending on elevation and slope as mountains, plateaus and plains.

Different Major Landforms on Earth

Major types of landforms on earth include mountains, valleys, plateaus, glaciers, hills, loess, plains and desserts.

MOUNTAINS

A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.

  • The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher than the clouds.
  • As you go higher, the climate becomes colder. In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
  • There are some mountains we cannot see as they are under the sea. Because of harsh climate, less people live in the mountain areas.
  • Since the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming. Mountains may be arranged in a line known as range. Many mountain systems consist of a series of parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometres.
  • The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively. Mountains vary in their heights and shape.

There are three types of mountains

  1. Fold Mountains
  2. Block Mountains
  3. Volcanic Mountains

The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world.

  • The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation.
  • They are very old fold mountains. Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
  • The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben.
  • The Rhine valley and the Vosges Mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems. Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity.
  • Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.
  • The mountains are a storehouse of water.
  • Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity.
  • The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like gum, raisins, etc.
  • Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty. Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.

Hills

Hills are raised areas on the surface of the earth with distinctive summits, but are not as high as mountains. Hills are created as a result of accumulation of rock debris or sand deposited by wind and glaciers.

  • They can also be created by faulting when the faults go slightly upwards. Hills are generally present in low mountain valleys and plains.
  • The Black Hills are the most known. Deep erosions of areas previously raised by the earth’s crust disturbances carry most of the soil away leaving behind a hill.
  • Human activities may also create hill when soils are dug and piled giant masses. Volcanic eruptions as well create hills after the eruption when the molten materials or lava cools and hardens in a pile.

RPSC RAS Mains Paper-2 Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes

 

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PLATEAUS

A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.

  • The height of plateaus often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres. Plateaus, like mountains may be young or old.
  • The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus. The East African Plateau in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and the Western plateau of Australia are other examples.
  • The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to 6,000 metres above the mean sea level.
  • Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits. As a result, many of the mining areas in the world are located in the plateau areas. The African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.
  • In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau. In the plateau areas, there may be several waterfalls as the river falls from a great height.
  • In India, the Hundru falls in the Chhotanagpur plateau on the river Subarnarekha and the Jog falls in Karnataka are examples of such waterfalls. The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that is fertile and good for cultivation.

 

PLAINS

Plains are large stretches of flat land.

  • They are, generally, not more than 200 metres above mean sea level.
  • Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating.
  • Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.
  • The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them.
  • They carry forward the eroded material.
  • Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys.
  • It is from these deposits that plains are formed. Generally, plains are very fertile Construction of transport network is easy.
  • Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China. Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation.
  • There is great concentration of people as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.Because of fertile soils, the land is highly productive for cultivation. In India too, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated regions of the country.

 

GLACIERS

Masses of ice moving as sheets over the land (continental glacier or piedmont glacier if a vast sheet of ice is spread over the plains at the foot of mountains) or as linear flows down the slopes of mountains in broad trough-like valleys (mountain and valley glaciers) are called glaciers.

  • The movement of glaciers is slow unlike water flow. The movement could be a few centimetres to a few metres a day or even less or more.
  • Glaciers move basically because of the force of gravity.Erosion by glaciers is tremendous because of friction caused by sheer weight of the ice. The material plucked from the land by glaciers (usually large-sized angular blocks and fragments) get dragged along the floors or sides of the valleys and cause great damage through abrasion and plucking.
  • Glaciers can cause significant damage to even un-weathered rocks and can reduce high mountains into low hills and plains.
  • As glaciers continue to move, debris gets removed, divides get lowered and eventually the slope is reduced to such an extent that glaciers will stop moving leaving only a mass of low hills and vast outwash plains along with other depositional features.

 

EROSIONAL LANDFORMS

Cirque

Cirques are the most common of landforms in glaciated mountains. The cirques quite often are found at the heads of glacial valleys. The accumulated ice cuts these cirques while moving down the mountain tops. They are deep, long and wide troughs or basins with very steep concave to vertically dropping high walls at its head as well as sides.

  • A lake of water can be seen quite often within the cirques after the glacier disappears. Such lakes are called cirque or tarn lakes. There can be two or more cirques one leading into another down below in a stepped sequence.
  • Horns and Serrated Ridges Horns form through head ward erosion of the cirque walls. If three or more radiating glaciers cut headward until their cirques meet, high, sharp pointed and steep sided peaks called horns form.
  • The divides between cirque side walls or head walls get narrow because of progressive erosion and turn into serrated or saw-toothed ridges sometimes referred to as arêtes with very sharp crest and a zig-zag outline.

 

Glacial Valleys/Troughs

Glaciated valleys are trough-like and U-shaped with broad floors and relatively smooth, and steep sides. The valleys may contain littered debris or debris shaped as moraines with swampy appearance.

  • There may be lakes gouged out of rocky floor or formed by debris within the valleys. There can be hanging valleys at an elevation on one or both sides of the main glacial valley.
  • The faces of divides or spurs of such hanging valleys opening into main glacial valleys are quite often truncated to give them an appearance like triangular facets. Very deep glacial troughs filled with sea water and making up shorelines (in high latitudes) are called fjords/fiords.
  • Depositional Landforms the unassorted coarse and fine debris dropped by the melting glaciers is called glacial till. Most of the rock fragments in till are angular to subangular in form. Streams form by melting ice at the bottom, sides or lower ends of glaciers.
  • Some amount of rock debris small enough to be carried by such melt-water streams is washed down and deposited. Such glaciofluvial deposits are called outwash deposits. Unlike till deposits, the outwash deposits are roughly stratified and assorted. The rock fragments in outwash deposits are somewhat rounded at their edges.

 

Moraines

They are long ridges of deposits of glacial till. Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end (toe) of the glaciers. Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys.

  • The lateral moraines may join a terminal moraine forming a horse-shoe shaped ridge. There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley.
  • These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glaciofluvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers.
  • Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley floors. Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines.
  • The moraine in the centre of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.

 

Deserts

Deserts are the hot and dry areas of the world. They are the arid and semi-arid lands with little or no vegetation. Deserts constitute approximately 20% of the earth’s total land cover and are distinguished by little or no rainfall.

  • The deserts are divided into four major categories including the Semi-Arid Deserts, the Hot and Dry Deserts, the Cold Deserts, and the Coastal Deserts.
  • These deserts are located in different areas of the world. Deserts experience very high temperatures, less cloud cover, low humidity, low atmospheric pressure, and very little rain, which makes them have very little vegetation cover.
  • The soil cover is also rocky and shallow and with very little organic matter and as such, it only supports a few plants adapted to the conditions. Plants such as cacti and short shrubs are the ones adapted to the desert conditions because they can conserve water and tolerate the high temperatures.
  • Animals in the deserts include insects, small carnivores, snakes, lizards, and birds adapted to survive with very little water. These animals hide during the day till nightfall to avoid the heat. An example of a desert is the Sahara of North Africa.

 

Lake:-

A lake (from Latin lacus) is a large body of water (larger and deeper than a pond) within a body of land. As a lake is separated from the ocean, it is not a sea. Some lakes are very big, and people in the past sometimes called them seas. Lakes do not flow, like rivers, but many have rivers flowing into and out of them.

Lakes are classified into various types based on their origin or mode of formation. Here is a description of these different types of lakes:

 

Meteorite (extraterrestrial impact/ crater) lake

Meteorite lakes are formed in the depressions made on land by the impact of a meteor or asteroid crashing on to the Earth’s surface.

  • Over the years, precipitation accumulates in the natural depression, creating a lake. The Lonar Crater Lake, a saline soda lake located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, is an example of a meteorite lake.A study of the sediments at the bottom of such lakes often yields valuable information about extraterrestrial objects.

Anthropogenic lakes

Such lakes are created as a direct or indirect result of human activities. The most common origin of anthropogenic lakes is the creation of reservoirs by damming a river or stream.

  • Such reservoir lakes serve several purposes like the generation of hydroelectricity, storage of water for future needs, Pisciculture, etc.
  • Often, sites excavated by people are left abandoned and are filled up with water from underground aquifers or precipitation, resulting in the formation of man-made lakes.

 

Shoreline lakes

Shoreline lakes are formed along the coastline or between islands and mainland mainly due to the deposition of sediments by rivers, wave action or ocean currents that result in the creation of a water body separated from a larger water body by such deposits.

  • For examples, when estuaries are blocked or beach ridges grow by the action of sea currents, shoreline lakes are created.
  • Similarly, the meeting of two spits dividing a larger lake results in a shoreline lake.
  • When two spits or tom bolos connect the island to the mainland, the lake that is formed in between the two spits or tom bolos is also a shoreline lake.

 

Aeolian lakes

Lakes produced as a result of the action of winds are called Aeolian lakes. Such lakes are usually formed in arid environments where layers of wind-blown sand act as a natural dam in a lake basin, giving birth to an Aeolian lake. Such lakes are also formed due to the accumulation of water via precipitation in the cavity between two sand dunes. Such lakes are called interduneal lakes. An example of an Aeolian lake is Moses Lake in Washington, US.

 

Solution lakes

A solution lake is formed when the bedrock is soluble and the dissolution of the bedrock by Precipitation and percolating water results in the formation of hollows or cavities that can give birth to a lake.

  • The accumulation of precipitation in the cavity can fill it up to create a lake. Also, if the soluble bedrock collapses to form sinkholes in a region where ground water is close to the surface then the water can fill up the sinkhole creating a solution lake.
  • Such lakes are common in areas with Karst topography. Solution lakes are found in many parts of Florida and Croatia’s Dalmatian coast.

 

Landslide lakes

Landslide lakes are created when a river is naturally dammed by the deposition of debris resulting from a rock avalanche, landslide, mudflow, or volcanic eruption.

  • Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions often lead to the formation of such lakes. These lakes are also known as debris dams or barrier lakes.
  • Landslides triggered by earthquakes or heavy rainfall are the most common cause of formation of a landslide lake (about 84% of such lakes result from this cause). Volcanic eruptions are responsible for the formation of 7% of lakes of this type.
  • Landslide lakes usually do not last for long as they are of a rather ‘loose nature.’ Often flooding with a high number of casualties is the end consequence.
  • Floods originating from landslide dams result in either back flooding during the time of formation of the lake or downstream flooding at the time of failure.
  • The SoI Dam located in Tajikistan is a landslide dam triggered by an earthquake, the highest known of its kind.

Fluvial lakes

The flow of a river is usually not straight but the river bends and meanders throughout its course due to the uneven and non-uniform topography of the land. As the river flows, a number of lakes are formed by the running water and are called the fluvial lakes. The oxbow lake is a classic example of a fluvial lake. Carter Lake in Iowa, US, is an example of an oxbow lake.

Tectonic lakes

Tectonic lakes often result in the formation of some of the deepest and largest lakes in the world. As the name suggests, such lakes are formed by the tectonic movements of the Earth’s crust like tilting, folding, faulting, etc. Lake Baikal, the Caspian Sea, and the Sea of Aral are some of the examples of tectonic lakes.

Glacial lakes

Glacial lakes are formed from a melted glacier. As glaciers flow down, the erosive action of the glaciers often creates natural depressions in the bedrock below the glaciers.

  • When the glaciers recede like during the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago, patches of ice in the depression on bedrock created by glacial erosion are left behind.
  • Once the ice in these depressions melts, glacial lakes are created. Glacial lakes are quite common and most of North America’s and Europe’s lakes have a glacial origin. The Great Lakes of North America and the lakes of England’s Lake District are all examples of glacial lakes.

Volcanic lakes

Lakes with a volcanic origin are known as volcanic lakes. These lakes are usually formed in volcanic calderas or craters or when lahars or lava flows interrupt the flow of a river or stream. Volcanic lakes are formed in volcanic craters or calderas when the rate of precipitation is higher than the rate of loss of water via evaporation or drainage through an outlet.

  • An example of a lake formed in a caldera is the Crater Lake which is present within Mount Manama’s caldera in Oregon,
  • The Malheur Lake in Oregon is an example of a volcanic lake that was formed by the damming of a river, the Malheur River, by lava flow.

Organic lakes

Organic lakes are formed by the action of flora or fauna.

  • These lakes are relatively small in size and quite rare in occurrence. An example of an organic lake is a reservoir created by the damming of a river by the action of beavers. Coral lakes or dams created by vegetative growth also lead to the formation of organic lakes.

RRB Group D Exam 14 November Question Analysis All Shift

Railways RRB Group D exam is taking place today i.e 14th November 2018. The RRB Group D exam is scheduled in 3 shifts from 9AM, 12:30PM, and 4:00PM. Read this article about RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 with questions asked. Furthermore, go through the RRB Group D expected cut off and RRB Group D difficulty level. Analyse your paper with this article about the RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018.

Memory – Based Paper for RRB Group D

Check the below link to know the questions asked in RRB Group D Exam. You can practice for the next exam with this Memory Based Paper. So, make your preparation and practice more rigorous and tough with this free test. Try to solve the questions as if you are giving the actual exam!

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 1st Shift

General Science

  • What is present in Solar Energy?
  • What is the main component of Natural Gas? – Methane
  • What is called as Protein factory? – Ribosomes
  • Gases around the earth form what? – Atmosphere
  • Rusting of an Iron is an example of? – Oxidation
  • What is present in hemoglobin? Options: 1. Copper 2. Iron – Iron

Mathematics

Percentage

Profit and Loss

Trigonometry

LCM

General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • Where is Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre located? – Thiruvananthapuram
  • Which National Park is famous for one horn Rhino? – Kaziranga National Park
  • Baburnaman was written in which language? – Turkey
  • Ravichandran Ashwin became the fastest bowler to reach the 300 test wickets, he has broken whose record? – Dennis Lillie
  • Who is the current CEO of Amazon? – Jeff Bezos
  • Who is the current CEO of Microsoft? – Satya Nadella
  • Who is India’s current Attorney General? – K.K Venugopal
  • Where did International Film Festival of India 2017 held? – Goa
  • What is the Capital of Cuba? – Havana
  • When is World Radio day? – 13th February
  • Where is Dudhwa National Park situated? – Uttar Pradesh
  • Who is the Chairperson of National Commission for Women? – Rekha Sharma
  • Who has the right to resolve Lok Sabha? – Prime Minister

General Intelligence & Reasoning

To be updated.

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 2nd Shift

Mathematics

Profit and Loss

Percentage

General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • Muskaan Kirar is related to which game? – Archery
  • Recently, due to some security issues Google has announced to close their product? Options: a) Google drive b) Youtube c) Google Plus d) Google Docs – Google Plus
  • Who is the first Indian Gymnast to participate in Olympics? – Deepa Karmakar
  • Which is the state animal of Andhra Pradesh? – Blackbuck
  • Who is Presiding over Lok Sabha? – Sumitra Mahajan
  • Which is the hottest planet in the Solar System? – Venus
  • Which movie received Best Social Film Award in National Film Award 2017?
  • Which country hosted the Asia Cricket Cup 2018? – UAE
  • What is the capital of Uganda? – Kampala

General Science

  • Who discovered DNA? – Watson and Crick
  • Non active elements are placed in which group? – 18th Group

General Intelligence & Reasoning

Calendar – 3 Qs

Blood relation – 3 Qs

Analogy – 2 Qs

Mirror image – 2 Qs

General Science

  • Cusec is used to measure what?
  • Who discovered Blind language? – Louis Braille
  • Calorimeter is made of which metal? – Copper
  • What is the pH value of Blood?

Mathematics

Profit and Loss based question.

Mensuration – 2 Qs

General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • What is artificial rayon called as? – Silk
  • Which is the best soil for the production of wheat? – Jallod
  • Which country is the leading producer of Bauxite in the world? – China
  • Which island is called as White island? – Antarctica
  • Keoladeo National Park is situated in which state? – Rajasthan
  • Who is the Rajyapal of Tamil Nadu? – Banwari Lala Purohit
  • What is the currency of Britain? – Pound Sterling
  • Suzuki is the company of which country? – Japan
  • Who is the Chairperson of Indian Table Tennis? – Dushyant Chautala
  • When is World Diabetes Day? – 14th Nov
  • When is the 11th World Hindi Convention held? – Mauritius

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 2nd Shift

General Awareness & Current Affairs

  • Which country hosted the 2018 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) summit? – Nepal
  • Who was the first British Viceroy of India? – Lord Canning
  • Which gas is released when metals react with water? – Hydrogen and Nitrogen
  • Where is Aravalli range located? – Rajasthan
  • What is the unit of acceleration? – m/s2
  • Who started the Swasthya Bacche Abhiyaan? – Prakash Javadekar
  • Fastest cricketer to score century? – AB De Villiers
  • Omar Abdullah of J& K belongs to which party? – Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC)
  • Shooting World Cup 2018 will be held in which country?
  • General Science
  • What is the maximum number of elements in the Periodic table?
  • Who is the Author of Origin of Species? – Charles Darwin

Mathematics

  • The principal which will amount to Rs. 270.40 in 2 years at the rate of 4% per annum. What is the compound interest ?
  • Compound Interest on a sum of money for 2 years at 4% per annum is Rs. 2448. Simple interest on the same sum of money at the same rate of interest for 2 years will be how much?

General Intelligence & Reasoning

To be updated.

RRB Group D Analysis 14th November 2018 – 3rd Shift

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  • List – Prime Minister of India

 

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Indian Polity and Constitution General Study Question Answer for Competitive Exams

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Indian History MCQ’s useful for IAS/PCS/NDA/CDS/SSC and all other examinations

History of India Solved Question Answer

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Indian History MCQ’s useful for IAS/PCS/NDA/CDS/SSC and all other examinations

Table of Contents:-

Sources of Indian History
The Harappan Civilization
The Vedic
The Mauryan
Post Mauryan Period (200 Bc-300 AD)
Post – Gupta Period (550 B.C – 750 A.D.)
India During 300-700 A.D.
Early Medieval India
The Sultans of Delhi
The Mughal Kings
Mughal Society, Culture & Religion
The Marathas
Vijayanagar and Bahamani Empire
Eighteenth Century’s India
Advent of the Europeans and Ascendance of the British
The Indian Renaissance
Indian National Congress
Early Uprising, Revolt of 1857 and British Policies After 1857
Rise of Autonomous States
Gandhian Era (1917 – 1947)
Towards Freedom
Previous Year Solved Questions

Download 1000 GK Question From Lucent Book

  1. भगवान बुद्ध को ज्ञान की प्राप्ति कहाँ हुई थी? बोधगया
  2. आर्य समाज की स्थापना किसने की? स्वामी दयानंद ने
  3. पंजाबी भाषा की लिपि कौनसी है ? गुरुमुखी
  4. भारत की मुख्य भूमि का दक्षिणतम किनारा कौनसा है ? कन्याकुमारी
  5. भारत में सबसे पहले सूर्य किस राज्य में निकलता है ? अरुणाचल प्रदेश
  6. इंसुलिन का प्रयोग किस बीमारी के उपचार में होता है ? मधुमेह
  7. बिहू किस राज्य का प्रसिद्ध त्योहार है ? आसाम
  8. कौनसा विटामिन आंवले में प्रचुर मात्रा में मिलता है ? विटामिन C
  9. भारत का प्रथम गवर्नर जनरल कौन था ? विलियम बैंटिक
  10. कागज का आविष्कार किस देश में हुआ ? चीन
  11. गौतम बुद्ध का बचपन का नाम क्या था ? सिद्धार्थ
  12. भारत में सशस्त्र बलों का सर्वोच्च सेनापति कौन होता है ? राष्ट्रपति
  13. रतौंधी किस विटामिन की कमी से होती है ? विटामिन A
  14. पोंगल किस राज्य का त्योहार है ? तमिलनाडु
  15. गिद्धा और भंगड़ा किस राज्य के लोक नृत्य हैं ? पंजाब
  16. टेलीविजन का आविष्कार किसने किया ? जॉन लोगी बेयर्ड
  17. भारत की पहली महिला शासिका कौन थी ? रजिया सुल्तान
  18. मछली किसकी सहायता से सांस लेती है ? गलफड़ों
  19. ‘इंकलाब जिंदाबाद’ का नारा किसने दिया ? भगत सिंह ने
  20. जलियांवाला बाग हत्याकांड कब व कहाँ हुआ ? 1919 ई. अमृतसर
  21. 1939 ई. में कांग्रेस छोड़ने के बाद सुभाषचंद्र बोस ने किस दल की स्थापना की ? फॉरवर्ड ब्लॉक
  22. ‘पंजाब केसरी’ किसे कहा जाता है ? लाला लाजपत राय
  23. सांडर्स की हत्या किसने की थी ?भगत सिंह
  24. 1857 ई. के विद्रोह में किसने अपना बलिदान सबसे पहले दिया ? मंगल पांडे
  25. भारत की पहली महिला राज्यपाल कौन थी ? सरोजिनी नायडु
  26. माउन्ट एवेरेस्ट पर दो बार चढ़ने वाली पहली महिला कौन थी ? संतोष यादव
  27. ‘ब्रह्म समाज’ की स्थापना किसके द्वारा की गई ? राजा राममोहन राय
  28. स्वामी दयानंद सरस्वती का मूल नाम क्या था ? मूलशंकर
  29. ‘वेदों की ओर लोटों’ का नारा किसने दिया ? दयानंद सरस्वती
  30. ‘रामकृष्ण मिशन’ की स्थापना किसने की ? स्वामी विवेकानंद
  31. वास्कोडिगामा भारत कब आया ? 1498 ई.
  32. वास्कोडिगामा कहाँ का रहने वाला था ? पुर्तगाल
  33. हवा महल कहाँ स्थित है ? जयपुर
  34. सिख धर्म का संस्थापक किस सिख गुरु को माना जाता है ? गुरु नानक
  35. सिखों का प्रमुख त्यौहार कौन-सा है ? बैसाखी
  36. ‘लौह पुरुष’ किस महापुरुष को कहा जाता है ? सरदार पटेल
  37. नेताजी किस महापुरुष को कहा जाता है ? सुभाष चंद्र बोस
  38. दिल्ली स्थित लाल बहादुर शास्त्री की समाधि का क्या नाम है ? विजय घाट
  39. महाभारत के रचियता कौन हैं ? महर्षि वेदव्यास
  40. अर्थशास्त्र नामक पुस्तक किसने लिखी ? चाणक्य (कौटिल्य)
  41. ‘जय जवान, जय किसान’ का नारा किसने दिया ? लाल बहादुर शास्त्री
  42. संविधान सभा का स्थाई अध्यक्ष कौन था ? डॉ. राजेन्द्र प्रसाद
  43. संविधान सभा की प्रारूप समिति के अध्यक्ष कौन थे ? डॉ. भीमराव अंबेडकर
  44. विश्व ‘रेडक्रास दिवस किस तारीख को मनाया जाता है? 8 मई
  45. ‘सूर्योदय का देश के नाम से कौनसा देश प्रसिद्ध है? जापान
  46. अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय महिला दिवस किस तिथि को मनाया जाता है? 8 मार्च
  47. क्षेत्रफल की दृष्टि से भारत में सबसे छोटा राज्य कौन–सा है? गोवा
  48. ओणम किस राज्य का प्रसिद्ध त्योहार है ? केरल
  49. दिल्ली भारत की राजधानी कब बनी ? 1911
  50. सबसे चमकीला ग्रह कौनसा है ? शुक्र
  51. भारत का राष्ट्रीय पशु कौनसा है ? बाघ
  52. भारत का राष्ट्रीय पक्षी कौनसा है ? मोर
  53. भारत का राष्ट्रीय जलीय जीव कौनसा है ? गंगा डॉलफिन
  54. भारत का राष्ट्रीय फल कौनसा है ? आम
  55. भारत का राष्ट्रीय फूल कौनसा है ? कमल
  56. भारत का राष्ट्रीय पेड़ कौनसा है ? बरगद
  57. भारत का राष्ट्रीय खेल कौनसा है ? हॉकी
  58. भारत के राष्ट्रीय झंडे की लम्बाई और चौड़ाई में अनुपात कितना होता है ? 3:2
  59. भारत का राष्ट्रगान किसने लिखा ? रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर
  60. भारत का राष्ट्रगीत कौनसा है ? वंदेमातरम्
  61. भारत का राष्ट्रगीत किसने लिखा है ? बंकिमचन्द्र चटर्जी
  62. महात्मा गाँधी को राष्ट्रपिता सबसे पहले किसने कहा ? नेताजी सुभाष चन्द्र बोस ने
  63. हमारा राष्ट्रीय पंचांग कौनसा है ? शक संवत्
  64. राष्ट्रगान गाने की अवधि कितनी है ? 52 सेकंड
  65. रेडियोऐक्टिवता की खोज किसने की थी? हेनरी बेकरल ने
  66. पेस मेकर का सम्बन्ध शरीर के किस अंग से है? हृदय
  67. मानव शरीर की किस ग्रन्थि को ‘मास्टर ग्रन्थि’ कहा जाता है? पियूष ग्रंथि
  68. कार्बन का सर्वाधिक शुद्ध रूप कौनसा है? हीरा
  69. एक्स-रे का आविष्कार किसने किया था? रांटजन
  70. किस धातु का प्रयोग मानव द्वारा सबसे पहले किया गया? तांबा
  71. अंतरिक्ष यात्री को बाह्य आकाश कैसा दिखायी पड़ता है? काला
  72. दूरबीन का आविष्कार किसने किया था? गैलिलियो ने
  73. दिल्ली स्थित महात्मा गाँधी की समाधि का क्या नाम है ? राजघाट
  74. भारत में पहली रेल कहाँ से कहाँ तक चली? बम्बई (वर्तमान मुंबई) से थाने तक
  75. भारत में पहली बार मेट्रो रेल सेवा किस नगर में आरम्भ की गई? कोलकाता
  76. भारत में रेल का आरम्भ किस सन में हुआ? 1853
  77. प्रथम भारतीय अंतरिक्ष यात्री कौन थे ? स्क्वाड्रन लीडर राकेश शर्मा , 1984 में
  78. भारत की प्रथम महिला मुख्यमंत्री कौन थी ?श्रीमती सुचेता कृपलानी
  79. हरियाणा के पहले मुख्यमंत्री कौन थे ? पं. भगवत दयाल शर्मा
  80. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ की स्थापना कब हुई ? 24 अक्तूबर 1945
  81. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ का मुख्यालय कहाँ स्थित है ? न्यूयॉर्क
  82. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के पहले महासचिव कौन थे? त्रिग्वेली

83.इस समय संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के कितने देश सदस्य हैं ? 193

  1. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ सुरक्षा परिषद् के कितने देश सदस्य होते हैं ? 15
  2. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ सुरक्षा परिषद् के कितने देश स्थाई सदस्य हैं? 5

86.अंतरराष्ट्रीय न्यायालय कहाँ स्थित है ? द हेग, हॉलैंड में

  1. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के वर्तमान महासचिव कौन है ? बान-की-मून
  2. संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा में हिंदी में भाषण देने वाले भारतीय कौन थे ? अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी
  3. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ सुरक्षा परिषद् के अस्थायी सदस्य कितने वर्ष के लिये चुने जाते हैं ? 2 वर्ष
  4. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ का 193वां सदस्य कौनसा देश बना था ? दक्षिण सूडान
  5. किस विटामिन की कमी से खून का रुकाव बंद नहीं होता ? विटामिन K
  6. हिंदी दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 14 सितंबर
  7. संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद द्वारा हिंदी को राष्ट्रभाषा घोषित किया गया ? अनुच्छेद 343
  8. ओलंपिक खेलों की एकल स्पर्धा में स्वर्ण पदक जीतने वाले एकमात्र भारतीय कौन है ? अभिनव बिंद्रा
  9. ओलंपिक खेलों का आयोजन कितने वर्षों बाद होता है? 4 वर्ष
  10. सन 2016 में ओलंपिक खेल कहाँ होंगे ? रियो डी जिनेरो
  11. अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मानव अधिकार दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 10 दिसंबर
  12. हरियाणा की कौनसी नस्ल की भैंस प्रसिद्ध है ? मुर्राह
  13. प्रसिद्ध शीतला माता मंदिर कहाँ स्थित है ? गुडगाँव
  14. विशाल हरियाणा पार्टी किसने बनाई थी ? राव विरेन्द्र सिंह
  15. हरियाणा का क्षेत्रफल कितना वर्ग किलोमीटर है ? 44212
  16. हरियाणा के पहले मुख्यमंत्री कौन थे ? पं.भगवत दयाल शर्मा
  17. किस देश की स्थलसीमा सर्वाधिक देशों के साथ लगती है ? चीन
  18. बैरोमीटर के पठन में तेजी से गिरावट किस बात का सूचक है ? तूफ़ान का
  19. भारतीय मरूस्थल का क्या नाम है ? थार
  20. काजीरंगा राष्ट्रीय अभयारण्य किस राज्य में है ? आसाम
  21. पृथ्वी अपनी धुरी पर किस दिशा में घूमती है ? पश्चिम से पूर्व
  22. उज्जैन किस नदी के किनारे बसा है? शिप्रा
  23. निम्न में से कौन-सी धातु बिजली की सबसे अधिक सुचालक है? चांदी
  24. ‘गोबर गैस’ में मुख्य रूप से क्या पाया जाता है ? मीथेन
  25. “स्वतन्त्रता मेरे जन्मसिद्ध अधिकार है और मैं इसे लेकर रहूँगा” किसने कहा था? लोकमान्य तिलक
  26. राज्य सभा के सदस्यों का चुनाव कितनी अवधि के लिए किया जाता है? छह वर्ष 113. हिंदी भाषा की लिपि कौनसी है ? देवनागरी
  27. हमारी आकाशगंगा का नाम क्या है ? दुग्ध मेखला या मिल्की वे
  28. हिंदी भाषा का पहला समाचारपत्र कौनसा था ? उदंत मार्तण्ड
  29. तुलसीदासकृत रामचरितमानस हिंदी भाषा की किस बोली में लिखी गयी है ? अवधी
  30. हरियाणा के राज्यकवि कौन कहलाते हैं ? उदयभानु हंस
  31. 118. आधुनिक ओलंपिक खेलों की शुरूआत कब और कहाँ से हुई ? एथेंस (यूनान) में 1896 में
  32. भारत ने किस खेल में ओलंपिक खेलों में 8 बार स्वर्ण पदक जीता है ? हाकी
  33. भारत ने आखिरी बार हाकी में स्वर्ण पदक कहाँ और कब जीता था ? 1980 मास्को में
  34. ओलंपिक खेलों का आयोजन कितने वर्षों के बाद होता है ? 4 वर्ष
  35. अंतर्राष्ट्रीय ओलंपिक समिति का मुख्यालय कहाँ स्थित है ? लुसान (स्विट्जरलैंड)
  36. सन 2012 में ओलंपिक खेल कहाँ हुए ? लन्दन
  37. ओलंपिक ध्वज में कितने गोले हैं ? 5
  38. एक ओलंपिक में सर्वाधिक स्वर्ण पदक जीतने वाला खिलाड़ी कौन है ? माइकल फेल्प्स
  39. सन 2020 में ओलंपिक खेल कहाँ होंगे ? टोकियो (जापान)
  40. सन 2012 के ओलंपिक खेलों में कांस्य पदक जीतने वाली सायना नेहवाल का संबंध किस खेल से है ? बेडमिन्टन
  41. भारत ने ओलंपिक खेलों में पहली बार किस वर्ष भाग लिया था ? सन 1900
  42. ओलंपिक खेलों में पदक जीतने वाली पहली भारतीय महिला खिलाड़ी कौन है ? कर्णम मल्लेश्वरी
  43. Back to the Vedas (वेदों की ऑर लौटो) नारा किसने दिया था ? महर्षि दयानंद
  44. प्रसिद्द झंडा गीत “झंडा ऊँचा रहे हमारा” की रचना किसने की थी ? श्यामलाल गुप्त पार्षद
  45. पशुओं में ‘मिल्क फीवर’ बीमारी किसकी कमी के कारण होती है ? कैल्शियम
  46. मानव शरीर के किस अंग द्वारा यूरिया को रक्त से फ़िल्टर किया जाता है ? गुर्दे
  47. किस एकमात्र भारतीय को अर्थशास्त्र में नोबेल पुरस्कार मिला है ? प्रो. अमृत्य सेन
  48. भारत रत्न उस्ताद बिस्मिल्ला खाँ किस वाद्य यन्त्र के वादन में विख्यात रहे हैं ? शहनाई
  49. भारत के अन्तिम गवर्नर जनरल कौन थे ? सी.राजगोपालाचारी
  50. भिलाई इस्पात संयंत्र का निर्माण किस देश के सहयोग से किया गया था ? रूस
  51. उत्तरी ध्रुव में भारत के अनुसन्धान केन्द्र का नाम क्या है ? हिमाद्रि
  52. विश्व में माउन्ट एवरेस्ट पर चढ़ने वाली प्रथम महिला कौन थी ? जापान की जुनको तबाई
  53. पीलिया किस अंग का रोग है ? यकृत या लीवर

141.”द्रव सभी दिशाओं में समान दाब पारित करता है” यह कथन किस नियम से सम्बंधित है ? पास्कल का नियम

  1. क्लोरोफिल का खनिज घटक क्या है ? मैग्नीशियम
  2. एल.पी.जी. गैस में क्या होता है ? ब्यूटेन
  3. किसने सर्वप्रथम अशोक के अभिलेखों को पढ़ा ? जेम्स प्रिंसेप
  4. किस बोद्ध भिक्षु के प्रभाव में अशोक ने बोद्ध धर्म ग्रहण किया ? उपगुप्त

146 .कौनसा मुग़ल बादशाह अशिक्षित था ? अकबर

  1. अमृतसर शहर की स्थापना किसने की ? गुरु रामदास
  2. ग़दर पार्टी का संस्थापक कौन था ? लाला हरदयाल
  3. सिख इतिहास में लंगर प्रथा किसने शुरू की ? गुरु अंगद देव
  4. सबसे प्राचीन वेद कौनसा है ? ऋग्वेद
  5. किस सुल्तान ने अपनी राजधानी दिल्ली से दौलताबाद स्थानान्तरित की ? मोहम्मद बिन तुगलक
  6. प्रथम पंचवर्षीय योजना कब प्रारंभ हुई ? 1951 में

153.चीनी यात्री ह्वेनसांग ने किस विश्वविद्यालय में अध्ययन किया ? नालन्दा

  1. कौनसा रक्त समूह सर्वदाता कहलाता है ? ओ
  2. मनुष्य के शरीर में कितनी हड्डियाँ होती है ? 206
  3. सूर्य के प्रकाश से कौनसा विटामिन प्राप्त होता है ? विटामिन D
  4. मादा एनाफ्लीज मच्छर के काटने से कौनसा रोग होता है ? मलेरिया
  5. टेलीफोन का आविष्कार किसने किया था ? अलेक्जेंडर ग्राहम बेल
  6. प्रकाश की गति कितनी होती है ? 300000 कि.मी./ सेकंड
  7. पृथ्वी सूर्य का चक्कर लगाती है यह सबसे पहले किसने बताया ? कोपरनिकस
  8. प्रकाश वर्ष का सम्बन्ध किससे है ? खगोलीय दूरी
  9. स्वर्ण मंदिर कहाँ स्थित है ? अमृतसर
  10. चारमीनार कहाँ स्थित है ? हैदराबाद
  11. कुतुबमीनार कहाँ स्थित है ? दिल्ली
  12. गेटवे आफ इंडिया कहाँ स्थित है ? मुंबई
  13. इंडिया गेट कहाँ स्थित है ? नयी दिल्ली
  14. ताज महल कहाँ स्थित है ? आगरा
  15. ‘आजाद हिन्द फौज” की स्थापना कहाँ की गई? सिंगापुर
  16. शिक्षक दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 5 सितम्बर
  17. खेल दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 29 अगस्त
  18. किसके जन्म दिवस को खेल दिवस के रूप में मनाया जाता है ? मेजर ध्यानचंद
  19. विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 5 जून
  20. “करो या मरो” का नारा किसने दिया ? महात्मा गाँधी
  21. “जय हिन्द” का नारा किसने दिया ? नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस
  22. “दिल्ली चलो” का नारा किसने दिया ? नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस
  23. “वेदों की ओर लौटो” का नारा किसने दिया ? दयानंद सरस्वती
  24. “इंकलाब ज़िन्दाबाद” का नारा किसने दिया ? भगतसिंह
  25. “तुम मुझे खून दो, मैं तुम्हें आज़ादी दूँगा” का नारा किसने दिया ? नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस
  26. “आराम हराम है” का नारा किसने दिया ? जवाहरलाल नेहरु
  27. “जय जवान जय किसान” का नारा किसने दिया ? लालबहादुर शास्त्री
  28. “मारो फ़िरंगी को” का नारा किसने दिया ? मंगल पांडे
  29. “सरफ़रोशी की तमन्ना, अब हमारे दिल में है,देखना है ज़ोर कितना बाजु-ए-कातिल में है” का नारा किसने दिया ? रामप्रसाद बिस्मिल
  1. भारत का नेपोलियन किसे कहा जाता है ? समुद्रगुप्त
  2. सती प्रथा के अंत में सबसे अधिक प्रयास किस समाज सुधारक का रहा ? राजा राममोहन राय
  3. ‘रामकृष्ण मिशन’ की स्थापना किसने की— स्वामी विवेकानंद
  4. महात्मा गांधी का जन्म दिवस किस तिथि को मनाया जाता है? 2 अक्टूबर
  5. महात्मा गांधी का पूरा नाम क्या है? मोहन दास करमचंद गांधी
  6. गांधी जी को महात्मा की उपाधि किसने दी थी? रवीद्रनाथ टैगोर
  7. ‘माई एक्सपेरीमेन्टस विद ट्रुथ’ पुस्तक के लेखक कौन थे? महात्मा गांधी
  8. भारत का सर्वोच्च नागरिक सम्मान कौनसा है ? भारत रत्न
  9. फिल्म के क्षेत्र में दिया जाने वाला सर्वोच्च भारतीय पुरस्कार कौन-सा है? दादा साहेब फाल्के पुरस्कार
  10. भारत का सर्वोच्च वीरता पदक का नाम बताएं। परमवीर चक्र
  11. भारत का शेक्सपीयर किसे कहा जाता है? कालिदास को
  12. कम्प्यूटर का पिता किसे कहा जाता है? चार्ल्स बेबेज
  13. अन्तरिक्ष में जाने वाले प्रथम व्यक्ति कौन थे? यूरी गगारिन ( रूस )
  14. चन्द्रमा पर कदम रखने वाले प्रथम व्यक्ति कौन हैं? नील आर्मस्ट्रांग
  15. अन्तरिक्ष में जाने वाले प्रथम भारतीय कौन हैं? राकेश शर्मा
  16. प्रथम भारतीय उपग्रह का नाम क्या हैं और इसे कब छोड़ा गया ? आर्यभटट सन, 1975 में
  17. संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के वर्तमान महासचिव कौन हैं? बान की मून
  18. अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय महिला दिवस किस तिथि को मनाया जाता है? 8 मार्च
  19. घेंघा रोग किसकी कमी से होता है ? आयोडीन
  20. कौनसी ग्रंथि इन्सुलिन स्रावित करती है ? अग्नाशय
  21. डूरंड कप का सम्बन्ध किस खेल से है ? फुटबॉल
  22. भारत का सबसे बड़ा बांध कौनसा है ? हीराकुंड बांध
  23. संविधान की 8वीं अनुसूची में कितनी भारतीय भाषाओँ को मान्यता दी गयी है ? 22
  24. चीन की मुद्रा कौनसी है ? युआन
  25. रेडक्रॉस के संस्थापक कौन हैं ? हेनरी डूनांट
  26. हीमोग्लोबिन की कमी से होने वाला रोग कौनसा है ? एनीमिया
  27. भारत कोकिला कौन कहलाती है ? सरोजिनी नायडू
  28. दिल्ली में कुतुबमीनार किसने बनवानी शुरु की थी ? क़ुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक
  29. बनारस हिन्दू विश्वविद्यालय के संस्थापक कौन थे ? मदनमोहन मालवीय
  30. अर्थशास्त्र के लेखक कौन थे ? चाणक्य ( कौटिल्य )
  31. विवेकानंद स्मारक कहाँ स्थित है ? कन्याकुमारी
  32. दक्षेस का मुख्यालय कहाँ स्थित है ? काठमांडू (नेपाल)
  33. दक्षेस के कितने देश सदस्य हैं ? 8 ( भारत, नेपाल, बांग्लादेश, श्रीलंका, मालदीव, भूटान, पाकिस्तान, अफगानिस्तान)
  34. भारत की तट रेखा की लम्बाई कितनी है ? 7516
  35. विश्व में अभ्रक (Mica) का सर्वाधिक उत्पादन किस देश में होता है ? भारत
  36. ग्रांट-ट्रंक रोड किसने बनवाया ? शेरशाह सूरी
  37. विटामिन ‘B’ की कमी से कौनसा रोग होता है ? बेरी-बेरी
  38. विटामिन ‘C’ की कमी से कौनसी बीमारी होती है ? स्कर्वी
  39. दूध में कौनसा विटामिन नहीं होता है ? विटामिन ‘C’
  40. विटामिन ‘D’ की कमी से कौनसा रोग होता है ? रिकेट्स
  41. किस विटामिन की कमी से खून का थक्का नहीं जमता ? विटामिन ‘K’
  42. विटामिन ‘E’ की कमी से कौनसा रोग होता है ? बांझपन
  43. विटामिन ‘C’ का रासायनिक नाम क्या है ? एस्कोर्बिक अम्ल
  44. वसा में घुलनशील विटामिन कौनसे हैं ? ‘A’ और ‘E’
  45. साधारण नमक का रासायनिक नाम क्या है ? NaCl
  46. हँसाने वाली गैस का रासायनिक नाम क्या है ? नाइट्रस ऑक्साइड (N2O)
  47. धावन सोड़ा का रासायनिक नाम क्या है ? सोड़ियम कार्बोनेट
  48. पीतल किन दो धातुओं का मिश्रण है ? तांबा और जस्ता
  49. कैल्सीफेराँल किस विटामिन का रासायनिक नाम है ? विटामिन ‘D’
  50. नेत्रदान में नेत्र के किस भाग का दान किया जाता है ? कोर्निया
  51. किस विटामिन में कोबाल्ट होता है ? विटामिन बी-12
  52. कोशिका का पावरहाउस किसे कहा जाता है ? माइटोकोंड्रिया
  53. लाल रक्त कणिकाओं का निर्माण हमारे शरीर के किस भाग में होता है ? अस्थि मज्जा (Bone Marrow)
  54. राष्ट्रीय विज्ञान दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 28 फरवरी
  55. ब्लडप्रेशर मापने के लिए किस यंत्र का प्रयोग किया जाता है ? स्फिग्मोमैनोमीटर
  56. कंप्यूटर की परमानेंट मैमोरी क्या कहलाती है ? ROM-Read Only Memory
  57. किस अधिवेशन में कांग्रेस उदारवादी और उग्रवादी नामक दो दलों में विभाजित हो गयी थी ? 1907 के सूरत अधिवेशन में
  58. तंजौर का वृहदेश्वर मंदिर किसने बनवाया था ? राजराजा प्रथम चोल ने
  59. मुगल सम्राट अकबर का जन्म कहाँ हुआ था ? अमरकोट के दुर्ग में
  60. वर्ष 2014 का फुटबॉल विश्वकप किस देश में आयोजित होगा ? ब्राज़ील
  61. वर्ष 2018 का फुटबॉल विश्वकप किस देश में आयोजित होगा ? रूस
  62. वर्ष 2014 के कामनवेल्थ खेल कहाँ होंगे ? ग्लासगो (स्कॉटलैंड)
  63. वर्ष 2015 का क्रिकेट विश्वकप कहाँ आयोजित होगा ? न्यूजीलैंड और ऑस्ट्रेलिया में
  64. संसद के दोनों सदनों की संयुक्त बैठक की अध्यक्षता कौन करता है ? लोकसभा अध्यक्ष
  65. भारत के प्रथम लोकसभा अध्यक्ष कौन थे ? गणेश वासुदेव मावलंकर
  66. भारतीय संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत जम्मू-कश्मीर को विशेष दर्जा प्राप्त है ? अनुच्छेद 370
  67. कोई विधेयक धन विधेयक है या नहीं, इसका निर्णय कौन करता है ? लोकसभा अध्यक्ष
  68. विश्व का सबसे बड़ा महाद्वीप कौनसा है ? एशिया
  69. हैदराबाद किस नदी पर बसा है ? मूसी
  70. विश्व में चांदी का सबसे बड़ा उत्पादक देश कौनसा है ? मैक्सिको
  71. क्षेत्रफल के अनुसार विश्व का सबसे छोटा देश कौनसा है ? वैटिकन सिटी
  72. स्वेज नहर किन दो सागरों को जोड़ती है ? भूमध्यसागर और लाल सागर
  73. पनामा नहर किन दो महासागरों को जोड़ती है ? प्रशांत महासागर और उत्तरी अटलांटिक महासागर
  74. भारत के संघीय क्षेत्र ‘दादरा और नगर हवेली’ की राजधानी कौनसी है ? सिल्वासा
  75. क्षेत्रफल की दृष्टि से भारत का सबसे बड़ा राज्य कौनसा है ? राजस्थान
  76. पृथ्वी दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 22 अप्रैल
  77. फूलों की घाटी किस राज्य में है ? उत्तराखंड में
  78. वर्ष 2011 में नवनिर्मित राष्ट्र दक्षिणी सूडान की राजधानी कौनसी है ? जूबा
  79. योजना आयोग का अध्यक्ष कौन होता है ? प्रधानमंत्री
  80. आईने अकबरी का लेखक कोन था ? अबुल फजल
  81. होपमेन कप किस खेल से सम्बंधित है ? टेनिस
  82. देशबंधु के नाम से कोन जाने जाते है ? चितरंजन दास
  83. अशोक चक्र मे कितनी तिलिया होती है? 24
  84. भारत मे सबसे पहली फिल्म कौन सी बनी? राजा हरिश्चन्द्र
  85. सबसे छोटी हड्डी कौनसी है ? स्टेपिज़
  86. सबसे बड़ी हड्डी कौनसी है ? फीमर (जांघ की हड्डी )
  87. मानव शरीर में कितनी पेशियाँ हैं ? 639
  88. लाल रक्त कणिका (RBC) का जीवनकाल कितना होता है ? 120 दिन
  89. जंग लगने से बचाने के लिए लोहे पर जस्ते की परत चढ़ाने की क्रिया को क्या कहते है? जस्तीकरण या गल्वेनिकरण (गेल्वेनाइजेशन)
  90. मानव शरीर की सबसे बड़ी ग्रंथि का नाम क्या है? यकृत
  91. भारत का प्रथम तेल शोधन संयंत्र कहां पर स्थित है? डिगबोई (असोम)
  92. UNESCO द्वारा कलिंग पुरस्कार किस क्षेत्र के लिए दिया जाता है ? विज्ञान के क्षेत्र में
  93. हैदराबाद में चार मीनार का निर्माण किसने करवाया ? कुली कुतुबशाह
  94. कांग्रेस द्वारा पूर्ण स्वाधीनता का प्रस्ताव कब और कहाँ पारित किया गया ? सन 1929 के लाहौर अधिवेशन में
  95. स्वेत क्रांति का सम्बन्ध किस से है ? दूध से
  96. भारत का सबसे पुराना चालू रेल इंजन कौन सा है ? फेयरी क्वीन
  97. भारत में आपातकाल की प्रथम घोषणा कब की गई ? चीनी आक्रमण के समय (26 अक्टूबर 1962)
  98. भारत में भाषा के आधार बनने वाला पहला राज्य कौनसा है ? आंध्रप्रदेश
  99. भारत पर हमला करने वाला प्रथम मुस्लिम आक्रमणकारी कौन था ? मुहम्मद बिन कासिम (712 ई.)
  100. सेल्यूकस का राजदूत जो चंद्रगुप्त मौर्य के दरबार में आया, कौन था ? मैग्स्थनीज
  101. श्रीलंका का पुराना नाम क्या है ? सिलोन
  102. विटामिन्स की खोज किसने की ? फंक ने
  103. स्टेनलैस स्टील किसकी मिश्र धातु होती है ? आयरन, क्रोमियम,निकिल
  104. कांसा किसकी मिश्र धातु होती है ? कॉपर तथा टिन
  105. स्वामी विवेकानंद ने शिकागो में हुए विश्व धर्म सम्मेलन को कब संबोधित किया ? 1893 में
  106. जलियांवाला बाग हत्याकांड कब हुआ ? 13 अप्रैल 1919
  107. पृथ्वी पर उत्तरी गोलार्ध में सबसे बड़ा दिन कब होता है ? 21 जून
  108. महात्मा बुद्ध ने अपना पहला उपदेश कहाँ दिया था ? सारनाथ
  109. साइमन कमीशन के बहिष्कार के दौरान लाठी चार्ज से किस नेता की मृत्यु हो गयी थी ? लाला लाजपत राय
  110. भारत में निर्मित प्रथम कंप्यूटर का क्या नाम है ? सिद्धार्थ
  111. ‘गायत्री मन्त्र’ का उल्लेख किस ग्रंथ में है ? ऋग्वेद
  112. मानव शरीर में पाचन क्रिया अधिकतर किस अंग में संपन्न होती है ? छोटी आंत
  113. आनुवांशिकता के नियमों का प्रतिपादन किसने किया ? ग्रगोर मैंडल ने
  114. मानव द्वारा सबसे पहले किस धातु का प्रयोग किया गया ? तांबा
  115. बाल पेन किस सिद्धांत पर काम करता है ? पृष्ठीय तनाव
  116. रेशम के कीड़े किस वृक्ष की कोमल पत्तियों पर पाले जाते हैं ? शहतूत
  117. राजस्थान में खेतड़ी किसके लिए प्रसिद्ध है ? तांबे की खान
  118. पृथ्वी के सबसे नजदीक ग्रह कौनसा है ? शुक्र
  119. मनुष्य की आँख में किसी वस्तु का प्रतिबिम्ब कहाँ बनता है ? रेटिना
  120. सूर्य से पृथ्वी पर ऊष्मा का संचरण किस विधि के द्वारा होता है ? विकिरण
  121. डी.एन.ए. की द्विगुणित कुंडली का पता किसने लगाया ? वाटसन और क्रिक
  122. ध्वनि की तीव्रता किसमें मापी जाती है ? डेसीबल
  123. मधुमक्खी पालन क्या कहलाता है ? एपीकल्चर
  124. किसी वेबसाइट के प्रथम पृष्ठ को क्या कहा जाता है ? होमपेज
  125. गाड़ियों में पीछे का दृश्य देखने के लिए किस दर्पण का प्रयोग किया जाता है ? उत्तल
  126. सामान्य परिस्थितियों में हवा में ध्वनि की गति कितनी होती है ? 332 मी./ सेकंड
  127. वह एकमात्र ग्रह कौनसा है जो अपनी धुरी पर पूर्व से पश्चिम दिशा में घूमता है ? शुक्र
  128. सूर्य में सर्वाधिक गैस कौनसी है ? हाइड्रोजन
  129. पृथ्वी से दिखाई देने वाला सबसे चमकीला ग्रह कौनसा है ? शुक्र
  130. सौरमंडल की आयु कितनी है ? 4.6 अरब वर्ष
  131. कौनसा पुच्छल तारा 76 वर्ष बाद दिखाई देता है ? हेली पुच्छल तारा
  132. पृथ्वी और सूर्य के बीच दूरी कितनी है ? 15 करोड़ किलोमीटर
  133. सूर्य का प्रकाश पृथ्वी तक पहुँचने में कितना समय लेता है ? 500 सेकंड
  134. भारत ने पहला परमाणु परीक्षण कब और कहाँ किया था ? 14 मई 1974 को पोखरण (राजस्थान) में
  135. कंप्यूटर के जिस भाग को हम स्पर्श कर सकते हैं वह क्या कहलाता है ? हार्डवेयर
  136. कैंसर के उपचार में प्रयुक्त उत्कृष्ट गैस कौनसी है ? रेडान
  137. मोनेजाइट बालू में कौनसा खनिज पाया जाता है ? थोरियम
  138. शरीर में सबसे बड़ी अंत:स्रावी ग्रंथि कौनसी है ? थायराइड
  139. संसार का विशालतम स्तनधारी कौनसा है ? व्हेल मछली
  140. ब्लड ग्रुप की खोज किसने की थी ? लैंड स्टेनर
  141. ऐलुमिनियम का प्रमुख अयस्क कौनसा है ? बॉक्साइट
  142. पहला कृत्रिम उपग्रह कौनसा था ? स्पुतनिक-1
  143. किस उपकरण द्वारा यांत्रिक ऊर्जा को विद्युत् ऊर्जा में परिवर्तित किया जाता है ? डायनेमो
  144. कंप्यूटर की अस्थायी स्मृति क्या कहलाती है ? RAM-Random Excess Memory
  145. रिक्टर पैमाने द्वारा क्या मापा जाता है ? भूकंप की तीव्रता
  146. भू-पटल में सबसे अधिक कौनसी धातु है ? एल्युमीनियम
  147. किस ग्रह को सांध्य तारा कहते हैं ? शुक्र
  148. वायुमंडल की सबसे निचली सतह को क्या कहते हैं ? क्षोभमंडल
  149. पृथ्वी को 1 डिग्री देशांतर घूमने में कितना समय लगता है ? 4 मिनट
  150. प्लास्टर ऑफ़ पेरिस किससे बनता है ? जिप्सम
  151. मछलियाँ किसकी सहायता से साँस लेती है ? गलफड़ों
  152. हरे पौधों द्वारा भोजन बनाने की क्रिया क्या कहलाती है ? प्रकाश संश्लेषण
  153. दूध से क्रीम किस प्रक्रिया से बनाई जाती है ? अपकेन्द्रिय बल
  154. रिजर्व बैक आफ इण्डिया का मुख्यालय कहाँ है? मुंबई
  155. किसे सीमांत गाँधी कहा जाता है ? खान अब्दुल गफ्फार खान
  156. विश्व का सबसे बड़ा द्वीप कौन सा है? ग्रीनलैंड
  157. स्वतन्त्र भारत के प्रथम राष्ट्पति कौन थे? डॉ. राजेन्द्र प्रसाद
  158. काली मिट्टी किस फसल के लिए सर्वाधिक उपयुक्त है? कपास
  159. कौन-सा विदेशी आक्रमणकारी ‘कोहिनूर हीरा’ एवं ‘मयूर सिंहासन’ लूटकर अपने साथ स्वदेश ले गया? नादिरशाह
  160. भारत में सबसे पुरानी पर्वत श्रृंखला कौन सी है ? अरावली पर्वतमाला
  161. धरती के तल का लगभग कितने प्रतिशत पानी है ? 71%
  162. भारत की सबसे लम्बी स्थलीय सीमा किस देश से लगती है ? बांग्लादेश
  163. हमारे सौर मण्डल का सबसे बड़ा ग्रह कौनसा है ? बृहस्पति
  164. किस नदी को ‘बिहार का शोक’ कहा जाता है? कोसी
  165. गैस सिलेंडरों से गैस लीकेज का पता लगाने के लिए उसमे किस गंध युक्त पदार्थ को मिलाया जाता है ? इथाइल मर्केप्टेन

349.वायुमंडल में सबसे अधिक किस गैस का प्रतिशत है? नाइट्रोजन

  1. कोणार्क का सूर्य मन्दिर किस प्रदेश में स्थित है? ओड़िसा
  2. किस देश से अलग होकर वर्ष 1971 में बांग्लादेश का निर्माण हुआ था? पाकिस्तान
  3. कंप्यूटर भाषा में WWW का अर्थ क्या है ? World Wide Web
  4. एक किलोबाइट (KB) में कितनी बाइट होती है ? 1024 बाईट
  5. भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस के 1929 के ऐतिहासिक अधिवेशन की अध्यक्षता किसने की ? जवाहर लाल नेहरु
  6. केन्द्रीय असेम्बली में बम फेंकने में भगत सिंह का साथी कौन था ? बटुकेश्वर दत्त
  7. मुस्लिम लीग ने भारत विभाजन की मांग सबसे पहले कब की थी ? 1940
  8. काँमनवील पत्रिका का प्रकाशन किसने किया था ? ऐनी बेसेन्ट ने
  9. किस एकमात्र भारतीय को अर्थशास्त्र में नोबेल पुरस्कार मिला है ? अमर्त्य सेन
  10. 1856 में विधवा पुनर्विवाह क़ानून किसके प्रयासों से बनाया गया था ? ईश्वरचंद्र विद्यासागर के प्रयासों से
  11. लॉर्ड केनिंग ने नवंबर 1858 में कहाँ आयोजित दरबार में भारत में क्राउन के शासन की घोषणा की ? इलाहाबाद में आयोजित दरबार में
  12. लॉर्ड वेलेजली के साथ सबसे पहले सहायक संधि किस राज्य के शासक ने की ? हैदराबाद के निजाम ने
  13. भारत की सर्वाधिक बड़ी जनजाति कौनसी है ? गोंड
  14. भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की प्रथम महिला अध्यक्ष कौन थी? ऐनी बेसेन्ट
  15. ‘शहीद-ए-आजम’ के नाम से कौन जाने जाते हैं? भगत सिंह
  16. किस योजना के फलस्वरूप भारत का विभाजन हुआ?— माउंटबेटन योजना के फलस्वरूप
  17. जनरल डायर (जलियाँवाला बाग हत्याकांड से जुड़े) की हत्या किसने की थी? उधम सिंह ने
  18. बंगाल का विभाजन कब और किसके द्वारा किया गया था? 1905 ई. में गवर्नर लार्ड कर्जन द्वारा
  19. भारत में कुल कितने उच्च न्यायालय हैं? 24
  20. प्रथम लोकसभा का अध्यक्ष कौन था? जी. वी. मावलंकर
  21. संविधान सभा का अस्थायी अध्यक्ष किसे चुना गया? सच्चिदानन्द सिन्हा
  22. कुचिपुड़ी नृत्य शैली मुख्यतः किस राज्य से सम्बन्धित मानी जाती है? आंध्रप्रदेश
  23. मोहिनीअट्टम नृत्य शैली मुख्यतः किस राज्य से सम्बन्धित मानी जाती है? केरल
  24. भरतनाट्यम नृत्य शैली मुख्यतः किस राज्य से सम्बन्धित मानी जाती है? तमिलनाडु
  25. कथकली किस राज्य का शास्त्रीय नृत्य है ? केरल
  26. केसर’ का सर्वाधिक उत्पादन किस राज्य में होता है ? जम्मू कश्मीर
  27. भारत में प्रथम बहूउद्देश्य परियोजना का निर्माण किस नदी पर किया गया ? दामोदर
  28. इंडियन नेशनल कांग्रेस के प्रथम अध्यक्ष कौन थे ? वोमेशचन्द्र बनर्जी
  29. गांधीजी किसे अपना राजनितिक गुरु मानते थे ? गोपालकृष्ण गोखले
  30. अन्तराष्ट्रीय शांति एवं सुरक्षा को बनाए रखने की जिम्मेदारी संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के किस अंग की है? सुरक्षा परिषद्
  31. नोबेल पुरस्कार पाने बाला पहला भारतीय नागरिक कौन था ? रविन्द्रनाथ टैगोर (1913 में)
  32. मिड डे मील योजना किस वर्ष शुरु हुई ? 1995 में
  33. बंग्लादेश का राष्ट्रगान कौनसा है और इसे किसने लिखा है ? ‘आमार सोनार बांग्ला’ जो रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर ने लिखा है
  34. लोधी वंश का संस्थापक कौन था ? बहलोल लोधी
  35. किस संविधान संशोधन को ‘मिनी काँन्स्टीट्यूशन’ कहते है ? 42वे
  36. गोताखोर पानी के अंदर सांस लेने के लिए कौन कौन सी गैसों का मिश्रण ले जाते हैं ? आक्सीजन और हीलियम गैसों का मिश्रण
  37. होम्योपैथी का संस्थापक कौन था ? हनीमैन
  38. फलों को पकाने में कौन सी गैस उपयोग में लायी जाती है? ऐथिलीन
  39. भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कलेंडर का पहला माह कौन सा है? चैत्र
  40. पं. हरिप्रसाद चौरसिया कौनसा वाद्य यंत्र बजाते हैं ? बाँसुरी
  41. भारत का प्रधानमंत्री बनने के लिए कम-से-कम कितनी आयु होनी चाहिए ? 25 वर्ष
  42. साँची के स्तूप का निर्माण किसने करवाया था ? अशोक
  43. यक्षगान किस राज्य का लोकनृत्य है ? कर्नाटक
  44. मैकमोहन रेखा किन दो देशों के बीच सीमा बनाती है ? भारत-चीन
  45. प्याज में खाद्य भाग कौनसा है ? तना
  46. श्रव्य परिसर में ध्वनि तरंगों की आवृति कितनी होती है ? 20 Hz से 20000 Hz
  47. मधुबनी किस राज्य की लोक चित्रकला शैली है ? बिहार
  48. विश्व का सबसे ऊँचा पर्वत शिखर माउंट एवरेस्ट किस देश में स्थित है ? नेपाल
  49. किस नदी को दक्षिण गंगा कहा जाता है ? गोदावरी
  50. निर्विरोध चुने जाने वाले एकमात्र राष्ट्रपति कौन थे ? नीलम संजीवा रेड्डी
  51. संसार का सबसे बड़ा डेल्टा सुंदरबन डेल्टा कौनसी नदियाँ बनाती हैं ? गंगा-ब्रह्मपुत्र
  52. सिन्धु घाटी सभ्यता का बंदरगाह वाला नगर कौनसा था ? लोथल
  53. किसे सितार और तबले का जनक माना जाता है ? अमीर खुसरो
  54. विश्व का सबसे ऊँचा पठार कौनसा है ? पामीर या तिब्बत का पठार
  55. योजना आयोग का अध्यक्ष कौन होता है ? प्रधानमंत्री
  56. वनस्पति घी के निर्माण में कौनसी गैस प्रयुक्त होती है ? हाइड्रोजन
  57. इंग्लिश चैनल पार करने वाला पहला भारतीय कौन था ? मिहिर सैन
  58. एक अश्व शक्ति कितने वाट के बराबर होती है ? 746 वाट
  59. पानी की बूंदों के गोल होने का क्या कारण है ? पृष्ठीय तनाव
  60. मानव निर्मित प्रथम रेशा कौनसा है ? नायलॉन
  61. स्पष्ट प्रतिध्वनि सुनने के लिए श्रोता एवं परावर्तक के बीच की दूरी होनी चाहिए ? 17 मीटर
  62. किस माध्यम में प्रकाश की चाल सर्वाधिक होती है ? निर्वात
  63. किस रंग के प्रकाश का प्रकीर्णन सबसे अधिक होता है ? बैंगनी
  64. वाहनों की हैडलाइट में किस दर्पण का उपयोग किया जाता है ? अवतल
  65. आकाश में तारे टिमटिमाते क्यों दिखते हैं? प्रकाश के अपवर्तन के कारण
  66. प्राथमिक रंग किसे कहा जाता है ? लाल, हरा, नीला
  67. वायुयानों के टायरों में कौनसी गैस भरी जाती है ? हीलियम
  68. टाँका धातु या सोल्डर में किस धातु का मिश्रण होता है? टिन व सीसा
  69. ग्लूकोमा रोग शरीर के किस अंग से संबंधित है? आँख
  70. विश्व की पहली महिला अंतरिक्ष यात्री का नाम क्या है? वेलेंटाइना तेरेश्कोवा
  71. ‘ऑरिजन ऑफ स्पीशिज बाई नेचुरल सलेक्शन’ पुस्तक के लेखक कौन थे? चार्ल्स डार्विन
  72. सिनेबार किस धातु का अयस्क है? पारा या मरकरी
  73. कौन सा यंत्र दूध में पानी की मात्रा मापने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है ? लैक्टोमीटर
  74. “हाइड्रोजन बम्ब” किस सिद्धांत पर आधारित है ? नाभिकीय संलयन
  75. पैलाग्रा रोग किस विटामिन की कमी से होता है ? विटामिन B-3
  76. मछलियों के यकृत-तेल में किसकी प्रचुरता होती है ? विटामिन D
  77. भूस्थिर उपग्रह की पृथ्वी से ऊँचाई कितनी होती है ? 36,000 किलोमीटर
  78. मनुष्य के शरीर का तापमान कितना होता है ? 37° C या 98.4 F
  79. लेंस की क्षमता का मात्रक क्या है? डायोप्टर
  80. कम्प्यूटर की IC चिप्स किस पदार्थ की बनी होती हैं? सिलिकन की
  81. पारसेक (Parsec) किसकी इकाई है? खगोलीय दूरी की
  82. पानी का घनत्व अधिकतम किस तापमान पर होता है? 4°C पर
  83. पराश्रव्य तरंगों की आवृत्ति कितनी होती है? 20,000 हर्ट्ज से अधिक
  84. मनुष्य का वैज्ञानिक नाम क्या है ? होमो सेपियन्स
  85. ब्रिटिश संसद के लिए चुने जाने वाले पहले भारतीय कौन थे ? दादा भाई नैरोजी
  86. भारत के किस राज्य में चावल का सबसे अधिक उत्पादन होता है ? पश्चिमी बंगाल
  87. भारत में ब्रह्मा जी का एकमात्र मंदिर कहाँ है ? पुष्कर (राजस्थान)
  88. पागल कुत्ते के काटने से कौनसा रोग होता है ? रैबीज या हाइड्रोफोबिया
  89. राज्यसभा का पदेन सभापति कौन होता है ? उपराष्ट्रपति
  90. दो बार नोबल पुरस्कार प्राप्त करने वाले प्रथम व्यक्ति कौन है ? मैडम मैरी क्यूरी
  91. SAARC (सार्क) या दक्षेस का मुख्यालय कहाँ है ? काठमांडू (नेपाल)
  92. प्रथम परमवीर चक्र विजेता कौन थे ? मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा
  93. भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की पहली भारतीय महिला अध्यक्ष कौन थी ? सरोजिनी नायडु
  94. सन 1983 की विश्व कप विजेता भारतीय क्रिकेट टीम के कप्तान कौन थे ? कपिलदेव
  95. राष्ट्रपति राज्यसभा में कितने सदस्य मनोनीत कर सकता है ? 12
  96. नोबल पुरस्कार किस वर्ष शुरु हुए ? 1901
  97. बंग्लादेश की मुद्रा कौनसी है ? टका
  98. रामायण किसने लिखी ? महर्षि बाल्मीकि
  99. भारत में गन्ने का सर्वाधिक उत्पादन किस राज्य में होता है ? उत्तर प्रदेश
  100. पायोरिया रोग शरीर के किस अंग को प्रभावित करता है ? दांत और मसूड़े
  101. नासिक किस नदी के किनारे स्थित है ? गोदावरी
  102. राष्ट्रपति को शपथ कौन दिलाता है ? सर्वोच्च न्यायालय का मुख्य न्यायधीश
  103. जापान की मुद्रा कौनसी है ? येन
  104. इंडियन मिलेट्री अकादमी कहाँ स्थित है ? देहरादून
  105. माऊंट एवरेस्ट पर चढ़ने वाली पहली भारतीय महिला कौन है ? बछेंद्री पाल
  106. डेविस कप का सम्बन्ध किस खेल से है ? टेनिस
  107. माऊंट एवरेस्ट पर दो बार चढ़ने वाली पहली भारतीय महिला कौन है ? संतोष यादव
  108. सर्वोच्च न्यायालय का मुख्य न्यायधीश कब तक अपने पद पर रहता है ? 65 वर्ष की आयु तक
  109. संसद का उच्च सदन कौनसा है ? राज्यसभा
  110. पंचतंत्र का लेखक कौन है ? विष्णु शर्मा
  111. सन 1954 में हुआ भारत-चीन समझौता किस नाम से जाना जाता है ? पंचशील समझौता
  112. सन 2010 में फुटबॉल विश्वकप किस देश ने जीता था ? स्पेन
  113. राष्ट्रीय रक्षा अकादमी कहाँ स्थित है ? पूना के पास खडगवासला में
  114. ‘डिस्कवरी ऑफ़ इंडिया’ पुस्तक किसने लिखी ? जवाहरलाल नेहरु
  115. एक स्वस्थ मनुष्य का हृदय एक मिनट में कितनी बार धड़कता है ? 72 बार
  116. भारत में पहली बार जनगणना कब हुई ? 1872
  117. ‘डबल फाल्ट’ शब्द किस खेल में प्रयुक्त होता है ? टेनिस
  118. भारतीय थल सेना के पहले भारतीय सेनाध्यक्ष कौन थे ? जनरल के.एम्.करियप्पा
  119. ‘लाई हरोबा’ किस राज्य का लोकनृत्य है ? मणिपुर
  120. भारत के किस राज्य में रबर का सबसे अधिक उत्पादन होता है ? केरल
  121. कोलकाता किस नदी के किनारे है ? हुगली
  122. ‘पौधों में जीवन होता है’ यह किस भारतीय वैज्ञानिक ने बताया था ? जगदीश चन्द्र बसु
  123. महात्मा गाँधी द्वारा साबरमती आश्रम कहाँ स्थापित किया गया ? अहमदाबाद
  124. मनुष्य के शरीर में कितने गुणसूत्र होते हैं ? 23 जोड़े या 46
  125. चंद्रग्रहण कब लगता है ? पूर्णिमा
  126. भारत छोड़ो आन्दोलन कब शुरु हुआ ? 8 अगस्त 1942
  127. मनुष्य के शरीर का सामान्य रक्तदाब कितना होता है ? 80 से 120 मि.मी.
  128. उत्तरी गोलार्द्ध में सबसे छोटा दिन कब होता है ? 22 दिसंबर
  129. ‘रामचरितमानस’ किसने लिखी ? तुलसीदास
  130. प्रथम एशियाई खेल कब और कहाँ आयोजित किए गए ? मई 1951 में नयी दिल्ली में
  131. वायुमंडलीय दाब किस यंत्र से मापा जाता है ? बैरोमीटर
  132. हरियाणा का पहला महिला विश्वविद्यालय कौनसा है और कहाँ है ? भगत फूल सिंह महिला विश्वविद्यालय खानपुर कलां (सोनीपत)
  133. टेस्ट मैचों की एक पारी में सभी दसों विकेट लेने वाला भारतीय कौन है ? अनिल कुंबले
  134. सन 2018 में फुटबॉल विश्वकप कहाँ होगा ? रूस
  135. संसार में सर्वाधिक जनसंख्या वाला देश कौनसा है ? चीन
  136. राष्ट्रपति लोकसभा में कितने सदस्य मनोनीत कर सकता है ? 2
  137. सर्वग्राही रक्त समूह कौन सा है ? AB
  138. असहयोग आन्दोलन किस वर्ष शुरु हुआ ? 1920
  139. ‘पेनाल्टी स्ट्रोक’ किस खेल में प्रयुक्त होता है ? हॉकी
  140. भारतीय संसद का निम्न सदन कौनसा है ? लोकसभा
  141. सिख धर्म की स्थापना किसने की थी ? गुरु नानकदेव ने
  142. भारत में जनगणना कितने वर्षों बाद होती है ? 10
  143. मेघदूत किसकी रचना है ? कालिदास
  144. भारत की स्वतंत्रता के समय ब्रिटेन का प्रधानमंत्री कौन था ? क्लेमेंट एटली
  145. एक्जीमा रोग शरीर के किस अंग को प्रभावित करता है ? त्वचा
  146. ‘स्काउट एंड गाइड्स’ संस्था की स्थापना किसने की थी ? रोबर्ट बाडेन पॉवेल
  147. संसार का सबसे बड़ा महासागर कौनसा है ? प्रशांत
  148. ‘पैनल्टी किक’ शब्द किस खेल में प्रयुक्त होता है ? फुटबॉल
  149. रणजी ट्रॉफी का सम्बन्ध किस खेल से है ? क्रिकेट
  150. ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार किस क्षेत्र से सम्बंधित है ? साहित्य
  151. भारत का सर्वोच्च खेल पुरस्कार कौनसा है ? राजीव गाँधी खेल रत्न पुरस्कार
  152. अर्जुन पुरस्कार किस वर्ष शुरु हुए ? 1961
  153. भारत की मानक समय रेखा कौनसी है ? 82.5 डिग्री पूर्वी देशांतर रेखा जो इलाहाबाद से गुजरती है
  154. मैग्सेसे पुरस्कार पाने वाले पहले भारतीय कौन थे ? बिनोवा भावे
  155. ‘मोनालिसा’ किसकी विश्वविख्यात पेंटिंग है ? लियोनार्दो-द-विंची
  156. स्वांग किस राज्य की लोकनृत्य कला है ? हरियाणा
  157. भारत में कितने उच्च न्यायालय हैं ? 24
  158. कोई विधेयक धन विधेयक है या नहीं इसका फैसला कौन करता है ? लोकसभा अध्यक्ष
  159. अंतिम मुग़ल सम्राट कौन था ? बहादुर शाह जफ़र द्वितीय
  160. तम्बाकू पर पूरी तरह प्रतिबन्ध लगाने वाला विश्व का पहला देश कौनसा है ? भूटान
  161. ‘गोदान’ किसकी रचना है ? मुंशी प्रेमचन्द
  162. ‘स्वाइन फ्लू’ बीमारी किस विषाणु से फैलती है ? H1N1
  163. राष्ट्रीय मतदाता दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 25 जनवरी
  164. भारत सरकार का संवैधानिक मुखिया कौन होता है ? राष्ट्रपति
  165. किस संविधान संशोधन द्वारा मौलिक कर्तव्यों को संविधान में जोड़ा गया ? 42वें
  166. नमक कानून को तोड़ने के लिए महात्मा गाँधी ने कौनसा आन्दोलन शुरु किया ? सविनय अवज्ञा आन्दोलन
  167. उपराष्ट्रपति का चुनाव कौन करता है ? संसद सदस्य
  168. विजयस्तंभ कहाँ स्थित है ? चित्तोड़गढ़ में
  169. विश्व का सबसे लम्बा (9438 कि.मी.) रेलमार्ग ट्रांस-साइबेरिया (रूस) किन दो शहरों को जोड़ता है ? सेंट पीटर्सबर्ग से ब्लादीवोस्तक
  170. अमरकंटक किस नदी का उद्गम स्थल है ? नर्मदा
  171. भारत में ज़िप्सम का सर्वाधिक उत्पादन किस राज्य में होता है ? राजस्थान
  172. अंग्रेजी ईस्ट इंडिया कम्पनी ने भारत में पहला कारखाना कहाँ लगाया ? सूरत (गुजरात) में
  173. ‘आईने अकबरी’ पुस्तक किसने लिखी ? अबुल फज़ल ने
  174. ‘बुली’ शब्द किस खेल में प्रयुक्त होता है ? हॉकी
  175. ‘उड़न परी’ किसे पुकारा जाता है ? पी.टी.उषा
  176. झीलों की नगरी कौनसा शहर कहलाता है ? उदयपुर
  177. आर्यसमाज की स्थापना कब और कहाँ की गयी थी ? मुंबई में 1875 में
  178. सबसे प्राचीन वेद कौनसा है ? ऋग्वेद
  179. ‘शिक्षा दिवस’ कब मनाया जाता है ? 11 नवंबर को
  180. किसके जन्मदिन को शिक्षा दिवस के रूप में मनाते हैं ? भारत के पहले शिक्षा मंत्री मौलाना अबुलकलाम आजाद के जन्मदिन को
  181. भाभा परमाणु अनुसन्धान केंद्र कहाँ स्थित है ? ट्राम्बे (मुंबई) में
  182. सन 1928 के बारदोली आन्दोलन का नेतृत्व किसने किया था ? सरदार बल्लभ भाई पटेल ने
  183. खालसा पंथ की स्थापना किसने की थी ? गुरु गोबिंद सिंह
  184. मुगल वंश की स्थापना किसने की थी ? बाबर
  185. भारत की पहली महिला I.P.S. अधिकारी कौन थी ? किरण बेदी
  186. कथक किस राज्य का शास्त्रीय नृत्य है ? उत्तर प्रदेश
  187. टीपू सुल्तान की राजधानी कौनसी थी ? श्रीरंगपट्टनम
  188. ‘चाइनामैन’ शब्द किस खेल में प्रयुक्त होता है ? क्रिकेट
  189. सबसे कठोरतम पदार्थ कौन सा है ? हीरा
  190. डायनामाईट का आविष्कार किसने किया ? अल्फ्रेड नोबल ने
  191. बिस्मिल्ला खान का संबंध किस वाद्ययंत्र से है ? शहनाई
  192. ऑस्कर पुरस्कार का संबंध किस क्षेत्र से है ? फिल्म
  193. AIDS का पूर्ण विस्तार क्या होगा ? अक्वायर्ड इम्यूनो डेफिशियेंसी सिंड्रोम
  194. जलियाँवाला बाग में गोलीबारी का आदेश किस जनरल ने दिया था ? माइकल ओ डायर
  195. पटना का प्राचीन नाम क्या था ? पाटलिपुत्र
  196. दिल्ली में लाल किला किसने बनवाया ? मुगल बादशाह शाहजहाँ ने
  197. नेताजी सुभाष राष्ट्रीय खेल संस्थान कहाँ स्थित है ? पटियाला
  198. आगा खां कप किस खेल से संबंधित है ? हॉकी
  199. बांदीपुर अभयारण्य किस राज्य में स्थित है ? कर्नाटक
  200. भाप इंजन का आविष्कार किसने किया था ? जेम्स वाट
  201. रेडियो का आविष्कार किसने किया ? इटली निवासी मारकोनी ने
  202. किस भारतीय राज्य की राजभाषा अंग्रेजी है ? नागालैंड
  203. भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस का प्रथम मुस्लिम अध्यक्ष कौन था? बदरुद्दीन तैयब जी
  204. भारत के प्रथम गृह मन्त्री कौन थे? सरदार वल्लभभाई पटेल
  205. संसार की प्रथम महिला प्रधान मन्त्री कौन हैं? सिरिमाओ भंडारनायके
  206. हड़प्पा की सभ्यता किस युग से सम्बन्धित है? कांस्य युग
  207. “दीन-ए-इलाही” धर्म किस मुगल शासक ने चलाया था? अकबर
  208. उगते और डूबते समय सूर्य लाल प्रतीत क्यों होता है ? क्योंकि लाल रंग का प्रकीर्णन सबसे कम होता है
  209. इन्द्रधनुष में कितने रंग होते हैं ? सात
  210. भूस्थिर उपग्रह की पृथ्वी से ऊँचाई कितनी होती है ? 36000 किलोमीटर
  211. चेचक के टीके की खोज किसने की ? एडवर्ड जेनर
  212. रेबीज के टीके की खोज किसने की ? लुई पास्चर
  213. दूध से दही किस जीवाणु के कारण बनता है ? लक्टो बैसिलस
  214. पराश्रव्य तरंगों की आवृति कितनी होती है ? 20000 हर्ट्ज़ से अधिक
  215. परमाणु बम किस सिद्दांत पर कार्य करता है ? नाभिकीय विखंडन
  216. विद्युत् धारा की इकाई कौनसी है ? एम्पीयर
  217. हृदय की धड़कन को नियंत्रित करने के लिए कौनसा खनिज आवश्यक है ? पोटेशियम
  218. पेनिसिलिन की खोज किसने की ? अलेक्जेंडर फ्लेमिंग
  219. मलेरिया की दवा ‘कुनिन’ किस पौधे से प्राप्त होती है ? सिनकोना
  220. संसार का सबसे बड़ा फूल कौनसा है ? रफ्लेसिया
  221. सबसे बड़ा जीवित पक्षी कौनसा है ? शुतुरमुर्ग
  222. संसार में सबसे छोटा पक्षी कौनसा है ? हमिंग बर्ड
  223. मनुष्य ने सबसे पहले किस जंतु को पालतू बनाया ? कुत्ता
  224. अंतरिक्ष यात्री को बाह्य आकाश कैसा दिखाई देता है ? काला
  225. ATM का पूर्ण विस्तार क्या होगा ? Automated Teller Machine
  226. संसद का संयुक्त अधिवेशन कौन बुलाता है ? राष्ट्रपति
  227. एलबीडबल्यू (LBW) शब्द किस खेल से है ? क्रिकेट
  228. वायुमंडल की कौन सी परत हमें सूर्य से आने वाली अल्ट्रावायलेट किरणों से बचाती है ? ओजोन
  229. ख्वाजा मोईनुद्दीन चिश्ती की दरगाह कहाँ है ? अजमेर
  230. सम्राट अशोक ने किस युद्ध के बाद बोद्ध धर्म ग्रहण कर लिया था ? कलिंग युद्ध
  231. भारत का केन्द्रीय बैंक कौनसा है ? भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक
  232. सालारजंग म्यूजियम कहाँ है ? हैदराबाद
  233. भारत में सबसे लम्बे समय तक मुख्यमंत्री कौन रहा है ? ज्योति बसु (पश्चिम बंगाल)
  234. संसार की सबसे लम्बी नदी कौनसी है ? नील
  235. किस तापमान पर सेल्सियस और फारेनहाइट तापमान बराबर होता है ? -40 डिग्री
  236. कांसा किसकी मिश्रधातु है ? तांबा और टिन
  237. दलीप ट्राफी का सम्बन्ध किस खेल से है ? क्रिकेट
  238. LPG का पूर्ण विस्तार क्या होगा ? Liqified Petroleum Gas
  239. ‘गीता रहस्य’ पुस्तक किसने लिखी ? बाल गंगाधर तिलक
  240. राज्यसभा के कितने सदस्यों का चुनाव हर 2 वर्ष बाद होता है ? एक-तिहाई
  241. अमेरिकी राष्ट्रपति का कार्यकाल कितने वर्ष होता है ? चार वर्ष
  242. अयोध्या किस नदी के किनारे है ? सरयू
  243. जयपुर की स्थापना किसने की थी ? आमेर के राजा सवाई जयसिंह ने
  244. भारतीय संविधान में पहला संशोधन कब किया गया ? 1951 में
  245. डूरंड कप किस खेल से संबंधित है ? फुटबॉल
  246. सन 1907 में शुरु किया गया साहित्य का नोबल पुरस्कार किसे दिया गया ? रुडयार्ड किपलिंग
  247. किसके शासनकाल में मोरक्को का यात्री इब्नबतूता भारत आया ? मोहम्मद बिन तुगलक
  248. भारत के पहले कानून मंत्री कौन थे ? डॉ.भीमराव अम्बेडकर
  249. ‘अभिज्ञान शाकुन्तलम’ के लेखक कौन थे ? कालिदास
  250. श्रमिक दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 1 मई
  251. ‘ओडिसी’ किस राज्य का शास्त्रीय नृत्य है ? ओड़िसा
  252. भाखड़ा बांध किस नदी पर बनाया गया है ? सतलुज
  253. भारत का क्षेत्रफल कितना है ? 32,87,263 वर्ग कि.मी.
  254. अमेरिका ने जापान के हिरोशिमा पर परमाणु बम कब गिराया था ? 6 अगस्त 1945 को
  255. राष्ट्रपति चुनाव में कौन वोट डालता है ? संसद तथा राज्य विधानसभाओं के चुने हुए सदस्य
  256. हरियाणा के पहले राज्यपाल कौन थे ? धर्मवीर
  257. उत्तरी ध्रुव को दक्षिणी ध्रुव से मिलाने वाली काल्पनिक रेखा क्या कहलाती है ? देशांतर रेखा
  258. महात्मा गाँधी की हत्या कब और किसने की ? 30 जनवरी 1948 को नाथूराम गोडसे द्वारा
  259. भारत में कौनसा अनाज सबसे ज्यादा खाया जाता है ? चावल
  260. थल सेना दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 15 जनवरी
  261. राजस्थान के माउन्ट आबू स्थित दिलवाड़ा के मंदिर किस धर्म से संबंधित हैं ? जैन धर्म
  262. हीराकुंड बांध किस नदी पर बनाया गया है ? महानदी
  263. दिल्ली स्थित जामा मस्जिद किसने बनवाई ? शाहजहाँ
  264. शांतिकाल का सर्वोच्च सैन्य पुरस्कार कौनसा है ? अशोक चक्र
  265. राष्ट्रीय डेयरी अनुसंधान संस्थान कहाँ स्थित है ? करनाल (हरियाणा)
  266. भगवान बुद्ध द्वारा सारनाथ में दिया गया पहला प्रवचन बोद्ध धर्म में क्या कहलाता है ? धर्मचक्रप्रवर्तन
  267. वायुसेना दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 8 अक्टूबर
  268. 1526, 1556 और 1761 के तीन ऐतिहासिक युद्ध किस नगर में हुए ? पानीपत (हरियाणा)
  269. हाल ही में किस राज्य से अलग करके तेलंगाना राज्य बनाया गया है ? आंध्रप्रदेश
  270. भारत के पश्चिमी तट पर कौनसा सागर है ? अरब सागर
  271. UNESCO (यूनेस्को) का मुख्यालय कहाँ है ? पेरिस (फ्रांस)
  272. विश्व व्यापार संगठन की स्थापना कब हुई ? 1995 में
  273. शिक्षा की किंडरगार्टन पद्यति किसकी देन है ? फ्रोबेल
  274. NCERT की स्थापना कब हुई ? 1961 में
  275. तानसेन किसके दरबार में संगीतज्ञ था ? अकबर
  276. कौन 4 वर्ष तक अकबर का संरक्षक रहा ? बैरम खान
  277. पंडित रविशंकर का संबंध किस वाद्य यंत्र से है ? सितार
  278. ‘पैनल्टी कार्नर’ का संबंध किस खेल से है ? हॉकी
  279. उत्तरी भारत में सर्दियों में वर्षा का कारण क्या है ? पश्चिमी विक्षोभ
  280. देवधर ट्राफी का संबंध किस खेल से है ? क्रिकेट
  281. रूस की मुद्रा कौनसी है ? रुबल
  282. सिन्धु घाटी सभ्यता की प्रसिद्ध बंदरगाह कौनसी थी ? लोथल
  283. जैन धर्म के प्रथम तीर्थंकर कौन थे ? ऋषभदेव
  284. गौतम बुद्ध का जन्म कहाँ हुआ ? लुम्बिनी जो नेपाल में है
  285. भगवान महाबीर जैन धर्म के कौनसे तीर्थंकर थे ? 24वें
  286. भारत की पहली महिला राष्ट्रपति कौन है ? प्रतिभा पाटिल
  287. कटक किस नदी पर बसा है ? महानदी
  288. बाइनरी भाषा में कितने अक्षर होते हैं ? 2
  289. LAN का विस्तार क्या होगा ? Local Area Network
  290. गौतम बुद्ध की मृत्यु कहाँ हुई थी ? कुशीनगर में
  291. गोवा पुर्तगाली शासन से कब आजाद हुआ ? 1961
  292. बक्सर का युद्ध कब हुआ जिसके परिणामस्वरूप अंग्रेजों का बंगाल, बिहार और ओड़िसा पर अधिकार हो गया था ? 1764 में
  293. रेगुलेटिंग एक्ट कब लागु हुआ ? 1773 में
  294. 1857 की क्रांति के बाद अंग्रेजों ने मुगल बादशाह बहादुरशाह जफ़र को कैद करके कहाँ भेजा ? बर्मा (म्यानमार)
  295. गाँधी जी दक्षिणी अफ्रीका से भारत कब लौटे ? 9 जनवरी 1915
  296. भारत की पहली बोलती फिल्म कौनसी थी ? आलमआरा
  297. क्षेत्रफल की दृष्टि से भारत का विश्व में कौनसा स्थान है ? सातवाँ
  298. भारत की स्थलीय सीमा कितनी है ? 15200 कि.मी.
  299. भारत का पूर्व से पश्चिम तक विस्तार कितना है ? 2933 कि.मी.
  300. तिरंगे झंडे को संविधान सभा ने कब राष्ट्रीय झंडे के रूप में अपनाया ? 22 जुलाई 1947 को
  301. ‘जन-गण-मन’ को संविधान सभा ने राष्ट्रगान कब घोषित किया ? 24 जनवरी, 1950 को
  302. ‘खुदा बक्श’ पुस्तकालय कहाँ है ? पटना
  303. 1784 में कोलकाता में किसने ‘एशियाटिक सोसाइटी’ की स्थापना की थी ? विलियम जोन्स
  304. बैंकों का राष्ट्रीयकरण कब किया गया ? 1969 में
  305. किस संविधान संशोधन द्वारा 6-14 वर्ष की आयु के बच्चों के लिए शिक्षा को मौलिक अधिकार बनाया गया ? 86वां
  306. किस मौलिक अधिकार को 44वें संविधान संशोधन द्वारा हटा दिया गया ? संपत्ति का अधिकार
  307. 23.5 डिग्री उत्तरी अक्षांश रेखा क्या कहलाती है ? कर्क रेखा
  308. सशस्त्र सेना झंडा दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 7 दिसंबर
  309. भारत-पाक सीमा रेखा किस नाम से पुकारी जाती है ? रेड क्लिफ रेखा
  310. भारत में एकमात्र सक्रिय ज्वालामुखी कहाँ है ? बैरन द्वीप (अंडमान निकोबार)
  311. किस भारतीय राज्य की दो राजधानियाँ हैं ? जम्मू-कश्मीर
  312. अमेरिका ने कौनसा राज्य 1867 में रूस से ख़रीदा था ? अलास्का
  313. विश्व विकलांग दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 3 दिसंबर
  314. होपमैन कप किस खेल से संबंधित है ? टेनिस
  315. नवगठित तेलंगाना राज्य का पहला मुख्यमंत्री कौन है ? चंद्रशेखर राव
  316. भारत-श्रीलंका के बीच कौनसी खाड़ी है ? मन्नार की खाड़ी
  317. अरावली पर्वतमाला की सबसे ऊँची चोटी कौनसी है ? गुरु शिखर
  318. किस देश की समुद्री सीमा सबसे बड़ी है ? कनाड़ा
  319. किस देश की स्थल सीमा सबसे बड़ी है ? चीन
  320. म्यांमार (बर्मा) की मुद्रा कौनसी है ? क्यात
  321. मौसम संबंधित परिवर्तन वायुमंडल की किस परत में होते हैं ? क्षोभमंडल
  322. संसार का सबसे बड़ा सागर कौनसा है ? दक्षिणी चीन सागर
  323. गौतम बुद्ध द्वारा 29 वर्ष की आयु में गृह-त्याग की घटना क्या कहलाती है ? महाभिनिष्क्रमण
  324. भारत में पंचवर्षीय योजना का अनुमोदन करने वाला सर्वोच्च निकाय कौनसा है ? राष्ट्रीय विकास परिषद्
  325. भारत के किस राज्य की सीमा चीन, नेपाल और भूटान से मिलती है ? सिक्किम
  326. नाथुला दर्रा किस राज्य में स्थित है ? सिक्किम
  327. 1912 में अल-हिलाल समाचार-पत्र किसने शुरु किया ? मौलाना अबुलकलाम आजाद
  328. महान चिकित्सक चरक किसके दरबार में थे ? कनिष्क
  329. भारत में ‘मेट्रो-पुरुष’ कौन कहलाते हैं ? श्रीधरन
  330. भारत की स्वतंत्रता के समय कांग्रेस अध्यक्ष कौन थे ? जे.बी.कृपलानी
  331. कांग्रेस और मुस्लिम लीग के बीच लखनऊ समझौता किस वर्ष हुआ ? 1916
  332. पानीपत का तीसरा युद्ध किनके बीच हुआ ? मराठों और अहमदशाह अब्दाली
  333. RBI के नए नियमों के अनुसार चेक और बैंक ड्राफ्ट की वैद्यता कितने समय तक होती है ? 3 मास
  334. सबसे लम्बा राष्ट्रीय राजमार्ग कौनसा है ? NH-7, वाराणसी से कन्याकुमारी तक
  335. संगमरमर किसका परिवर्तित रूप है ? चूना-पत्थर का
  336. विश्व व्यापार संगठन का मुख्यालय कहाँ है ? जेनेवा (स्विट्ज़रलैंड)
  337. चौरी-चौरा कांड के बाद महात्मा गाँधी ने कौनसा आन्दोलन स्थगित कर दिया था ? असहयोग आन्दोलन
  338. केरल के तट को क्या कहते हैं ? मालाबार तट
  339. जेंद-अवेस्ता किस धर्म की धार्मिक पुस्तक है ? पारसी
  340. भारत का राष्ट्रगान सबसे पहले कब गाया गया था ? 1911 के कांग्रेस के कोलकाता अधिवेशन में.
  341. पानी का रासायनिक सूत्र क्या है ? H2O
  342. प्रकृति में पाया जाने वाला कठोरतम पदार्थ कौनसा है ? हीरा
  343. समुद्री जल में लवण की औसत मात्रा कितनी होती है ? 3.5%
  344. राष्ट्रीय विकास परिषद् का अध्यक्ष कौन होता है ? प्रधानमंत्री
  345. सिकंदर ने भारत पर कब आक्रमण किया ? 326 BC
  346. भारत का संविधान कितने समय में तैयार हुआ ? 2 साल 11 मास 18 दिन
  347. भारतीय संविधान में मौलिक कर्तव्य किस देश के संविधान से लिए गए हैं ? अमेरिकी संविधान
  348. संविधान की किस धारा के अंतर्गत राज्यपाल किसी राज्य में राष्ट्रपति शासन लगाने की सिफारिश करता है ? धारा 356
  349. प्रोटोन की खोज किसने की थी ? रुदेरफोर्ड
  350. भारत में प्रथम परमाणु बिजलीघर कहाँ स्थापित किया गया ? तारापुर
  351. शान्तिनिकेतन की स्थापना किसने की ? रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर
  352. अर्थशास्त्र का नोबल पुरस्कार किस वर्ष शुरु हुआ ? 1969
  353. गौतम बुद्ध द्वारा देह-त्याग की घटना क्या कहलाती है ? महापरिनिर्वाण
  354. प्रथम बौध कौंसिल कब, कहाँ और किसके शासनकाल में हुई ? 483 BC, राजगृह, अजातशत्रु
  355. सूर्य की सतह का तापमान कितना होता है ? 6000 डिग्री सेल्सिअस
  356. सवाना घास के मैदान किस महाद्वीप में है ? अफ्रीका
  357. किस संविधान संशोधन द्वारा पंचायती राज व्यवस्था लागु की गयी ? 73वें
  358. राष्ट्रपति यदि इस्तीफा देना चाहे तो किसे सौंपेगा ? उपराष्ट्रपति
  359. किस राज्य में लोकसभा की सर्वाधिक सीटें हैं ? 80, उत्तर प्रदेश
  360. भगवान महावीर का जन्म कहाँ हुआ ? कुंडाग्राम (वैशाली)
  361. चौथी बौध कौंसिल कब, कहाँ और किसके संरक्षण में हुई ? 98 AD, कुंडलवन (कश्मीर), कनिष्क
  362. पृथ्वी अपनी धुरी पर कितने कोण पर झुकी है ? 23.5 डिग्री
  363. वायुमंडल में ऑक्सीजन की मात्रा कितनी है ? 21 %
  364. वायुमंडल में कार्बनडाइऑक्साइड की मात्रा कितनी है ? 0.03%
  365. ब्रॉड गेज रेलवे लाइन की चौड़ाई कितनी होती है ? 1.676 मी.
  366. भारत में पशुओं का सबसे बड़ा मेला कहाँ भरता है ? सोनपुर (बिहार)
  367. 38वीं पैरेलल किन दो देशों को बाँटती है ? उत्तर और दक्षिण कोरिया
  368. ‘अष्टाध्यायी’ किसने लिखी ? पाणिनि
  369. बल्ब का फिलामेंट किसका बना होता है ? टंगस्टन
  370. तीसरी बौध कौंसिल कब, कहाँ और किसके संरक्षण में हुई ? 250 BC में, पाटलिपुत्र में अशोक के शासनकाल में
  371. ‘त्रिपिटक’ किस धर्म के ग्रंथ हैं और किस भाषा में लिखे गए हैं ? बौद्ध धर्म, पाली
  372. भारतीय प्रायद्वीप का क्या नाम है ? दक्कन का पठार
  373. गुजरात से गोवा तक समुद्री तट क्या कहलाता है ? कोंकण
  374. अंडमान निकोबार द्वीप समूह में कितने द्वीप हैं ? 324
  375. 42वें संविधान संशोधन द्वारा कौनसे 2 शब्द प्रस्तावना में जोड़े गए ? धर्मनिरपेक्ष और समाजवादी
  376. एक रुपए के नोट पर किसके हस्ताक्षर होते हैं ? सचिव, वित्त मंत्रालय
  377. संसद के दो सत्रों के बीच अधिकतम अवधि कितनी हो सकती है ? 6 मास
  378. ‘ऋतुसंहार’, ‘कुमारसंभव’, ‘रघुवंशम’ किसकी रचनाएँ हैं ? कालिदास
  379. अजन्ता और एलोरा की गुफाएँ कहाँ हैं ? औरंगाबाद (महाराष्ट्र)
  380. महाबलीपुरम के रथ मंदिर किसने बनवाए थे ? पल्लव राजा नरसिंहबर्मन नें
  381. भारत के कितने प्रतिशत भू-भाग पर वन हैं? 19%
  382. जिम कॉर्बेट नेशनल पार्क कहाँ स्थित है ? नैनीताल के पास (उत्तराखंड)
  383. ‘बर्डी’, ‘ईगल’, ’बोगी’, ‘पार’, ‘टी’, ‘होल-इन-वन’, शब्द किस खेल से संबंधित हैं ? गोल्फ
  384. साम्भर झील जिससे नमक बनता है किस राज्य में है ? राजस्थान
  385. गुलाम वंश का कौनसा शासक चौगान (पोलो) खेलते समय घोड़े से गिरकर मृत्यु को प्राप्त हुआ ? कुतुबुदीन ऐबक
  386. ‘गीत गोबिंद’ किसने लिखी ? जयदेव
  387. खुजराहो के मंदिर किस वंश के शासकों ने बनवाए ? चंदेल
  388. विजयनगर साम्राज्य की स्थापना कब और किसने की थी ? 1336 में हरिहर और बुक्का ने
  389. घना पक्षी विहार कहाँ स्थित है ? भरतपुर (राजस्थान)
  390. भारत में जंगली गधे कहाँ पाए जाते हैं ? कच्छ के रण (गुजरात) में
  391. मीन कैम्फ (मेरा संघर्ष) किसकी जीवनी है ? अडोल्फ़ हिटलर
  392. दास कैपिटल किसकी रचना है ? कार्ल मार्क्स
  393. महमूद गजनवी ने सोमनाथ मंदिर को कब लुटा था ? 1025 इस्वी में
  394. कौनसा अभयारण्य एक सींग वाले गैंडों के लिए प्रसिद्ध है ? काजीरंगा (असम)
  395. ‘रिपब्लिक’ पुस्तक किसने लिखी ? प्लेटो ने
  396. तैमूरलंग ने दिल्ली को कब लुटा ? 1398 में
  397. ओलंपिक खेलों में हॉकी कब शामिल किया गया ? 1928 के एम्सटर्डम (हॉलैंड) ओलंपिक में
  398. शेरशाह सूरी को कहाँ दफनाया गया ? सासाराम (बिहार)
  399. न्यूट्रान की खोज किसने की ? जेम्स चेडविक ने
  400. परमाणु रिएक्टर में मंदक के रूप में किसका प्रयोग किया जाता है ? भारी पानी और ग्रेफाइट का
  401. विश्व का सबसे छोटा महाद्वीप कौनसा है ? ऑस्ट्रेलिया
  402. N.C.C. की स्थापना किस वर्ष हुई ? 1948 में
  403. अमजद अली खान कोनसा वाद्य यंत्र बजाते हैं ? सरोद
  404. भारत का सबसे ऊँचा जलप्रपात कौनसा है ? जोग या गरसोप्पा जो शरावती नदी पर कर्नाटक में है
  405. चन्द्रमा की पृथ्वी से दूरी कितनी है ? 385000 कि.मी.
  406. विश्व का सबसे कम जनसंख्या वाला देश कौनसा है ? वैटिकन सिटी
  407. भारत में सोने की खान कहाँ है ? कोलार (कर्नाटक) में
  408. भारतीय संविधान में कितनी अनुसूचियां हैं ? 12 अनुसूची
  409. सूर्य का प्रकाश चन्द्रमा से पृथ्वी तक पहुँचने में कितना समय लेता है ? 1.3 सेकंड
  410. पन्ना (मध्य प्रदेश) की खानें किसके लिए प्रसिद्ध है ? हीरा
  411. नील नदी का उपहार कौनसा देश कहलाता है ? मिस्र
  412. ‘जय जवान, जय किसान, जय विज्ञान’ का नारा किसने दिया ? अटल बिहारी वाजपई
  413. घाना देश का पुराना नाम क्या है ? गोल्ड कोस्ट
  414. उस्ताद जाकिर हुसैन का संबंध किस वाद्ययंत्र से हैं ? तबला
  415. अमेरिका की खोज किसने की ? 1492 में क्रिस्टोफर कोलंबस ने
  416. वंदेमातरम् को सर्वप्रथम कांग्रेस के किस अधिवेशन में गाया गया ? 1896 में
  417. ‘सापेक्षता का सिद्धांत’ किसने खोजा था ? एल्बर्ट आईन्स्टाईन
  418. वायुयान की खोज किसने की ? ओलिवर और विलिवर राईट बन्धु
  419. प्रथम हृदय प्रत्यारोपण किसने किया था ? डॉ क्रिश्चियन बर्नार्ड (दक्षिणी अफ्रीका)
  420. सात पहाड़ियों का नगर कौनसा कहलाता है ? रोम
  421. शक संवत को राष्ट्रीय पंचांग के रूप में कब अपनाया गया ? 22 मार्च 1957
  422. रेडियम की खोज किसने की ? पियरे और मैरी क्युरी
  423. कितनी ऊँचाई पर जाने से तापमान 1 डिग्री C की कमी होती है ? 165 मी.
  424. किस ग्रह के चारों और वलय हैं ? शनि
  425. विश्व में सर्वाधिक शाखाओं वाला बैंक कौनसा है ? भारतीय स्टेट बैंक
  426. सफेद हाथियों का देश कौनसा है ? थाईलैंड
  427. कंगारू किस देश का राष्ट्रीय चिह्न है ? ऑस्ट्रेलिया
  428. सुन्दरलाल बहुगुणा का संबंध किस आन्दोलन से है ? चिपको आन्दोलन
  429. सन 1923 में स्वराज पार्टी का गठन किसने किया था ? चितरंजन दास और मोतीलाल नेहरु
  430. भगतसिंह, सुखदेव, राजगुरु को फांसी कब दी गयी ? 23 मार्च, 1931
  431. माउन्ट एवरेस्ट पर सबसे पहले कौन चढ़ा ? तेनजिंग नोर्के (भारत) और एडमंड हिलेरी (न्यूजीलैंड)
  432. पदमावत की रचना किसने की ? मलिक मोहम्मद जायसी
  433. अमेरिका के पहले राष्ट्रपति कौन थे ? जोर्ज वाशिंगटन
  434. जर्मनी का एकीकरण किसने किया था ? बिस्मार्क
  435. ‘शोजे-वतन’ पुस्तक किसने लिखी ? मुंशी प्रेमचन्द
  436. अलीगढ़ आंदोलन किससे संबंधित है ? सर सैय्यद अहमद खान
  437. किस मुगल बादशाह ने अंग्रेजी ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी को सूरत में कारखाना लगाने की इजाजत दी ? जहाँगीर
  438. भारत में पुर्तगालियों का प्रथम व्यापार केंद्र कौनसा था ? गोवा
  439. किस पर्व वाले दिन 1883 में स्वामी दयानंद की मृत्यु हुई थी ? दिवाली
  440. कादम्बरी किसकी रचना है ? बाणभट्ट
  441. भारत के किस राज्य में जनसंख्या घनत्व सबसे कम है ? अरुणाचल प्रदेश
  442. विश्व बैंक का मुख्यालय कहाँ है ? वाशिंगटन
  443. पेंसिल की लीड किसकी बनी होती है ? ग्रेफाइट
  444. संविधान सभा की पहली बैठक कब हुई ? 9 दिसंबर, 1946
  445. अशोक के अधिकांश शिलालेख किस लिपि में लिखे हैं ? ब्राह्मी
  446. ‘रिवर्स-फ्लिक’ का संबंध किस खेल से है ? हॉकी
  447. ‘शुष्क सेल’ में क्या होता है ? अमोनियम क्लोराइड
  448. मानस अभयारण्य किस राज्य में है ? असम
  449. विश्व में सबसे बड़ा डाकतंत्र किस देश का है ? भारत
  450. ‘लाल-तिकोन’ किसका प्रतीक चिह्न है ? परिवार नियोजन कार्यक्रम
  451. श्रीनगर की स्थापना किसने की ? अशोक
  452. गाँधी-इरविन समझौता किस वर्ष हुआ ? 3 मार्च, 1931 को
  453. भारतीय संघ का राष्ट्रपति किसके परामर्श से कार्य करता है ? प्रधानमंत्री
  454. गंधक के साथ रबड को गर्म करने की क्रिया क्या कहलाती है ? वल्कनीकरण
  455. पश्चिमी और पूर्वी घाट किन पहाड़ियों में मिलते हैं ? नीलगिरि
  456. जवाहरलाल नेहरु के नेतृत्व में अंतरिम सरकार का गठन कब हुआ ? सितम्बर 1946 में
  457. क्रिकेट पिच की लम्बाई कितनी होती है ? 22 गज या 66 फुट
  458. मोतीलाल नेहरु स्पोर्ट्स स्कूल हरियाणा में कहाँ स्थित है ? राई (सोनीपत)
  459. भारत के भूतपूर्व प्रधानमंत्री लाल बहादुर शास्त्री की मृत्यु कहाँ हुई थी ? ताशकंद
  460. कालिदास ने किस भाषा में रचनाएं लिखी थी ? संस्कृत
  461. 12 मार्च 1940 को जलियांवाला बाग हत्याकांड कराने वाले माइकल ओ डायर

की किसने लन्दन में हत्या की थी ? उधमसिंह ने

  1. सत्यशोधक समाज की स्थापना किसने की थी ? महात्मा ज्योतिबा फूले
  2. टोडा जनजाति किस राज्य में निवास करती है ? तमिलनाडु
  3. हरियाणवी भाषा की पहली फिल्म कौनसी है ? चंद्रावल
  4. असम का पुराना नाम क्या है ? कामरूप
  5. प्रोजेक्ट टाइगर कब शुरु हुआ ? सन 1973 में
  6. प्याज-लहसुन में गंध किस तत्व के कारण होती है ? सल्फर
  7. केंद्र-राज्य संबंधों के अध्ययन हेतु कौनसा आयोग गठित किया गया ? सरकारिया आयोग
  8. नयी दिल्ली का वास्तुकार कौन था ? एडविन ल्यूटिन (इंग्लैंड)
  9. मंगल और बृहस्पति ग्रहों के बीच ग्रहों के समान चक्कर लगाने वाले पिंड क्या कहलाते हैं ? शुद्र ग्रह
  10. पृथ्वी पर दिन-रात कहाँ बराबर होते हैं ? भूमध्य रेखा पर
  11. मीनाक्षी मंदिर कहाँ स्थित है ? मदुरै (तमिलनाडु)
  12. संसार में सर्वाधिक दूध उत्पादन किस देश में होता है ? भारत
  13. पागल कुत्ते के काटने से कौनसा रोग होता है ? रैबीज या हाइड्रोफोबिया
  14. दक्षिण भारत का सर्वोच्च पर्वत शिखर कौनसा है ? अनाईमुदी
  15. सरदार सरोवर परियोजना किस नदी पर बनाई गयी है ? नर्मदा
  16. तमिलनाडु और आंध्रप्रदेश के तट का क्या नाम है ? कोरोमंडल तट
  17. नीली क्रांति का संबंध किस क्षेत्र से है ? मत्स्य पालन
  18. भारत में सर्वाधिक मूंगफली का उत्पादन किस राज्य में होता है ? गुजरात
  19. भारत में सबसे कम वर्षा वाला स्थान कौनसा है ? लेह (जम्मू-कश्मीर)
  20. कौनसा ग्रह पृथ्वी की जुड़वाँ बहन कहलाता है ? शुक्र
  21. भारत में हरित-क्रांति के जनक कौन कहलाते हैं ? डॉ. नार्मन बोरलाग
  22. दलदली भूमि में कौनसी गैस निकलती है ? मीथेन
  23. विटामिन E का रासायनिक नाम क्या है ? टोकोफैरल
  24. 1984 में भोपाल गैस त्रासदी किस गैस के रिसाव से हुई थी ? मिथाइल आइसोसायनेट
  25. स्वराज शब्द का सबसे पहले प्रयोग किसने किया ? महर्षि दयानंद
  26. विलय की नीति किसने लागु की ? लार्ड डलहौजी
  27. मुस्लिम लीग की स्थापना कब की गयी ? 1906 में
  28. ‘केसरी’ और ‘मराठा’ अख़बारों का संपादन किसने किया ? बाल गंगाधर तिलक
  29. भारत का प्रथम वायसराय कौन था ? लार्ड केनिंग
  30. टोडरमल का संबंध किस क्षेत्र से था ? भू-राजस्व व्यवस्था
  31. महाराजा रणजीत सिंह की राजधानी कौनसी थी ? लाहौर
  32. पोलियो का टीका किसने खोजा था ? जोनास साल्क
  33. कर्णाटक के श्रवणबेलगोला में किस जैन संत की विशाल प्रतिमा है ? गोमतेश्वर
  34. पंचायत सदस्य बनने के लिए न्यूनतम आयु कितनी होनी चाहिए ? 21 वर्ष
  35. संसार में सर्वाधिक पानी की मात्रा किस नदी की है ? अमेजन
  36. जून-सितम्बर के दौरान तैयार होने वाली फसलें क्या कहलाती हैं ? खरीफ
  37. चंडीगढ़ में प्रसिद्ध ‘रॉक गार्डन’ किसने बनाया था ? नेकचंद
  38. विश्व बैंक का मुख्यालय कहाँ स्थित है ? वाशिंगटन D.C.
  39. संसार में मीठे पानी की सबसे बड़ी झील कौनसी है ? सुपीरियर झील
  40. योगेश्वर दत्त और सुशील कुमार का संबंध किस खेल से है ? कुश्ती
  41. प्रथम स्वाधीनता संग्राम के समय भारत का गवर्नर जनरल कौन था? लार्ड कैनिंग
  42. स्वतंत्रता के बाद देशी रियासतों के एकीकरण के लिए कौन उत्तरदायी थे? सरदार वल्लभभाई पटेल
  43. ‘फ्रंटियर गांधी’ किसे कहा जाता था? खान अब्दुल गफ्फार खान
  44. ‘कूका आंदोलन’ किसने चलाया था ? गुरु राम सिंह
  45. 1815 ई. में कलकत्ता में किसने ‘आत्मीय सभा’ की स्थापना की ? राजा राममोहन राय
  46. शिवाजी के मंत्रीमंडल का क्या नाम था ? अष्टप्रधान
  47. गुरू तेग बहादुर की हत्या किसने करवा दी ? औरंगजेब ने
  48. शाहजहाँ ने अपनी बेगम मुमताज महल की याद में कौन-सा स्मारक बनवाया था ? ताजमहल
  49. किस मुगल बादशाह के शासनकाल में चित्रकला अपनी चरमसीमा पर पहुँच गयी थी ? जहाँगीर
  50. सिख धर्म के किस गुरू की जहाँगीर ने हत्या करवा दी थी ? गुरू अर्जुनदेव
  51. ‘हुमायुँनामा’ पुस्तक की रचना किसने की थी ? गुलबदन बेगम
  52. किसने अपनी विजयों के उपलक्ष्य में चित्तोडगढ में विजय स्तम्भ का निर्माण कराया था? राणा कुम्भा ने
  53. नालंदा विश्वविधालय की स्थापना किसने की थी? कुमारगुप्त ने
  54. जगन्नाथ मंदिर किस राज्य में है ? पुरी (ओड़िशा)
  55. तराइन का प्रथम युद्ध किस-किस के बीच और कब हुआ ? पृथ्वीराज चौहान व मोहम्मद गौरी के बीच 1191 में
  56. शून्य की खोज किसने की ? आर्यभट्ट ने
  57. सिकंदर किसका शिष्य था ? अरस्तू का
  58. सिकंदर का सेनापति कौन था ? सेल्यूकस निकेटर
  59. गुप्त वंश का संस्थापक कौन था ? श्रीगुप्त
  60. कुंभ के मेले का शुभारंभ किसने किया ? हर्षवर्धन
  61. किसी एक स्थान पर कुम्भ का मेला कितने वर्ष बाद लगता है ? 12 वर्ष
  62. भारत में कितने स्थानों पर कुम्भ का मेला भरता है ? 4, हरिद्वार (गंगा), इलाहाबाद (गंगा-यमुना के संगम पर), उज्जैन (क्षिप्रा), नासिक (गोदावरी)
  63. अंजता की गुफाओं में चित्रकारी किस धर्म से संबंधित हैं ? बौद्ध धर्म से
  64. तेलंगाना राज्य की राजधानी कौनसी है ? हैदराबाद
  65. कौनसा नगर अगले 10 वर्ष तक तेलंगाना और आंध्रप्रदेश दोनों राज्यों की राजधानी रहेगा ? हैदराबाद
  66. भारत में कितने पिन कोड जोन हैं ? 9
  67. भारत में डाक सूचकांक प्रणाली (पिन कोड प्रणाली) का शुभारम्भ कब हुआ ? 1972 ई
  68. भारत का सबसे बड़ा सार्वजनिक उपक्रम कौन-सा है ? भारतीय रेल
  69. भारत और पाकिस्तान के बीच चलने वाली रेलगाड़ी कौन-सी है ? समझौता व थार एक्सप्रेस
  70. भारत में प्रथम विद्युत रेल कब चली ? 1925 ई (डेक्कन क्वीन)
  71. भारत में कुल रेलमार्ग की लंबाई कितनी है ? 63,974 किमी
  72. भारत की सबसे लंबी रेल सुरंग कौन-सी है ? पीर पंजाल सुरंग (जम्मू-कश्मीर)
  73. क्षेत्रफल की दृष्टि से भारत का सबसे बड़ा जिला कौन-सा है ? लद्दाख
  74. कौन-सा महाद्वीप पूर्णतः हिमाच्छदित (बर्फ से ढका) है ? अंटार्कटिका
  75. पृथ्वी तल पर कितने प्रतिशत भाग पर महाद्वीपों का विस्तार (भू-भाग) पाया जाता है ? 29.2%
  76. भारत व बांग्लादेश के बीच विवाद किन द्वीपों पर है ? कच्चा तिवु द्वीप और न्यूमूर द्वीप
  77. भारत का उत्तर से दक्षिण तक विस्तार कितना है ? 3214 किमी
  78. भारत के मानक समय और ग्रीनविच समय में कितना अन्तर है ? 5 ½ घंटे का
  79. भारत की स्थल सीमा की लंबाई कितनी है ? 15200 किमी
  80. भारत की सबसे लंबी सुरंग ‘पीर पंजाल सुरंग’ किस राज्य में है ? जम्मू-कश्मीर में
  81. भू-वैज्ञानिकों के अनुसार आज जहाँ हिमालय पर्वत है वहाँ पहले क्या था ? टिथिस नामक सागर
  82. भारत में सर्वप्रथम किस स्थान पर राष्ट्रीय उद्यान स्थापित किया गया ? जिम कार्बेट नेशनल पार्क नैनीताल (उत्तराखंड)
  83. कौन-सा अभ्यारण्य जंगली हाथियों के लिए प्रसिद्ध हैं ? पेरियार (केरल)
  84. लाहौर-दिल्ली बस सेवा क्या कहलाती है ? सदा-ए-सरहद
  85. कोयला की सर्वोत्तम किस्म कौन-सी होती है ? एन्थ्रेसाइट
  86. सिंधु घाटी की सभ्यता में एक बड़ा स्नानघर कहाँ मिला ? मोहनजोदड़ो में
  87. ‘ऑपरेशन फ्लड’ कार्यक्रम के सूत्रधार कौन थे ? डॉ. वर्गीज कूरियन
  88. रबी की फसलों की बुआई कब की जाती है ? अक्टूबर, नवंबर, दिसंबर
  89. भारतीय इतिहास में बाजार मूल्य नियंत्रण पद्धति की शुरुआत किसके द्वारा की गई ? अलाउद्दीन खिलजी
  90. फुटबाल का ‘ब्लैक पर्ल’ (काला हीरा) किसे कहा जाता है ? पेले
  91. किस खेल में ‘फ्री–थ्रो’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है? बास्केटबॉल
  92. किस भारतीय राज्य को पोलो खेल का उदगम माना जाता है? मणिपुर
  93. ‘गैमिबट’ शब्द किस खेल से जुड़ा है ? शतरंज
  94. क्रिकेट पिच पर पोपिंग क्रीज और स्टम्प के बीच की दूरी कितनी होती है ?

4 फुट

  1. ‘सिली प्वाइन्ट’ किस खेल से सम्बन्धित है ? क्रिकेट
  2. किस देश की टीम ने फुटबॉल का विश्व कप पांच बार जीता है ? ब्राज़ील
  3. भारतीय अन्तरिक्ष अनुसन्धान संगठन (ISRO) का मुख्यालय कहाँ है ? बैंगलुरु
  4. भारत का प्रथम परमाणु ऊर्जा रिएक्टर कौनसा था ? अप्सरा
  5. विक्रम साराभाई अन्तरिक्ष केन्द्र कहाँ पर स्थित है ? त्रिवेन्द्रम
  6. वन अनुसंधान संस्थान कहाँ स्थित है ? देहरादून
  7. अन्टार्कटिका में प्रथम भारतीय स्थायी प्रयोगशाला को क्या नाम दिया गया? दक्षिण गंगोत्री
  8. इलिसा (ELISA) परीक्षण किस रोग की पहचान के लिए किया जाता है ? एड्स रोग
  9. हवाई जहाज के ‘ब्लैक बाक्स’ का कैसा रंग होता है ? नारंगी
  10. खुरपका व मुँहपका रोग’ किनमें पाया जाता है? गाय और भैंस
  11. सूचना की उस सबसे छोटी इकाई को क्या कहते हैं जिसे कंप्यूटर समझ और प्रोसेस कर सकता है ? बिट
  12. 2011 की जनगणना के अनुसार भारत की नगरीय जनसंख्या कुल जनसंख्या की कितने प्रतिशत है ? 27.78%
  13. वर्ष 2011 की जनगणना के अनुसार पुरुष–स्त्री अनुपात (लिंगानुपात) कितना है ? 940
  14. वर्ष 2011 की जनगणना के अनुसार किस राज्य में महिलाओं का प्रति 1000 पुरुष पर अनुपात (लिंग अनुपात) सबसे कम है ? हरियाणा
  15. 2011 की जनगणना के अनुसार भारत के किस राज्य में जनसंख्या घनत्व अधिकतम है ? बिहार
  16. तेल और प्राकृतिक गैस–आयोग (ONGC) का मुख्यालय कहाँ पर स्थित है ? देहरादून
  17. भारत का अनुसंधान केंद्र ‘हिमाद्रि’ कहाँ स्थित है? आर्कटिक क्षेत्र
  18. राष्ट्रीय संग्रहालय कहाँ पर स्थित है? कोलकाता
  19. संविधान सभा का अस्थायी अध्यक्ष किसे चुना गया? सच्चिदानन्द सिन्हा
  20. भारतीय संविधान में नागरिकों को कितने मूल अधिकार प्राप्त है ? 6
  21. 42वें संशोधन द्वारा प्रस्तावना में कौन-से शब्द जोड़े गए ? समाजवादी, धर्मनिरपेक्ष व अखंडता
  22. भारत में सबसे अधिक वर्षा किस मानसून से होती हे ? दक्षिणी-पश्चिमी मानूसन
  23. भारत में औसतन वर्षा कितनी होती है ? 118 सेमी
  24. दक्षिणी-पश्चिमी मानसून किस राज्य में सबसे पहले प्रवेश करता है ? केरल में
  25. दूरदर्शन से रंगीन प्रसारण कब आरम्भ हुआ ? 1982
  26. विश्व वन्य जीव कोष द्वारा प्रतीक के रूप में किस पशु को लिया गया है? पांडा
  27. विश्व के सबसे बड़े कम्प्यूटर नेटवर्क का नाम क्या हैं? इंटरनेट
  28. ई-मेल के जन्मदाता कौन हैं? रे. टॉमलिंसन
  29. बर्ल्ड वाइड बेव ( www ) के आविष्कारक कौन हैं? टिम वर्नर्स ली
  30. HTTP का पूर्णरूप क्या है? Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
  31. दीपिका कुमारी का संबंध किस खेल से है ? तीरंदाजी
  32. भारत में करेन्सी नोट पर उसका मूल्य कितनी भाषाओं में लिखा होता है ?17
  33. फ्रांस की क्रांति कब हुई थी? 1789 ई०
  34. ‘दुनिया के मजदूरों एक हो’ का नारा किसने दिया? कार्ल मार्क्स
  35. समानता, स्वतंत्रता और बंधुत्व का नारा किस क्रांति की देन हैं? फ्रांस की राज्य क्रांति
  36. एशिया का नोबेल पुरस्कार किसे कहा जाता है? मैग्सेसे पुरस्कार को
  37. सर्वाधिक ओजोन क्षयकारी गैस कौन-सी है? CFC (क्लोरोफ्लोरोकार्बन)
  38. सी. पी. यू. का पूरा नाम क्या है? सेन्ट्रल प्रोसेसिंग यूनिट
  39. सौरमंडल में ग्रहों की संख्या कितनी हैं? 8
  40. जब चन्द्रमा, सूर्य और पृथ्वी के बीच में आता है तब कौनसा ग्रहण लगता है ? सूर्यग्रहण
  41. जल का शुह्तम रूप कौनसा होता हैं ? वर्षा का जल
  42. भारत में किस प्रकार की विद्युत् का सर्वाधिक उत्पादन होता है ? ताप विद्युत्
  43. रेडियो तरंगें वायुमंडल की किस सतह से परिवर्तित होती है ? आयन मण्डल
  44. हवाई जहाज वायुमंडल की किस परत में उड़ते है ? समतापमंडल
  45. क्षोभमण्डल की धरातल से अधिकतम ऊँचाई कितनी होती है ? 18 कि.मी.
  46. भारत में दक्षिण-पश्चिम मानसून किन महीनों में सक्रिय रहता है ? जून से सितम्बर
  47. प्रार्थना समाज की स्थापना किसने की ? आत्माराम पांडूरंग
  48. कोलकाता में ‘मिशनरी ऑफ़ चैरिटी’ संगठन की स्थापना किसने की थी ? मदर टेरेसा
  49. ‘लेडी विथ द लैंप’ के नाम से कौन प्रसिद्ध है ? फ्लोरेंस नाइटिंगेल
  50. कौनसी गैस जलने में सहायक है ? ऑक्सीजन
  51. वायुमंडल का कितना भाग 29 किलोमीटर ऊँचाई तक पाया जाता है ? 97%
  52. 1857 की क्रांति का तात्कालिक कारण क्या था ? चर्बीयुक्त कारतूस का सेना में प्रयोग
  53. सन 1906 में ढाका में मुस्लिम लीग की स्थापना किसने की ? आगा खां और सलिमुल्ला खां ने
  54. भारत में डाक टिकट पहली बार कब चली ? 1854
  55. बंगाल, बिहार और ओड़िसा में स्थाई बंदोबस्त कब और किसने लागु किया ? 1793 में लार्ड कार्नवालिस ने
  56. पानीपत की पहली लड़ाई 1526 में किसके बीच लड़ी गयी ? बाबर और इब्राहीम लोधी
  57. किस मुगल बादशाह की मृत्यु दिल्ली में पुस्तकालय की सीढ़ियों से गिरकर हुई ? हुमायूँ
  58. अकबर ने फतेहपुर सीकरी में बुलंद दरवाजा किस उपलक्ष्य में बनवाया ? गुजरात विजय
  59. भू-राजस्व की दहसाला पद्धति किसने लागु की ? अकबर
  60. औरंगाबाद में ताजमहल की प्रतिकृति किसने बनवाई थी ? औरंगजेब ने
  61. लन्दन में ‘इंडिया हाउस’ की स्थापना किसने की ? श्यामजी कृष्ण वर्मा
  62. कांग्रेस की स्थापना के समय भारत का वायसराय कौन था ? लार्ड डफरिन
  63. विश्व का सबसे बड़ा प्रायद्वीप कौनसा है ? अरब प्रायद्वीप
  64. पश्चिमी घाट को अन्य किस नाम से जाना जाता है ? सहयाद्रि पर्वत श्रृंखला
  65. तम्बाकू के धुएं में कौनसा हानिकारक तत्व पाया जाता है ? निकोटिन
  66. राष्ट्रपति का अध्यादेश कितने समय के लिए लागु रहता है ? 6 मास
  67. मौसमी गुब्बारों में किस गैस का प्रयोग होता है ? हीलियम
  68. मानव शरीर में रुधिर बैंक का कार्य कौनसा अंग करता है ? तिल्ली (प्लीहा) Spleen
  69. गाय के दूध का पीला रंग किसकी उपस्थिति के कारण होता है ? कैरोटीन
  70. विश्व एड्स दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ? 1 दिसंबर
  71. भारत के राष्ट्रीय ध्वज का डिजाईन किसने तैयार किया था ? मैडम भीखाजी कामा
  72. सन 1815 में आत्मीय सभा का गठन किसने किया था ? राजा राममोहन राय
  73. चाभी भरी घड़ी में कौनसी ऊर्जा होती है ? स्थितिज ऊर्जा
  74. प्रतिरोध का मात्रक कौनसा है ? ओह्म
  75. फ्यूज की तार किस पदार्थ की बनी होती है ? टिन और सीसे की मिश्रधातु
  76. इलेक्ट्रान की खोज किसने की ? जे.जे.थामसन
  77. गुरुत्वाकर्षण के नियम किसने बनाये ? न्यूटन
  78. परमाणु बम का आविष्कार किसने किया ? ऑटोहान
  79. इलेक्ट्रिक हीटर की कुंडली किस धातु से बनाई जाती है ? नाइक्रोम
  80. हेमेटाइट और मैग्नेटाइट किसके अयस्क हैं ? लोहा
  81. कार की बैटरी में किस अम्ल का प्रयोग होता है ? सल्फ्युरिक अम्ल
  82. मात्रकों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय पद्धति किस वर्ष लागु हुई ? सन 1971 में
  83. ‘सर्वेन्ट्स ऑफ़ इंडिया सोसाइटी’ की स्थापना किसने की थी ? गोपालकृष्ण गोखले
  84. खिलाफत आन्दोलन का नेतृत्व किसने किया ? मौलाना मोहम्मद अली
  85. किस घटना के बाद रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर ने ‘सर’ की उपाधि लौटा दी थी ? जलियाँवाला बाग हत्याकांड
  86. विश्व में सर्वाधिक जनसंख्या वाला शहर कौनसा है ? टोक्यो
  87. सफ़ेद रक्त कण (W.B.C.) का कार्य क्या है ? रोग प्रतिरोधक क्षमता
  88. अर्थशास्त्र का जनक कौन कहलाता है ? एडम स्मिथ
  89. बीजक किसकी रचना है ? संत कबीरदास
  90. चाँदबीबी कहाँ की शासक थी ? अहमदनगर
  91. इंटरनेट द्वारा सन्देश भेजना क्या कहलाता है ? ई-मेल
  92. मैराथन दौड की दूरी कितनी होती है ? 26 मील 385 गज
  93. ‘समुद्री जल’ से शुद्ध जल किस प्रक्रिया द्वारा प्राप्त किया जा सकता है ? आसवन
  94. ‘तुलबुल’ परियोजना किस नदी पर स्थित है ? झेलम
  95. लोक सभा की बैठक आयोजित करने के लिए अपेक्षित गणपूर्ति (कोरम) क्या है ? 1/10
  96. भारत में कौनसी जलवायु पाई जाती है ? उष्णकटिबंधीय मानसूनी जलवायु
  97. किस मिट्टी को रेगुर मिट्टी के नाम से जाना जाता है ? काली मिट्टी
  98. लाल मिट्टी का रंग लाल क्यों होता है ? लौह ऑक्साइड की उपस्थिति के कारण
  99. भारत के कितने प्रतिशत क्षेत्रफल पर खेती होती है ? 51%
  100. भारत के पूर्वोत्तर के राज्यों में जंगलों को काटकर जो खेती की जाती है, वह क्या कहलाती है ? झूम खेती
  101. भारत में रेशम का सबसे अधिक उत्पादन किस राज्य में होता है ? कर्नाटक
  102. टेस्ट मैचों में भारत की और पहला शतक किसने लगाया था ? लाला अमरनाथ ने

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RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Study Notes

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PREVIEW

RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Study Notes-Sports and Yoga
1. Sports Policies of India.
2. Rajasthan State Sports Council.
3. National Awards of Sports. (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
4. Yoga – Positive way of Life.
5. Eminent Players of India.
6. First Aid in Sports.
7. Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

National Sports Policy 2001

Following points are the highlights of the policy:

  • Upgradation and development of infrastructure,
  • Support to the national sports federations and appropriate bodies,
  • Strengthening of scientific and coaching support to sports,
  • Incentives to sportspersons,
  • Enhanced participation of women, tribals and rural youth,
  • Involvement of the corporate sector in sports promotion,
  • Creation of greater awareness among the public

Khelo India

 

 

 

 

Khelo India School Games was held recently which is going to have a pan India impact. The school children will get the exposure required. It is going to have a lasting impact especially with the scholarship being introduced which is a remarkable initiative by Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. The children will receive an annual scholarship worth Rs. 5.00 lakh for 8 consecutive years. Since parents complain about lack of financial support, the initiative is a step in the right direction. This will make education and sports find a right balance. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports launched the PLEDGE for Khelo India at the Khelo India School Games Carnival. The pledge is a promise to participate and encourage sportsmanship spirit and it is aimed at inspiring youngsters to build mass participation and excellence in sports.

Features of khelo India

  • Focussed on building an inclusive and comprehensive sports ecosystem in the country, Khelo India will lay emphasis on inculcating sports into the day to day lives of youngsters early in their lives.
  • Khelo India School Games concentrates on creating a platform to showcase hidden talent, creating awareness and cognizance about physical fitness as well as good health amongst youngsters.
  • 2000 children will be receiving Rs 2000 as prize money if they win in the competitions at the block, district and national levels. This can give a big boost to the children at pan India level.
  • The Khelo India is not limited to only children; it goes beyond 35 to 50 years age group. It looks changing the lifestyle of people both in rural and urban India.
  • The coaches have stagnated in terms of upgrading their knowledge and attention is given for upgrading coach’s knowledge and development. The focus is moved away from constructing large stadiums into developing neighbourhood playing areas. If people of India start playing an hour a day we not only become a better sporting nation, we will also be a healthier nation.

RAS Mains Paper-2 Important Notes

RAS MAINS EXAM PAPER-2 STUDY NOTES

 

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  1. States of Matter
  2. Allotropes of carbon.
  3. pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  4. Corrosion and its prevention
  5. Catalyst
  6. Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  7. Polymers and their uses

States of Matter

Solids are formed when the attractive forces between individual molecules are greater than the energy causing them to move apart. Individual molecules are locked in position near each other, and cannot move past one another. The atoms or molecules of solids remain in motion. However, that motion is limited to vibration energy; individual molecules stay fixed in place and vibrate next to each other. As the temperature of a solid is increased, the amount of vibration increases, but the solid retains its shape and volume because the molecules are locked in place relative to each other. To view an example of this, click on the animation below which shows the molecular structure of ice crystals.

Liquids are formed when the energy (usually in the form of heat) of a system is increased and the rigid structure of the solid state is broken down. In liquids, molecules can move past one another and bump into other molecules; however, they remain relatively close to each other like solids. Often in liquids, intermolecular forces (such as the hydrogen bonds shown in the animation below) pull molecules together and are quickly broken. As the temperature of a liquid is increased, the amount of movement of individual molecules increases. As a result, liquids can “flow” to take the shape of their container but they cannot be easily compressed because the molecules are already close together. Thus, liquids have an undefined shape, but a defined volume. In the example animation below, we see that liquid water is made up of molecules that can freely move past one another, yet remain relatively close in distance to each other.

 

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Gases are formed when the energy in the system exceeds all of the attractive forces between molecules. Thus gas molecules have little interaction with each other beyond occasionally bumping into one another. In the gas state, molecules move quickly and are free to move in any direction, spreading out long distances. As the temperature of a gas increases, the amount of movement of individual molecules increases. Gases expand to fill their containers and have low density. Because individual molecules are widely separated and can move around easily in the gas state, gases can be compressed easily and they have an undefined shape.

Solids, liquids, and gases are the most common states of matter that exist on our planet. If you would like to compare the three states to one another, click on the comparison animation below. Note the differences in molecular motion of water molecules in these three states.

Plasmas are hot, ionized gases. Plasmas are formed under conditions of extremely high energy, so high, in fact, that molecules are ripped apart and only free atoms exist. More astounding, plasmas have so much energy that the outer electrons are actually ripped off of individual atoms, thus forming a gas of highly energetic, charged ions. Because the atoms in plasma exist as charged ions, plasmas behave differently than gases, thus representing a fourth state of matter. Plasmas can be commonly seen simply by looking upward; the high energy conditions that exist in stars such as our sun force individual atoms into the plasma state.

 

Allotropes of carbon

Allotropy is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, or allotropes, when found in nature. There are several allotropes of carbon.

 

Diamond

Diamond is probably the most well known carbon allotrope. The carbon atoms are arranged in a lattice, which is a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure. It has superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. Each carbon atom in a diamond is covalently bonded to four other carbons in a tetrahedron. These tetrahedrons together form a three-dimensional network of six-membered carbon rings in the chair conformation, allowing for zero bond-angle strain. This stable network of covalent bonds and hexagonal rings is the reason that diamond is as incredibly strong as a substance.

 

As a result, diamond exhibits the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. In addition, its rigid lattice prevents contamination by many elements. The surface of diamond is lipophillic and hydrophobic, which means it cannot get wet by water but can be in oil. Diamonds do not generally react with any chemical reagents, including strong acids and bases. Uses of diamond include cutting, drilling, and grinding; jewelry; and in the semi-conductor industry.

 

Graphite

Graphite is another allotrope of carbon; unlike diamond, it is an electrical conductor and a semi-metal. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions and is used in thermo chemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds.

Graphite has a layered, planar structure. In each layer, the carbon atoms are arranged in a hexagonal lattice with separation of 0.142 nm, and the distance between planes (layers) is 0.335 nm. The two known forms of graphite, alpha (hexagonal) and beta (rhombohedra), have very similar physical properties (except that the layers stack slightly differently). The hexagonal graphite may be either flat or buckled. The alpha form can be converted to the beta form through mechanical treatment, and the beta form reverts to the alpha form when it is heated above 1300 °C. Graphite can conduct electricity due to the vast electron delocalization within the carbon layers; as the electrons are free to move, electricity moves through the plane of the layers. Graphite also has self-lubricating and dry lubricating properties. Graphite has applications in prosthetic blood-containing materials and heat-resistant materials as it can resist temperatures up to 3000 °C.

 

Fullerenes and Nanotube

Carbon Nanomaterials make up another class of carbon allotropes. Fullerenes (also called buck balls) are molecules of varying sizes composed entirely of carbon that take on the form of hollow spheres, ellipsoids, or tubes. Bucky balls and buck tubes have been the subject of intense research, both because of their unique chemistry and for their technological applications, especially in materials science, electronics, and nanotechnology. Carbon Nanotube are cylindrical carbon molecules that exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties and are efficient conductors of heat. Carbon nanobuds are newly discovered allotropes in which fullerene-like “buds” are covalently attached to the outer side walls of a carbon Nanotube. Nan buds therefore exhibit properties of both Nanotube and fullerenes.

 

Glassy Carbon

Glassy or vitreous carbon is a class of carbon widely used as an electrode material in electrochemistry as well as in prosthetic devices and high-temperature crucibles. Its most important properties are high temperature resistance, hardness, low density, low electrical resistance, low friction, low thermal resistance, extreme resistance to chemical attack, and impermeability to gases and liquids.

 

Catalyst

  • Catalyst, in chemistry, any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed. Enzymes are naturally occurring catalysts responsible for many essential biochemical reactions.

 

Most solid catalysts are metals or the oxides, sulfides, and halides of metallic elements and of the semi metallic elements boron, aluminum, and silicon. Gaseous and liquid catalysts are commonly used in their pure form or in combination with suitable carriers or solvents; solid catalysts are commonly dispersed in other substances known as catalyst supports.

 

In general, catalytic action is a chemical reaction between the catalyst and a reactant, forming chemical intermediates that are able to react more readily with each other or with another reactant, to form the desired end product. During the reaction between the chemical intermediates and the reactants, the catalyst is regenerated. The modes of reactions between the catalysts and the reactants vary widely and in solid catalysts are often complex. Typical of these reactions are acid–base reactions, oxidation–reduction reactions, formation of coordination complexes, and formation of free radicals. With solid catalysts the reaction mechanism is strongly influenced by surface properties and electronic or crystal structures. Certain solid catalysts, called polyfunctional catalysts, are capable of more than one mode of interaction with the reactants; bifunctional catalysts are used extensively for reforming reactions in the petroleum industry.

 

pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life

Acid

An acid is a substance which forms H+ ions as the only positive ion in aqueous solution.

Examples:-

Hydrochloric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and Cl– ions

HCl —> H+ + Cl–

Sulphuric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and SO42- ions

H2SO4 —>2H+ + SO42-

Nitric acid forms H+ and NO3– ions when dissolved in water

HNO3 —> H+ + NO3–

Ethanoic acid, also known as acetic acid, forms H+ and CH3COO– ions in water

CH3COOH —> H+ + CH3COO–

Acetone, also known as propanone, doesn’t form any ions in water, so it isn’t an acid.

CH3COCH3 just dissolves in water.

Methane, CH4, doesn’t form any ions in water, so this isn’t an acid either.

So just containing hydrogen doesn’t make something an Arrhenius acid.

 

Properties of Acids

  • tastes sour
  • acids change blue litmus to red
  • their aqueous (water) solutions conduct electricity (i.e. they are electrolytes)
  • react with bases to form salts and water as the only products
  • evolve hydrogen gas (H2) upon reaction with an active metal, such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, zinc, iron, aluminum, forming a salt as the only other product
  • Evolve carbon dioxide on reacting with metal carbonates.

 

Base

An alkali is a substance which forms OH- ions as the only negative ion in aqueous solution. A base is an insoluble hydroxide.

 

Examples:-

Sodium hydroxide, when dissolved in water, forms Na+ and OH– ions

NaOH —> Na+ + OH–

Calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to give Ca+ and OH– ions

Ca (OH) 2 —> Ca2+ + 2 OH–

Ethanol CH3CH2OH does not form OH– ions when dissolved in water, so it isn’t a base.

Ethanol just dissolves. Strictly speaking, ethanol actually forms a tiny amount of H+ ions in water and is a very weak acid.

 

Properties of Bases

  • taste bitter
  • Feel slippery or soapy (But don’t touch them! They react with your skin to form soap.)
  • bases turn red (acidified) litmus back to blue
  • their aqueous (water) solutions conduct electricity (i.e. they are electrolytes)
  • react with acids to form salts and water as the only products

 

pH Scale

A measure of the degree of the acidity or the alkalinity of a solution as measured on a scale (pH scale) of 0 to 14. The midpoint of 7.0 on the pH scale represents neutrality, i.e., a “neutral” solution is neither acid nor alkaline. Numbers below 7.0 indicate acidity; numbers greater than 7.0 indicate alkalinity. It is important to understand that pH is a measure of intensity, and not capacity; i.e., pH indicates the intensity of alkalinity in the same way temperature tells how hot something is, but not how much heat the substance carries.

 

The pH scale is logarithmic which means that moving on (unit either way on the pH scale results in a 10 fold increase in the degree of alkalinity or acidity.

Classification, pH, Product

Acidic

  • Hydrochloric, Sulfuric, Nitric Acids
  • 1-2 Phosphoric, Sulfamic Acids
  • 0 Citrus Fruit
  • 0 Milk

 

Neutral

  • 0-7.5 Water, Sugar, Table Salt

 

Alkaline

  • 0 Eggs
  • 0 Ammonia
  • 13-14 Caustic Soda, Degreasers

 

Products at the two extremes (less than pH 1 or greater than pH 13) are extremely oppressive and corrosive. Examples include sulfuric and hydrochloric acid on the acid end, and caustic soda on the alkaline end. Use solutions of phosphoric or sulfamic acid cleaners, typically in the pH range of slightly less than 2, may be described as “safe” acids comparison to the stronger acids. Of course, necessary safety precautions (eye and hand protection) as noted on the Material Safety Data Sheet should always be followed.

 

As an illustration of their non-aggressive behavior in comparison to stronger acids, products containing sulfamic or phosphoric acid were found to result in no chemical attacks on nylon carpets. On the other hand, a hydrochloric or powder acid-based product would basically dissolve the fibers.

 

Other than the two pH extremes, the pH scale becomes secondary to the inherent properties of the specific chemical in terms of corrosiveness. As an example, the pH of carbonated cola soda (which contains phosphoric acid) is in the 2.5 range. A concentrated (35%) hydrogen peroxide solution has a pH of approximately 3.5. Carbonated cola soda may be slightly irritating to the eyes, causing no permanent damage. However, a 35% hydrogen peroxide solution will cause chemical burns to the skin or mucous membranes. Thus, it is not the pH factor alone that causes corrosion of products to surfaces.

 

Corrosion and its prevention

Corrosion is defined as an attack on a material as a result of chemical, frequently electrochemical reaction, with the surrounding medium. According to this definition, the term corrosion can be applied to all materials, including non-metals. But in practice, the word corrosion is mainly used in conjunction with metallic materials.

 

Why do metals corrode? Apart from gold, platinum and a few others, metals do not occur in the nature in their pure form. They are normally chemically bound to other substances in ores, such as sulphides, oxides, etc. Energy must be expended (e.g. in a blast furnace) to extract the metals from the sulphides, oxides, etc to obtain pure metals.

 

Pure metals contain more bound energy, representing a higher energy state than that found in the nature as sulphides or oxides.

 

As all material in the universe strives to return to its lowest energy state, pure metals also strive to revert to their lowest energy state which they had as sulphides or oxides. One of the ways in which metals can revert to a low energy level is by corrosion. The products of corrosion of metals are often sulphides or oxides.

 

Chemical and electrochemical corrosion

Chemical corrosion can be seen as oxidation and occurs by the action of dry gases, often at high temperatures. Electrochemical corrosion on the other hand takes place by electrode reactions, often in humid environments, i.e. wet corrosion.

 

All metals in dry air are covered by a very thin layer of oxide, about 100Å (10-2µm) thick. This layer is built up by chemical corrosion with the oxygen in the air. At very high temperatures, the reaction with the oxygen in the air can continue without restraint and the metal will rapidly be transformed into an oxide.

 

At room temperature the reaction stops when the layer is thin. These thin layers of oxide can protect the metal against continued attack, e.g. in a water solution. In actual fact, it is these layers of oxide and/or products of corrosion formed on the surface of the metal that protect the metal from continued attack to a far greater extent that the corrosion resistance of the metal itself.

 

These layers of oxide may be more or less durable in water, for instance. We know that plain carbon steel corrodes faster in water than stainless steel. The difference depends on the composition and the penetrability of their respectively oxide layers. The following description of the corrosion phenomenon will only deal with electrochemical corrosion, i.e. wet corrosion.

 

Corrosion cells

How do metals corrode in liquids? Let us illustrate this, using a corrosion phenomenon called bimetal corrosion or galvanic corrosion. The bimetal corrosion cell can e.g. consist of a steel plate and a copper plate in electrical contact with one another and immersed in an aqueous solution (electrolyte).

 

The electrolyte contains dissolved oxygen from the air and dissolved salt. If a lamp is connected between the steel plate and the copper plate, it will light up. This indicates that current is flowing between the metal plates. The copper will be the positive electrode and the steel will be the negative electrode.

 

The driving force of the current is the difference in electrical potential between the copper and the steel. The circuit must be closed and current will consequently flow in the liquid (electrolyte) from the steel plate to the copper plate. The flow of current takes place by the positively charged iron atoms (iron ions) leaving the steel plate and the steel plate corrodes.

 

The corroding metal surface is called the anode. Oxygen and water are consumed at the surface of the copper plate and hydroxyl ions (OH-), which are negatively charged, are formed. The negative hydroxyl ions “neutralize” the positively charged iron atoms. The iron and hydroxyl ions form ferrous hydroxide (rust).

 

In the corrosion cell described above, the copper metal is called the cathode. Both metal plates are referred to as electrodes and the definition of the anode and the cathode are given below.

 

Anode: Electrode from which positive current flows into an electrolyte.

Cathode: Electrode through which positive electric current leaves an electrolyte.

 

When positive iron atoms go into solution from the steel plate, electrons remain in the metal and are transported in the opposite direction, towards the positive current.

 

The prerequisites for the formation of a bimetal cell are:

  1. Electrolyte
  2. Anode
  3. Cathode
  4. Oxidation medium, such as dissolved oxygen (O2) or hydrogen ions (H+).

Electrode potential – Galvanic series

The electrode potential of a metal is an indication of the tendency of the metal to dissolve and corrode in a certain electrolyte.

 

Reference is also made to the “nobility” of the metal. The more noble the metal, the higher the potential is, the less the tendency it has to dissolve in an electrolyte.

 

The electrode potentials of different metals can be specified in relation to one another in galvanic series for different electrolytes.

 

Corrosion in micro-cells

The steel-copper example has shown how corrosion takes place when two different materials are connected in an aqueous solution. How does corrosion take place on the surface of a single metal? When the surface of a metal is studied under a microscope, it will be seen that it is not a single homogeneous metal. Differences in structure and grain size occur on the surface. The chemical composition may vary and various impurities may be present.

 

If the electrode potential is measured across an apparently homogeneous surface, it will be found to vary considerably within areas of only fractions of a square millimeter. So cathodes and anodes, possibly small but sufficiently large to cause corrosion, can be formed on the same metal surface.

Parameters affecting the corrosion rate

  • Some of the most important parameters affecting the corrosion rate of metals are outlined below.

 

Oxidizing agents: The corrosion process is conditional on an anodic reaction and a cathodic reaction taking place simultaneously. The anodic reaction causes the metal to dissolve. An oxidizing agent must be present for the cathodic reaction, and the most common agents are dissolved oxygen or hydrogen ions. If the availability of oxidizing agents is restricted, the corrosion process will be inhibited or will cease entirely. The hydrogen concentration can easily be measured as pH-value. Oxygen is normally present in water, but not in sewage due to the oxygen consuming bacteria.

 

The electric conductivity of the electrolyte: Corrosion involves electrochemical reactions, and an increase in the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte will therefore increase the corrosion rate. In sea water the chloride content causes rapidly increased conductivity.

 

Temperature: An increase in temperature will generally cause an increase in the corrosion rate. A rule of thumb is that temperature increases of 10°C will double the corrosion rate.

 

Concentration: An increased concentration will normally increase the corrosion rate up to a maximum level. Higher concentration above this will not give higher corrosion rate. E.g. a chloride concentration above approximately 1500 ppm will not increase the corrosion rate.

 

Different types of corrosion

Various forms of corrosion on metals and their characteristics are lined below.

General corrosion

General corrosion is characterized by an overall attack on the surface. The corrosion takes place without distinguished anodic and cathodic areas. The corrosion resistance of metallic materials can be illustrated in iso-corrosion diagrams. The curves indicate a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year in a specific liquid at different concentrations and temperatures. These diagrams are only valid for liquids in stagnant conditions. The corrosion rate will increase considerably in high velocity areas.

 

The opposite of general corrosion is local corrosion which is divided into different types e.g. pitting, crevice and Intergranular corrosion. In local corrosion, most of the metal surface is unaffected and only small areas are highly affected. It is much easier to compensate for uniform corrosion and to adopt preventive measures in the design than to make allowance for local corrosion attacks.

Galvanic corrosion

  • When two different metals are electrically connected and in contact with an electrolyte (=liquid), they will form a galvanic cell where the more noble material is cathodic and the less noble anodic.
  • The anodic material will corrode.
  • The electro potentials of metals can be measured in different water solutions and listed in galvanic series, as for seawater in the diagram.
  • The corrosion rate depends on:
  • The surface area ratio between cathode and anode (a bigger anode area compared to the cathode area reduces the galvanic effects, e.g. stainless steel fasteners on a cast iron pump).
  • The magnitude of potential difference (compare aluminium bronze in contact with stainless steel and cast iron in contact with stainless steel).
  • The conductivity of the electrolyte (liquid).

 

Pitting corrosion

 

Typical examples of pitting corrosion can be seen on aluminium and stainless steels in liquids containing chlorides, e.g. seawater. These materials are dependent on a thin surface oxide film for their corrosion protection. Mechanical damage or an inhomogeneous spot in the oxide film could be the starting point for corrosion attacks. The conditions in the pit are characterized by oxygen deficiency and low pH, which intensifies the attack and may also render it self-sustaining.

 

The rate of pitting corrosion can be very high with the attack being localized to a considerable depth. Pitting corrosion is most likely to occur in stagnant water. Stainless steels as AISI 316L (M 0344.2343.02) and AISI 329 (M 0344.2324.02) are not resistant to pitting corrosion in seawater. Other higher alloyed stainless steels such as UNS S31254 are considered to be resistant in seawater.

 

Crevice corrosion

 

The mechanism for crevice corrosion is similar to that for pitting corrosion. Crevice corrosion takes place in confined liquid filled slots and crevices where the liquid circulation is prevented. Once corrosion has appeared, conditions in the crevice are changed; e.g. the pH-value is reduced and the chloride concentration increase. Accordingly the corrosiveness of the confined liquid will increase. Crevice corrosion mainly appears on stainless steel and aluminum in liquids containing chlorides.

 

Intergranular corrosion

 

Intergranular corrosion occurs between the grain boundaries inside a metal. This type of corrosion is well known for stainless steels which have been soaked for an excessive period of time at temperatures between 500 and 800 °C. At this temperature chromium will react with carbon at the grain boundaries and form carbides. This causes chromium depletion in the immediate vicinity of the grain boundaries. If the chromium content falls below 12 %, corrosion can easily start.

 

Stress corrosion

 

Corrosion is a combined effect of tensile stresses, either internal or applied, and a local corrosion attack. Tensile stresses arise for example during cold work of steel sheet or as a result of directly applied load. Stress corrosion is generally connected with austenitic stainless steels in contact with liquids containing chlorides. Cracks are however unlikely to occur below +60° C. Carbon and low alloy steels may be subject to stress cracking in caustic soda solutions at high concentrations and temperatures. To avoid stress corrosion, tensile stresses should be removed e.g by heat treatment after cold working or welding. Stress corrosion can also be avoided by the choice of a resistant material.

 

Erosion corrosion

 

Erosion corrosion is a combination of electrochemical corrosion (i.e. general corrosion) and the action of a high speed fluid, eroding the corrosion product. The pits formed by erosion corrosion usually have bright surfaces free from corroded material. The attacks are generally localized to areas with turbulent flow and are promoted by gas bubbles and solid particles.

 

Cavitation corrosion

Cavitation corrosion appears in areas where vapour bubbles are formed due to low pressure. When the bubbles implode on a surface the protective oxide is destroyed and eroded away and after that built up again. The process is repeated and characteristic deep holes of cavitation corrosion are formed on the surface. It can usually be seen on the trailing edge of impellers and propellers.

 

Selective corrosion

  • Selective corrosion occurs in metals in which the alloying elements are not uniformly distributed. Typical examples of this type of corrosion are:
  • Dezincification of brass, whereby zinc is dissolved and leave behind a porous copper material.
  • Graphitization of cast iron, whereby the iron is dissolved and leave behind a network of graphite of low mechanical strength

Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap

 Soap – Characteristics and Uses

Soaps are excellent cleansing agents and have good biodegradability. A serious drawback which reduces their general use is the tendency for the carboxylate ion to react with Ca+ and Mg+ ions in hard water. The result is a water insoluble salt which can be deposited on clothes and other surfaces. These hard water plaques whiten fabric colors and also create rings found in sinks and bath tubs. Another problem with using soaps is their ineffectiveness under acidic conditions. In these cases, soap salts do not dissociate into their component ions, and this renders them ineffective as cleansing agents.

Although primarily used for their cleansing ability, soaps are also effective as mild antiseptics and ingestible antidotes for mineral acid or heavy metal poisoning. Special metallic soaps, made from soap and heavier metals, are used as additives in polishes, inks, paints, and lubricating oils.

 

Detergent Physical Characteristics

The concentration at which micelles begin to form is the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The CMC is the maximum monomer concentration and constitutes a measure of the free energy of micelle formation. The lower the CMC, the more stable the micelle and the more slowly molecules are incorporated into or removed from the micelle. The structure of the hydrophobic region of the detergent can affect the micelle structure. An increase in the length of the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain of ionic detergents results in an increased micelle size and a lower CMC, as fewer molecules are needed to construct a micelle.

 

The average number of monomers in a micelle is the aggregation number. The CMC and aggregation number values are highly dependent on factors such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, and detergent homogeneity and purity. Slight discrepancies in reported values for CMC and aggregation number may be the result of variations in the analytical methods used to determine the values. Aggregation number values are also shifted by concentration, since the number of detergent molecules per micelle may increase if the concentration is above the CMC.

Ease of removal or exchange is an important factor in the selection of a detergent. Some of the more common detergent removal methods include:

  • Dialysis
  • Gel filtration chromatography
  • Hydrophobic adsorption chromatography
  • Protein precipitation

 

The CMC value associated with the detergent is a useful guide to hydrophobic binding strength. Detergents with higher CMC values have weaker binding and are subsequently easier to remove by dialysis or displacement methods. Detergents with low CMC values require less detergent in order to form micelles and solubilized proteins or lipids.

Another useful parameter when evaluating detergents for downstream removal is the micelle molecular weight, which indicates relative micelle size. Smaller micelles are more easily removed and are usually desirable when protein-detergent complexes are to be separated based on the molecular size of the protein. The micelle molecular weight may be calculated by multiplying the aggregation number by the monomer molecular weight.

The cloud point is the temperature at which the detergent solution near or above its CMC separates into two phases. The micelles aggregate, typically forming a cloudy phase with high detergent concentration, while the balance of the solution becomes detergent-depleted. The resulting two-phase solution can be separated, with the extracted protein being located in the detergent-rich phase. Detergents with low cloud point temperatures, such as TRITON® X-114 (cloud point ~23 °C) are recommended for use with proteins since high cloud point temperatures may denature solubilized proteins. The cloud point can be affected by changes in detergent concentration, temperature, and the addition of salt or polymers such as dextran and polyethylene glycol. Note that the detergent-rich phase is also contingent on the specific detergent(s) and salt concentration; under some conditions the phase may be clear rather than cloudy and be located as either the upper or lower phase of the solution. In non-ionic detergents, this behavior has been applied in the phase separation and purification of membrane proteins.2

Detergent Types and Selection

  • When selecting a detergent, the first consideration is usually the form of the hydrophilic group:
  • Anionic
  • Cationic
  • Non-ionic
  • Zwitterionic

Anionic and cationic detergents are considered biologically “harsh” detergents because they typically modify protein structure to a greater extent than neutrally charged detergents. The degree of denaturation varies with the individual protein and the particular detergent and concentration. Ionic detergents are more sensitive to pH, ionic strength, and the nature of the counter ion, and can interfere with downstream charge-based analytical methods.

 

Non-ionic detergents are considered to be “mild” detergents because they are less likely than ionic detergents to denature proteins. By not separating protein-protein bonds, non-ionic detergents allow the protein to retain its native structure and functionality, although detergents with shorter hydrophobic chain lengths are more likely to cause protein deactivation. Many nonionic detergents can be classified into three structure types:

 

  • Poly (polyethylene) ethers and related polymers
  • Bile salts
  • Glycosidic detergents

 

Poly (polyethylene) ethers and related detergents have a neutral, polar head and hydrophobic tails that are ox ethylene polymers (e.g. Brij® and TWEEN®) or ethyleneglycoether polymers (e.g. TRITON®). The tert-octylphenol poly (ethyleneglycoether) series of detergents, which includes TRITON X-100 and IGEPAL® CA-630, have an aromatic head that interferes with downstream UV analysis techniques.

 

Bile salts have a steroid core structure with a polar and a polar orientation, rather than the more obvious nonpolar tail structure of other detergents. Bile salts may be less denaturing than linear chain detergents with the same polar head group.

 

Glycosidic detergents have a carbohydrate, typically glucose or maltose, as the polar head and an alkyl chain length of 7-14 carbons as the polar tail.

 

Zwitterionic detergents have characteristics of both ionic and non-ionic detergent types. Zwitterionic detergents are less denaturing than ionic detergents and have a net neutral charge, similar to non-ionic detergents. They are more efficient than non-ionic detergents at disrupting protein-protein bonds and reducing aggregation. These properties have been used for chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrophoresis methods, and solubilization of organelles and inclusion bodies.

 

Non-detergent sulfobetaines (NDSB), although not detergents, possess hydrophilic groups similar to those of zwitterionic detergents but with shorter hydrophobic chains. Sulfobetaines do not form micelles. They have been reported to improve the yield of membrane proteins when used with detergents and prevent aggregation of denatured proteins.

Uses for Detergent

Powder and liquid detergent can be used for other purposes besides cleaning clothes or dishes. This can save you money from having to buy multiple cleaning products.

All-Purpose Cleaner

Either form of detergent can be used to clean tiles, floors, counters, tubs and toilets. Mix 3/4 of a cup of bleach, 1 cup of detergent and 1 gallon of hot water together and pour it into spray bottles for a supply of all-purpose cleaner.

Moss Killer

Sprinkle powdered detergent on moss that is growing in the cracks of your steps, sidewalk or driveway. Give it a few days to turn brown and then brush it from the cracks with a broom.

Oil Spills

Powdered detergent can absorb oil that’s spilled on a garage floor or on the street.

Carpet Cleaning

Both types of cleaner can be added to carpet steam cleaners to make the carpet smell fresher and boost the appliance’s cleaning power

Drains

Instead of buying Drano to clean out a drain, put 1/4 cup of liquid detergent into the drain, then pour in a boiling pot of water after a minute to flush out to blockage.

Bubbles

If kids like to make bubbles with wants or play with bubble-making guns, one can make the bubble solution oneself by mixing liquid detergent with water.

Polymers and their uses

A molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetitions of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass is called a polymer.

A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Due to their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semi crystalline structures rather than crystals.

 

Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer with variable crystalline structure and an extremely large range of applications depending on the particular type. It is one of the most widely produced plastics in the world (tens of millions of tons are produced worldwide each year). The commercial process (the Ziegler-Natta catalysts) that made PE such a success was developed in the 1950s by German and Italian scientists Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta.

 

There are vast arrays of applications for polyethylene in which certain types are more or less well suited. Generally speaking, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is much more crystalline, has a much higher density, and is often used in completely different circumstances than Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). For example, LDPE is widely used in plastic packaging such as for grocery bags or plastic wrap. HDPE by contrast has common applications in construction (for example in its use as a drain pipe). Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW) has high performance applications in things such as medical devices and bulletproof vests.

 

What Are The Different Types of Polyethylene?

Polyethylene is commonly categorized into one of several major compounds of which the most common include LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, and Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polypropylene. Other variants include Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE), Ultra-low-molecular-weight polyethylene (ULMWPE or PE-WAX), High-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE), High-density cross-linked polyethylene (HDXLPE), Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX or XLPE), Very-low-density polyethylene (VLDPE), and Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE).

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is a very flexible material with very unique flow properties that makes it particularly suitable to plastic film applications like shopping bags. LDPE has high ductility but low tensile strength which is evident in the real world by its propensity to stretch when strained.

 

Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) is very similar to LDPE with the added advantage that the properties of LLDPE can be altered by adjusting the formula constituents and that the overall production process for LLDPE is typically less energy intensive than LDPE.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is a strong, high density, moderately stiff plastic with a highly crystalline structure. It is frequently used as a plastic for milk cartons, laundry detergent, garbage bins, and cutting boards.

 

Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW) is an extremely dense version of polyethylene with molecular weights typically an order of magnitude greater than HDPE. It can be spun into threads with tensile strengths many times greater than steel and is frequently incorporated into high performance equipment like bulletproof vests.

 

What are the Characteristics of Polyethylene?

Now that we know what it is used for, let’s examine some of the key properties of Polyethylene. PE is classified as a “thermoplastic” (as opposed to “thermoset”), and the name has to do with the way the plastic responds to heat. Thermoplastic materials become liquid at their melting point (110-130 degrees Celsius in the case of LDPE and HDPE respectively). A major useful attribute about thermoplastics is that they can be heated to their melting point, cooled, and reheated again without significant degradation. Instead of burning, thermoplastics like Polyethylene liquefy, which allows them to be easily [injection molded] and then subsequently recycled. By contrast, thermoset plastics can only be heated once (typically during the injection molding process). The first heating causes thermoset materials to set (similar to a 2-part epoxy) resulting in a chemical change that cannot be reversed. If you tried to heat a thermoset plastic to a high temperature a second time it would simply burn. This characteristic makes thermoset materials poor candidates for recycling.

 

Different types of Polyethylene exhibit wide variability in their crystalline structures. The less crystalline (the more amorphous) a plastic is, the more it demonstrates a tendency to gradually soften (i.e. they have a wider range between their glass transition temperature and their melting point). Crystalline plastics, by contrast, exhibit a rather sharp transition from solid to liquid.

Polyethylene is a homopolymer in that it is composed of a single monomer constituent (in this case ethylene: CH2=CH2).

 

Why is Polyethylene used so often?

Polyethylene is an incredibly useful commodity plastic. Because of the diversity of PE variants it is incorporated into a wide range of applications. Unless it is required for a specific application, we don’t typically use Polyethylene as part of the design process at Creative Mechanisms. For some projects, a part that will eventually be mass produced in PE can be prototyped with other more prototype-friendly materials like ABS.

PE is not available as a 3D printable material. It can be CNC machined or vacuum formed.

 

How is PE made?

Polyethylene, like other plastics, starts with the distillation of hydrocarbon fuels (ethane in this case) into lighter groups called “fractions” some of which are combined with other catalysts to produce plastics (typically via polymerization or polycondensation). You can read about the process in more depth here.

PE for Prototype Development on CNC Machines and 3D Printers:

  • PE is available in sheet stock, rods, and even specialty shapes in a multitude of variants (LDPE, HDPE etc.)
  • Making it a good candidate for subtractive machining processes on a mill or lathe.
  • Colors are usually limited to white and black
  • PE is not currently available for FDM or any other 3D printing process (at least not from the two major suppliers: Strategy’s and 3D Systems).
  • PE is similar to PP in that it can be difficult to prototype with.
  • You are pretty much stuck with CNC machining or vacuum forming if you need to use it in your prototype development process.

 

Is PE toxic?

In solid form, no. In fact, Polyethylene is often used in food handling. It could be toxic if inhaled and/or absorbed into the skin or eyes as a vapor or liquid (i.e. during manufacturing processes). Be careful and closely follow handling instructions for molten polymer in particular.

 

What are the Disadvantages of Polyethylene?

Polyethylene is generally more expensive than polypropylene (which can be used in similar part applications). PE is the second best choice for living hinges, behind PP at number one.

Common Uses of Polyethylene

Listed below are the top 5 most common uses for Polyethylene. These are the products containing Polyethylene which you are most likely to find already in your home and at the local supermarket.

 

Sandwich Bags

At some point in our lives, everyone has used sandwich bags for one reason or another. What you may not know is that Polyethylene is used in the manufacturing process of these bags.

The polyethylene is used to make the plastic film that will eventually become the sandwich bags.

It is also used in the sandwich bags cousin, the freezer bag. More of a heavy duty polyethylene plastic is used in the freezer bags, as they need to be able to with stand extreme cold and still be able to protect the items within.

Cling Wrap

Almost every cling wrap you purchase at the supermarket is made from Polyethylene. The Polyethylene combined with other materials helps to make the cling wrap work and keep its hold.

While the cling wrap itself is actually very thin, low density Polyethylene is not used in its production.

Instead, during the manufacturing process the Polyethylene is stretched multiple times to give the cling wrap its normal, thin appearance.

Moisture Barriers

The moisture barriers they use on construction sites and those that are used in crawl spaces under houses are made from Polyethylene.

Low density Polyethylene is not used in the manufacturing of these items, due to the fact that they need the highest quality of Polyethylene available to make sure that the areas are secured from any moisture getting inside.

You can also see non-moisture barriers made from Polyethylene on construction sites, and those are used to keep people out of certain areas or to help protect areas from damaging winds, dirt, or any other material that the workers want to keep off of the site.

Food Packaging

No doubt you have been in the supermarket and found yourself searching for the best pack of ground beef or chicken.

You may notice that there is plastic wrapped around the meat to help keep it fresh before it can be sold and used.

That plastic wrapping is Polyethylene in a low density form. It is used to help make sure that the meat you are purchasing stays fresh until you can get it home and either freeze it or cook it.

The plastic wrapper is tightly fitted onto the packaging so that no other food particles or bacteria can contaminate the meats you are buying.

It can also be used in bakery wrapping to keep bread and other perishable sweet treats from spoiling before they can be sold and used.

You may notice that the bakery bags are a little different from the plastic wraps over your chicken, and that is due to the quality of Polyethylene that is used to make them. However, they both perform the same duty and keep your food fresh and contaminate free.

Coatings

Polyethylene is also used to make the coatings that you see on fruit juice boxes. Though the container is mostly made of out cardboard type material with a small amount of plastic mixed in, the outer coating that keeps the box from falling apart once the liquid has been introduced is the Polyethylene.

It may look like a shiny coating for the box, but it is actually keeping that box tightly together so that kids can enjoy their juice boxes.

It is also used in the wrapping for the straw, and if you buy the juice boxes wrapped instead of in a large box, Polyethylene is also used to make the wrapping for the box.

 

Most of the time you will see the juice boxes being wrapped when you purchase them from a larger grocery chain.

Almost anything that is either wrapped in plastic or coated in plastic is made from polyethylene.

Polyethylene is made into millions of products every year, most of which we as consumers use on an everyday basis.

 

And if you are like most people, you did not realize the number of items that can be made from Polyethylene, but it is actually the number one used plastic in the world.

You would be surprised if you looked around at the world today and actually noticed everything that is made from Polyethylene.

 

Companies are even using it to make cable insulators to keep moisture and animals off of the actual cable wires.

 

Right now, low density Polyethylene is gaining a lot of ground and is being used in more and more places around the world.

Though it is mainly used in the manufacturing of coatings and cable insulators, it is also being considered for another large industry.

Manufacturers of plastic toys have been looking into using low density Polyethylene to create their toys.

Polyethylene is also being considered in the manufacturing of more household goods, though some household goods are already using the plastic.

 

What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and what is it used for?

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. PVC has been around longer than most plastics having been first synthesized in 1872 and commercially produced by B.F. Goodrich Company in the 1920s. By comparison, many other common plastics were first synthesized and became commercially viable only in the 1940s and 1950s. It is used most commonly in the construction industry but is also used for signs, healthcare applications, and as a fiber for clothing.

PVC is produced in two general forms, first as a rigid or unplasticized polymer (RPVC or uPVC), and second as a flexible plastic. Flexible, plasticized or regular PVC is softer and more amenable to bending than uPVC due to the addition of plasticizers like phthalates (e.g. diisononyl phthalate or DINP). Flexible PVC is commonly used in construction as insulation on electrical wires or in flooring for homes, hospitals, schools, and other areas where a sterile environment is a priority, and in some cases as a replacement for rubber. Rigid PVC is also used in construction as pipe for plumbing and for siding which is commonly referred to by the term “vinyl” in the United States. PVC pipe is often referred to by its “schedule” (e.g. Schedule 40 or Schedule 80). Major differences between the schedules include things like wall thickness, pressure rating, and color.

 

Some of PVC plastic’s most important characteristics include its relatively low price, its resistance to environmental degradation (as well as to chemicals and alkalies), high hardness, and outstanding tensile strength for a plastic in the case of rigid PVC. It is widely available, commonly used and easily recyclable (categorized by resin identification code “3”).

 

What are the Characteristics of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)?

Some of the most significant properties of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) are:

Density: PVC is very dense compared to most plastics (specific gravity around 1.4)

Economics: PVC is readily available and cheap.

Hardness: Rigid PVC is very hard.

Strength: Rigid PVC has extremely good tensile strength.

 

Polyvinyl Chloride is a “thermoplastic” (as opposed to “thermoset”) material which has to do with the way the plastic responds to heat. Thermoplastic materials become liquid at their melting point (a range for PVC between the very low 100 degrees Celsius and higher values like 260 degrees Celsius depending on the additives). A major useful attribute about thermoplastics is that they can be heated to their melting point, cooled, and reheated again without significant degradation. Instead of burning, thermoplastics like polypropylene liquefy, which allows them to be easily injection molded and then subsequently recycled. By contrast, thermoset plastics can only be heated once (typically during the injection molding process). The first heating causes thermoset materials to set (similar to a 2-part epoxy) resulting in a chemical change that cannot be reversed. If you tried to heat a thermoset plastic to a high temperature a second time it would simply burn. This characteristic makes thermoset materials poor candidates for recycling.

 

Why is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) used so often?

Rigid PVC in particular has very high density for a plastic making it extremely hard and generally very strong. It is also readily available and very economical which combined with the long-lasting characteristics of most plastics make it an easy choice for many industrial applications like construction.

 

What Are The Different Types of PVC?

Polyvinyl Chloride is widely available in two broad categories: rigid and flexible.

 

How is PVC made?

Polyvinyl Chloride is made from one of three emulsion processes:

  • Suspension polymerization
  • Emulsion polymerization

 Bulk polymerization

Polyvinyl Chloride for Prototype Development on CNC Machines, 3D Printers, & Injection Molding Machines: There are two main issues working with PVC that make it fairly problematic and not generally recommended for use by non-professionals. The first is the emission of toxic and corrosive gases when melting the material. This happens to some extent or another while 3D Printing, CNC machining, and injection molding. We recommend you take a look at the MSDS data sheets for different chlorinated hydrocarbon gases like chlorobenzene and discuss the production process with a professional manufacturer. Second is the corrosive nature of PVC. This is problematic when PVC is repeatedly coming into contact with metal nozzles, cutters, and/or mold tools that are made from a material other than stainless steel or some other similarly corrosion resistant metal.

3D Printing:

Polyvinyl Chloride is available in filament form as a plastic welding rod (the material used for welding) but it is not presently retrofit for specific use in 3D printing. Although there are a growing number of plastics and plastic substitutes available for 3D printing, by far the two most common are still ABS and PLA. At Creative Mechanisms we typically 3D print with ABS. For a list of reasons why and a comparison of the two most common 3D printing plastics (ABS and PLA) for 3D printing read here.

The biggest issue with PVC for 3D printing is its corrosive nature (potentially compromising the functionality of typical machines if it were used over a longer time period). There was an interesting kick starter to develop a PVC capable 3D printing nozzle (extruder head) put forward by engineer and entrepreneur Ron Steele that unfortunately closed without enough interest in 2014. You can take a look at the introductory pitch (video) here:

 

CNC Machining:

Polyvinyl Chloride can be cut on a CNC machine but any machinist who has tried has probably experienced degradation in the cutter depending on the material it is made from. PVC is very corrosive and abrasive and cutters that are not made from stainless steel or a comparably corrosive resistant material are likely to deteriorate over time.

 

Injection Molding:

Polyvinyl Chloride can be injection molded just like other plastics but the inclusion of chlorine in the material complicates the process. This is because melted PVC can give off a corrosive toxic gas. Accordingly, shops need to be equipped with sufficient ventilation systems. Those that aren’t are likely to be hesitant to work with the material. Additionally, special corrosive resistant materials like stainless steel or a chrome plating are required for the mold tool when injection molding PVC plastic. Shrinkage in PVC tends to be between one and two percent but can vary based on a number of factors including material durometer (hardness), gate size, holding pressure, holding time, melt temperature, mold wall thickness, mold temperature, and the percentage and type of additives.

 

Is PVC Toxic?

PVC can pose a health hazard when it is burned as it emits hydrogen chloride (HCl) fumes. In applications where the likelihood of fire is high, PVC free electrical wire insulation is sometimes preferred. Fumes can also be emitted when melting the material (such as during prototyping and manufacturing processes like 3D printing, CNC is machining and injection molding). We recommend you take a look at the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for different chlorinated hydrocarbon gases like chlorobenzene and discuss the production process with a professional manufacturer.

 

What are the Advantages of Polyvinyl Chloride?

  • Polyvinyl Chloride is readily available and relatively inexpensive.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride is very dense and thus very hard and resists impact deformation very well relative to other plastics.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride has very good tensile strength.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride is very resistant to chemicals and alkalies.

 

What are the Disadvantages of Polyvinyl Chloride?

Polyvinyl Chloride has very poor heat stability. For this reason additives which stabilize the material at higher temperatures are typically added to the material during production.

Polyvinyl Chloride emits toxic fumes when melted and/or subject to a fire.

Although there are some shortcomings, Polyvinyl Chloride is a great material overall. It has a unique blend of qualities that make it particularly useful for the construction business.

 

Uses

Building and Construction

 

About three-quarters of all vinyl produced goes into long-lasting building and construction applications. Life-cycle studies show PVC/vinyl is effective in protecting the environment, in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions and conservation of resources and energy.

 

Because it is strong and resistant to moisture and abrasion, vinyl is ideal for cladding, windows, roofing, fencing, decking, wall coverings, and flooring. Vinyl does not corrode like some building materials, does not require frequent painting and can be cleaned with mild cleaning products.

Siding and Windows

Vinyl helps produce siding and window frames that are extremely durable, affordable, and help conserve energy when heating and cooling homes. In fact, vinyl windows have three times the heat insulation of aluminum windows.

Wiring and Cables

Vinyl is able to withstand tough conditions behind building walls – such as exposure to changing temperatures and dampness – for the life of the building. As a result, it is one of the most prevalent and trusted materials used in electrical wiring and cables.

Water Pipes

PVC helps conserve energy and water by creating virtually leak-free pipes that are not prone to corrosion and resist environmental stress. PVC breakage rates are as low as one percent of the breakage rates of cast metal systems. The lack of build-up in PVC piping improves functionality and increases energy efficiency.

Packaging

Because it is durable, dependable and light weight, flexible PVC helps packaging do its job to maintain the integrity of the products inside, including medicines. Clear vinyl is used in tamper-resistant over-the-counter medications and shrink-wrap for consumer products. Rigid vinyl film is used in blister and clamshell packaging to protect medicines, personal care products and other household goods.

 

Healthcare

Vinyl plays a critical safety role in dispensing life-saving medicine through IV bags and medical tubing. The advent of the PVC blood-collection bag was a significant breakthrough because blood bags are flexible and unbreakable, enhancing the development of ambulatory medicine and serving as the foundation for modern blood banks.

Household Products

PVC’s affordability, durability and water resistance make it ideal for rain coats, boots and shower curtains.

Polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE (more commonly known as Teflon) is a particularly versatile ivory-white and opaque plastic fluoropolymer; it is made by the free-radical polymerization of many tetrafluoroethene molecules, and is suitable for a wide range of applications in industries as diverse as aerospace, the food and drink industry, pharmaceuticals and telecoms.

Produced by AFT Fluorotec in rods or tubes of any size, or filled with glass, carbon, stainless steel or many other materials to increase wear resistance and strength, whatever your project or build, we are sure to have a material that will work for you.

 

THE MAIN PROPERTIES OF PTFE

If you were trying to invent a highly flexible, chemical resistant, thermal resistant, non-stick and electrically resistant material, and it hadn’t already been done, you’d be hoping you could come up with a material somewhere nearly as good as PTFE is in these areas.

PTFE’s melting point is around 327°C, and pure PTFE is almost totally chemically inert, highly insoluble in most solvents or chemicals, and thermally stable enough to be used between -200 degrees C and +260 degrees C without degrading.

Other useful PTFE properties are its high flexural strength, even in low temperatures, high electrical resistance and dielectric strength, resistance to water (owing to fluorine’s high electro negativity), and low coefficient of friction. PTFE’s density is also very high, at 2200 kg/m3.

In fact, beyond reaction to some chemical agents and solvents (for example, chlorine trifluoride, cobalt (III) fluoride, xenon difluoride or elementary fluorine if at a high pressure and temperature), the only factor to be taken into consideration when using PTFE is that it does not have a good resistance to high energy radiation, which will cause breakdown of the PTFE molecule.

MODIFIED PTFE PROPERTIES

In addition to pure PTFE, there are two co-polymers which are equally as useful as PTFE, but with some different properties.

PFA or Perfluoroalkoxy has very similar properties to PTFE in that it is very chemically resistant, flexible and thermally stable (with continuous use up to 260 degrees C), but while PTFE does have some tendency to creep, PFA is creep resistant and is excellent for melt-processing, injection moulding, extrusion, compression moulding, blow moulding, and transfer moulding.

TFM, known as PTFE-TFM, is polytetrafluoroethylene with perfluoropropylvinylether as an additional modifier, giving a denser material which is stiffer, also creep resistant like PFA, and wieldable.

 

FILLED PTFE

Pure or virgin PTFE can deform badly under a load, but the use of fillers can help with this, though it should be noted that not all filled PTFE is suitable for use with food.

 

Adding filler to PTFE can increase its strength, improve resistance to abrasion, add electrical conductivity and more; however, adding fillers can also reduce some of the advantageous PTFE properties, such as chemical resistance which will be limited by that of the filler.

 

Fillers used can range from glass in various percentages, stainless steel, molybdenum disulphide, carbon or graphite, depending on which properties are to be improved.

ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS OF USING PTFE

The biggest advantage of PTFE is its versatility, and the range of applications over so many products and different industries for this material is staggering.

The use of PTFE can have massive benefits in manufacturing and engineering, not just in making tubes or liners for handling or storing corrosive chemicals, but by coating parts such as bearings or screws to increase the lifetime of both the parts themselves and the machinery they are part of.

 

A PTFE-coated screw will be resistant to corrosion, due to PTFE’s ability to repel water and oil, and lubricated by the material to smoothly drive into whatever surface you are fastening to, with reduced friction, resulting in less wear on both the screw and the surface, and a longer-lasting, more secure finish.

 

Friction and wear can also be factors with bearings, and a PTFE coat can give the same benefits as with coating screws, with the additional advantage that the coating will also be heat-resistant.

 

It’s clear that longer lasting, higher-performance parts can add to the efficiency of any machinery reduce the need to constantly acquire replacement parts, both saving money and the time needed to fit the replacements, as well as reducing waste. This will also reduce maintenance needs as there are less likely to be faults with the equipment, and also greatly reduce, or even eliminate, any expensive manufacturing downtime due to faults or repairs.

 

Cleaning of equipment can also be reduced in some cases as a PTFE coat is non-wetting, facilitating self-cleaning of parts.

 

And Teflon textile finishes can even help the environment, because, when applied to fabric, the finish will repel water and oil stains, reducing the need to use dry cleaning, and fabrics will also dry more quickly, using less energy with tumble drying, and last longer due to reduced wear.

 

With the added advantages that PTFE is non-toxic, has only a minor contraindication for humans from polymer fume fever (only if the temperature of any Teflon-coated pans reaches 260 degrees C) and is FDA approved and food-safe, this material really is of great benefit in many different areas.

 

USES OF PTFE

Most people have never heard of PTFE industrial coating, but when you mention Teflon, a look of understanding passes easily on their faces. PTFE (Polytetrafluoro Ethylene) is the technical name of the material, and it’s commonly sold under the Teflon brand name, which is manufactured by DuPont. Dr. Roy Plunkett, a researcher who worked at DuPont, is credited with developing PTFE industrial coating in the late 1930s.

 

At the time of his discovery, he was actually trying to create a new refrigerant. During the course of development, he noticed that the gas inside the bottle he was using actually stopped flowing out before the bottle should have been empty. He sawed the bottle open and discovered that the inside was coated with the non-stick material we now know as Teflon. His contribution has changed the face of plastic manufacturing forever.

 

Teflon is probably best-known for its role as the non-stick surface inside cookware. This is because PTFE industrial coating is one of the most slippery materials that are in existence today. In addition to being slippery, the material also brings a number of other features to the table, offering high temperature resistance, little reaction to most chemicals, and reduced stress cracking and corrosion. These features make Teflon perfect for numerous applications, including:

 

Cookware– As already mentioned, the slippery surface created by Teflon makes it perfect for cookware. Many brands offer lines of cookware that are coated with PTFE in order to prevent food from sticking to the pots and pans. This reduces the need for cooking oil because these pots and pans are naturally non-stick.

Nail polish– That smooth surface that doesn’t crack is often achieved through the use of PTFE industrial coating.

Hair styling tools– Hair straightness and curling irons are often coated with Teflon because of the high temperatures emitted by these tools.

Windshield wiper blades– There are numerous applications for PTFE industrial coating within the automotive industry as well. The blades of windshield wipers are the most notable because the smooth surface enables them to glide smoothly across the windshield.

Fabric and carpet protection– Stains are less likely to stick to carpets or fabrics that have been treated with PTFE industrial.

Chemical and steel industries– Hoses and other machine parts commonly handle some highly corrosive substances that sometimes are transferred at extremely high temperatures. PTFE industrial coating is one of the best materials to handle this type of use because it addresses all of the problems that are otherwise caused by working with chemicals or steel. Every type of hose will deteriorate over time, but those that are made of PTFE industrial coating will do so much more slowly than those made of other materials because of the many features of the material

RAS Mains Paper-I Monetary Policy -Economy Notes

Monetary Policies

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

Objectives of Monetary Policies are:-

  • Accelerated growth of the economy
  • Balancing saving and investments
  • Exchange rate stabilization
  • Price stability
  • Employment generation

 

Economy of Rajasthan

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Monetary Policy could be expansionary or contractionary

  • Expansionary policy would increase the total money supply in the economy
  • contractionary policy would decrease the money supply in the economy.

RBI issues the Bi-Monthly monetary policy statement. The tools available with RBI to achieve the targets of monetary policy are:-

  • Bank rates
  • Reserve Ratios
  • Open Market Operations
  • Intervention in Forex market
  • Moral suasion

 

Repo Rate– Repo rate is the rate at which the central bank of a country (RBI in case of India) lends money to commercial banks in the event of any shortfall of funds. In the event of inflation, central banks increase repo rate as this acts as a disincentive for banks to borrow from the central bank. This ultimately reduces the money supply in the economy and thus helps in arresting inflation.

 

Reverse Repo Rate is the rate at which RBI borrows money from the commercial banks. An increase in the reverse repo rate will decrease the money supply and vice-versa, other things remaining constant. An increase in reverse repo rate means that commercial banks will get more incentives to park their funds with the RBI, thereby decreasing the supply of money in the market.

 

Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) is a specified minimum fraction of the total deposits of customers, which commercial banks have to hold as reserves either in cash or as deposits with the central bank. CRR is set according to the guidelines of the central bank of a country. The amount specified as the CRR is held in cash and cash equivalents, is stored in bank vaults or parked with the Reserve Bank of India. The aim here is to ensure that banks do not run out of cash to meet the payment demands of their depositors. CRR is a crucial monetary policy tool and is used for controlling money supply in an economy.

 

CRR specifications give greater control to the central bank over money supply. Commercial banks have to hold only some specified part of the total deposits as reserves. This is called fractional reserve banking.

 

Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) is the Indian government term for reserve requirement that the commercial banks in India require to maintain in the form of gold, government approved securities before providing credit to the customers. It’s the ratio of liquid assets to net demand and time liabilities. Apart from Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), banks have to maintain a stipulated proportion of their net demand and time liabilities in the form of liquid assets like cash, gold and unencumbered securities. Treasury bills, dated securities issued under market borrowing programme and market stabilization schemes (MSS), etc also form part of the SLR. Banks have to report to the RBI every alternate Friday their SLR maintenance, and pay penalties for failing to maintain SLR as mandated.

 

Inflation & Control Mechanism

Inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. It is the percentage change in the value of the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) on a year-on year basis. It effectively measures the change in the prices of a basket of goods and services in a year. In India, inflation is calculated by taking the WPI as base.

 

Formula for calculating Inflation=

 

 (WPI in month of current year-WPI in same month of previous year)

————————————————————————————– ——– X 100

WPI in same month of previous year

 

Inflation occurs due to an imbalance between demand and supply of money, changes in production and distribution cost or increase in taxes on products. When economy experiences inflation, i.e. when the price level of goods and services rises, the value of currency reduces. This means now each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services.

It has its worst impact on consumers. High prices of day-to-day goods make it difficult for consumers to afford even the basic commodities in life. This leaves them with no choice but to ask for higher incomes. Hence the government tries to keep inflation under control.

Contrary to its negative effects, a moderate level of inflation characterizes a good economy.

  • An inflation rate of 2 or 3% is beneficial for an economy as it encourages people to buy more and borrow more, because during times of lower inflation, the level of interest rate also remains low.
  • Hence the government as well as the central bank always strives to achieve a limited level of inflation.

Various measures of Inflation are:-

  • GDP Deflator
  • Cost of Living Index
  • Producer Price Index (PPI)
  • Wholesale Price Index (WPI)
  • Consumer Price Index (CPI)

There are following types on Inflation based on their causes:-

  • Demand pull inflation
  • cost push inflation
  • structural inflation
  • speculation
  • cartelization
  • hoarding

Various control measures to curb rising inflation are:-

  • Fiscal measures like reduction in indirect taxes
  • Dual pricing
  • Monetary measures
  • Supply side measures like importing the shortage goods to meet the demand
  • Administrative measures to curb hoarding, cartelization.

Ahar-Banas Culture of Rajasthan

A number of Chalcolithic cultures have been discovered in northern, central and western India.

  • The Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP) culture in the Punjab, Haryana, north-east Rajasthan and upper Ganga-Yamuna doab.
  • The Narhan culture and its variants in the northern Vindhyas and the middle and lower Ganga valley.
  • The Ahar culture in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.
  • The Kayatha and Malwa cultures in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Jorwe culture in western Maharashtra.

Ahar-Banas Culture

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The Ahar culture, also known as the Banas culture, is a Chalcolithic Culture of southeastern.

  • Rajasthan, lasting from 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley Civilization. The Main distribution of this culture seems to be concentrated in the river valleys of Banas and its tributaries namely Berach and Ahar.

More than 90 sites of the culture have been identified till date, out of which, Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are prominent sites. These sites of Ahar culture provide important information about the transformation of life from hunting-gathering to agriculture in the Mewar region.

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture:

Houses

  • People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses.
  • The houses were made of stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.

Pottery

  • Typical Ahar pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it in white pigment and has limited range of shapes, which include bowls, bowls-on-stands, elongated vases and globular vases.

Economy & Subsistence

  • The subsistence of Ahar-Banas people was based on cultivation, animal rearing and hunting. They sustained on a number of crops, including wheat and barley.
  • The people of Ahar culture had trade links with the Harappans.

Technology

  • The technology of Ahar people was mostly based on copper. They exploited the copper ores of the Aravalli Range to make axes and other artefacts.
  • However, the Neolithic trend of using polished stone tools continued in this period also and Microlithic tools of Silicious material were also very common.

Important Sites of Ahar-Banas Culture:

  • Gilund
  • Ahar
  • Ojiyana
  • Balathal
  • Pachamta
  • Because Ahar-Banas is Culture and not Civilization. So what is the difference between Civilization & Culture?
  • Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization. Civilization includes (technology, forms of government etc, and even culture)
  • Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture. Hence, Culture is earlier or a pre-condition for civilization to develop.
  • All Societies have culture but only a few have Civilization (example, Indus Valley Civilization).

Gilund (Rajsamand)

Gilund is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by

B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture.

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture at Gilund

  • Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation can be divided into two Periods:
  • Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2000 BCE.
  • Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE

Period I

  • Period I is Chalcolithic in character on account of the presence of a few Microlith along with copper.
  • All through the period the residential houses are made of mud brick, the walls being plastered with mud. Within the houses are noticed circular clay-lined ovens and open mouthed chulhas.
  • The characteristic Pottery of Period-I is Black-and-Red Ware, painted over with linear and curvilinear designs in a creamish-white pigment, other wares include plain and painted black, burnished grey and red wares.
  • Among the Terracotta figurines particularly noteworthy are the bull figurines with a prominent hump and long horns.

Period II

  • Period II of Gilund seems to have begun about the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., as indicated by the presence of bowls and dishes of grey ware.
  • In the successive strata have been found Sunga and Kushana bowls in red ware, sprinklers in the Red Polished Ware, and bowls in kaolin ware and knife-edged bowls in red ware, indicating that this occupation continued up to the end of the 1st millennium A.D.

Balathal (Udaipur)

Balathal is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. It is located on banks of Katar River. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63.

This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic. Excavation at Balathal revealed a Chalcolithic period stretching from 3000 to 1500 BC and an Early Historic period dated to 5-3 century BC

Chalcolithic Phase (3000 -1500 BC)

  • Balathal was part of the Ahar-Banas Complex and can be connected to other Ahar-Banas culture sites through artifacts that have been discovered.
  • The period is characterized by well-planned structures. The houses found at the site are square or rectangular made of mud brick and stones.
  • Stone objects including saddle querns, mullers, rubber stone, hammer stone and copper objects including choppers, knives, razors, chisels and tanged arrowhead have been found.
  • It has been determined that the people practiced agro-pastoralism, which is a mixture of both farming and herding animals. Pottery at the site has been thoroughly analyzed and tells much about life at this ancient site.

After the Chalcolithic period the site was abandoned for a long time till the Early Historic period.

Early Historic Phase (5 – 3 BC)

  • Excavation of early historic phase produced the evidence of large-scale use of iron implements, suggesting its important role in the economy of that period.
  • The people lived in wattle and daub houses and the floors were made of mud and stone rammed together.
  • Iron working in the form of furnaces with iron slags and abundant objects like nails, arrow head, lamps, needle, hoe, spatula, knife etc. are found on site.

Most peculiar item:

A skeleton was found buried at Balathal believed to be 4,000 year old skeleton of a man believed to be 37 years when he died. The skeleton it provides the oldest evidence of leprosy in human beings.

Pachamta

Recently in 2015, excavation was carried out at Pachamta, a village 100 km from Udaipur in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

Pachamta belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture. The Ahar culture, datable to 3,000-1,700 BCE, was Chalcolithic, and its people had trade links with the Harappans.

Artefacts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes

Nanotechnology: – Concept and its application

Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon Nanotube, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors.

It also has a tiny probe on it that can be used to shift atoms and molecules around and rearrange them like tiny building blocks. There are lots of other ways of working with nanotechnology, including molecular beam epitaxial, which is a way of growing single crystals one layer of atoms at a time.

Nanotechnology relates to the technology of rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate material to Nano specifications such as nano meters, the technology will enable scientist and engineers to see and manipulate matter at the molecular level atom by atom create new structure with fundamentally new molecular organic material and exploit the novel prospects at that scale

Scientific achievements of Nanotechnology the concept was first introduced in the year 1959 by an American scientist Richard Feynman who in his famous lectures there stated that there is a plenty of room left at the bottom indirectly mentioned about the techniques of manipulating matter at the bottom level including atoms and molecules the term nanotechnology was Defined by Tokyo scientist University professor in 1974 ,the main objective of Nanotechnology construction of new properties such as they are lighter smaller stronger and more precise

There are two approaches in nanotechnology top down approach and bottom up approach.

In Top down approach Nano objects are constructed from real entities but it is expensive and time consuming the bottom up approach bills larger structure by Linking atoms by atoms using special molecular assembler it is based on a novel of the self assembly technique which is seen in the biological principle of Cell to cell attachment in the tissue repairing process

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Nanomaterials can be organic Nanomaterials or inorganic

Carbon based Graphene and carbon Nanotube

Inorganic Nanomaterials include non particle nanoparticles of aluminium copper augur metal oxide like zinc oxide Nanomaterials, which are used to reduce to nanoscale can be of so different properties compared to word the exhibit on ARM and micro scale enabling unique application the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume lead to all changes in physical thermal and catalytic properties of Nanomaterials.

Graphene: – the noble prize of Physics 2010 was awarded to to scientist for identification isolation and characterization of crossing which is a single layer of carbon put in a heads up configuration with Tuli crystalline structure it is composed of carbon atoms arranged in tightly bound structure just one attempt it is said that 3 million sheet of Graphene on top of each other would be 1 millimeter thick properties of Graphene are: – extreme strength high electrical conductivity

Application of Graphene: – it can be used to make super strong material which art in elastic and lightweight to be used in making satellite and airplane it is transparent conductive and can be used in making flexible ultra thin touch screen devices graphing chips work faster than those made out of silicon and also tightly packed and can help make efficient computer it also increases the heat resistant and mechanical strength

Carbon Nanotube is  Graphene sheet rolled to form a cylinder Nanotube it is hollow and its molecule discovered by Japanese researcher it is high strength strongest and is toughest material on earth in terms of tensile strength which is the ability to be distant stretching ,high electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.

Nanosensors it is a device that make use of unique properties of Nanomaterials and nanoparticles to detect and new type of events in nanoscale

Chemical Nanosensors are used to measure the magnitudes such as the concentration of a given gas the presence of a specific type of molecule the function of the most common type of chemical Nanosensors is based on the fact that electronic properties of Carbon Nanotube changed when different type of Nanotube are observed on top of them which locally increases or decreases the number of electrons able to move through carbon Nanotube biological Nano sensor used to monitor bimolecular process for Jazz antibody antigen interaction it is usually composed of biological recognition system or bioreactor such as antibody protein and is able to detect cancer virus or bacteria

Nanocomposite materials created by introducing nanoparticles on carbon Nanotube into the matrix of microscopic sample material and the resulting Nanocomposite may exhibit drastically enhanced properties

Application of Nanotechnology– information and technology and electronics textile industry

In the field of Information Technology nanotech can be used to make tiny transistors of carbon Nanotube that help in developing Nano circuit this will lead to further miniaturization of computers making even more faster and compact the use of carbon nano Tech builders strongly increase the data storage capacity of hard disc replacing CRT with CMD as an electron gun can increase the efficiency of LED including achieving ultra thin flat panels automobiles Network Technology will help in manufacturing is stronger yet lighter and trees Recruiter automobile components the increase in surface area and volume ratio of engine due to use of CNT will make them utilize fuel more efficiently and reduce the exhaust of pollutant the engine will also benefit by becoming more heat resistant textile industry nanofiber make clothes water and it rain repellent and wrinkle free the Lotus is that which give the self cleaning properties also indirectly imported Lotus effect is seen in the Lotus in the form of presence of numerous hydrophobic Nano components due to which the water droplet by taking the dirt Trickle down there by self cleaning the loaded

Nanomedicine Nanotechnology in area of Health and Science her giving rise to branch of medicine known as nanomedicine which is unique application which can be used in disease diagnosis Nanotechnology in able the development of nanoscale Diagnostic device in the form of leopard ship acting as bio Nano electromechanical devices through which when blood sample is made to pass through it can detect cancer bacterial and viral infection lab on chip deals with handling of small fluid volume less than equal in this low low fluid volume conception produces less waste and analyses is better faster

Drug Delivery Nano Technology can be used in formation of nanosized drugs which will help in lowering overall truck conduction and side effects by depositing active agent at specific places in body there by ensuring truck delivery with self precession this will improve bioavailability of drug which refer to rate and extent of absorption of drugs

Cancer diagnosis and treatment cancer diagnosis and treatment nanotechnology can locate and eliminate cancer cell using gold nanoshells Metro sales are targeted to bind cancerous cell by attaching antibodies to Nano self service bi irradiating area of the mall with an infrared laser which passed through breast feeding gold nanoshell significantly to cause death of Cancer cell

Tissue engineering nanotechnology can help to repair damaged tissue through tissue engineering making eating factor it includes use of a biodegradable Nanomaterials such as polycaprolactone coated with collagen to promote Cell to cell attachment it is repairing process

Medical nanorobots nanorobot is a technique of creating robot at microscopic scale of NM these nanosized robots can never get human body transport important molecules manipulate manual focus object and communicate with solution by way of miniature Centre this computer control nanorobots can be used in Cancer detection and treatment there is no dressed up as Radiation therapy and chemotherapy which open end up destroying Mohanlal fan control robot will be able to distinguish between different cell type cancerous and normal cell by checking their surface antigen medical nanorobots acting as artificial RBC are called the Spiro cried which can deliver hundred times of season than normal self Shimla Lee medical nanorobots acting as artificial white blood cell can destroy bacteria in process

Energy application nanotechnology not only use of renewable and environment friendly source of energy but increase efficiency of energy production by then the ideal fuel for future is said to be hydrogen due to its lightweight and environmental harmless is hydrogen fuel cells were used in automobiles air pollution would be reduced but it can be used only if hydrogen is stored and transported in safe efficient and economical be by using container is made up of Nanomaterials Nanomaterials can increase conversion efficiency of solar cell under photovoltaic effect by using nanoparticles of Indian selenide is solar LG into electrical energy when compared to present use of Silicon Solar cell smart Windows having Nano coating of vanadium dioxide mixed with tungsten metal act as heat reflective still alone all visible light to pass through window the smart Windows are designed to Z and Adobe to the environment by altering Nano thickness and mixture of coating this makes offices and home today mankol without excessive use of AC there by drastically reducing financial and environmental cost

Nanofiltration nanotechnology can be helpful for wastewater treatment producing safe and clean drinking water extremely small size of possible filtration of bacteria and other infection agent nanoparticles of iron oxide are extremely effective at binding and removing arsenic from groundwater there by preventing arsenic groundwater poisoning Santhanam nanoparticle absorb phosphates from aqueous environment applying these in bonds and tools effectively remove available for sides and brother and growth and multiplication of LT that is a lead role so this will benefit commercial fishponds with spend huge amount of money to the remove algae

Agriculture nanotechnology has potential to Revolution allies agriculture sector by becoming integral part of Precision farming it is the site specific form of Management using information technology to maximize output that is crop yield while minimising infoset fertilizers and pesticides through geographic information system this will increase the quality of decision making which in turn will make weed control pest control and fertilizer application site specific size and effective

Can customer goods smart packaging and food safety and Technology will help develop a smart packaging to optimise product sales like Nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing antimicrobial agent directly on sources of Kotak self Nanocomposite could modify the behaviour of files by increasing their barrier properties including mechanical chemical and microbial example silicate nanoparticle can reduce entrance of Oxygen and prevent exit of myself while silver nanoparticle import antimicrobial which include antibacterial and antifungal properties Nano Technology can help to detect contamination of food and prevent Biotech by using an infectious bacteria or virus.

Nuclear energy

Everything around us is made up of tiny objects called atoms. Most of the mass of each atom is concentrated in the center (which is called the nucleus), and the rest of the mass is in the cloud of electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are subatomic particles that comprise the nucleus.

Under certain circumstances, the nucleus of a very large atom can split in two. In this process, a certain amount of the large atom’s mass is converted to pure energy following Einstein’s famous formula E = MC2, where M is the small amount of mass and C is the speed of light (a very large number). In the 1930s and ’40s, humans discovered this energy and recognized its potential as a weapon. Technology developed in the Manhattan Project successfully used this energy in a chain reaction to create nuclear bombs. Soon after World War II ended, the newfound energy source found a home in the propulsion of the nuclear navy, providing submarines with engines that could run for over a year without refueling. This technology was quickly transferred to the public sector, where commercial power plants were developed and deployed to produce electricity.

Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. This is how the sun produces energy. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electricity.

Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releases a large amount of energy. In nuclear physics, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process.

In nuclear fission the nucleus of an atom breaks up into two lighter nuclei. The process may take place spontaneously in some cases or may be induced by the excitation of the nucleus with a variety of particles (e.g., neutrons, protons, deuterons, or alpha particles) or with electromagnetic radiation in the form of gamma rays. In the fission process, a large quantity of energy is released, radioactive products are formed, and several neutrons are emitted. These neutrons can induce fission in a nearby nucleus of fissionable material and release more neutrons that can repeat the sequence, causing a chain reaction in which a large number of nuclei undergo fission and an enormous amount of energy is released.

If controlled in a nuclear reactor, such a chain reaction can provide power for society’s benefit. If uncontrolled, as in the case of the so-called atomic bomb, it can lead to an explosion of awesome destructive force.

Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion is the process of making a single heavy nucleus (part of an atom) from two lighter nuclei. This process is called a nuclear reaction. It releases a large amount of energy. The nucleus made by fusion is heavier than either of the starting nuclei. However, it is not as heavy as the combination of the original mass of the starting nuclei (atoms). This lost mass is changed into lots of energy. This is shown in Einstein’s famous E=mc2 equation.

Fusion happens in the middle of stars, like the Sun. Hydrogen atoms are fused together to make helium. This releases lots of energy. This energy powers the heat and light of the star. Not all elements can be joined. Heavier elements are less easily joined than lighter ones. Iron (a metal) cannot fuse with other atoms. This is what causes stars to die. Stars join all of their atoms together to make heavier atoms of different types, until they start to make iron. The iron nucleus cannot fuse with other nuclei. The reactions stop. The star eventually will cool down and die.

On Earth it is very difficult to start nuclear fusion reactions that release more energy than is needed to start the reaction. The reason is that fusion reactions only happen at high temperature and pressure, like in the Sun, because both nuclei have a positive charge, and positive repels positive. The only way to stop the repulsion is to make the nuclei hit each other at very high speeds. They only do that at high pressure and temperature. The only successful approach so far has been in nuclear weapons. The hydrogen bomb uses an atomic (fission) bomb to start fusion reactions. Scientists and engineers have been trying for decades to find a safe and working way of controlling and containing fusion reactions to generate electricity. They still have many challenges to overcome before fusion power can be used as a clean source of energy.

Chain reaction

A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. The process may be controlled (nuclear power) or uncontrolled (nuclear weapons).

A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions. The specific nuclear reaction may be the fission of heavy isotopes (e.g., uranium-235, 235U). The nuclear chain reaction releases several million times more energy per reaction than any chemical reaction.

Fission chain reactions occur because of interactions between neutrons and fissile isotopes (such as 235U). The chain reaction requires both the release of neutrons from fissile isotopes undergoing nuclear fission and the subsequent absorption of some of these neutrons in fissile isotopes. When an atom undergoes nuclear fission, a few neutrons (the exact number depends on several factors) are ejected from the reaction. These free neutrons will then interact with the surrounding medium, and if more fissile fuel is present, some may be absorbed and cause more fission. Thus, the cycle repeats to give a reaction that is self-sustaining.

Nuclear power plants operate by precisely controlling the rate at which nuclear reactions occur, and that control is maintained through the use of several redundant layers of safety measures. Moreover, the materials in a nuclear reactor core and the uranium enrichment level make a nuclear explosion impossible, even if all safety measures failed. On the other hand, nuclear weapons are specifically engineered to produce a reaction that is so fast and intense it cannot be controlled after it has started. When properly designed, this uncontrolled reaction can lead to an explosive energy release.

 

Uses and harms of nuclear energy

Pros of Nuclear Energy

Low Pollution: Nuclear power also has a lot fewer greenhouse emissions. It has been determined that the amount of greenhouse gases have decreased by almost half because of the prevalence in the utilization of nuclear power. Nuclear energy has the least effect on nature since it doesn’t discharge any gasses like methane and carbon dioxide, which are the primary “greenhouse gasses.” There is no unfavorable impact on water, land or any territories because of the utilization of nuclear power, except in times where transportation is utilized.

Low Operating Costs: Nuclear power produces very inexpensive electricity. The cost of the uranium, which is utilized as a fuel in this process, is low. Also, even though the expense of setting up nuclear power plants is moderately high, the expense of running them is quite low. The normal life of nuclear reactor is anywhere from 40-60 years, depending on how often it is used and how it is being used. These variables, when consolidated, make the expense of delivering power low. Even if the cost of uranium goes up, the impact on the cost of power will be that much lower.

Reliability: It is estimated that with the current rate of consumption of uranium, we have enough uranium for another 70-80 years. A nuclear power plant when in the mode of producing energy can run uninterrupted for even a year. As solar and wind energy are dependent upon weather conditions, nuclear power plant has no such constraints and can run without disruption in any climatic condition.

More Proficient than Fossil Fuels: The other primary point of interest of utilizing nuclear energy is that it is more compelling and more proficient than other energy sources. A number of nuclear energy innovations have made it a much more feasible choice than others. They have high energy density as compared to fossil fuels. The amount of fuel required by nuclear power plant is comparatively less than what is required by other power plants as energy released by nuclear fission is approximately ten million times greater than the amount of energy released by fossil fuel atom.

Renewable: Nuclear energy is not renewable resource. Uranium, the nuclear fuel that is used to produce nuclear energy is limited and cannot be produced again and again on demand. On the other hand, by using breeder and fusion reactors, we can produce other fissionable element. One such element is called plutonium that is produced by the by-products of chain-reaction. Also, if we know how to control atomic fusion, the same reactions that fuel the sun, we can have almost unlimited energy.

Cons of Nuclear Energy

Environmental Impact: One of the biggest issues is environmental impact in relation to uranium. The process of mining and refining uranium hasn’t been a clean process. Actually transporting nuclear fuel to and from plants represents a pollution hazard. Also, once the fuel is used, you can’t simply take it to the landfill – it’s radioactive and dangerous.

Radioactive Waste Disposal: As a rule, a nuclear power plant creates 20 metric tons of nuclear fuel per year, and with that comes a lot of nuclear waste. When you consider each nuclear plant on Earth, you will find that that number jumps to approximately 2,000 metric tons a year.

Nuclear Accidents: The radioactive waste produced can pose serious health effects on the lives of people as well as the environment. The Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine was the worst nuclear accident in the history. Its harmful effects on humans and ecology can still be seen today. Then there was another accident that happened in Fukushima in Japan. Although the casualties were not that high, but it caused serious environmental concerns.

High Cost: At present, the nuclear business let waste cool for a considerable length of time before blending it with glass and putting away it in enormous cooled, solid structures. This waste must be kept up, observed and watched to keep the materials from falling into the wrong hands and causing problems.

Hot Target for Militants: Nuclear energy has immense power. Today, nuclear energy is used to make weapons. If these weapons go into the wrong hands, that could be the end of this world. Nuclear power plants are prime target for terrorism activities. Little lax in security can be brutal for humankind.

Nuclear reactors

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which in turn runs through steam turbines. These either drive a ship’s propellers or turn electrical generators’ shafts. Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium. Some are run only for research. As of April 2014, the IAEA reports there are 435 nuclear power reactors in operation, in 31 countries around the world. By 2017, this increased to 447 operable reactors according to the World Nuclear Association.

Main components

The core of the reactor contains all of the nuclear fuel and generates all of the heat. It contains low-enriched uranium (<5% U-235), control systems, and structural materials. The core can contain hundreds of thousands of individual fuel pins.

The coolant is the material that passes through the core, transferring the heat from the fuel to a turbine. It could be water, heavy-water, liquid sodium, helium, or something else. In the US fleet of power reactors, water is the standard.

The turbine transfers the heat from the coolant to electricity, just like in a fossil-fuel plant.

The containment is the structure that separates the reactor from the environment. These are usually dome-shaped, made of high-density, steel-reinforced concrete. Chernobyl did not have a containment to speak of.

Cooling towers are needed by some plants to dump the excess heat that cannot be converted to energy due to the laws of thermodynamics. These are the hyperbolic icons of nuclear energy. They emit only clean water vapor.

Types of Reactors

There are many different kinds of nuclear fuel forms and cooling materials can be used in a nuclear Reactor. As a result, there are thousands of different possible nuclear reactor designs.

Pressurized Water Reactor The most common type of reactor

The PWR uses regular old water as a coolant. The primary cooling water is kept at very high pressure so it does not boil. It goes through a heat exchanger, transferring heat to a secondary coolant loop, which then spins the turbine. These use oxide fuel pellets stacked in zirconium tubes. They could possibly burn thorium or plutonium fuel as well.

 

The Pros of having pressurized water reactor are as follows:

Strong negative void coefficient — reactor cools down if water starts bubbling because the coolant is the moderator, which is required to sustain the chain reaction.

Secondary loop keeps radioactive stuff away from turbines, making maintenance easy.

Very much operating experience has been accumulated and the designs and procedures have been largely optimized.

Boiling Water Reactor Second most common, the BWR is similar to the PWR in many ways. However, they only have one coolant loop. The hot nuclear fuel boils water as it goes out the top of the reactor, where the steam heads over to the turbine to spin it.

 

The pros of boiling water reactor are as follows:

 Simpler plumbing reduces costs

Power levels can be increased simply by speeding up the jet pumps, giving less boiled water and more moderation. Thus, load-following is simple and easy.

Very much operating experience has been accumulated and the designs and procedures have been largely optimized.

 

Nuclear fuel cycle

Thermal reactors generally depend on refined and enriched uranium. Some nuclear reactors can operate with a mixture of plutonium and uranium. The process by which uranium ore is mined, processed, enriched, used, possibly reprocessed and disposed of is known as the nuclear fuel cycle.

Under 1% of the uranium found in nature is the easily fissionable U-235 isotope and as a result most reactor designs require enriched fuel. Enrichment involves increasing the percentage of U-235 and is usually done by means of gaseous diffusion or gas centrifuge. The enriched result is then converted into uranium dioxide powder, which is pressed and fired into pellet form. These pellets are stacked into tubes which are then sealed and called fuel rods. Many of these fuel rods are used in each nuclear reactor.

Most BWR and PWR commercial reactors use uranium enriched to about 4% U-235, and some commercial reactors with a high neutron economy do not require the fuel to be enriched at all (that is, they can use natural uranium). According to the International Atomic Energy Agency there are at least 100 research reactors in the world fueled by highly enriched (weapons-grade/90% enrichment uranium). Theft risk of this fuel (potentially used in the production of a nuclear weapon) has led to campaigns advocating conversion of this type of reactor to low-enrichment uranium (which poses less threat of proliferation).

 

Fissile U-235 and non-fissile but fissionable and fertile U-238 are both used in the fission process. U-235 is fissionable by thermal (i.e. slow-moving) neutrons. A thermal neutron is one which is moving about the same speed as the atoms around it. Since all atoms vibrate proportionally to their absolute temperature, a thermal neutron has the best opportunity to fission U-235 when it is moving at this same vibration speed. On the other hand, U-238 is more likely to capture a neutron when the neutron is moving very fast. This U-239 atom will soon decay into plutonium-239, which is another fuel. Pu-239 is a viable fuel and must be accounted for even when a highly enriched uranium fuel is used. Plutonium fissions will dominate the U-235 fissions in some reactors, especially after the initial loading of U-235 is spent. Plutonium is fissionable with both fast and thermal neutrons, which make it ideal for either nuclear reactors or nuclear bombs.

 

Most reactor designs in existence are thermal reactors and typically use water as a neutron moderator (moderator means that it slows down the neutron to a thermal speed) and as a coolant. But in a fast breeder reactor, some other kind of coolant is used which will not moderate or slow the neutrons down much. This enables fast neutrons to dominate, which can effectively be used to constantly replenish the fuel supply. By merely placing cheap unenriched uranium into such a core, the non-fissionable U-238 will be turned into Pu-239, “breeding” fuel.

In thorium fuel cycle thorium-232 absorbs a neutron in either a fast or thermal reactor. The thorium-233 beta decays to protactinium-233 and then to uranium-233, which in turn is used as fuel. Hence, like uranium-238, thorium-232 is a fertile material.

 

Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India

  • The huge potential of the atom had been envisioned in India in the ancient times and references to the same can be found in some of the ancient scriptures.
  • Such references provide us a tantalizing glimpse into the ancient Indian history and, indeed, into the level of advanced thinking that these civilizations had reached in those times.
  • In the modern times, it was Homi Bhabha, who foresaw, as early as in 1944, the potential of harnessing nuclear power in improving the quality of life of the millions of people stated:

“Any substantial rise in the standard of living in this region – that can be sustained in the long term – will only be possible on the basis of very large imports of fuel or on the basis of atomic energy.”

  • The issues of energy sustainability and inevitability of nuclear power, which are only now receiving global attention, was foreseen by him over half a century ago. When the rest of the world was working on the military applications of atomic energy, he focused on harnessing atomic energy for the improving the quality of life.
  • In the 1950s, nuclear power in the world was still in its infancy and India had just gained independence. The nascent nation was essential a rural economy, with practically no technology or industrial base.
  • Therefore, realizing such a technology-intensive vision, which involved complex reactor and fuel cycle technologies must have seemed like a fantasy. However, with his clear vision, Dr Bhabha went ahead, building institutions – R&D facilities, research reactors, industrial units – to develop technologies and to deploy them.

Building Institutions to Ensure Linkages Just before India attained independence, Dr. Bhabha, in 1944, approached the Sir Dorabji Tata charitable trust for funding to set up an institute for atomic research in India. The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) was thus established in 1945. After India’s independence in 1947, the framework for the programme was put in place. The Atomic Energy Act was enacted and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the policy-making body, was set up in 1948. The Department of Atomic Energy, under the Prime Minister, was set up in 1954 to administer the programmes of atomic energy.

  • R&D Facilities Considering the need to develop an R&D base for the programme, the Atomic Energy Establishment was set up in the 1950s at Trombay, Mumbai (later renamed Bhabha Atomic Research Centre – BARC).
  • The Centre housed laboratories and facilities for carrying out multi-disciplinary R&D in basic nuclear sciences and for various applications of nuclear energy, like energy/power and several other societal applications health & medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. Research reactors – examples of which are APSARA (1956), CIRUS (1960) – were set up for production of isotopes and experiments for perfecting the technologies.
  • Facilities at the Centre were also set up for production of uranium ingots, fabrication of fuel and a reprocessing plant for production of plutonium. R&D carried out at the Centre helped develop key materials, technology, tools and equipment, for the nuclear power programme.

Facilities for Production of Nuclear Materials and Backend Facilities for production of fuel, heavy water and other materials for the nuclear power programme were set up under the aegis of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Indian Rare Earth Limited was incorporated for mining and processing of rare earths like zircon and thorium for the programme. Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) was set up to mine and process uranium ore. The company now has mines in Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh and an entire PHWR reactor fleet till recently was fuelled by the fuel mined by UCIL in the country. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) was set up for fabrication of fuel bundles/ assemblies. Given the special requirements of instrumentation for nuclear plants, Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) was set up to develop and manufacture the special instrumentation. Heavy Water Plants were set up for production of heavy water for the PHWRs at various locations in the country.

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay

A series of ‘research’ reactors and critical facilities was built here. Reprocessing of used fuel was first undertaken at Trombay in 1964. BARC is also responsible for the transition to thorium-based systems. BARC is responsible for India’s uranium enrichment projects, the pilot Rare Materials Plant (RMP) at Ratnahalli near Mysore.

 

Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR)

  • IGCAR at Kalpakkam was set up in 1971. Two civil research reactors here are preparing for stage two of the thorium cycle. BHAVINI is located here and draws upon the centre’s expertise and that of NPCIL in establishing the fast reactor program, including the Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility.

 

The Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT)

  • Multi-purpose research reactor (MPRR) for radioisotope production, testing nuclear fuel and reactor materials, and basic research

Atomic Minerals Directorate

  • The DAE’s Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) is focused on mineral exploration for uranium and thorium. It was set up in 1949, and is based in Hyderabad, with over 2700 staff.

Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre

Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is a premier R & D unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. This Centre is dedicated to carry out frontier research and development in the fields of Accelerator Science & Technology, Nuclear Science (Theoretical and Experimental), Material Science and Computer Science & Technology and in other relevant areas.

 

Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership

It will be the DAE’s sixth R & D facility. It is being built near Bhudargarh in Haryana state and designed to strengthen India’s collaboration internationally. It will house five schools to conduct research into advanced nuclear energy systems, nuclear security, radiological safety, as well as applications for radioisotopes and radiation technologies. Russia is to help set up four of the GCNEP schools.

Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

  • The Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics is an institution of basic research and training in physical and biophysical sciences located in Bidhan nagar, Kolkata, India.
  • The institute is named after the famous Indian physicist Meghnad Saha.

Institute of Physics

  • Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar is an autonomous research institution of the (DAE), Government of India.

Institute for Plasma Research

  • Research and development in fusion technology continued at the Institute for Plasma Research.

 

Harish Chandra Research Institute

  • The Harish-Chandra Research Institute is an institution dedicated to research in Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh in India

 

Telecommunication

Telecommunications, also known as telecom, is the exchange of information over significant distances by electronic means and refers to all types of voice, data and video transmission. This is a broad term that includes a wide range of information transmitting technologies such as telephones (wired and wireless), microwave communications, fiber optics, satellites, radio and television broadcasting, the internet and telegraphs.

  • A complete, single telecommunications circuit consists of two stations, each equipped with a transmitter and a receiver
  • The transmitter and receiver at any station may be combined into a single device called a transceiver
  • The medium of signal transmission can be via electrical wire or cable (also known as “copper”), optical fiber, electromagnetic fields or light
  • The free space transmission and reception of data by means of electromagnetic fields is called wireless communications

 

Types of telecommunications networks

  • The simplest form of telecommunications takes place between two stations, but it is common for multiple transmitting and receiving stations to exchange data among them.
  • Such an arrangement is called a telecommunications network. The internet is the largest example of a telecommunications network.

Examples:

  • Corporate and academic wide-area networks (WANs)
  • Telephone networks
  • Cellular networks
  • Police and fire communications systems
  • Taxi dispatch networks
  • Groups of amateur (ham)
  • Radio operators
  • Broadcast networks

 

Data is transmitted in a telecommunications circuit by means of an electrical signal called the carrier or the carrier wave. In order for a carrier to convey information, some form of modulation is required. The mode of modulation can be broadly categorized as either analog or digital.

 

In analog modulation, some aspect of the carrier is varied in a continuous fashion. The oldest form of analog modulation is amplitude modulation (AM), which is still used in radio broadcasting at some frequencies. Digital modulation actually predates analog modulation; the earliest form was Morse code. Modern telecommunications use IPs (internet protocols) to carry data across underlying physical transmissions.

Role of telecommunications and socio-economic development

  • Telecommunication has very significant role to play in development of various sectors of the economy. In the 21st century, telecommunication sector has become pivotal to a country’s socio-economic development.
  • It is one of the prime support services needed to promote growth and modernization of various sectors of an economy. Enormous growth of information and communication technology and its role in development of various sectors including services like finance, insurance, trade, hotel and business services as well as industry, agriculture and governance is commendable.
  • Telecommunication infrastructure is somewhat different from other forms of infrastructure because of existence of network externalities, a phenomenon that increases the value of services with the increasing number of users.
  • Thus the impact of telecommunication infrastructure on economic development is more pronounced as compared to other traditional infrastructure.

 

A modem network contributes to economic growth in four ways20

Business attraction Business retention

  • A sophisticated low cost telecommunications infrastructure makes information flow efficiently to and from more remote areas and is a factor when information- intensive corporations relocate.
  • The same argument is extended by Boyle when he contends that the quality of telecommunications and mail services is the factors most often mentioned by the decision makers in case of corporate head quarter’s location or relocation.

Diversification of Economic Base

  • Most economists agree that diversity is the key to growth and stability.
  • The less dependent a local economy is on one particular industry, the more likely it is to withstand cyclical downturns.
  • Enhanced telecommunications services supported by a sophisticated network will allow small businesses/entrepreneurs to compete with large corporations that often have installed sophisticated private networks.

Indian telecom industry with brief history

India’s telecommunication network is the second largest in the world by number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone) with 1.153 billion subscribers as on 31 May 2018. It has one of the lowest call tariffs in the world enabled by mega telecom operators and hyper-competition among them. As on 31 May 2018, India has the world’s second-largest Internet user-base with 432 million internet subscribers in the country.

  • India’s telecom industry has been through a paradigm shift over the last three decades.
  • A brief overview of the telecommunications market structure reveals there are some dominant market players with their associated competition.
  • The industry has also undergone significant policy and regulatory changes through the years, in essence, leading to a control of market share of services by a few players. But it was not always so.
  • The early 1990s saw the Telecom sector dominated by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT), which was the sole service provider.
  • The first whiff of reform came about in 1994 when the sector began a transition from a monopoly to a competitive structure.
  • During this period, beginning with the deregulation of the sector and followed by the issuance of two major policy instruments — the National Telecom Policy, 1994 (NTP94) and the New Telecom Policy 1999 (NTP99) — the transition to a competitive market based structure was successfully accomplished.
  • The dominance of DoT, as the sole operator subsided with the entry of a number of private operators in various services such as fixed line, mobile telephony and international long distance and internet service providers.
  • Telecom licenses were allocated by the DoT through auctions at a circle level with the country divided into 23 circles (in most cases each circle represented a state). Each circle was allotted two licensed operators.

The market for fixed telecom services was highly concentrated in all the telecom circles, although in seven of them the H. Herfindahl Index had a value less than 0.8000. Apart from competition, the existence of a telecom regulator in the form of TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) too has acted as a check on service providers abusing their dominant position. BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited) made substantial progress; reduced tariffs, improved efficiency and it can be argued that this was entirely due to the force of competition leading to efficiency gains.

The transition for BSNL from a monopolistic firm which had a previous history of being impervious to consumer demands to a firm that adapts and responds to market competition ultimately led to providing a surplus to its consumers. At a national level, after privatization the market for fixed telephone services was much more concentrated than the one for mobile services.

 

Competition in the mobile services industry

  • The growth of the mobile services industry was also phenomenal; it started from 1997 as one dominated by private sector enterprises.
  • The government followed a policy of “managed competition” by licensing more than one service provider in a telecom circle.
  • In fact, a majority of the 28 Telecom circles that were present at that time had at least four to six services providers.
  • The private mobile operators grew on new and latest state-of-the art technologies. Entry of a new player Reliance Infocomm Ltd. in 2002 saw introduction of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Services) services across 17 circles on a countrywide basis. CDMA has since been growing faster than GSM.
  • The existences of the two standards have made both the markets for GSM and CDMA services very competitive. This is especially so when the market for CDMA services was highly concentrated with just two service providers accounting for almost the entire output.

 

Exploring the ‘Spectrum’

Every telecom operator has been assigned certain portions of spectrum to use in India through auctions and administrative allocations. Essentially, the spectrum “bands”, and frequencies around a particular band are then auctioned off.

The years of 1998 and 2004 saw 2 rounds of spectrum auctions with major share being grabbed by the existing players. Later in 2008 the government’s policy bypassed the spectrum auction process leading to controversies. The Government’s move of selling spectrum by way of a first come first serve basis rather than by auction and fixing of prices based on 2001 prices was alleged to be an outcome of the nexus between a few dominant players and government representatives. The result was that major frequencies was captured and held by a very few operators and in some cases even by few non-serious telecom players leading to hoarding of spectrum.

These controversial auctions lead to legal suits, investment pullbacks and eventually the cancellation of spectrum licenses. There was distrust leading to huge losses and stagnation in the sector for a while. All these led to upward revision of prices, consolidation and smaller players exiting from the industry.

National Telecom Policy

Vision

To provide secure, reliable, affordable and high quality converged telecommunication services anytime, anywhere for an accelerated inclusive socio-economic development.

Mission

To develop a robust and secure state-of-the-art telecommunication network providing seamless coverage with special focus on rural and remote areas for bridging the digital divide and thereby facilitate socio-economic development.

  • To create an inclusive knowledge society through proliferation of affordable and high quality broadband services across the nation
  • To reposition the mobile device as an instrument of socio-economic empowerment of citizens
  • To make India a global hub for telecom equipment manufacturing and a centre for converged communication services.
  • To promote Research and Development, Design in cutting edge ICTE technologies, products and services for meeting the infrastructure needs of domestic and global markets with focus on security and green technologies.

To promote development of new standards to meet national requirements, generation of IPRs and participation in international standardization bodies to contribute in formation of global standards, thereby making India a leading nation in the area of telecom standardization.

 

Objectives

  • Provide secure, affordable and high quality telecommunication services to all citizens.
  • Increase rural teledensity from the current level of around 39 to 70 by the year 2017 and 100 by the year 2020.
  • Provide affordable and reliable broadband-on-demand by the year 2015 and to achieve 175 million broadband connections by the year 2017 and 600 million by the year 2020 at minimum 2 Mbps download speed and making available higher speeds of at least 100 Mbps on demand.
  • Enable citizens to participate in and contribute to e-governance in key sectors like health, education, skill development, employment, governance, banking etc. to ensure equitable and inclusive growth.
  • Provide high speed and high quality broadband access to all village panchayats through a combination of technologies by the year 2014 and progressively to all villages and habitations by 2020.
  • Promote innovation, indigenous R&D and manufacturing to serve domestic and global markets, by increasing skills and competencies.

Create a corpus to promote indigenous R&D, IPR creation, entrepreneurship, manufacturing, commercialization and deployment of state-of-the-art telecom products and services during the 12th five year plan period.

Promote the ecosystem for design, Research and Development, IPR creation, testing, standardization and manufacturing i.e. complete value chain for domestic production of telecommunication equipment to meet Indian telecom sector demand to the extent of 60% and 80% with a minimum value addition of 45% and 65% by the year 2017 and 2020 respectively.

 

TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)

The entry of private service providers brought with it the inevitable need for independent regulation. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was, thus, established with effect from 20th February 1997 by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government.

TRAI’s mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society.

One of the main objectives of TRAI is to provide a fair and transparent policy environment which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition.

In pursuance of above objective TRAI has issued from time to time a large number of regulations, orders and directives to deal with issues coming before it and provided the required direction to the evolution of Indian telecom market from a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi service open competitive market.

The directions, orders and regulations issued cover a wide range of subjects including tariff, interconnection and quality of service as well as governance of the Authority.

The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI.

Daily Current Affair Notes 11.11.2018

SIMBEX-2018

The 25th edition of SIMBEX (Singapore-India Maritime Bilateral Exercise)-2018 is scheduled to be held in Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.

  • The 2018 edition marks the Silver Jubilee of SIMBEX.
  • The previous edition of the exercise was held off Singapore in the South China Sea in May 2017.
  • SIMBEX 2018 will be the largest edition since 1994 in terms of scale and complexity.
  • This Exercise will complement India’s ‘Act-East’ policy.

The aim of ‘Act East Policy’ is to promote the country’s economic cooperation, cultural ties and develop strategic relationship with countries in the Asia-Pacific region through continuous engagement at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels.

It was originally conceived as an economic initiative but has gained political, strategic and cultural dimensions, including establishment of institutional mechanisms for dialogue and cooperation.

Global Cooling Innovation Summit

Global Cooling Innovation Summit is being jointly organized by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, along with Rocky Mountain Institute, Alliance for An Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE), Conservation X Labs and CEPT University.

The Summit is a first-of-its-kind solutions-focused event that will bring together leaders from around the world to explore concrete means and pathways to address the climate threat that comes from the growing demand from room air conditioners.

The summit is going to launch Global Cooling Prize -Mission Innovation challenge that aims to spur development of a residential cooling solution that has at least five times (5x) less climate impact than today’s standard.

Global Cooling Prize is a competition with global reach and participation to achieve dramatic breakthroughs in cooling technologies.

 

Indian Army Inducts Major Artillery Gun Systems

  • The Indian Army has received the first batch of its new artillery weapons at Devmali Field Firing Ranges in Maharashtra.
  • The artillery gun systems include the M777 American Ultra Light Howitzers, K9 Vajra, and a ‘Composite Gun Tractor’ for towing some existing guns in service.
  • More than three decades have passed since a modern artillery system was inducted by the army, the last being the Bofors FH77B02 in 1987.

K9 Vajra

K9 VAJRA GUN

 

  • The K9 VAJRA-T 155mm/ 52 are a tracked self-propelled howitzer, which has its roots in the K9 Thunder, the mainstay of the South Korean Army.
  • The Vajra offers a high rate of fire at a long range and is compatible with Indian and standard NATO ammunition.
  • The K9 Thunder platform is made of all-welded steel armour protection material.
  • The K9 gun has been developed under the `Buy Global’ programmes of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) where foreign companies are allowed to participate —in this case Hanwha Techwin of South Korea is the technology partner of L&T.

The first 10 K9 Vajra guns have been imported from South Korea and have been assembled by L&T in India. The balance 90 guns will be largely manufactured in the country.

 

M777

M777 GUN

 

The 155mm, 39 Calibre Ultra light Howitzers have been procured from USA under Government to Government Foreign Military Sales in 2016 and will be assembled by U.S.A.’s BAE Systems in partnership with Mahindra Defence.

  • It is one of the lightest guns that were actively used in Iraq and Afghanistan; the M777 will be deployed on the high altitude borders with China and Pakistan and is especially useful with the Chinook helicopters that can transport them quickly.
  • It is smaller and lighter, as it is made of titanium and aluminium alloys and weighs just 4 tonnes. It has effective firing range of 24 km.
  • It has been procured through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) route under the `Buy Global’ programme of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP).

Significance

The artillery has always been a battle winning factor. It possesses the ability to strike deep with great accuracy and cause maximum damage to even well-constructed shelters and bunkers.

Other than the Bofors inducted in 1984, Indian Army possessed the 130 mm guns and 105 mm guns inducted in the 1960’s and 70’s. The 130 mm lacked the ability to fire in mountains and the 105 mm lacked range. Both guns fired limited type of shells with lesser level of fragmentation.

Both M777 and K9 Vajra would enhance firepower in a region where spread of deployment restricts fire support to troops holding ground in the defensive role.

The procurement of state of the art defence equipments not only enhances the capability of armed forces, but also provides technological know-how to the domestic manufacturers. This in turn will push the indigenous manufacturing of defence equipments.

Defence Procurement Procedure

The Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP-2016) had replaced the DPP-2013 based on the recommendations of the Dhirendra Singh Committee that was appointed in May 2015 to review the DPP, 2013.

DPP, 2016 focuses to boost the Make-in-India initiative of the Government of India, by promoting indigenous design, development and manufacturing of defence equipment, platforms and systems.

The government has introduced a newly incorporated procurement class called “Buy Indian (IDDM)”, where IDDM stands for Indigenous Designed Developed and Manufactured. This would have the first preference in all acquisitions once the DPP comes into effect.

Besides this, preference has been accorded to ‘Buy (Indian)’ and ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ categories of capital acquisition over ‘Buy (Global)’ & ‘Buy & Make (Global)’ categories.

 

Mission to Explore Ocean Deeps

A submarine mission called “Five Deeps” will explore the bottom of each of the world’s oceans.

The Five Deeps Expedition is the first manned expedition to the deepest points in each of the world’s five oceans.

Deep Oceans remain uncharted territory for humans, while hundreds of people have ventured into space; only three people have touched down on the deepest known places in oceans.

The expedition provides the unprecedented opportunity to sample life across a gradient of depths, temperatures, salinity, food supply, latitude and in places around the world that were formed, split, or united millions of years ago by the shifting of the Earth’s tectonic plates.

Five spots in oceans where expedition will go are:

  • Puerto Rico Trench (Atlantic Ocean)
  • South Sandwich Trench (Southern Ocean)
  • Java Trench (Indian Ocean)
  • Challenger Deep (Pacific Ocean)
  • Molloy Deep (Arctic Ocean)

DSV Limiting Factor

The expedition crew will use Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) Limiting Factor submarine for exploring the ocean deeps.

Limiting Factor is the only human-occupied vessel that can visit any place in oceans, at any depth, and from any properly-equipped ship.

Goals of the Mission

  • To collect samples which will be used in research involving effects of undersea seismic activity
  • Find deep-sea features and habitats using high-resolution multibeam sonar and learn about lives in those habitats
  • Discover how organisms survive in Hadalpelagic zones
  • Determine the organism’s’ role in each given ecosystem
  • Connect the Five Deeps through genetic differentiation of species found on the dives

Zones in the Ocean

  • Scientists have divided the ocean into five main layers. These layers, known as “zones”, extend from the surface to the most extreme depths.

Epipelagic Zone

The surface layer of the ocean is known as the epipelagic zone.

It extends from the surface to 200 meters (656 feet).

It is also known as the sunlight zone because this is where most of the visible light exists.

Mesopelagic Zone

Below the Epipelagic zone is the mesopelagic zone, extending from 200 meters (656 feet) to 1,000 meters (3,281 feet).

  • The Mesopelagic zone is sometimes referred to as the twilight zone or the midwater zone.
  • The light that penetrates to this depth is extremely faint.
  • Bioluminescent creatures (visible light produced by the creatures themselves) start appearing in this zone.

Bathypelagic Zone

This zone extends from 1,000 meters (3,281 feet) down to 4,000 meters (13,124 feet).

It is sometimes referred to as the midnight zone or the dark zone.

Abyss pelagic Zone

It is also known as the abyssal zone or simply as the abyss.

It extends from 4,000 meters (13,124 feet) to 6,000 meters (19,686 feet).

The water temperature is near freezing, and there is no light at all.

Hadalpelagic Zone

This layer extends from 6,000 meters (19,686 feet) to the bottom of the deepest parts of the ocean.

These areas are mostly found in deep water trenches and canyons.

The deepest point in the ocean is located in the Mariana Trench off the coast of Japan at 35,797 feet (10,911 meters).

The temperature of the water is just above freezing, and the pressure is 800 times as that on the surface.

In spite of the pressure and temperature, life can still be found here.

India’s Deep Ocean Mission

Union Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India has also launched a ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ for exploration of polymetallic nodules in Central Indian Ocean Basin.

Polymetallic nodules contain multiple metals like copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, aluminum, silver, gold, and platinum etc. in variable constitutions and are precipitate of hot fluids from upwelling hot magma from the deep interior of the oceanic crust.

Of these, cobalt, copper, and nickel are of much importance and in great demand in India as cobalt is used extensively in medical treatment and nickel in batteries.

It will reduce India’s dependence on imports of cobalt and other rare earth metals.

No Double Jeopardy Bar If There was No Trial

In a recent judgment (State of Mizoram vs. Dr. C. Sangnghina), SC has held that the bar of double jeopardy will not apply if the person was discharged due to lack of evidence.

In its judgment, SC held that, where the accused has not been tried at all and convicted or acquitted, the principles of “double jeopardy” cannot be invoked at all.

The principle of Double Jeopardy: Double Jeopardy is a legal term and it means that a person cannot be punished for the same offense more than once.

Both Article 20(2) of the Constitution of India and Section 300 of the Criminal Procedure Code say that no person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offense more than once.

Background

The judgment is based on an appeal filed by the State of Mizoram against an order passed by the Gauhati High Court in August 2015, upholding a Special Court decision to decline to entertain a second charge sheet filed in a corruption case against the accused on the ground of double jeopardy.

Article 20: Protection in Respect of Conviction for Offences

Article 20 grants protection against arbitrary and excessive punishment to an accused person, whether citizen or foreigner or legal person like a company or a corporation.

It contains three provisions in that direction:

No ex-post-facto law: No person shall be

  • convicted of any offense except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act, nor
  • (ii) Subjected to a penalty greater than that prescribed by the law in force at the time of the commission of the act.
  • No double jeopardy: No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offense more than once.
  • No self-incrimination: No person accused of any offense shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

An ex-post-facto law is one that imposes penalties retrospectively (retroactively), that is, upon acts already done or which increases the penalties for such acts.

The protection against double jeopardy is available only in proceedings before a court of law or a judicial tribunal. In other words, it is not available in proceedings before departmental or administrative authorities as they are not of judicial nature.

The protection against self-incrimination extends to both oral evidence and documentary evidence.

Digital Transactions in India

Over the past two years, i.e. since 2016, Digital payment transactions have registered tremendous growth in India.

 

New payment modes – Bharat Interface for Money-Unified Payments Interface (BHIM-UPI), Aadhaar enabled Payment System (AePS) and National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) – have transformed digital payment ecosystem by increasing Person to Person (P2P) as well as Person to Merchant (P2M) payments.

At the same time existing payment modes such as debit cards, credit cards, Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) and Pre Paid Instruments (PPI) have registered substantial growth.

Bharat Interface for Money-Unified Payments Interface (BHIM-UPI)

  • BHIM is developed by the National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI).

It is an initiative to enable fast, secure, reliable cashless payments through the mobile phone. BHIM is based on Unified Payment Interface (UPI) to facilitate e-payments directly through bank.

It is interoperable with other Unified Payment Interface (UPI) applications, and bank accounts. Unified Payment Interface (UPI) is an instant payment system built over the Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) infrastructure and allows instant transfer of money between any two parties’ bank accounts.

Aadhaar enabled Payment System (AePS)

AePS is developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) that allows people to carry out financial transactions on a Micro-ATM by furnishing just their Aadhaar number and verifying it with the help of their fingerprint/iris scan.

With the help of this payment system, funds can be transferred from one bank account to another simply through their Aadhaar numbers.

This system adds another layer of security to financial transactions as bank details would no longer be required to be furnished while carrying out these transactions.

National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC)

NETC was developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) in 2016 for electronic toll collection at toll plazas using FASTag.

FASTag is a device that employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for making toll payments directly while the vehicle is in motion.

FASTag (RFID Tag) is affixed on the windscreen of the vehicle and enables a customer to make the toll payments directly from the account which is linked to FASTag.

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tagging is a system that uses small radio frequency detection devices for identification and tracking purposes.

National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)

National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India, is an initiative of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007.

It is a “Not for Profit” Company under the provisions of Section 25 of Companies Act 1956 (now Section 8 of Companies Act 2013), with an intention to provide infrastructure to the entire Banking system in India for physical as well as electronic payment and settlement systems.

Unified Payment Interface (UPI)

It is an advanced version of Immediate Payment Service (IMPS)- round–the-clock funds transfer service to make cashless payments faster, easier and smoother.

This is a payment system that allows one to send money from bank account the way one sends an SMS or email.

Bannerghatta Park’s Eco-Sensitive Zone Reduced

  • The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) had issued a new draft notification for Bannerghatta National Park (BNP), nearly 2.5 years after the first draft notification had declared an ESZ of 268.96 sq.km.
  • In the latest notification, the Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) was reduced to 169 Sq.km.
  • The reduction in the ESZ, which regulates and prohibits certain activities that may destroy the forest, may open up more areas in the vicinity for mining and commercial development around the rapidly-urbanizing Bengaluru city.
  • Areas, where ESZ has been cut down drastically, are either being mined or are prospective mining areas. The other sector that will benefit from the cutting down of ESZ is real estate as land has now been freed from environmental constraints along highways close to BNP.

Eco-Sensitive Zone (ESZ)

Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas are areas notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.

Activities conducted in eco-sensitive zones are regulated under the Environment (Protection Act) of 1986 and no polluting industry or mine is allowed to come up in such areas.

As a general principle width of the eco-sensitive zone could go up to 10 km around a protected area. In case of places with sensitive corridors, connectivity and ecologically important patches, crucial for landscape linkage, even area beyond 10 km width can also be included in the eco-sensitive zone.

Industries classified as prohibited under guidelines for declaration of eco-sensitive zones around national parks and wildlife sanctuaries are not allowed to operate in these zones.

The guidelines prohibit activities such as commercial mining, commercial use of firewood and major hydropower projects.

Activities such as felling of trees, commercial use of natural water resources, including groundwater harvesting and setting up of hotels and resorts, are regulated in these areas.

The basic aim is to regulate certain activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries so as to minimize the negative impacts of such activities on the fragile ecosystem encompassing the protected areas.

Significance of ESZ

During the course of industrialisation, urbanisation and other developmental initiatives, lot of changes occur in the landscape which may sometimes become the cause of natural disasters like earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, cloudburst etc.

In order to preserve certain regions/areas bestowed with unique plants, animals, terrains Government has declared them as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc.

Further, to minimize the impact of urbanisation and other developmental activities, areas adjacent to such protected areas have been declared as Eco-Sensitive Zones.

The National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) 2017-2031 endeavors to protect areas outside the protected area network to prevent isolation/destruction of fragments of biodiversity.

The purpose of declaring eco-sensitive zones around protected areas is for creating some kind of ‘Shock Absorber’ to the protected area. They would also act as a transition zone from areas of high protection to areas involving lesser protection.

Protection of eco-sensitive zones has assumed importance in view of the overzealous developmental initiatives in fragile ecosystems. A balanced, rational developmental approach is the need of the hour.

Bannerghatta National Park

  • The Bannerghatta National Park is located near Bangalore in Karnataka.
  • Wildlife such as elephants, gaur, leopard, jackal, fox, wild boar, sloth bear, Sambar, Chital, spotted deer, barking deer, common langur, bonnet macaque, porcupine and hares are found in abundance.
  • The Bannerghatta Biological Park has been an integral part of Bannerghatta National Park and emerged out as an independent establishment during the year 2002.
  • In order to meet the growing demand for eco-recreation, eco-tourism and conservation, some area of forest from the National park were set aside to constitute as Biological Park.
  • Bannerghatta Biological Park is one among the few places in the world where wilderness is preserved so close to a big city.
  • It is having different units such as Zoo, Safari, Butterfly Park and Rescue Center (Conservation of captive animals).

Nanotechnology and its application

Nanotechnology: –

Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon Nanotube, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors.

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Complete Study Notes

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Study Notes

  • It also has a tiny probe on it that can be used to shift atoms and molecules around and rearrange them like tiny building blocks.
  • There are lots of other ways of working with nanotechnology, including molecular beam epitaxial, which is a way of growing single crystals one layer of atoms at a time
  • Nanotechnology relates to the technology of rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate material to Nano specifications such as nano meters, the technology will enable scientist and engineers to see and manipulate matter at the molecular level atom by atom create new structure with fundamentally new molecular organic material and exploit the novel prospects at that scale.
  • Scientific achievements of Nanotechnology the concept was first introduced in the year 1959 by an American scientist Richard Feynman who in his famous lectures there stated that there is a plenty of room left at the bottom indirectly mentioned about the techniques of manipulating matter at the bottom level including atoms and molecules the term nanotechnology was Defined by Tokyo scientist University professor in 1974 ,the main objective of Nanotechnology construction of new properties such as they are lighter smaller stronger and more precise

There are two approaches in nanotechnology top down approach and bottom up approach.

In Top down approach Nano objects are constructed from real entities but it is expensive and time consuming the bottom up approach bills larger structure by Linking atoms by atoms using special molecular assembler it is based on a novel of the self assembly technique which is seen in the biological principle of Cell to cell attachment in the tissue repairing process

Nano materials can be organic Nano materials or inorganic

Carbon based Graphene and carbon Nanotube

Inorganic Nano materials include non particle nano particles of aluminium copper augur metal oxide like zinc oxide Nanomaterials, which are used to reduce to nanoscale can be of so different properties compared to word the exhibit on ARM and micro scale enabling unique application the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume lead to all changes in physical thermal and catalytic properties of Nanomaterials.

Graphene: – the Noble prize of Physics 2010 was awarded to to scientist for identification isolation and characterization of crossing which is a single layer of carbon put in a heads up configuration with Tuli crystalline structure it is composed of carbon atoms arranged in tightly bound structure just one attempt it is said that 3 million sheet of Graphene on top of each other would be 1 millimeter thick properties of Graphene are: – extreme strength high electrical conductivity

Application of Graphene: – it can be used to make super strong material which art in elastic and lightweight to be used in making satellite and airplane it is transparent conductive and can be used in making flexible ultra thin touch screen devices graphing chips work faster than those made out of silicon and also tightly packed and can help make efficient computer it also increases the heat resistant and mechanical strength

Carbon Nanotube is Graphene sheet rolled to form a cylinder Nanotube it is hollow and its molecule discovered by Japanese researcher it is high strength strongest and is toughest material on earth in terms of tensile strength which is the ability to be distant stretching ,high electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.

Nanosensors it is a device that make use of unique properties of Nanomaterials and nano particles to detect and new type of events in nanoscale

Chemical Nanosensors are used to measure the magnitudes such as the concentration of a given gas the presence of a specific type of molecule the function of the most common type of chemical Nanosensors is based on the fact that electronic properties of Carbon Nanotube changed when different type of Nanotube are observed on top of them which locally increases or decreases the number of electrons able to move through carbon Nanotube biological Nano sensor used to monitor bimolecular process for Jazz antibody antigen interaction it is usually composed of biological recognition system or bioreactor such as antibody protein and is able to detect cancer virus or bacteria

Nanocomposite materials created by introducing nanoparticles on carbon Nanotube into the matrix of microscopic sample material and the resulting Nanocomposite may exhibit drastically enhanced properties

Application of Nanotechnology information and technology and electronics textile industry

In the field of Information Technology nanotech can be used to make tiny transistors of carbon Nanotube that help in developing Nano circuit this will lead to further miniaturization of computers making even more faster and compact the use of carbon nano Tech builders strongly increase the data storage capacity of hard disc replacing CRT with CMD as an electron gun can increase the efficiency of LED including achieving ultra thin flat panels automobiles Network Technology will help in manufacturing is stronger yet lighter and trees Recruiter automobile components the increase in surface area and volume ratio of engine due to use of CNT will make them utilize fuel more efficiently and reduce the exhaust of pollutant the engine will also benefit by becoming more heat resistant textile industry nano fiber make clothes water and it rain repellent and wrinkle free the Lotus is that which give the self cleaning properties also indirectly imported Lotus effect is seen in the Lotus in the form of presence of numerous hydrophobic Nano components due to which the water droplet by taking the dirt Trickle down there by self cleaning the loaded

Nanomedicine Nanotechnology in area of Health and Science her giving rise to branch of medicine known as nanomedicine which is unique application which can be used in disease diagnosis Nanotechnology in able the development of nanoscale Diagnostic device in the form of leopard ship acting as bio Nano electromechanical devices through which when blood sample is made to pass through it can detect cancer bacterial and viral infection lab on chip deals with handling of small fluid volume less than equal in this low low fluid volume conception produces less waste and analyses is better faster

Drug Delivery Nano Technology can be used in formation of nanosized drugs which will help in lowering overall truck conduction and side effects by depositing active agent at specific places in body there by ensuring truck delivery with self precession this will improve bioavailability of drug which refer to rate and extent of absorption of drugs.

Cancer diagnosis and treatment cancer diagnosis and treatment nanotechnology can locate and eliminate cancer cell using gold nanoshells Metro sales are targeted to bind cancerous cell by attaching antibodies to Nano self service bi irradiating area of the mall with an infrared laser which passed through breast feeding gold nanoshell significantly to cause death of Cancer cell.

Tissue engineering nanotechnology can help to repair damaged tissue through tissue engineering making eating factor it includes use of a biodegradable Nanomaterials such as polycaprolactone coated with collagen to promote Cell to cell attachment it is repairing process.

Medical nanorobots nanorobot is a technique of creating robot at microscopic scale of NM these nanosized robots can never get human body transport important molecules manipulate manual focus object and communicate with solution by way of miniature Centre this computer control nanorobots can be used in Cancer detection and treatment there is no dressed up as Radiation therapy and chemotherapy which open end up destroying Mohanlal fan control robot will be able to distinguish between different cell type cancerous and normal cell by checking their surface antigen medical nanorobots acting as artificial RBC are called the Spiro cried which can deliver hundred times of season than normal self Shimla Lee medical nanorobots acting as artificial white blood cell can destroy bacteria in process.

Energy application nanotechnology not only use of renewable and environment friendly source of energy but increase efficiency of energy production by then the ideal fuel for future is said to be hydrogen due to its lightweight and environmental harmless is hydrogen fuel cells were used in automobiles air pollution would be reduced but it can be used only if hydrogen is stored and transported in safe efficient and economical be by using container is made up of Nanomaterials Nanomaterials can increase conversion efficiency of solar cell under photovoltaic effect by using nanoparticles of Indian selenide is solar LG into electrical energy when compared to present use of Silicon Solar cell smart Windows having Nano coating of vanadium dioxide mixed with tungsten metal act as heat reflective still alone all visible light to pass through window the smart Windows are designed to Z and Adobe to the environment by altering Nano thickness and mixture of coating this makes offices and home today mankol without excessive use of AC there by drastically reducing financial and environmental cost.

Nanofiltration nanotechnology can be helpful for wastewater treatment producing safe and clean drinking water extremely small size of possible filtration of bacteria and other infection agent nanoparticles of iron oxide are extremely effective at binding and removing arsenic from groundwater there by preventing arsenic groundwater poisoning Santhanam nanoparticle absorb phosphates from aqueous environment applying these in bonds and tools effectively remove available for sides and brother and growth and multiplication of LT that is a lead role so this will benefit commercial fishponds with spend huge amount of money to the remove algae.

Agriculture nanotechnology has potential to Revolution allies agriculture sector by becoming integral part of Precision farming it is the site specific form of Management using information technology to maximize output that is crop yield while minimising info set fertilizers and pesticides through geographic information system this will increase the quality of decision making which in turn will make weed control pest control and fertilizer application site specific size and effective

Can customer goods smart packaging and food safety and Technology will help develop a smart packaging to optimise product sales like Nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing antimicrobial agent directly on sources of Kotak self Nanocomposite could modify the behavior of files by increasing their barrier properties including mechanical chemical and microbial example silicate nanoparticle can reduce entrance of Oxygen and prevent exit of myself while silver nanoparticle import antimicrobial which include antibacterial and antifungal properties Nano Technology can help to detect contamination of food and prevent Biotech by using an infectious bacteria or virus.

Forestry and Horticulture of Rajasthan RAS Mains Paper-I

Forestry of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is blessed with great variety of natural resources ranging from scanty vegetation in the western arid region to mixed delicious and sub-tropical evergreen forests in the east and south east of Aravali ranges.

Forest cover is 32744.49 sq.km (12475 sq.km. is reserved, 18222 sq.km.is Protected Forest 2046.75 is unclassified forest) which is about 9.57% of the total area of the state.

Area wise the districs with decreasing forest cover are: – Udaipur>Baran>Alwar>Sirohi>Bundi

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According the vegetation the forests of Rajasthan are divided into 9 sub-types:

Dhol Forests: – covers about 60 % of the forest area, mainly located in the South-eastern parts of Aravali hills between 270 m to 770 m. Major species are Dhol and babul.

Katha Forests: – covers about 3 % of the forest area and located in South-eastern regions of the state.

Salar Forests: – covers about 5 % of the forest area and located in upper ridges of Aravali. Major species are Salar, Kalyana, Gondla and Ber.

Dhak Forests: – covers badly drained clay soil forest and occupies foot hills and depressions.

Bamboo Forests:-covers about 2.5 % of the forest area and located in Chittorgarh, kota, Udaipur and Abu regions of the state. It occurs as pure patches in depressions.

Teak Forests: – located in Southern and South-eastern regions of the state.

Mixed miscellaneous Forests covers about 20 % of the forest area and located in South-eastern regions of the state in the districts of Bundi, Sirohi, Kota, Udaipur and Chittorgarh.

Sub-Tropical Evergreen Forests located about 30 sq km around the Mt. Abu at an elevation of 1000m to 1300m where the rainfall is 150 cm.

Thorn Forests are located in arid areas of north western regions of the state covering the districts of Nagaur, Pali, Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Ajmer, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur.

Various forest products obtained from forests of Rajasthan are:

  • Gums and Regins
  • Tan and Dyes
  • Oil seeds and Oil yielding plants
  • Essential oil bearing plants
  • Species providing fibres and flosses
  • Edible product species

Programmes for development and preservation of Forests:

  • Plantation of trees in pasture lands
  • Van Mahotsav
  • Harit Rajasthan Yojna

Horticulture of Rajasthan

The salient features of Horticulture in Rajasthan are summarized below:

90% of the rainfall is received during monsoon season. In addition to spatial variation there is much variation in yearly pattern in rainfall.

Mango, Aonla, Pomegranate, Guava, Santra, Kinnu, Ber and Malta are the main horticulture fruits.

90% nurseries are registered in the state.

175273 hectare drip is installed in the state up to 2016-17.

The fruit like Kinnow & Santra were exported to the countries Srilanka, England, Malaysia & Dubai similarly spices crops like Coriander & Ajwain including Cumin & Fenugreek were exported to the countries Srilanka & Dubai, respectively in addition to the above medicinal crops Sonamukhi, Mehndi, & Kalonji were exported to Dubai.

As far as scenario of horticulture in the State is concerned, it is full of potential as the diverse agro-climatic conditions are very much favoring growing of large number of horticultural crops like fruits, vegetables, spices, flowers and medicinal & aromatic plants throughout the year. It is only 1989, when separate department of horticulture came into existence with ultimate objective of harnessing the potential of horticulture in the State in a systematic and planned manner so as to increase area, production and productivity of different horticultural crops and thereby to improve nutritional as well as economic status of people of State.

 

As a result during 2016-17, about 16.29 lakhs ha area is reported to be under horticultural crops against gross cropped area of 260 lakhs ha. This includes 0.53 lakh ha under fruit crops, 1.70 lakhs ha under vegetable crops 9.91 lakhs ha under spices crops, 0.03 lakh under flowers and 4.11 lakhs ha area under medicinal & aromatic crops which comes to about 6.26% of gross cropped area. As far as production of these crops is concerned, it is 9.62 lakhs MT in fruits, 18.12, 15.49, 0.04 & 3.56 lakhs MT in vegetables, spices, flowers and medicinal & aromatic crops respectively.

The strength of Rajasthan in respect of Horticulture crops

  • First in Mehndi Production.
  • First position in Coriander production in india for the year (2016-17)
  • First in Isabgol production.
  • Second in Cumin Production (2016-17)

Second position in respect of Total Spices production for the year (2016-17)

Citrus fruits: fourth in Mandarin (Oranges) production and the production of the best quality of Kinnow.

The Horticultural Development Program have been expanded form 24 districts to cover all 33 districts with the help of Agriculture Extension workers.

Encouragement is being given to make proper use of limited source water in view of its scarcity by installation of drip system and sprinkler sets.

Fruits orchards 7674, 9641, 4756, 3827 hectares were established to during 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 respectively.

Minikits and demonstrations are distributed to the cultivators through lottery system in view of keeping transparency.

Production of mushroom spawns to mushroom laboratory Durgapura Jaipur and Reni Bagh Kota.

Cultivators are growing mainly plaurotus and Agaricus in the state

Udaipur division is the leader in the State in the production of Custard Apple, Mango, Ginger, Ajwain, Turmeric, and Aswagandha and Kalonji.

Some of the other horticultural crops grown in Udaipur Division are:

Spice Crops: Red chillies, Methi, Cumin, Fennel and Garlic & Coriander

Fruits & Vegetables: Tomato, Cauliflower, Brinjal, Okara, Matar, Ridge gourd, Pomergranate, Pumpkin, Anola, Lime & Guava

Other Horticultural Crops: Colocasia, Isabgol & Opium

The major contributions to the state’s horticulture crop production by the Udaipur division in 2016-17 were:

  • Custard Apple – 94%,
  • Mango – 35%,
  • Ginger – 100%,
  • Ajwain- 84%,
  • Aswagandha – 99%,
  • Kalonji- 81%,
  • Pumpkin – 49%

In terms of production, the districts in Udaipur Division lead amongst all the districts in the state:

Rajasthan has large scope for development of horticulture. It provides additional employment opportunities to the rural people, while diversifying the rural economy to agro processing and other ancillary activities. Looking to the ample opportunities of horticulture development, a separate Directorate of Horticulture was established in 1989-90, with the objective of growth in area, production & productivity of fruits, vegetables, spices, flowers and medicinal plant crops in a planned way. During the year 2016-17, `444.92 crore is proposed under state plan, against which a sum of `119.18 crore has been utilized upto December, 2016. Establishment of fruit orchards in 58 hectare, plant protection measures in 2,812 hectare and 2,888 demonstrations of vegetables have been laid out under state plan schemes.

To increase the area, production and productivity of different horticulture crops like fruits, spices and flowers in selected 24 districts namely Jaipur, Ajmer, Alwar, Chittorgarh, Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Jodhpur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer, Nagaur, Banswara, Tonk, Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Bhilwara, Bundi, Jhunjhunu, Sirohi, Jaisalmer and Sri-Ganganagar this scheme is being implemented For this scheme provision of `96.20 crore (`52.92 crore as central share and `43.28 crore as state share) for was made 2016-17. An expenditure of `33.94 crore (`20.36 crore as central share and `13.58 crore as state share) has been incurred upto December, 2016 under NHM. Orchards of fruits and spices have been established in 3,288 hectare and 1341 hectare respectively during this period. A total of 314 hectare has been covered under Integrated Pest Management Programme. 2.79 lakh square meters area has been covered under green houses and 157 vermi compost units have been established, 56 water harvesting structure have been built upto December, 2016.

National Agro-Forestry and Bamboo Mission (NABM)

Under this scheme the districts of Karauli, Swai Madhopur, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Banswara, Dungarpur, Sirohi, Baran, Jhalawar, Bhilwara, Rajsamand and Pratapgarh were taken up for promoting bamboo cultivation. For implementing this scheme in the year 2016-17, a provision of `2.90 crore has been made for new plantation of bamboo and maintenance of previous year plantation. Recently GoI has discontinued the scheme and only maintenance of previous year plantation is been considered for release.

 

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)

Looking at the consistent decrease in investments in agriculture and allied sectors the Central Government has introduced RKVY to draw up plans for agriculture sector more comprehensively, taking into account agro-climatic conditions, natural resource issues and technology. Under this scheme, the State level sanctioning committee sanctioned the horticulture development project worth `87.87 crore during the year 2016-17 and `12.72 crore have been utilized upto December, 2016.

 

After setting up of Directorate of Horticulture in the State, area, production and productivity have increased tremendously. The details of area, production and productivity of fruits, vegetable and spices are shown in table 5.4.