Drainage System of Rajasthan

RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam Preparation

Rivers of Rajasthan

The rivers of Rajasthan can be divided into three main types based on their drainage pattern; they are rivers that drain into Arabian Sea, rivers that drain into Bay of Bengal and rivers with inland drainage. The most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan is that nearly 60.2% of the area of the state has an inland drainage system.

The Aravalli range forms the main watershed for Rajasthan, dividing the drainage into the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Luni river system that rises from the western slopes of the Aravalli Range (near Ajmer) flows through the semi-arid transitional plains into the Rann of Kutch and Arabian Sea, while the Banas and other streams, rising from the eastern slopes of the Aravallis, join the Chambal. The Chambal, then flows into the Yamuna-Ganga river system which drains into the Bay of Bengal. The main watercourses like the Sabarmati, Banas, etc. and the tributaries of the Luni, are more or less parallel to the Aravalli Range.

Additionally, Rivers of Rajasthan are mostly seasonal with only two river basins (Chambal and Mahi) being perennial.

River Basins of Rajasthan

  • Ancient Rivers of Rajasthan: Saraswati & Drishadwati Rivers

Chambal River

Tributaries:

•     Parbati

•     Kali Sindh

•     Mej (ST: Mangli)

•     Alnia

•     Sep

•     Banas

•     Gambhir or Utangan

•     Brahmani

•     Gunjali

Banas River

Tributaries:-

•     Berach

•     Kothari

•     Khari

•     Dai

•     Mashi

•     Sohadra

•     Morel

•     Kalisil

•     Dheel

Banganga River

Tributaries:

•     Suri

•     Sanwan

•     Palasan

Luni River

Tributaries:

  • Bandi River
  • Sukri River
  • Jawai River
  • Khari River

Sabarmati River

Tributaries:

•     Sei

•     Wakal

•     Harnav

•     Hathmati

•     Watrak

Mahi River

Tributaries:

  • Som (ST: Gomti, Jakham)
  • Anas
  • Panam

Other Important Rivers of Rajasthan

  • Saraswati River
  • Dravyavati River
  • West Banas River
  • Rivers of Inland Drainage
  • Gambhir or Utangan River

Lakes in Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the most arid state of India with average yearly rainfall less that 100 cm. However, Rajasthan has large number lakes mostly artificial as well as historical, signifying a tradition of conserving natural resources and respecting nature. The lakes in Rajasthan can divided into types Saline and Fresh water lakes.

Types of Lakes in Rajasthan:

  • Saline (Salt) Water lakes
  • This are considered as remains of Tethys Sea.
  • Deedwana, Lunkaransar, Sambhar, Pachpadra etc.

 Fresh (Sweet) Water lakes

They have either developed naturally or artificially and get replenished by rainwater.

Pichhola, Rajsamand, Rajsamand, Ana Sagar etc.

A.  Saline (Salt) Water lakes in Rajasthan

  • Sambhar Lake – Sambhar
  • Location: Phulera, Jaipur

    Built by: As per mythology, Scambhari Devi,

    Highlights:

  • Ramsar Wetland
  • Largest in-land salt-lake in India
  • Touches border of Jaipur, Ajmer and Nagaur.
  • Rivers mantha, Rupnagar, khari, Khandela drain their water into this lake.
  • The lake produces 8.7% of Salt produced in India.

 Lake Is managed by Sambhar Salts Limited, a joint venture of Hindustan Salts and the Government of Rajasthan

Pachpadra Lake: Pachpadra

  • Location: Barmer
  • Built by: Natural

Highlights: Its sodium chloride level is marked at 98%

Lunkaransar Lake: Lunkaransar

 Location: Bikaner

 Built by: Natural

Highlights: It is a playa lake formed due to deflation.

Deedwana Lake: Deedwana

  • Location: Nagaur
  • Built by: Natural

 Highlights: Salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Tal Chappar: black-buck

    Location: Churu

Highlights: Tal Chhapar Wild Life Sanctuary

Other Salt lakes:

 Nagaur District: Degana, Kuchaman

  • Jodhpur: Falaudi
  • Sikar: Rewasa
  • Jaisalmer: Kavod

B.  Fresh Water lakes in Rajasthan

Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer: AnasagarAnasagar Lake is a scenic artificial lake, commissioned and built by Arno raj Chauhan, son of Ajapala Chauhan, between 1135 and 1150 AD. Arno raj was also known as Anaji, which gives the lake its name. Many years later, Mughal Emperor Jahangir added his touch to the lake by laying out the Daulat Bagh Gardens near the lake. Emperor Shah Jahan too, contributed to the expansion by building five pavilions, known as the Baradari, between the garden and the lake.

Lake Foy Sagar, Ajmer: Lake-foy

A beautiful artificial lake that appears flat, Lake Foy Sagar was built by an English engineer, Mr. Foy in 1892 AD. Interestingly, this work was taken up to provide famine relief through wage employment to locals. Lake Foy Sagar offers a beautiful view of the Aravalli range.

Pushkar Lake, Pushkar, Ajmer

Pushkar according to Hindu scriptures, the sacred Pushkar Lake is described as ‘Tirtha Raj’, the king of all pilgrimage sites. No pilgrimage is considered to be complete without a dip in the holy Pushkar Lake. Semi-circular in shape and about 8-10 metres deep, Pushkar Lake is surrounded by 52 bathing ghats and over 400 temples and is truly a magnificent sight to behold.

Siliserh Lake, Alwar

The water palace of Siliserh with a lake surrounded by low wooded hills is on route to Sariska. It lies 12 Kms. Southwest of Alwar. The tranquil lake is nestled in the hills; the sparkling ripples of the lake cover an area of about sq. Kms, surrounded by thick forest and magnificent cenotaphs on its embankment. A royal hunting lodge /palace were built by Maharaja Vinay Singh for his Queen Shila in 1845. It has been converted into a tourist bungalow and is an attractive sot for a peaceful holiday.

Anand Sagar Lake, Banswara

This artificial lake, also known as Bai Talab was constructed by Lanchi Bai, the Rani of Maharaval Jagmal Singh. Located in the eastern part of Banswara, it is surrounded by holy trees known as ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ famous for fulfilling the wishes of visitors. The Chattris or cenotaphs of the rulers of the state are also scattered nearby.

Dailab Lake, Banswara

On the banks of this beautiful lake stands the summer residence of the former rulers. A major part of the lake itself is covered with lotus flowers.

Jait Sagar Lake, Bundi

Located close to the Taragarh Fort, this picturesque lake is surrounded by hills and covered with pretty lotus flowers that bloom during winter and monsoon.

Kanak Sagar Lake, Bundi

About 67 kilometers from the town of Bundi lies this wonderful flat lake. There is also a town named after the lake. One can spot several migratory birds here such as bar headed goose and Demoille cranes all through the year.

Nawal Sagar Lake, Bundi

Nawal Sagar Lake is an artificial lake that is a major tourist attraction and can even be seen from the Taragarh Fort. There is a half-submerged temple dedicated to Lord Varun Dev in its centre. What makes the lake unique is that one can see the reflection of nearby palaces and forts in its waters.

Gaib Sagar Lake, Dungarpur

The lake is famous for the shrine of Shrinathji that rests on its banks. The shrine complex contains numerous exquisitely carved temples and one core temple, the Vijay Rajrajeshwar Temple. This temple of Lord Shiva displays the skilled craftsmanship of the famed sculptors or ‘shilpkars’ of Dungarpur.

Gadsisar Lake, Jaisalmer

Gadsisar Lake was constructed in the 14th century by Maharaval Gadsi Singh to meet the water needs of his arid lands. Considering its importance, many small temples and shrines were constructed around it, transforming it into a pilgrimage centre and a tourist attraction.

Balsamand Lake, Jodhpur

Balsamand Lake is about 5 kilometers from Jodhpur on the Jodhpur-Mandore Road. Built in 1159 AD, it was planned as a water reservoir to cater to Mandore. The Balsamand Lake Palace was built on its shore later as a summer palace. It is surrounded by lush green gardens that house groves of trees such as mango, papaya, pomegranate, guava and plum. Animals and birds like the jackal and peacock also call this place home.

Kailana Lake, Jodhpur

Situated on Jaisalmer road, this small artificial lake is an ideal picnic spot. It is like a canvas with a splash of romantic colours. The beauty of the lake stays with you long after you’ve experienced it.

Kishore Sagar Lake, Kota

Kishore Sagar Lake is one of the lakes in Kota which was built in 1346 by the prince of Bundi named Dher Deh. The Jagmandir Palace was built by one of the queens of Kota between 1743 and 1745, and is situated in the middle of the Kishore Sagar Lake.

Rajsamand Lake, Rajsamand

Maharana Raj Singh an able administrator of the fifth generation of Maharana Pratap constructed Rajsamand Lake in 1662 AD, which is a beautiful example of sculpture and public utility works. The banks known as “Nouchoki” consist of 25 carved stone ‘RAJ PRASHASHTI’ the longest stone inscription in Sanskrit in the world. The stairs, footrest, artistic gates and ‘Mandaps’ are made of beautiful carved marble and the sculpture imparts a new look every time. The whole construction is based on the number 9 which is considered to be the absolute number in Hindu philosophy & mythology. It took 14 years for completion and cost more than 12.5 million rupees at that time. Rajsamand District is a district of the state of Rajasthan in western India

Doodh Talai, Udaipur

The road that takes visitors to Pichhola Lake has another popular destination – the Doodh Talai Lake. The lake is nestled between several small hillocks which themselves are tourist attractions. The Deen Dayal Upadhyay Park and the Manikya Lal Verma Garden are part of the Doodh Talai Lake Garden.

Fateh Sagar Lake, Udaipur

This delightful lake, bordered by hills and woodlands, lies to the north of Lake Pichhola. This artificial lake is connected to Lake Pichhola by a canal. The lake houses the beautiful Nehru Island as well as an islet on which stands the Udaipur Solar Observatory. It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

Jaisamand Lake, Udaipur

Jaisamand Lake is known for being the second largest man-made sweet water lake in Asia. It is popular among the locals as a weekend picnic destination. Locals say that the lake was constructed to halt the waters of Ruparel River. This lake boasts of a large island, which is home to various species of birds, at its centre.

Pichhola Lake, Udaipur

Pichhola was the name of a village that was submerged and lent its name to the lake when it was expanded. The islands of Jag Niwas and Jag Mandir as housed in this lake. Along the eastern banks of the lake lies the City Palace. A boat ride in the lake around sunset offers a breathtaking view of the Lake and City Palaces.

Udai Sagar Lake, Udaipur

Udai Sagar Lake is one of the five striking lakes situated in Udaipur. Located about 13 kilometers to the east of Udaipur, the construction of this lake was started in 1559 by Maharana Udai Singh. The lake is actually a result of a dam being built on the river Berach to supply adequate water to the Maharana’s kingdom. Udai Sagar Lake is 4 kms in length, 2.5 kilometers in width and about 9 meters at its deepest.

Seismic Zones and faults: Earthquake Hazard in Rajasthan

Seismic Zones & Earthquake Hazard in Rajasthan

Earthquake History

  • Though the state of Rajasthan has not had a major earthquake in recent years, small to moderate earthquake have been felt in the state.
  • Several faults have been identified in this region out of which many show evidence of movement during the Holocene epoch.
  • The Cambay Graben terminates in the south-western part of the state. The Konoi Fault near Jaisalmer trends in a north-south direction and was associated with the 1991 Jaisalmer earthquake. Several active faults criss-cross the Aravalli range and lie parallel to each other.
  • The most prominent of them is the north-south trending Sardar Shahr Fault and the Great Boundary Fault which runs along the Chambal River and then continues in the same direction into Uttar Pradesh.
  • However, it must be stated that proximity to faults does not necessarily translate into a higher hazard as compared to areas located further away, as damage from earthquakes depends on numerous factors such as subsurface geology as well as adherence to the building codes.

According to GSHAP data, the state of Rajasthan falls in a region of moderate to high seismic hazard. As per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Rajasthan falls in Zones II, III & IV. Historically, parts of this state have experienced seismic activity in the M 5.0 range.

Largest Instrumented Earthquake in Rajasthan

  1. 15 August 1906 – Thar Desert, Rajasthan, Mw 6.2
  2. This event was located along the India-Pakistan border, in the vicinity of Janpalia, Rajasthan which is located north-northwest of Bakhasar.

Seismic Faults in Rajasthan

  • Several faults have been identified in Rajasthan, out of which many show evidence of movement during the Holocene epoch.  
  • The Cambay Graben terminates in the south-western part of the state.
  • The Konoi Fault near Jaisalmer trends in a north-south direction and was associated with the 1991 Jaisalmer earthquake.
  • Several active faults criss-cross the Aravalli range and lie parallel to each other.
  • The most prominent of them is the north-south trending Sardar Shahar Fault and the Great Boundary Fault which runs along the Chambal River and then continues in the same direction into Uttar Pradesh.

Geology of Rajasthan

Geological Timeline/Sequence of Rocks – Rajasthan

Rajasthan is endowed with a continuous geological sequence of rocks from the oldest Archaean Metamorphic, represented by Bhilwara Super-group (>2500 m. y.) to sub-recent alluvium & windblown sand. The geological sequence of the state is highly varied and complex, revealing the co-existence of the most ancient rocks of the Pre-Cambrian age and the most recent alluvium as well as windblown sand.

Rajasthan forms north-western part of the Indian Shield. The State exposes a variety of litho logical and tectonic units ranging in age from Archaean to Recent times. Before going into details of Geology of Rajasthan, let us first see, geology time in general to make sense of terms in geology.

 The basement rocks – the Sandmata Complex, Mangalwar Complex and Hindoli Group of Bhilwara Super group – occupy central and south-eastern plains. They are Archaean in age and comprise in general, granulite-gneiss; amphibolites, metapelite, paragneiss, calc-silicate rocks and greywacke (the older granite-greenstone belt) and metavolcanic, met greywacke (the younger granite- greenstone belt) respectively.

The Lower Proterozoic supracrustal rocks of the Jahajpur, Rajpura-Dariba, Pur-Banera and Sawar Groups of Bhilwara Super-group rest on the basement rocks of the Mangalwar Complex and host a number of lead, zinc and copper deposits.

The Proterozoic fold belts, viz., the Aravalli fold belt (the Aravalli Super-group) and the Delhi fold belt (the Delhi Super-group) occupies the southern and south- eastern, and south-western and north-eastern Rajasthan respectively. The Aravalli Super-group is represented by metamorphosed and complexly folded clastic sediments with minor chemogenic and organogenic assemblages with interlay red basic volcanic, whereas the Delhi Super group comprises mainly carbonates, metavolcanics, metasammites and metapelite, intruded by magmatic rock of Phulad Ophiolite Suite and syn-orogenic granites of Sendra- Ambaji, Baraith, Dadikar, Harsora, etc.

A number of base metal deposits are located in these belts as also other minerals.

The isolated hillocks of western Rajasthan constitute the Upper Proterozoic Malani Igneous Suite and the Erinpura Granite pluton. Eastern Rajasthan is characterised by the vast sedimentary stretch constituting the Vindhyan, which is juxtaposed against the rocks of the Bhilwara Super-group along the Great Boundary Fault

The northern and north-western parts of the State exhibit Upper Proterozoic-Early Cambrian rocks of the Marwar Super group which are overlain by sedimentary rocks of different ages of Paleozoic and Mesozoic Era. Many industrial mineral deposits are found in these rocks. The Deccan Traps are restricted to the south-eastern part of the State in Chittorgarh- Banswara area.

The Cenozoic rocks are manifested in Barmer and Jaisalmer basins in the west and Ganganagar-Palana shelf in the north.

The Quaternary sediments of Aeolian and fluvial origin constitute the Thar Desert of Rajasthan.

General

The geological history of the northwest Indian craton in Rajasthan region covers a wide span of time from ca. 3.5 Ga to 0.5 Ga. This craton incorporates a wide variety of lithological and tectonic units representing the basement rocks (Banded Gneissic Complex of Heron, 1953), Proterozoic fold belts (Aravalli and Delhi), and Late Proterozoic igneous suites (Malani, Jalore, and Siwana). Basement rocks, comprising the gneissic terrain of the Sandmata Complex (SC), the Mangalwar Complex (MC), and the Hindoli Group (HG) forming the Bhilwara Super group (BSG), are essentially Archaean in age. This is evident from ca. 3.5 Ga age of some mafic inclusions within the BGC and from the age of the intrusive granites (2.9 Ga, until and Ganglia granites). Gneisses, comprising the SC and the MC, represent the reclassified Banded Gneissic Complex of Heron (1953). Rock types of the SC are composed largely of granulite fancies gneisses of diverse composition, such as metapelite and samiti gneisses, basic intrusive, and calcareous, clastic and chemogenic met sediments which occur as xenoliths, streaks and patches, and thrust bound large bodies in the gneissic terrain. Although Gupta et al. (1981) have shown in their map of the Aravalli region that the SC forms a distinct litho unit which lies to the west of the MC, the SC occurs as tectonic wedges within the basement gneisses of the MC.

Mangalwar Complex

The MC of the BSG terrain contains varied lithological assemblages and tectonic units of a ‘greenstone like’ sequence, and comprises ultramafic bodies and mafic igneous bodies of volcanic and plutonic precursors, now represented by amphibolites, highly diverse met sediments such as metapelite and aluminous paragneiss, fuchsite bearing quartzite and low Mg marble and calc silicate gneiss, coarse clastic such as greywacke and tuffaceous sediments represented by graphitic schist. Granodioritic and tonalitic gneisses (Until, Ganglia) represent the consolidation of the early crust at ca. 2.9 Ga and the end Archaean craton isation is indicated by the Berach Granite (ca 2.6 Ga). Although Archaean craton isation event is well documented in the BSG rocks of Rajasthan, some authors put controvertible arguments against this end Archaean event and believe that the HG is not a part of the Archaean basement on the equivocal premise that the Berach Granite (2.6 Ga) forms the basement for the HG in SE Rajasthan. Nevertheless, the Archaean Proterozoic boundary can be constrained to a slot of 2.5 to 2.6 Ga in Rajasthan from the available field geochronology and thematic data base. It may, however, mentioned that the stratigraphic relationships of the different lithological assemblages of the BSG are not clear as the different rock units are usually demarcated by prominent ductile shear zones (DSZ) running for kilometers. Thus, during the Proterozoic period, the Archaean crust (BSG) was extensively reworked through the development of DSZs and granitic activity. The MC presumed to represent an Archaean primary granite greenstone belt whereas the HG is suggested to represent a secondary granite greenstone belt in NW Indian shield.

Hindoli Group

The HG occurs in an actuate belt containing felsic and mafic metavolcanics and met greywacke forming a turbidity sequence. The end-Archean Berach Granite intrudes the HG.

Proterozoic Fold Belts

The Proterozoic geologic history of south central Rajasthan is contained in a number of distinct fold belts. The principal fold belts are lower to Middle Proterozoic Aravalli Fold Belt (AFB) and Middle to Upper Proterozoic South Delhi Fold Belt (SDFB). The basement to these fold belts is the BSG or the BGC. Other time equivalent early Proterozoic cover sequences in this region include Jahajpur Group, Pur Banera Rajpur Dariba-Bhinder Groups, Sawar Group, and others,

The Proterozoic history is marked by significant secular, changes in terms of basin development, lithocharacters, and mineralisation types. Some of these cover rock sequences contain Pb Zn whilst others Pb Zn Cu or Cu Ag Au mineralisations. The early Proterozoic Aravalli and the equivalent rock, sequences, including the Jahajpur, Pur Banera Bhinder, and Rajpur Dariba Bethanie belts, are considered to have developed in ensile rift basins which except for the main AFB, failed. The isolated basins possibly developed as pull apart basins. These rift basins representing different belts, such as Rajpur Dariba, are strongly tectonised and physical continuity with other belts such as Sawar and Agucha belts is lost in many places. The main AFB evolved as an aulacogen widening southward from a possible triple junction located near Nathdwara Delwara area where rift volcanics are well documented. The fractured arm continued NNE through the SC and was destined to open in Middle Proterozoic time as the south Delhi rift.

Aravalli Fold Belt

The stratigraphic succession of the Aravalli Fold Belt (AFB) is given by many workers. Most workers have proposed two major stratigraphic sequences within the AFB, a shelf fancies with basic lavas and coarse clastic at the base (Delwara and Debari Groups) in the east and a deep sea turbidity fancies (Jharola Group) with ultramafic slivers in the west, the latter occurring in a zone approximately marking the contact between the two fancies. This zone (Rakhabdeo Lineament) has been considered a suture in the AFB. Unconformable relation between the Archaean basement and the overlying grit arkoses chert horizon below the Delwara Group signifies a first order erosional unconformity, which in Rajasthan, represents the Archaean Proterozoic boundary. However, at many places, the contact of the Proterozoic sequence and basement is highly tectonised.

Delhi Fold Belt

The Middle to Upper Proterozoic Delhi Super group rocks occur in two belts, namely, (i) the North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in NE Rajasthan, developed in three sub basins in Alwar, Bayana and Khetri areas, and, (ii) the South Delhi Fold Belt (SDFB) along the Aravalli hill range in central Rajasthan. The two belts are separated by a migmatitic gneiss tract around Ajmer in the south, poorly exposed rock assemblage in the middle and by stratigraphically problematic rock sequence extending northward possibly up to Khetri.

The Raialo, the Alwar and the Ajabgarh Groups of NE Rajasthan forming the NDFB do not perhaps extend beyond south of the Sambhar Jaipur Dausa wrench fault. The rocks of the SDFB are deposited, in two sub-basins flanking a median basement inlier, west of Bhim. The eastern sub-basin contains pelitic and samiti rocks of the Rajgarh Group signifying a continental slope fancies; and a platformal pelite carbonate sequence of the Bhim Group. The western sub-basin contains basic and felsic volcanics with shallow-water clastic forming the Bharatiya and the Sendra Groups. The contacts between the different sequences are defined by prominent ductile shear zones and thrusts. Several conglomerate horizons, such as Shringaar Ki-shangarh and Bar are developed within the SDFB which signify erosional unconformities. The status of the Bar conglomerate is problematic.

An important attribute of the SDFB is the Phulad ophiolite which is best developed in the southern part of the fold belt. The ophiolite zone is interpreted as dismembered fragments of oceanic crust developed within the South Delhi rift basin and is considered to represent a suture zone where high P low T metamorphic imprints are recognizable. From tectonic development and presence of prominent DSZs and basement slivers, the SDFB appears to represent a mélange zone.

Late Proterozoic

The Late Proterozoic event in Rajasthan is marked by the opening of the Sirohi basin within the Pre Delhi terrain to the west of the SDFB in the Trans Aravalli region. Two lithological units, namely, Punagarh and Sandesh Groups are identified by recent workers. These two groups occur in isolated basins, unconformable overlying the Sirohi Group met sediments and the migmatitic of the Erinpura Granite affinity. The Sirohi Group itself occurs as isolated inliers within the unclassified sequences of the Erinpura craton. However, the Sirohi Group has been tentatively correlated on litho structural grounds with the Jharola Group of the Aravalli Super group. The Punagarh and the Sandesh Groups are represented in the trans-Aravalli range primarily by bimodal acid basic volcanics, volcaniclastics and terrigenous sediments, and are presently placed at the top of the SDFB sequence.

In SE Rajasthan, the Great Boundary Fault (GBF), a prominent dislocation zone, marks the boundary between the HG basement rocks and the paratectonic Vindhyan Super group rocks of, Proterozoic age. The Vindhyan equivalent sediments also developed in NW Rajasthan in a separate basin and are grouped within the Marwar Super group composed of molasse type sediments and evaporate. After the Delhi orogeny, the NW Indian craton across the Aravalli range witnessed large scale magmatic activity represented by felsic and mafic Malani volcanics, Jalore and Siwana plutons of Late Proterozoic age.

Phanerozoic

The Paleozoic marine sedimentation in Rajasthan was restricted to three major basins in Jaisalmer, Barmer and Nagaur and Jalore districts. During the Permo Carboniferous period the Bap boulder bed and Bhadura terrigenous sediments were deposited over the rocks of the Marwar Super group. There is no record of any Triassic sedimentation in this region. However, the Jurassic period is marked by large scale marine deposition and proliferation of flora and fauna. The culmination of the Mesozoic witnessed large scale outpouring of basaltic lavas in southeastern Rajasthan. These volcanic rocks form the northern extension of the Deccan Traps. This volcanic activity, however, did not affect the sedimentation in the northwestern Mesozoic basins where deposition of marine and continental sequences continued uninterrupted during the Cenozoic period.

Major Terrains of Rajasthan

From the distribution and inter relation of important tectonic and stratigraphic units in Rajasthan, four major terrains have been identified. These are (i) the Marwar terrain, (ii) the fold belt terrain which includes the Aravalli and Delhi fold belts, (iii) the basement terrain and (iv) the Vindhyan terrain.

Quaternary

The rejuvenation of the pre existing faults during the post-Neocene to Recent times facilitated Quaternary sedimentation in marginal fault troughs, graben and lakes formed by disorganized river courses. A major part of the Quaternary sediments also occurs in the western semi arid zone spreading over 36,000 km2 in Rajasthan. The Quaternary sediments comprising sequence of fluvial, fluvial lacustrine and successive Aeolian sediments correspond to different phases of pale climatic conditions. At least three arid phases during ca. 200 ka, 18 14 ka and 6 3 ka continuing to Recent are identifiable with intermittent three wet phases during older than 200 ka, 120 ka and 10 6 ka periods. The present day morphology of the Thar Desert is the outcome of the Aeolian processes operating since the Late Pleistocene.

The stratigraphic succession established by GSI in Rajasthan is given below.

Regional Tectonics

South central Rajasthan contains a mosaic of Proterozoic fold belts within a reworked Archaean basement complex. These fold belts, characterised by resurgent tectonics, are demarcated by, prominent crustal dislocations, and marked by ductile shear zones. Moreover, there are prominent shear zones and thrusts within the fold belts which are either vestiges of Proterozoic sutures or Ophiolite mélange zones.

Aravalli Fold Belt

The Aravalli Fold Belt (AFB) has a tectonic contact with the basement gneisses which, in fact, is a tectonised unconformity, marked prominently in the north where the Delwara sequence of the basal Aravallis is tectonically juxtaposed against the BGC along a reworked unconformity. This tectonic zone, the Delwara Dislocation Zone (DDZ), extends south and southeast along the Aravalli basement interface, and truncates a number of litho units. Another important tectonic feature of the AFB is the Rakhabdeo Suture Zone (RSZ) which divides the AFB into two contra sting segments, namely, the platform sequence in the east and deep sea fancies (Jharola) in the west. The RSZ, marked by tectonised serpentinite bodies and minor metagabbro and amphibolites is considered the Aravalli suture along which the dismembered Aravalli oceanic/ transitional crust was obducted and the eastern and the western domains were sutured.

Delhi Fold Belt

The South Delhi Fold Belt (SDFB) has developed on an intracratonic rift basin which was floored by an oceanic /transtional crust. The remnants of this crust are preserved as dismembered Ophiolite mélange (Phulad Ophiolite) Apart from the DSZs related to the Ophiolite zone, the SDFB contains an up thrust basement wedge, flanked by two prominent thrust zones. All these tectonic features make the SDFB an imbricate thrust zone which should have deeper crustal significance. The western boundary of the SDFB is defined by a dislocation zone, the Phulad Dislocation Zone (PDZ), against the basement rocks, while the eastern boundary is a prominent thrust zone (Kaliguman Dislocation Zone, KDZ) which separates the Delhi rocks from the Sandrnata Mangalwar Complex rocks in the north and the Aravalli sequence in the south.

The imbricate tectonic signatures of the SDFB are also reflected in the tectonics of the adjacent Sandmata/Mangalwar Complex terraine where the granulite fancies Sandmata rocks are bound by imbricate DSZs within the amphibolites fancies Mangalwar rocks. From tectonic relations it is suggested that the lower crustal rocks of the Sandmata Complex have been emplaced as tectonic wedges at various structural levels, and the gravity high over the Sandmata belt is a probable indication of this feature. The Mangalwar Complex to the east of the Sandmata Complex contains a number of subs parallel DSZs which are probably the expression of subsurface imbricate thrust zones between the lower and the upper crustal rocks.

Great Boundary Fault (GBF)

The GBF is an important dislocation zone in southeastern Rajasthan. The geological and structural setting indicates that the GBF, a reverse fault, is also an imbricate fault zone which sliced the Vindhyan and pre Vindhyan rocks. The trace of the GBF is curvilinear, and it appears to be a rotational fault with the hinge located nearly 20 km south of Chittaurgarh. These features indicate that the GBF is related to indentation tectonics caused by impingement of the Bundelkhand massif with the Vindhyan cover rocks on the Precambrian terrain of Rajasthan, as a result of regional crustal deformation of the Indian plate after the collision and jamming of the Indian and the Asian plates. In this context, the GBF has a regional crustal significance in the tectonic development of the NW Indian plate segment in Late Tertiary and Quaternary times, and it is likely that this fault Zone is still active.

Rajasthan Shelf

The Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of Western Rajasthan are contained in structurally controlled basins of the Rajasthan shelf which formed a part of the Indus Shelf. This shelf region is divided into several segments by sub surface basement ridges. The Delhi Lahore ridge separates the Indus Shelf from the Punjab Shelf and marks the northern boundary of the Indus Shelf. The Jaisalmer Mari High differentiates the Jaisalmer Basin. The Devikot Pokaran Nachna High is a prominent NW SE trending gravity high. This basement ridge and the Fatehgarh Fault to the south of this ridge delimit the Jaisalmer Basin, in the southeast and the Barmer Basin in the northwest. The structural style of the Jaisalmer Basin is controlled by major fault from the western edge of the outcropping belt up to Dangwada-Lang areas in the northwest and to the south of Lunar Miajlar area. These faults exhibit “flower structure” and are the result of wrench fault tectonics. Another basement ridge passes through Lakhanpur Barmer. Structurally, the Cambay, Graben is connected with the Rajasthan Shelf through the Sanchor and Barmer Graben.

Marwar Craton

In Marwar Craton several lineaments have been identified. The major lineaments are the Luni Sukri Lineament (LSL) and the Jaisalmer Barwani Lineament (JBL). The LSL trends NE SW and is aligned along Luni and Sukri rivers forming a significant linear/curvilinear feature in the desert tract of Rajasthan. It extends for 750 km from Great Rann of Kachchh in the southwest to Sambhar Lake in the northeast with an ENE WSW to NE SW trend. The northeastern extension of the LSL between Bakhasar and Sambhar Lake is controlling the Luni and Sukri rivers in the desert country. This lineament might, represent the northwestern limit of the Delhi basin. The absence of Cambrian or Eocambrian sediments belonging to the Marwar Super group beyond southeast of this lineament would have limited the Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic basin in the, Southeast during the evolution of the Marwar basin. The alignment of earthquake epicenters of varying intensities from 1819 to 1976 A.D. in Kachchh area and adjoining areas indicate neotectonism along this lineament.

The JBL is 1000 km long lineament extending from Barwani in the southeast to Jaisalmer in the northwest in a NNW SSE to NW SE direction, the major segment of which passes through the desert tract. It delimits the southwestern boundary of the Aravalli basin near Godhra and abruptly cuts the Delhi rocks in their southwestern extension in Vadnagar and Palanpur areas. North of Barmer, it delimits the western boundary of the Tertiary basin and crops out as a well defined fault within the Mesozoics of Jaisalmer area. A few circular features, located along this lineament in Jaisalmer area, are interpreted as sub surface domes and basins associated with tectonism of this lineament, and these may be promising zones for hydrocarbon accumulation.

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Mountain Peaks of Rajasthan

Peaks of Rajasthan

This Topic is Very Important for RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam.

  • In Rajasthan, hills of Aravalli Range are an only mountain range in Rajasthan. The most of the highest mountain peaks are found in the hills Aravalli Range.
  • The Aravalli range is one of the oldest mountain range in the world. It is running across the Rajasthan state from South-West to North-East, bisecting the Rajasthan into two parts.
  • The highest peaks of the Aravalli range of Rajasthan are not pointed as young fold mountains. They have been eroded by the forces of nature like rain, wind and sunshine.
  • The highest peaks of Aravalli Range of Rajasthan are called as Guru Shikhar (1722 M), which is located in Mount Abu in Sirohi district of Rajasthan.

Rajasthan is bisected by Aravalli (Aravali) range into two major parts: Southeast Rajasthan and Northwest Rajasthan. The northwest consists of a series of sand dunes covers nearly two-thirds of the area. Aravali range is approximately 692 Kms long, running across Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

Top Peaks of Aravali Hills in Rajasthan

Peak Name Height (meters) District
Guru Shikhar 1722 Mount Abu, Sirohi
Ser Peak 1597 Sirohi
Delwara 1442 Sirohi
Jarga 1431 Udaipur
Achalgarh 1380 Sirohi
Kumbhalgarh 1224 Rajsamand
Raghunathgarh 1055 Sikar
Hrishikesh 1017
Kamalnath 1001 Udaipur
Khoh 920 Jaipur
Taragarh 870 Ajmer
Bhairach 792 Alwar
Babai 780 Jhunjhunu
Baraith 704 Jaipur

The Aravalli’s in Rajasthan are divided into three main sections:

  1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range
  2. Central Aravalli Range
  3. Southern Aravalli Range

North-Eastern Aravalli Range

They are also called as Alwar hills.

  1. Stretches from Delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.
  2. Average elevation of 300-670 meters.
  3. To North & East it merges with Ganga-Yamuna Plains.

Hill Ranges

  • Malkhet & Khetri Group of hills
  • Torawati Hills

Peaks of North-Eastern Aravalli Region:

Raghunathgarh (Sikar) – 1055 meters  
Khoh (Jaipur) – 920 meters  
Bhairach (Alwar) – 792 meters  
Barwara (Jaipur) – 786 meters  
Babai (Jhunjhunu) – 780 meters  
Bilali (Alwar) – 775 meters  
Manoharpur (Jaipur) – 747 meters  
Baraith (Jaipur) – 704 meters  
Sariska (Alwar) – 677 meters  
Siravas – 651 meters

Central Aravali Range:

Includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur Surrounded on:-

  1. North by – Alwar Hills
  2. East by Karauli table-land
  3. South by Banas plains
  4. West by Sambhar basin

Hill ranges

  • Shekhawati lower hills
  • Marwar Hills

Peaks of Central Aravalli Region

  • Goramji (Ajmer) – 934 meters
  • Taragarh (Ajmer) – 870 meters
  • Naag Pahar (Ajmer) -795 meters

Southern Aravali Range-

-Includes district of Udaipur, South-eastern margin of Pali & Dungarpur districts

Hill ranges of Southern Aravali

  1. Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  2. Girwa Hills
  3. Merwara Hills
  4. Abu block & Oria plateau

Peaks of Southern Aravali Range

Guru Shikhar (Sirohi) – 1722 meters  
Ser (Sirohi) – 1597 meters  
Dilwara (Sirohi) – 1442 meters  
Jarga (Sirohi) – 1431 meters
Achalgarh (Sirohi) – 1380 M  
Kumbhalgarh (Rajsamand) – 1224 meters  
Dhoniya – 1183 meters  
Hrishikesh – 1017 meters  
Kamalnath (Udaipur) – 1001 meters  
Sajjangarh (Udaipur) – 938 meters  
Lilagarh – 874 meters

RAS Mains Exam Important Practice Question

RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM PRACTICE QUESTIONS

  1. Li-fi
  2. Gorge
  3. Mesabi range
  4. Green Bond
  5. Plastic currency
  6. List of monetary tools to combat inflation
  7. NABARD
  8. Llanos forest
  9. Who is the founder of Young India
  10. Who proposed three tier model for Panchayati Raj
  11. Chenab bridge
  12. Discuss about various power related schemes govern by Rajasthan government.
  13. Resurgent Rajasthan
  14. What do you understand by sister state agreement
  15. Vexation litigation prevention bill, 2015
  16. What do you understand by cloning? What are its uses
  17. What is the significance of Mangalyan over Indian economy
  18. Write a short note on Rhine river Which tribe of Rajasthan state was the original inhabitant of the Indus Valley civilization and what are their characteristics
  19. Discuss the role of inland waterways in exports from India.
  20. What is the difference between the presidential election and prime ministerial elections
  21. What are the various works performed by human blood? What are the essential nutrients that should be in human blood
  22. What do you understand by the term pollution remediation and how it is related to white biotechnology? Discuss the various tasks performed in field of white biotechnology by Anand Mohan Chakrabarty.
  23. How el-Niño is related to Humboldt Current? Discuss the significance of southern oscillations on el-Niño. How el-Niño related to Indian monsoon?
  24. What are the provisions for Juvenile justice in India? What is the amendment made in the Juvenile justice bill after Nirbhaya Case?
  25. Discuss the role of Mohammad Ali Jinnah in Indian Freedom Struggle and partition of India.
  26. Role of Rajasthani leaders in Indian freedom struggle.
  27. What are the Salient features of inclusive growth?
  28. What are the main function of the United Nations Economic and social council?
  29.  Write short notes on Industrial Corridors of india
  30. How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic States of poor farmers?
  31. What is the Poverty alleviation Programmes of India?
  32. What is Targeted Inflation and effect of it?
  33. What do you understand by Performance appraisal?
  34. Catch ball Method or Catch ball Process

35. Zero Base Budgets

36. Write the limitations of Auditing

37. What is GI TAG? List of GI Tag in Rajasthan

38. Differentiate between line item budget and performance budget

39. Discuss the challenges at Gram Sabha level in context of Social Auditing.

40. Biofuel Policy of Rajasthan

41. What do you understand by Gender Budgeting?

42. What is meant by Integrity?

43. Objectives of New Public Management (NPM)

44. Nolan Committee

45. Hawthorne Experiment

46. Two functions of Divisional Commissioner

47. What do you understand by the Legislative control over administration?

48. Police Commissionerate System

49. Functions of the State Finance Commission

50. District Government

51. Clarify the meaning of Legitimacy?

52. What is Social Intelligence?

53. What do you understand by Modesty Trait?

54. Main styles of Learning

55. What is Stress?

56. Explain Proactive Inhibition

57. Legal status of person

58. What do you mean by Ownership?

59. What is the ‘POCSO Act’?

60. What are the Vishakha Guidelines?

61. What do you understand by Sayar?

62. State the main attributes of New Public Administration.

63. Clarify the importance of ‘Unity of Command’

64. Clarify the difference between Development Administration and Administrative Development.

65. Mention the basic values of Civil Servants.

66. Differentiate in Power and Authority

67. Explain the requirements of Delegation

68. ‘What is Cognitive Intelligence?’ Express the thoughts of Piaget in this reference

69. Analyse the main causes of forgetting.

70. What do you understand by Motivation? Which measures can be taken for motivating the civil servants?

71. What is ‘Antibiotic Resistence’? Write main reason behind it.’

72. ‘Pratyusha’

73. Internet of things.

74. What is ‘Nutrino’?

75. Write any 4 functions of Liver.

76. Barak-8

77. What do you understand by Nuclear Triad? Name the countries with

Nuclear triad capacity.

78. Satyendra Nath Bose

79. Name any 4 Radar System developments by DRDO?

80. What do you understand by Tyndall effect?

81. Smiling Budha

82. Differentiate between saturated solution and supersaturated solution.

83. What is Activation Energy? How Positive and Negative catalyst affect it?

84. Graphite & Diamond both are allotropes of carbon but different. How?

85. Name any 2 disinfectants in process of Water Purification.

86. Write the measures to save metals from corrosion.

87. What do you understand by ‘Big Data’? Write any 2 challenges related to its use.

88. What is ‘Graphene’? Write its applications

89. Explain the main difference between saturated and unsaturated fat with example.

90. Differentiate between Ballistic Missile and Cruise missile. Give example of each

Developed by India

91. In context of Nano technology explains the Top-Down and Bottom up approach.

92. Describe Nano Mission of India.

93. Differentiate between Mixture and Compound.

94. In context of Socio-economic Development, discuss National Digital Communication Policy-2018.

95. What is ‘Bharat Net Project’? Write down its main objectives.

96. What do you understand by Surface Tension? Name any two factors affecting it.

97. What is Erythroblastosis Fetalis? Write reason behind it and its treatment.

98. What is reverse osmosis? Its importance in water purification

99. What do you understand by ‘Enzyme’? Write its main attributes.

100. What is ‘Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojna’? Write its main attributes.

101. Define Nuclear Fission. Explain controlled nuclear chain reaction in detail.

102. Stating the contribution of Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha in development of

India’s atomic energy, explain all three stages of India’s atomic power programme.

103. What do you understand by pH level? Write applications of pH level.

104. What are the soaps? Write down fatty acids found in it and explain its cleansing action.

105. How soaps are different from detergents.

106. What do you understand by malnutrition? Describe the essential nutrient element for human Body.

107. Describe disease or defects related to human eye.

108. What do you understand by clone? Discuss the ethical and unethical aspects regarding donning.

109. Write main organs of human respiratory system. Explain the role of pulmonary artery and Pulmonary vein & human respiration process.

110. Who is considered the father of Sociology?

111. When and from where is considered to be the start of sociology in India?

112.  Write the definition of sociology given by Radhakamal Mukherjee?

113. Types of Garasia Marriage

114. State the features of caste given by Ketkar?

115.  Pishach Vivah (Demon Marriage)

116. Who is the author of the book ‘Social change in Modern India’?

117. Human Development Index

118. Which society did Srinivas study before giving the theory of Sanskritization?

119. Continuous and Sustainable Development

120. Fossil Fuels

121. World Hunger Index

122. Financial Inclusion

123. Green Accounting

124. High Powered Money

125. Green Subsidy

126. BHIM

127. What do you understand by the Politicization of Caste and Castesization of Politics?

128. Clarify the difference between Caste and Class.

129. Write the features of Social Values given by Radhakamal Mukherjee?

130. Write a comment on the sociologist M.N. Srinivas.

131. State the measures to remove communalism.

132. Comment on the recommendations of the Wadhwa Commission on the Public Distribution System.

133. What is the logical basis of the Mid Day Meal Scheme?

134. What is the difference between ‘Gross National Product’ and ‘Net National Product’?

135. What is meant by ‘Quality of Life’?

136. Brown Field Investment

137. Clarity ‘Inclusive Development’ and ‘Financial Inclusion’.

138. Explain Mixed Cropping and Intensive Cropping.

139. What do you understand by Minimum Support Price (MSP) ? In what way is it different from procurement Price?

140. Explain sustainable Agriculture.

141. What do you understand by Universal Basic Income (UBI) ? Does India need this? Analyse.

142. What do you understand by International Solar Alliance? How can India benefit the world by this?

143. What do you understand by NPA? State the measures of its solution?

144. Expose the arguments in favour and against the Special Economic Zones.

145. Write your comment on this thought that economic planning can increase the rate of Capital formation with much more fast speed, which can be obtained in the personal Savings and investment system.

146. Ganeshwar Culture

147. Temples of Kiradu

148. Panch peer

149. Tyaga system in Rajasthan History

150. Gadhbeethali

151. Pichhwai

152. Raangadi

153. Dursa Arha

154. Bhagat Movement

155. Gentleman’s Agreement

156. Ilbert Bill Controversy

157. Shortughai

158. What is orientalism?

159. V.D.Savarkar

160. Punnapra-Vayalar uprising

161. Rani Gaidinliu

162. Cripps Mission

163.  Stone Age sites in Rajasthan

164. What is Mand singing?

165. Bundi style of Painting

166. Main dance style of Garasia tribes

167.1857 Revolt in Rajasthan

168. Handicrafts of Rajasthan

169. Ashoka’s Dhamma

170. Market reforms by Allauddin Khilji

171. Describes the dancing style of classical and kathak dance

172. Young Bengal movement

173. Individual Satyagrah

174. Paris Peace conference

175. Folk music of Rajasthan

176. Land Revenue policy of Britishers in India

177. Why did the Industrial Revolution starts in Britain?

178. What are the causes and effects of First World War?

179. NEOM Project

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What was Brundtland Commission?

Formerly known as the World Life Issues on Environment and Development (WCED), the mission of the Brundtland Commission is to unite countries to pursue sustainable development together. At the time, the UN General Assembly realized that there was a heavy deterioration of the human environment and natural resources.

Where is Brundtland?

To rally countries to work and pursue sustainable development together, the UN decided to establish the Brundtland Commission. Gro Harlem Brundtland was the former Prime Minister of Norway and was chosen due to her strong background in the sciences and public health

What are the three E’s of sustainability?

Sustainability is often defined as a balance of the three E’s: the environment, the economy, and social equity. But as planners embrace the concept, the sustainability “balance” heavily favors one E: the economy.

Write introduction of Rajasthan State Biodiversity Board.

The term Biological diversity or Biodiversity refers to the entire variety and variability of life forms in existence on earth. It encompasses the entire range of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, insects and other invertebrates including plants, fungi and other micro-organisms like Protista, bacteria and viruses. Biodiversity on earth is expressed at three levels, genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. Its direct and indirect services are crucial for the sustenance of life on this planet.

Biodiversity ensures food, fuel, shelter, medicines and other resources which are vital for our survival. Most of the crops’ pests are controlled by a variety of other organisms, including insects, birds and fungi, which are certainly superior natural pesticides than their chemical equivalents which are extensively used and are really harmful to human beings and the environment. Many flowering plants rely on animal species such as insects, bats and birds for pollination and seed dispersal. Biodiversity, more importantly, offers a wide range of resources and services for the mankind. Diverse species enables diversification of livelihood and enables food production throughout the year.

The loss of Biodiversity is not a new thing. The period, since the emergence of humans, has displayed an enhanced ongoing reduction in biodiversity and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. The reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction, overexploitation, hunting, introduction of exotics etc. Conversely, biodiversity impacts human health in a number of ways, both positively and negatively.

After becoming a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1994, the Government of India has taken many important steps to further strengthen the existing framework. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 has been enacted which provides a legal mechanism for establishing sovereign rights over biological resources, their conservation, regulation of access and sustainable use of biodiversity and associated knowledge. It is being implemented by engaging decentralized regulation of activities through Biodiversity management committees (BMCs), State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs) and National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) each with well-defined functions within their respective jurisdiction. Accordingly, it is being operated at National, State and Local level as a three tier system.

The Government of Rajasthan has framed ‘Rajasthan Biological Diversity Rules, 2010 and has established Rajasthan State Biodiversity Board for the purpose of this Act.

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Who wrote The Philosophy of the Bomb?

Gandhiji thanked God for the Viceroy’s narrow escape and condemned in his article “The Cult of the Bomb” the revolutionaries for the act. It was in reply to Gandhiji’s article that this outstanding document was written by Bhagwati Charan in consultation with Chandra Shekhar Azad.

Write short notes on Bhawai Dance

Bhawai Dance is a traditional folk dance of Rajasthan that can be traced to the medieval period and is one of the most amazing performing arts of Rajasthan. This is a very difficult form of dance and can only be performed by skilled artists. Bhawai or Bhavai dance is performed with enormous skill this dance is an exciting pot balancing dance of the snake charmer tribe, This dance form demonstrate the art of dancing and revolving even while balancing many articles and items on one’s head.

Bhawai Dance was originally believed to have started in the neighboring state of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Bhawai Dance was soon learned by the local tribesmen and women in Rajasthan, who further added to the dance a unique Rajasthani spirit.

Bhawai has been revived by the Government’s constant promotion and by the efforts of private institutions such as the Aarangan Theatre Group and the Bhawai Lok kala Sansthan of Rajasthan. Bhawai combines the quick fineness of the Rajasthani women and their excellent skills in such balancing acts and dance.

The necessary part of the dance, Bhawai is provided by the men singing melodious songs and by instruments like dholak, manjeera, pakhwaja, Sarangi and the bhungal. Bhawai Dance Form of Rajasthan India is mostly performed by women dancers balancing as many as seven or nine brass vessels on their heads as they dance rapidly, often revolving and moving with their feet resting onto a glass or on the edge of a weapon.

What is Round Tripping?

Round-tripping, also known as round-trip transactions or “Lazy Susans” as a form of barter that involves a company selling an unused asset to another company, while at the same time agreeing to buy back the same or similar assets at about the same price.

Define the term Lead Banking?

A lead bank is a bank that oversees the arrangement of loan syndication. The lead bank receives an additional fee for this service, which involves recruiting the syndicate members and negotiating the financing terms. In the Eurobond market, the lead bank acts in an agent capacity for an underwriting syndicate.

Salient Features of National Food Security Act 2013

1. Public Coverage and entitlement under Targeted Distribution System (TPDS): Upto 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population will be covered under TPDS, with uniform entitlement of 5 kg per person per month. However, since Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households constitute poorest of the poor, and are presently entitled to 35 kg per household per month, entitlement of existing AAY households will be protected at 35 kg per household per month.

2. State-wise coverage: Corresponding to the all India coverage of 75% and 50% in the rural and urban areas, State-wise coverage will be determined by the Central Government. The then Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) has determined the State-wise coverage by using the NSS Household Consumption Survey data for 2011-12.

3. Subsidised prices under TPDS and their revision: Foodgrain under TPDS will be made available at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per kg for rice, wheat and coarse grains for a period of three years from the date of commencement of the Act. Thereafter prices will be as fixed by the Central Government from time to time, not exceeding MSP. It has been decided by the Government to continue the above mentioned subsidized prices upto June, 2018.

4. In case, any State’s allocation under the Act is lower than their current allocation, it will be protected upto the level of average off take under normal TPDS during last three years, at prices to be determined by the Central Government. Existing prices for APL households i.e. Rs. 6.10 per kg for wheat and Rs 8.30 per kg for rice has been determined as issue prices for the additional allocation to protect the average off take during last three years.

5. Identification of Households: Within the coverage under TPDS determined for each State, the work of identification of eligible households is to be done by States/UTs.

6. Nutritional Support to women and children: Pregnant women and lactating mothers and children in the age group of 6 months to 14 years will be entitled to meals as per prescribed nutritional norms under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) schemes. Higher nutritional norms have been prescribed for malnourished children upto 6 years of age.

7. Maternity Benefit: Pregnant women and lactating mothers will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000.

8. Women Empowerment: Eldest woman of the household of age 18 years or above to be the head of the household for the purpose of issuing of ration cards.

9. Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. States will have the flexibility to use the existing machinery or set up separate mechanism.

10. Cost of intra-State transportation & handling of foodgrain and FPS Dealers’ margin: Central Government will provide assistance to States in meeting the expenditure incurred by them on transportation of foodgrain within the State, its handling and FPS dealers’ margin as per norms to be devised for this purpose.

11. Transparency and Accountability: Provisions have been made for disclosure of records relating to PDS, social audits and setting up of Vigilance Committees in order to ensure transparency and accountability.

12. Food Security Allowance: Provision for food security allowance to entitled beneficiaries in case of non-supply of entitled food grains or meals. 13. Penalty: Provision for penalty on public servant or authority, to be imposed by the State Food Commission, in case of failure to comply with the relief recommended by the District Grievance Redressal Office.

What are the main objectives of International Monetary Fund?

IMF helps the member countries to achieve the balanced economic growth. It facilitates the expansion of balanced growth by the promotion and maintenance of high level of employment as the primary objective of economic policy

The main objectives of IMF, as noted in the Articles of Agreement, are as follows:

(i) International Monetary Co-Operation

(ii) Ensure Exchange Stability

(iii) Balanced Growth of Trade

(iv) Eliminate Exchange Control

(v) Multilateral Trade and Payments

(vi) Balanced Growth

(vii) Correction of BOP Maladjustments

What are the recommendations of Nehru Report?

• India should be given Dominion Status with the Parliamentary form of Government with bi-cameral legislature that consists of senate and House of Representatives.

• The senate will comprise of two hundred members elected for seven years, while the House of Representatives should consist of five hundred members elected for five years. Governor-General will act on the advice of executive council. It was to be collectively responsible to the parliament.

• There should be Federal form of Government in India with Residuary powers to be vested in Centre. There will be no separate electorate for minorities because it awakens communal sentiments therefore it should be scrapped and joint electorate should be introduced”.

• There will be no reserved seats for communities in Punjab and Bengal. However, reservation of Muslim seats could be possible in the provinces where Muslim population should be at least ten percent.

• Judiciary should be independent from the Executive

• There should be 1/4th Muslim Representation at Centre

• Sind should be separated from Bombay provided it proves to be financially self sufficient.

Describe the location and features of Desert National Park?

Activities: Jeep safari, Camping, Bonfire and bird watching

  • The Desert National Park is situated in the Indian state of Rajasthan near Jaisalmer.
  • The Desert National Park is a protected sanctuary. The park is considered not only the largest in the state of Rajasthan but among the largest in India.
  • The catchments area of the Desert National Park is around 3100 sq. km. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge. Nevertheless this place attracts large hoard of migratory birds due to its close proximity to Bharatpur.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see many Eagles, Harriers, Falcons, Buzzards, Kestrel and Vultures. Short- toed Eagles, Tawny Eagles, Spotted Eagles, Laager Falcons and Kestrels are the most common among these.

The substantial part of the park is on a landscape, which comprises of lakebed of extinct salt lakes and thorny scrubs. It is a wonder in itself that how come living organisms flourish in these harsh conditions. Similarly, a considerable area of the Desert National Park consists of sand dunes. If you really want to explore the magnificent wildlife at the Desert National Park in Jaisalmer then the best way is by setting out on an adventure-filled jeep safari.

Describe the location and features of Desert National Park?

Activities: Jeep safari, Camping, Bonfire and bird watching

  • The Desert National Park is situated in the Indian state of Rajasthan near Jaisalmer.
  • The Desert National Park is a protected sanctuary. The park is considered not only the largest in the state of Rajasthan but among the largest in India.
  • The catchments area of the Desert National Park is around 3100 sq. km. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge. Nevertheless this place attracts large hoard of migratory birds due to its close proximity to Bharatpur.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see many Eagles, Harriers, Falcons, Buzzards, Kestrel and Vultures. Short- toed Eagles, Tawny Eagles, Spotted Eagles, Laager Falcons and Kestrels are the most common among these.

The substantial part of the park is on a landscape, which comprises of lakebed of extinct salt lakes and thorny scrubs. It is a wonder in itself that how come living organisms flourish in these harsh conditions. Similarly, a considerable area of the Desert National Park consists of sand dunes. If you really want to explore the magnificent wildlife at the Desert National Park in Jaisalmer then the best way is by setting out on an adventure-filled jeep safari.

What is a Soil Health Card?

SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients); S (Secondary- nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients); and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.

Key Features of the Soil Health Card Scheme:

The government is planning to cover as many as all farmers under the scheme.

The scheme will cover all the parts of the country.

In the form of soil card, the farmers will get a report and this report will contain all the details about the soil of their particular farm.

A farm will get the soil card once in every 3 years.

How can a farmer use a SHC?

The card will contain an advisory based on the soil nutrient status of a farmer’s holding. It will show recommendations on dosage of different nutrients needed. Further, it will advise the farmer on the fertilizers and their quantities he should apply, and also the soil amendments that he should undertake, so as to realize optimal yields.

Benefits of the Soil Health Card Scheme:

The scheme will monitor the soil of the farmers well and will give them a formatted report. So, they can decide well which crops they should cultivate and which ones they should skip.

The authorities will monitor the soil on a regular basis. One in every 3 years, they will provide a report to farmers. So, farmers need not worry if the nature of the soil changes due to certain factors. Also, they will always have updated data about their soil.

The work of the government does not stop at listing down measures required to improve the quality of the soil. In fact, they will also employ experts to help farmers in carrying out the corrective measures.

Farmers will get a proper soil health record, thanks to the Soil Health Card Scheme. Also, they can study the soil management practices. Accordingly, they can plan the future of their crops and land.

Generally, in government schemes, the person carrying out the study for a particular farmer gets changed. But in the Soil Health Card Scheme, the government is paying attention that the same person carries out soil analysis for a farmer. This will further enhance the effectiveness of the scheme.

The soil card will give the farmers a proper idea of which nutrients their soil is lacking. And hence, which crops they should invest in. they will also tell which fertilizers they need. So, ultimately, the crop yield will see a rise.

The main aim behind the scheme was to find out the type of particular soil. And then provide ways in which we can improve it. Even if a soil has some limitations, we can do something to get the most out of it. And that is what the government is trying to do with the help of this scheme.

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What is Jojoba? Write its importance, features and uses.

Simmondsia chinensis is a desert shrub indigenous to Arizona, California, and northern Mexico. It grows in a number of deserts worldwide. It is a woody evergreen shrub with thick, leathery, bluish-green leaves and dark brown nutlike fruit. An equal number of male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. The plant can withstand extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and thrives in well-drained, desert soils and coarse mixtures of gravel and clay. The mature plant produces about 5 to 10 pounds of seeds, which range in size between the coffee bean and peanut. It is an important forage plant for desert bighorn sheep and mule deer.

Scientific Name

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider (synonym Simmondsia californica Nutall

Family: Simmondsiaceae

What is it used for?

American Indians and Mexicans have long used jojoba oil as a hair conditioner and restorer, and in medicine, cooking, and rituals. In the United States, jojoba is considered a viable cash crop for the southwestern Indians, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs has funded most of the studies in this area.

With the banning of the sale of sperm whale oil in the 1970s, the cosmetic industry turned to jojoba oil for use in shampoos, moisturizers, sunscreens, and conditioners. It has further potential as an industrial lubricant because it does not break down under high temperature or pressure. A disadvantage to its use is its relatively high cost.

General uses

The toxicity of the constituent simmondsin in jojoba seed meal and some oil components limits the likelihood of clinical use. Jojoba oil is commonly used in dermatological preparation.

What is the 2030 agenda?

  • A New Sustainable Development Agenda.
  • Voices around the world are demanding leadership on poverty, inequality and climate change.
  • The 2030 Agenda comprises 17 new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will guide policy and funding for the next 15 years, beginning with a historic pledge to end poverty.

This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. It also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. We recognise that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, will implement this plan. We are resolved to free the human race from the tyranny of poverty and want and to heal and secure our planet. We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path. As we embark on this collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets which we are announcing today demonstrate the scale and ambition of this new universal Agenda. They seek to build on the Millennium Development Goals and complete what these did not achieve. They seek to realize the human rights of all and to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental.

The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet:

People

We are determined to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.

Planet

We are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations.

Prosperity

We are determined to ensure that all human beings can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that economic, social and technological progress occurs in harmony with nature.

Peace

We are determined to foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies which are free from fear and violence. There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development.

Partnership

We are determined to mobilize the means required to implement this Agenda through a revitalized Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focussed in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people.

The interlinkages and integrated nature of the Sustainable Development Goals are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised. If we realize our ambitions across the full extent of the Agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our world will be transformed for the better.

DECLARATION

Introduction

1. We, the Heads of State and Government and High Representatives, meeting at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 25-27 September 2015 as the Organization celebrates its seventieth anniversary, have decided today on new global Sustainable Development Goals.

2. On behalf of the peoples we serve, we have adopted a historic decision on a comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred set of universal and transformative Goals and targets. We commit ourselves to working tirelessly for the full implementation of this Agenda by 2030. We recognize that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. We are committed to achieving sustainable development in its three dimensions – economic, social and environmental – in a balanced and integrated manner. We will also build upon the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals and seek to address their unfinished business.

3. We resolve, between now and 2030, to end poverty and hunger everywhere; to combat inequalities within and among countries; to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies; to protect human rights and promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources. We resolve also to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and sustained economic growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all, taking into account different levels of national development and capacities.

4. As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations and peoples and for all segments of society. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first.

5. This is an Agenda of unprecedented scope and significance. It is accepted by all countries and is applicable to all, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. These are universal goals and targets which involve the entire world, developed and developing countries alike. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development.

6. The Goals and targets are the result of over two years of intensive public consultation and engagement with civil society and other stakeholders around the world, which paid particular attention to the voices of the poorest and most vulnerable. This consultation included valuable work done by the General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals and by the United Nations, whose Secretary-General provided a synthesis report in December 2014.

Our vision

7. In these Goals and targets, we are setting out a supremely ambitious and transformational vision. We envisage a world free of poverty, hunger, disease and want, where all life can thrive. We envisage a world free of fear and violence.A world with universal literacy. A world with equitable and universal access to quality education at all levels, to health care and social protection, where physical, mental and social well-being are assured. A world where we reaffirm our commitments regarding the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and where there is improved hygiene; and where food is sufficient, safe, affordable and nutritious. A world where human habitats are safe, resilient and sustainable and where there is universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.

8. We envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity.A world which invests in its children and in which every child grows up free from violence and exploitation. A world in which every woman and girl enjoys full gender equality and all legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment have been removed. A just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met

9. We envisage a world in which every country enjoys sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all. A world in which consumption and production patterns and use of all natural resources – from air to land, from rivers, lakes and aquifers to oceans and seas – are sustainable. One in which democracy, good governance and the rule of law as well as an enabling environment at national and international levels, are essential for sustainable development, including sustained and inclusive economic growth, social development, environmental protection and the eradication of poverty and hunger. One in which development and the application of technology are climate-sensitive, respect biodiversity and are resilient. One in which humanity lives in harmony with nature and in which wildlife and other living species are protected

Our shared principles and commitments

10. The new Agenda is guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including full respect for international law. It is grounded in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; international human rights treaties, the Millennium Declaration and the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. It is informed by other instruments such as the Declaration on the Right to Development.

11. We reaffirm the outcomes of all major UN conferences and summits which have laid a solid foundation for sustainable development and have helped to shape the new Agenda. These include the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; the World Summit on Sustainable Development; the World Summit for Social Development; the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, the Beijing Platform for Action; and the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (“Rio+ 20”). We also reaffirm the follow-up to these conferences, including the outcomes of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States; the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries; and the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction.

12. We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof.

13. The challenges and commitments contained in these major conferences and summits are interrelated and call for integrated solutions. To address them effectively, a new approach is needed. Sustainable development recognizes that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, combating inequality within and among countries, preserving the planet, creating sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and fostering social inclusion are linked to each other and are interdependent.

Our world today

14. We are meeting at a time of immense challenges to sustainable development. Billions of our citizens continue to live in poverty and are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and among countries. There are enormous disparities of opportunity, wealth and power. Gender inequality remains a key challenge. Unemployment, particularly youth unemployment, is a major concern. Global health threats, more frequent and intense natural disasters, spiralling conflict, violent extremism, terrorism and related humanitarian crises and forced displacement of people threaten to reverse much of the development progress made in recent decades. Natural resource depletion and adverse impacts of environmental degradation, including desertification, drought, land degradation, freshwater scarcity and loss of biodiversity, add to and exacerbate the list of challenges which humanity faces. Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and its adverse impacts undermine the ability of all countries to achieve sustainable development. Increases in global temperature, sea level rise, ocean acidification and other climate change impacts are seriously affecting coastal areas and low-lying coastal countries, including many least developed countries and Small Island developing States. The survival of many societies, and of the biological support systems of the planet, is at risk.

15. It is also, however, a time of immense opportunity. Significant progress has been made in meeting many development challenges. Within the past generation, hundreds of millions of people have emerged from extreme poverty. Access to education has greatly increased for both boys and girls. The spread of information and communications technology and global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas as diverse as medicine and energy.

16. Almost fifteen years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were agreed. These provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas. But the progress has been uneven, particularly in Africa, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and Small Island developing States, and some of the MDGs remain off-track, in particular those related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive health. We recommit ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs, including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focussed and scaled-up assistance to least developed countries and other countries in special situations, in line with relevant support programmes. The new Agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals and seeks to complete what these did not achieve, particularly in reaching the most vulnerable.

17. In its scope, however, the framework we are announcing today goes far beyond the MDGs. Alongside continuing development priorities such as poverty eradication, health, education and food security and nutrition, it sets out a wide range of economic, social and environmental objectives. It also promises more peaceful and inclusive societies. It also, crucially, defines means of implementation. Reflecting the integrated approach that we have decided on, there are deep interconnections and many cross-cutting elements across the new Goals and targets.

The new Agenda

18. We are announcing today 17 Sustainable Development Goals with 169 associated targets which are integrated and indivisible. Never before have had world leaders pledged common action and endeavour across such a broad and universal policy agenda. We are setting out together on the path towards sustainable development, devoting ourselves collectively to the pursuit of global development and of “win-win” cooperation which can bring huge gains to all countries and all parts of the world. We reaffirm that every State has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent sovereignty over all its wealth, natural resources and economic activity. We will implement the Agenda for the full benefit of all, for today’s generation and for future generations. In doing so, we reaffirm our commitment to international law and emphasize that the Agenda is to be implemented in a manner that is consistent with the rights and obligations of states under international law.

19. We reaffirm the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other international instruments relating to human rights and international law. We emphasize the responsibilities of all States, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, disability or other status.

20. Realizing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls will make a crucial contribution to progress across all the Goals and targets. The achievement of full human potential and of sustainable development is not possible if one half of humanity continues to be denied its full human rights and opportunities. Women and girls must enjoy equal access to quality education, economic resources and political participation as well as equal opportunities with men and boys for employment, leadership and decision-making at all levels. We will work for a significant increase in investments to close the gender gap and strengthen support for institutions in relation to gender equality and the empowerment of women at the global, regional and national levels. All forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls will be eliminated, including through the engagement of men and boys. The systematic mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the implementation of the Agenda is crucial.

21. The new Goals and targets will come into effect on 1 January 2016 and will guide the decisions we take over the next fifteen years. All of us will work to implement the Agenda within our own countries and at the regional and global levels, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities We will respect national policy space for sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, in particular for developing states, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments. We acknowledge also the importance of the regional and sub-regional dimensions, regional economic integration and interconnectivity in sustainable development. Regional and sub-regional frameworks can facilitate the effective translation of sustainable development policies into concrete action at national level.

22. Each country faces specific challenges in its pursuit of sustainable development. The most vulnerable countries and, in particular, African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states deserve special attention, as do countries in situations of conflict and post-conflict countries. There are also serious challenges within many middle-income countries.

23. People who are vulnerable must be empowered. Those whose needs are reflected in the Agenda include all children, youth, persons with disabilities (of whom more than 80% live in poverty), people living with HIV/AIDS, older persons, indigenous peoples, refugees and internally displaced persons and migrants. We resolve to take further effective measures and actions, in conformity with international law, to remove obstacles and constraints, strengthen support and meet the special needs of people living in areas affected by complex humanitarian emergencies and in areas affected by terrorism.

24. We are committed to ending poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including by eradicating extreme poverty by 2030. All people must enjoy a basic standard of living, including through social protection systems. We are also determined to end hunger and to achieve food security as a matter of priority and to end all forms of malnutrition. In this regard, we reaffirm the important role and inclusive nature of the Committee on World Food Security and welcome the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and Framework for Action. We will devote resources to developing rural areas and sustainable agriculture and fisheries, supporting smallholder farmers, especially women farmers, herders and fishers in developing countries, particularly least developed countries.

25. We commit to providing inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels – early childhood, primary, secondary, tertiary, technical and vocational training. All people, irrespective of sex, age, race, ethnicity, and persons with disabilities, migrants, indigenous peoples, children and youth, especially those in vulnerable situations, should have access to life-long learning opportunities that help them acquire the knowledge and skills needed to exploit opportunities and to participate fully in society. We will strive to provide children and youth with a nurturing environment for the full realization of their rights and capabilities, helping our countries to reap the demographic dividend including through safe schools and cohesive communities and families.

26. To promote physical and mental health and well-being, and to extend life expectancy for all, we must achieve universal health coverage and access to quality health care. No one must be left behind. We commit to accelerating the progress made to date in reducing newborn, child and maternal mortality by ending all such preventable deaths before 2030. We are committed to ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education. We will equally accelerate the pace of progress made in fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, Ebola and other communicable diseases and epidemics, including by addressing growing anti-microbial resistance and the problem of unattended diseases affecting developing countries. We are committed to the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases, including behavioural, developmental and neurological disorders, which constitute a major challenge for sustainable development.

27. We will seek to build strong economic foundations for all our countries. Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth is essential for prosperity. This will only be possible if wealth is shared and income inequality is addressed. We will work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative and people-centred economies, promoting youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, in particular, and decent work for all. We will eradicate forced labour and human trafficking and end child labour in all its forms. All countries stand to benefit from having a healthy and well-educated workforce with the knowledge and skills needed for productive and fulfilling work and full participation in society. We will strengthen the productive capacities of least-developed countries in all sectors, including through structural transformation. We will adopt policies which increase productive capacities, productivity and productive employment; financial inclusion; sustainable agriculture, pastoralist and fisheries development; sustainable industrial development; universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services; sustainable transport systems; and quality and resilient infrastructure.

28. We commit to making fundamental changes in the way that our societies produce and consumer goods and services. Governments, international organizations, the business sector and other non-state actors and individuals must contribute to changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns, including through the mobilization, from all sources, of financial and technical assistance to strengthen developing countries’ scientific, technological and innovative capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production. We encourage the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production. All countries take action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries.

29. We recognize the positive contribution of migrants for inclusive growth and sustainable development. We also recognize that international migration is a multi-dimensional reality of major relevance for the development of countries of origin, transit and destination, which requires coherent and comprehensive responses. We will cooperate internationally to ensure safe, orderly and regular migration involving full respect for human rights and the humane treatment of migrants regardless of migration status, of refugees and of displaced persons. Such cooperation should also strengthen the resilience of communities hosting refugees, particularly in developing countries. We underline the right of migrants to return to their country of citizenship, and recall that States must ensure that their returning nationals are duly received.

30. States are strongly urged to refrain from promulgating and applying any unilateral economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations that impede the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly in developing countries.

31. We acknowledge that the UNFCCC is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. We are determined to address decisively the threat posed by climate change and environmental degradation. The global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible international cooperation aimed at accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions and addressing adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change. We note with grave concern the significant gap between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of global annual emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with having a likely chance of holding the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C or 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.

32. Looking ahead to the COP21 conference in Paris in December, we underscore the commitment of all States to work for an ambitious and universal climate agreement. We reaffirm that the protocol, another legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties shall address in a balanced manner, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building, and transparency of action and support.

33. We recognise that social and economic development depends on the sustainable management of our planet’s natural resources. We are therefore determined to conserve and sustainably use oceans and seas, freshwater resources, as well as forests, mountains and drylands and to protect biodiversity, ecosystems and wildlife. We are also determined to promote sustainable tourism, tackle water scarcity and water pollution, to strengthen cooperation on desertification, dust storms, land degradation and drought and to promote resilience and disaster risk reduction. In this regard, we look forward to COP13 of the Convention on Biological Diversity to be held in Mexico in 2016.

34. We recognize that sustainable urban development and management are crucial to the quality of life of our people. We will work with local authorities and communities to renew and plan our cities and human settlements so as to foster community cohesion and personal security and to stimulate innovation and employment. We will reduce the negative impacts of urban activities and of chemicals which are hazardous for human health and the environment, including through the environmentally sound management and safe use of chemicals, the reduction and recycling of waste and more efficient use of water and energy. And we will work to minimize the impact of cities on the global climate system. We will also take account of population trends and projections in our national, rural and urban development strategies and policies. We look forward to the upcoming United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development in Quito, Ecuador.

35. Sustainable development cannot be realized without peace and security; and peace and security will be at risk without sustainable development. The new Agenda recognizes the need to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies that provide equal access to justice and that are based on respect for human rights (including the right to development), on effective rule of law and good governance at all levels and on transparent, effective and accountable institutions. Factors which give rise to violence, insecurity and injustice, such as inequality, corruption, poor governance and illicit financial and arms flows, are addressed in the Agenda. We must redouble our efforts to resolve or prevent conflict and to support post-conflict countries, including through ensuring that women have a role in peace-building and state-building. We call for further effective measures and actions to be taken, in conformity with international law, to remove the obstacles to the full realization of the right of self-determination of peoples living under colonial and foreign occupation, which continue to adversely affect their economic and social development as well as their environment.

36. We pledge to foster inter-cultural understanding, tolerance, mutual respect and an ethic of global citizenship and shared responsibility. We acknowledge the natural and cultural diversity of the world and recognize that all cultures and civilizations can contribute to, and are crucial enablers of, sustainable development.

37. Sport is also an important enabler of sustainable development. We recognize the growing contribution of sport to the realization of development and peace in its promotion of tolerance and respect and the contributions it makes to the empowerment of women and of young people, individuals and communities as well as to health, education and social inclusion objectives.

38. We reaffirm, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, the need to respect the territorial integrity and political independence of States.

Means of Implementation

39. The scale and ambition of the new Agenda requires a revitalized Global Partnership to ensure its implementation. We fully commit to this. This Partnership will work in a spirit of global solidarity, in particular solidarity with the poorest and with people in vulnerable situations. It will facilitate an intensive global engagement in support of implementation of all the Goals and targets, bringing together Governments, the private sector, civil society, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available resources.

40. The means of implementation targets under Goal 17 and under each SDG are key to realising our Agenda and are of equal importance with the other Goals and targets. The Agenda, including the SDGs, can be met within the framework of a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, supported by the concrete policies and actions as outlined in the outcome document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, held in Addis Ababa from 13-16 July 2015. We welcome the endorsement by the General Assembly of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, which is an integral part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We recognize that the full implementation of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda is critical for the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals and targets.

41. We recognize that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development. The new Agenda deals with the means required for implementation of the Goals and targets. We recognize that these will include the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity-building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed. Public finance, both domestic and international, will play a vital role in providing essential services and public goods and in catalyzing other sources of finance. We acknowledge the role of the diverse private sector, ranging from micro-enterprises to cooperatives to multinationals, and that of civil society organizations and philanthropic organizations in the implementation of the new Agenda.

42. We support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes of action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action, the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway, the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024, and reaffirm the importance of supporting the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and the programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), all of which are integral to the new Agenda. We recognize the major challenge to the achievement of durable peace and sustainable development in countries in conflict and post-conflict situations.

43. We emphasize that international public finance plays an important role in complementing the efforts of countries to mobilize public resources domestically, especially in the poorest and most vulnerable countries with limited domestic resources. An important use of international public finance, including ODA, is to catalyse additional resource mobilization from other sources, public and private. ODA providers reaffirm their respective commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7% of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15% to 0.2% of ODA/GNI to least developed countries.

44. We acknowledge the importance for international financial institutions to support, in line with their mandates, the policy space of each country, in particular developing countries. We recommit to broadening and strengthening the voice and participation of developing countries – including African countries, least developed countries, land-locked developing countries, small-island developing States and middle-income countries – in international economic decision-making, norm-setting and global economic governance.

45. We acknowledge also the essential role of national parliaments through their enactment of legislation and adoption of budgets and their role in ensuring accountability for the effective implementation of our commitments. Governments and public institutions will also work closely on implementation with regional and local authorities, sub-regional institutions, international institutions, academia, philanthropic organisations, volunteer groups and others.

46. We underline the important role and comparative advantage of an adequately resourced, relevant, coherent, efficient and effective UN system in supporting the achievement of the SDGs and sustainable development. While stressing the importance of strengthened national ownership and leadership at country level, we express our support for the ongoing ECOSOC Dialogue on the longer-term positioning of the United Nations development system in the context of this Agenda.

Follow-up and review

47. Our Governments have the primary responsibility for follow-up and review, at the national, regional and global levels, in relation to the progress made in implementing the Goals and targets over the coming fifteen years. To support accountability to our citizens, we will provide for systematic follow-up and review at the various levels, as set out in this Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. The High Level Political Forum under the auspices of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council will have the central role in overseeing follow-up and review at the global level.

48. Indicators are being developed to assist this work. Quality, accessible, timely and reliable disaggregated data will be needed to help with the measurement of progress and to ensure that no one is left behind. Such data is key to decision-making. Data and information from existing reporting mechanisms should be used where possible. We agree to intensify our efforts to strengthen statistical capacities in developing countries, particularly African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, Small Island developing States and middle-income countries. We are committed to developing broader measures of progress to complement gross domestic product (GDP).

A call for action to change our world

49. Seventy years ago, an earlier generation of world leaders came together to create the United Nations. From the ashes of war and division they fashioned this Organization and the values of peace, dialogue and international cooperation which underpin it. The supreme embodiment of those values is the Charter of the United Nations.

50. Today we are also taking a decision of great historic significance. We resolve to build a better future for all people, including the millions who have been denied the chance to lead decent, dignified and rewarding lives and to achieve their full human potential. We can be the first generation to succeed in ending poverty; just as we may be the last to have a chance of saving the planet. The world will be a better place in 2030 if we succeed in our objectives.

51. What we are announcing today – an Agenda for global action for the next fifteen years – is a charter for people and planet in the twenty-first century. Children and young women and men are critical agents of change and will find in the new Goals a platform to channel their infinite capacities for activism into the creation of a better world.

52. “We the Peoples” are the celebrated opening words of the UN Charter. It is “We the Peoples” who are embarking today on the road to 2030. Our journey will involve Governments as well as Parliaments, the UN system and other international institutions, local authorities, indigenous peoples, civil society, business and the private sector, the scientific and academic community – and all people. Millions have already engaged with, and will own, this Agenda. It is an Agenda of the people, by the people, and for the people – and this, we believe, will ensure its success.

53. The future of humanity and of our planet lies in our hands. It lies also in the hands of today’s younger generation who will pass the torch to future generations. We have mapped the road to sustainable development; it will be for all of us to ensure that the journey is successful and its gains irreversible.

Sustainable Development Goals and targets

54. Following an inclusive process of intergovernmental negotiations, and based on the Proposal of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals , which includes a chapeau contextualizing the latter, the following are the Goals and targets which we have agreed.

55. The SDGs and targets are integrated and indivisible, global in nature and universally applicable, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. Targets are defined as aspirational and global, with each government setting its own national targets guided by the global level of ambition but taking into account national circumstances. Each government will also decide how these aspirational and global targets should be incorporated in national planning processes, policies and strategies. It is important to recognize the link between sustainable development and other relevant ongoing processes in the economic, social and environmental fields.

56. In deciding upon these Goals and targets, we recognise that each country faces specific challenges to achieve sustainable development, and we underscore the special challenges facing the most vulnerable countries and, in particular, African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and Small Island developing States, as well as the specific challenges facing the middle-income countries. Countries in situations of conflict also need special attention.

57. We recognize that baseline data for several of the targets remain unavailable, and we call for increased support for strengthening data collection and capacity building in Member States, to develop national and global baselines where they do not yet exist. We commit to addressing this gap in data collection so as to better inform the measurement of progress, in particular for those targets below which do not have clear numerical targets.

58. We encourage ongoing efforts by states in other fora to address key issues which pose potential challenges to the implementation of our Agenda; and we respect the independent mandates of those processes. We intend that the Agenda and its implementation would support, and be without prejudice to, those other processes and the decisions taken therein.

59. We recognise that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities, to achieve sustainable development; and we reaffirm that planet Earth and its ecosystems are our common home and that ‘Mother Earth’ is a common expression in a number of countries and regions.

Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions

Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons

2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed

2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries

2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births

3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases

3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being

3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol

3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes

3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

3.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate

3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all

3.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States

3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes

4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations

4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all

4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States

Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life

5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws

5.b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women

5.c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology

7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support

Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries

8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors

8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services

8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead

8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms

8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all

8.a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries

8.b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries

9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020

Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalise the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation

14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

15. a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

15. b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.

Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime

16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.

16. B Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development Finance

17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries

17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress

17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Technology

17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.

17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

17.8 Fully operationalise the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

Capacity-building.

17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Trade

17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda

17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020

17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries

17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

Data, monitoring and accountability

17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

Means of implementation and the Global Partnership

60. We reaffirm our strong commitment to the full implementation of this new Agenda. We recognize that we will not be able to achieve our ambitious Goals and targets without a revitalized and enhanced Global Partnership and comparably ambitious means of implementation. The revitalized Global Partnership will facilitate an intensive global engagement in support of implementation of all the goals and targets, bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available resources.

61. The Agenda’s Goals and targets deal with the means required to realise our collective ambitions. The means of implementation targets under each SDG and Goal 17, which are referred to above, are key to realising our Agenda and are of equal importance with the other Goals and targets. We shall accord them equal priority in our implementation efforts and in the global indicator framework for monitoring our progress.

62. This Agenda, including the SDGs, can be met within the framework of a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, supported by the concrete policies and actions outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, which is an integral part of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda supports complements and helps contextualize the 2030 Agenda’s means of implementation targets. These relate to domestic public resources, domestic and international private business and finance, international development cooperation, international trade as an engine for development, debt and debt sustainability, addressing systemic issues and science, technology, innovation and capacity-building, and data, monitoring and follow-up.

63. Cohesive nationally owned sustainable development strategies, supported by integrated national financing frameworks, will be at the heart of our efforts. We reiterate that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and that the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. We will respect each country’s policy space and leadership to implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments. At the same time, national development efforts need to be supported by an enabling international economic environment, including coherent and mutually supporting world trade, monetary and financial systems, and strengthened and enhanced global economic governance. Processes to develop and facilitate the availability of appropriate knowledge and technologies globally, as well as capacity-building, are also critical. We commit to pursuing policy coherence and an enabling environment for sustainable development at all levels and by all actors, and to reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable development.

64. We support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes of action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action, the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway, the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024, and reaffirm the importance of supporting the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and the programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), all of which are integral to the new Agenda. We recognize the major challenge to the achievement of durable peace and sustainable development in countries in conflict and post-conflict situations.

65. We recognize that middle-income countries still face significant challenges to achieve sustainable development. In order to ensure that achievements made to date are sustained, efforts to address ongoing challenges should be strengthened through the exchange of experiences, improved coordination, and better and focused support of the United Nations Development System, the international financial institutions, regional organizations and other stakeholders.

66. We underscore that, for all countries, public policies and the mobilization and effective use of domestic resources, underscored by the principle of national ownership, are central to our common pursuit of sustainable development, including achieving the sustainable development goals. We recognize that domestic resources are first and foremost generated by economic growth, supported by an enabling environment at all levels.

67. Private business activity, investment and innovation are major drivers of productivity, inclusive economic growth and job creation. We acknowledge the diversity of the private sector, ranging from micro-enterprises to cooperatives to multinationals. We call on all businesses to apply their creativity and innovation to solving sustainable development challenges. We will foster a dynamic and well-functioning business sector, while protecting labour rights and environmental and health standards in accordance with relevant international standards and agreements and other on-going initiatives in this regard, such as the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the labour standards of ILO, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and key multilateral environmental agreements, for parties to those agreements.

68. International trade is an engine for inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction, and contributes to the promotion of sustainable development. We will continue to promote a universal, rules-based, open, transparent, predictable, inclusive, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as meaningful trade liberalization. We call on all WTO members to redouble their efforts to promptly conclude the negotiations on the Doha Development Agenda. We attach great importance to providing trade-related capacity-building for developing countries, including African countries, least-developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small island developing states and middle-income countries, including for the promotion of regional economic integration and interconnectivity.

69. We recognize the need to assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief, debt restructuring and sound debt management, as appropriate. Many countries remain vulnerable to debt crises and some are in the midst of crises, including a number of least developed countries, small-island developing States and some developed countries. We reiterate that debtors and creditors must work together to prevent and resolve unsustainable debt situations. Maintaining sustainable debt levels is the responsibility of the borrowing countries; however we acknowledge that lenders also have a responsibility to lend in a way that does not undermine a country’s debt sustainability. We will support the maintenance of debt sustainability of those countries that have received debt relief and achieved sustainable debt levels.

70. We hereby launch a Technology Facilitation Mechanism which was established by the Addis Ababa Action Agenda in order to support the sustainable development goals. The Technology Facilitation Mechanism will be based on a multi-stakeholder collaboration between Member States, civil society, private sector, scientific community, United Nations entities and other stakeholders and will be composed of: a United Nations Interagency Task Team on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs, a collaborative Multistakeholder Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs and an on-line platform.

• The United Nations Interagency Task Team on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs will promote coordination, coherence, and cooperation within the UN System on STI related matters, enhancing synergy and efficiency, in particular to enhance capacity-building initiatives. The Task Team will draw on existing resources and will work with 10 representatives from the civil society, private sector, the scientific community, to prepare the meetings of the Multistakeholder Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs, as well as in the development and operationalization of the on-line platform, including preparing proposals for the modalities for the Forum and the on-line platform. The 10 representatives will be appointed by the Secretary General, for periods of two years. The Task Team will be open to the participation of all UN agencies, funds and programmes, and ECOSOC functional commissions and it will initially be composed by the entities that currently integrate the informal working group on technology facilitation, namely: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Environment Programme, UNIDO, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNCTAD, International Telecommunication Union, WIPO and the World Bank.

• The on-line platform will be used to establish a comprehensive mapping of, and serve as a gateway for, information on existing STI initiatives, mechanisms and programmes, within and beyond the UN. The on-line platform will facilitate access to information, knowledge and experience, as well as best practices and lessons learned, on STI facilitation initiatives and policies. The online platform will also facilitate the dissemination of relevant open access scientific publications generated worldwide. The on-line platform will be developed on the basis of an independent technical assessment which will take into account best practices and lessons learned from other initiatives, within and beyond the United Nations, in order to ensure that it will complement, facilitate access to and provide adequate information on existing STI platforms, avoiding duplications and enhancing synergies.

• The Multi-stakeholder Forum on Science Technology and Innovation for the SDGs will be convened once a year, for a period of two days, to discuss STI cooperation around thematic areas for the implementation of the SDGs, congregating all relevant stakeholders to actively contribute in their area of expertise. The Forum will provide a venue for facilitating interaction, matchmaking and the establishment of networks between relevant stakeholders and multi- stakeholder partnerships in order to identify and examine technology needs and gaps, including on scientific cooperation, innovation and capacity building, and also in order to help facilitate development, transfer and dissemination of relevant technologies for the SDGs. The meetings of the Forum will be convened by the President of the ECOSOC before the meeting of the High Level Political Forum under the auspices of ECOSOC or, alternatively, in conjunction with other fora or conferences, as appropriate, taking into account the theme to be considered and on the basis of a collaboration with the organizers of the other fora or conference. The meetings of the Forum will be co-chaired by two Member States and will result in a summary of discussions elaborated by the two co-chairs, as an input to the meetings of the High Level Political Forum, in the context of the follow-up and review of the implementation of the Post-2015 Development Agenda.

• The meetings of the HLPF will be informed by the summary of the Multistakeholder Forum. The themes for the subsequent Multistakeholder Forum on Science Technology and Innovation for the SDGs will be considered by the High Level Political Forum on sustainable development, taking into account expert inputs from the Task Team.

71. We reiterate that this Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals and targets, including the means of implementation are universal, indivisible and interlinked.

Follow-up and review

72. We commit to engage in systematic follow-up and review of implementation of this Agenda over the next fifteen years. A robust, voluntary, effective, participatory, transparent and integrated follow-up and review framework will make a vital contribution to implementation and will help countries to maximize and track progress in implementing this Agenda in order to ensure that no one is left behind.

73. Operating at the national, regional and global levels, it will promote accountability to our citizens, support effective international cooperation in achieving this Agenda and foster exchanges of best practices and mutual learning. It will mobilize support to overcome shared challenges and identify new and emerging issues. As this is a universal Agenda, mutual trust and understanding among all nations will be important.

74. Follow-up and review processes at all levels will be guided by the following principles:

a. They will be voluntary and country-led, will take into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and will respect policy space and priorities. As national ownership is key to achieving sustainable development, the outcome from national level processes will be the foundation for reviews at regional and global levels, given that the global review will be primarily based on national official data sources.

b. They will track progress in implementing the universal Goals and targets, including the means of implementation, in all countries in a manner which respects their universal, integrated and interrelated nature and the three dimensions of sustainable development.

c. They will maintain a longer-term orientation; identify achievements, challenges, gaps and critical success factors and support countries in making informed policy choices. They will help mobilize the necessary means of implementation and partnerships, support the identification of solutions and best practices and promote coordination and effectiveness of the international development system.

d. They will be open, inclusive, participatory and transparent for all people and will support the reporting by all relevant stakeholders.

e. They will be people-centred, gender-sensitive, respect human rights and have a particular focus on the poorest, most vulnerable and those furthest behind.

f. They will build on existing platforms and processes, where these exist, avoid duplication and respond to national circumstances, capacities, needs and priorities. They will evolve over time, taking into account emerging issues and the development of new methodologies, and will minimize the reporting burden on national administrations.

g. They will be rigorous and based on evidence, informed by country-led evaluations and data which is high-quality, accessible, timely, reliable and disaggregated by income, sex, age, race, ethnicity, migration status, disability and geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

h. They will require enhanced capacity-building support for developing countries, including the strengthening of national data systems and evaluation programs, particularly in African countries, LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs and middle-income countries.

i. They will benefit from the active support of the UN system and other multilateral institutions.

75. The Goals and targets will be followed-up and reviewed using a set of global indicators. These will be complemented by indicators at the regional and national levels which will be developed by member states, in addition to the outcomes of work undertaken for the development of the baselines for those targets where national and global baseline data does not yet exist. The global indicator framework, to be developed by the Inter Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators, will be agreed by the UN Statistical Commission by March 2016 and adopted thereafter by the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly, in line with existing mandates. This framework will be simple yet robust, address all SDGs and targets including for means of implementation, and preserve the political balance, integration and ambition contained therein.

76. We will support developing countries, particularly African countries, LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs, in strengthening the capacity of national statistical offices and data systems to ensure access to high-quality, timely, reliable and disaggregated data. We will promote transparent and accountable scaling-up of appropriate public-private cooperation to exploit the contribution to be made by a wide range of data, including earth observation and geo-spatial information, while ensuring national ownership in supporting and tracking progress.

77. We commit to fully engage in conducting regular and inclusive reviews of progress at sub-national, national, regional and global levels. We will draw as far as possible on the existing network of follow-up and review institutions and mechanisms. National reports will allow assessments of progress and identify challenges at the regional and global level. Along with regional dialogues and global reviews, they will inform recommendations for follow-up at various levels.

National level

78. We encourage all member states to develop as soon as practicable ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this Agenda. These can support the transition to the SDGs and build on existing planning instruments, such as national development and sustainable development strategies, as appropriate.

79. We also encourage member states to conduct regular and inclusive reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels which are country-led and country-driven. Such reviews should draw on contributions from indigenous peoples, civil society, the private sector and other stakeholders, in line with national circumstances, policies and priorities. National parliaments as well as other institutions can also support these processes.

Regional level

80. Follow-up and review at the regional and sub-regional levels can, as appropriate, provide useful opportunities for peer learning, including through voluntary reviews and sharing of best practices and discussion on shared targets. We welcome in this respect the cooperation of regional and sub-regional commissions and organizations. Inclusive regional processes will draw on national-level reviews and contribute to follow-up and review at the global level, including at the High Level Political Forum on sustainable development (HLPF).

81. Recognizing the importance of building on existing follow-up and review mechanisms at the regional level and allowing adequate policy space, we encourage all member states to identify the most suitable regional forum in which to engage. UN regional commissions are encouraged to continue supporting member states in this regard.

Global level

82. The HLPF will have a central role in overseeing a network of follow-up and review processes at the global level, working coherently with the General Assembly, ECOSOC and other relevant organs and forums, in accordance with existing mandates. It will facilitate sharing of experiences, including successes, challenges and lessons learned, and provide political leadership, guidance and recommendations for follow-up. It will promote system-wide coherence and coordination of sustainable development policies. It should ensure that the Agenda remains relevant and ambitious and should focus on the assessment of progress, achievements and challenges faced by developed and developing countries as well as new and emerging issues. Effective linkages will be made with the follow-up and review arrangements of all relevant UN Conferences and processes, including on LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs.

83. Follow-up and review at the HLPF will be informed by an annual SDG Progress Report to be prepared by the Secretary General in cooperation with the UN System, based on the global indicator framework and data produced by national statistical systems and information collected at the regional level. The HLPF will also be informed by the Global Sustainable Development Report, which shall strengthen the science-policy interface and could provide a strong evidence-based instrument to support policy-makers in promoting poverty eradication and sustainable development. We invite the President of ECOSOC to conduct a process of consultations on the scope, methodology and frequency of the Report as well as its relation to the SDG Progress Report, the outcome of which should be reflected in the Ministerial Declaration of the HLPF session in 2016.

84. The HLPF, under the auspices of ECOSOC, shall carry out regular reviews, in line with Resolution 67/290. Reviews will be voluntary, while encouraging reporting, and include developed and developing countries as well as relevant UN entities and other stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. They shall be state-led, involving ministerial and other relevant high-level participants. They shall provide a platform for partnerships, including through the participation of major groups and other relevant stakeholders.

85. Thematic reviews of progress on the Sustainable Development Goals, including cross-cutting issues, will also take place at the HLPF. These will be supported by reviews by the ECOSOC functional commissions and other inter-governmental bodies and forums which should reflect the integrated nature of the goals as well as the inter-linkages between them. They will engage all relevant stakeholders and, where possible, feed into, and be aligned with, the cycle of the HLPF.

86. We welcome, as outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the dedicated follow-up and review for the Financing for Development outcomes as well as all the means of implementation of the SDGs which is integrated with the follow-up and review framework of this Agenda. The intergovernmental agreed conclusions and recommendations of the annual ECOSOC Forum on Financing for Development will be fed into the overall follow-up and review of the implementation of this Agenda in the HLPF.

87. Meeting every four years under the auspices of the General Assembly, the HLPF will provide high-level political guidance on the Agenda and its implementation, identify progress and emerging challenges and mobilize further actions to accelerate implementation. The next HLPF, under the auspices of the General Assembly, will take place in 2019, with the cycle of meetings thus reset, in order to maximize coherence with the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review process.

88. We also stress the importance of system-wide strategic planning, implementation and reporting in order to ensure coherent and integrated support to implementation of the new Agenda by the UN development system. The relevant governing bodies should take action to review such support to implementation and to report on progress and obstacles. We welcome the ongoing ECOSOC Dialogues on the longer term positioning of the UN development system and look forward to taking action on these issues, as appropriate.

89. The HLPF will support participation in follow-up and review processes by the major groups and other relevant stakeholders in line with Resolution 67/290. We call on these actors to report on their contribution to the implementation of the Agenda.

90. We request the Secretary General, in consultation with Member States, to prepare a report, for consideration at the 70th session of the General Assembly in preparation for the 2016 meeting of the HLPF, which outlines critical milestones towards coherent efficient and inclusive follow-up and review at the global level. This report should include a proposal on the organizational arrangements for state-led reviews at the HLPF under the auspices of ECOSOC, including recommendations on voluntary common reporting guidelines. It should clarify institutional responsibilities and provide guidance on annual themes, on a sequence of thematic reviews, and on options for periodic reviews for the HLPF.

91. We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to achieving this Agenda and utilizing it to the full to transform our world for the better by 2030

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RAS Mains Practice Solved Question 25/12/2018

RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM TEST PAPER

Model Test

RAS Mains Test Series Part-1

RAS Mains Test Series

RAS Mains Test Series Part-2

What do you know about the Haldighati museum and the battle of Haldighati?

A 40km journey from Udaipur will lead to the patriotic land of Haldighati, where the epic battle between the Rajput Hero Maharana Pratap and Mughal Emperor Akbar was fought. This land sings the heroic tales of how Maharana Pratap tried to save his kingdom from Mughal invasion; and the turmeric sand holds several screams of the bloody battle that is reflected in its color.

  • In 1576, the battle of Haldighati was fought between Mughal Army and Mewar Kingdom.
  • The Mughal army outnumbered the Mewar soldiers, yet Maharana Pratap didn’t quit and fought fearlessly for his Kingdom.
  • Maharana Pratap was asked to surrender but he didn’t accept slavery and decided to keep his head-high and fight.
  • The incharge of the Mughal army for the battle was Amer’s Maan Singh I.
  • It is also believed that Maan Singh invited Maharana Pratap on the banks of Udai Sagar for a peace meet. In which he asked Maharana Pratap to surrender, but the Rajputana Hero was in no mood of surrendering his kingdom to a Mughal Emperor, as he considered Akbar as an invader.
  • Haldighati is basically a narrow path, amidst the Aravalli Hills; the Mughal army marched from Haldighati to attack Mewar Kingdom. The Mewar army wanted to have the battle in an open field, hence they made the Mughal army move to an open area, which was later filled with blood because of the bloody battle and then the battlefield was named Rakt Talai (Lake of Blood).
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There was a point of time, when Maharana Pratap was seriously injured, that was the time when two heroes came to rescue.

One of the Hero’s was Mana Jhala, who dressed up like Maharana Pratap, to give the Mughals an illusion of Maharana Pratap present in the field. Unfortunately, Mana Jhala lost his life on the same day.

The other hero was, Maharana Pratap’s loyal horse: Chetak. Chetak knew that his master had to be taken to a safe place because he was seriously injured. Chetak fled from the battle ground with his unconscious master on his back.

It is also said that Chetak was himself injured in the battle, and suffered from a deep wound in one of his legs; still he didn’t care about his pain.

In order to take his master to a safe place, he crossed a water stream with his leg injury, and that lead to his sorrowful demise.

Maharana Pratap built Chetak Memorial on the same location where he passed away to salute the courageousness and loyalty of his dear Chetak.

It is said, none of them won the battle of Haldighati, and Maharana Pratap had to live in forest with his army and family and had to consume grass chapattis for several days.

Also his entire life he fought against Mughal emperor Akbar.

Haldighati Museum Udaipur

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IMAGE SOURCE

One has to move 2 kms from the Chetak Samadhi to reach the Haldighati Museum.

It is a private museum that displays various Haldighati scenes in form of portraits, paintings, miniatures, statues etc.

Also metal weapons including swords, shields, knives, double-edged swords and heavy metal armor are showcased in the museum.

There are various bronze statues that depict some scenes of the battle, including Chetak’s attack on Man Singh’s elephant, Maharana Pratap leading the army with a bheel standing next to him and a lot more, Maharana Pratap and his army consuming grass chapattis, etc.

Shergarh of Dhaulpur

  • Shergarh is a fort in Dholpur district of Rajasthan.
  • The fort is situated about 7 km south of Dholpur city on the left bank of the Chambal River near a road bridge on the National Highway No. 2.
  • The fort was built earlier and was enlarged, repaired and used by Shershah Suri in A.D. 1540.
  • The stone fort has four gates and is entered from east through a large gate.
  • The fort has palace buildings, a temple of Hanuman and a tomb, besides some ruined structures.

What are the factors affecting cost of capital?

Capital-cost-factor-ras-mains-exam

MPOWER Project

Mitigating Poverty in Western Rajasthan (MPOWER) Project

  • The areas involved in the project have a harsh, arid climate.
  • Rainfall is low and erratic, and drought is recurrent.
  • Poor people in the area face severe water insecurity, low agricultural and livestock productivity, limited income-generating opportunities and a social system that discriminates against women and disadvantaged people.

The project targets poor households headed by landless agricultural labourers and small and marginal farmers, owners of marginal land or wastelands, traditional artisans, women, and young people who are without the skills they need to become employed.

The project was designed to ensure empowerment of the poorest people. Although most of those who will benefit from it are living under the poverty line, activities will also include some other people who are not quite so poor but are eligible for support. The approach is participatory. IFAD will supervise project activities.

The objectives of the project are to:

  • Organize and empower poor people through community-based organizations such as self-help groups, marketing groups, producers’ organizations and village development committees promote income and employment opportunities while reinforcing strategies that mitigate risks provide access to financial services and markets.

The project supports activities with the aim of:

Building grass-roots institutions

Promoting and securing access of marginalized groups to resources Promoting the diversification of on-farm and off-farm livelihood opportunities.

What is durga energy and why Dungarpur chosen for this initiative?

Dungarpur Renewable Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. (Durga Energy) is a private limited solar module manufacturing company established through investments from four Cluster Level Federations (CLFs – Antri, Biladi, Jhontri and Punali), and grants from Rajasthan Tribal Development Fund, Rajeevika, Nagar Parishad, and Idea Cellular CSR, with IIT Bombay as the knowledge and technology partner.

  • Durga Energy evolved out of the successful implementation of Dungarpur Solar initiative by the four CLFs.
  • The first-of-its-kind solar module manufacturing company is managed and operated by local tribal women who underwent rigorous training in technology and operations.

Why Dungarpur?

Dungarpur is one the most backward districts of Rajasthan with a predominantly rural economy and high concentration of tribal population. With a literacy rate of 46.98% amongst women, the district is known to be educationally backward. Percentage of households with electricity access is also low at 40%; as a result remaining households depend on kerosene as the main source of light. With the demography and geography of a place like Dungarpur, the conventional solution for electricity is difficult to provide.

Under such circumstances, solar photovoltaic — a clean and renewable energy technology offers the best solution for the rural communities. This could be the most viable option for Rajasthan, as it is endowed with the availability of the resource, i.e. 325 sunny days in a year and an average solar insolation of 6-7 kWh/m2 per day.

Dungarpur and regions with similar characteristics like remoteness, scattered settlements, undulating, hilly, forested terrain, the predominance of marginalized communities, and low purchasing power of consumers who are still waiting for electricity access, off-grid solar PV is the best-suited option.

Vision & Purpose

The vision of the company is to promote quality off-grid solar solutions in a sustainable manner.

Support local rural solar retailer/ entrepreneurs

Provide livelihood opportunities for the local community

The company provides employment to 200 local people at Dungarpur, with 50-75 locals provided direct employment, and about 125 locals supported indirectly.

What do you know about Marwar school of Painting?

Marwar, a southwestern region of Rajasthan has added immense glory to India’s artistic landscape. The region gained prominence in this domain under the rule of the Gurjara-Pratiharas.

The paintings developed in the royal families of Bikaner, Kishangarh, Pali, Nagaur, Ghanerao and Jodhpur are collectively called Marwar school and it greatly reflects the influence of the Mughal school of art.

The magnificence of the Marwar School of Painting is splendidly expressed in the Jodhpur style, the Bikaner style and the Kishangarh style.

Who called the Panch peer of Rajasthan?

1. Pabuji

2. Hadbu ji

3. Ramdev ji

4. Manglia ji

5. Mehaji

What was Wood’s Dispatch?

Wood’s dispatch: Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the British East India Company, had an important effect on spreading English learning and female education in India.

When in 1854 he sent a dispatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India.This is known as Wood’s dispatch.

Wood’s Dispatch / Despatch are known as Magna Carta (Magna Charta) of Indian Education. Wood’s Dispatch was an act of 1854 implemented by the British rulers during pre-independent India. As a result of this charter Education Departments were established in every province.

Write short notes on Hadoti Plateau?

The region comprises of the eastern & southeastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti. It includes the Bhilwara, Karauli, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Baran & Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.

Population – 11% of total population of the Rajasthan State.

  • Area – 9% of total area of the Rajasthan State.
  • Rainfall – 80cm to 120cm
  • Soil – Black fertile soil.
  • Climate – Very humid.

This region is the north part of the ‘Malwa Plateau’ & it is also called the Hadoti Plateau or Lava Plateau.

The average height of this region is 500 meters.

The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary, which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border.

This area is drained by Chambal River & its tributaries.

Ther ‘Uppermal Plateau’ and ‘Mewar Plateau’ are the parts of Plateau of Hadoti.

‘Chandbadi’ is the highest part of this region.

The Hadoti Plateau is further divided into two regions –

(i) Vindhyan Scarp lands

(ii) Deccan Lava Plateau.

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is a dam across the Mahi River. It is situated 16 kilometres from Banswara town in Banswara district Rajasthan, India. The dam was constructed between 1972 and 1983 for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation and water supply. It is the second largest dam in Rajasthan. It is named after Jamnalal Bajaj.

The dam has an installed capacity of 140 MW

Write short notes on the tributaries of Kali Sindh River.

The Kali Sindh River tributaries are:

Parbati

Originating from the northern slopes of Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh, it branches out from Kali Sindh River further flowing in Baran district of Rajasthan state. It flows through Jhalawar district and the Kota district of the state. The Parbati River catchment is approximately 3180 square miles. The river from these districts of Rajasthan finally merges at the right bank of Chambal River.

Pahuj

Pahuj River is the waterway flowing through the historical city of Jhansi situated in Uttar Pradesh. It is the tributary of Kali Sindh River that further joins the Yamuna River in Etawah of Uttar Pradesh state. The river has also been given another name “Pushpavati” in several religious texts. The river originates from the hills of Jhansi and Tikamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh.

Mahuar

Flowing from the state of Madhya Pradesh, Mahuar River is the tributary of Kali Sindh River. Summers can be really scorching here, all rock and heat. The only respite is this small watercourse called Mahuar. It is not a small river, but during summers the water levels dips. However, the river still runs deep enough to give a cool dip during scorching months.

Kunwari

Kunwari River often spelled as “Kwari river” flows in Bhind, Morena districts of Madhya Pradesh. The river has been branched out of Kali Sindh River and merges with Yamuna River in the Etawah district. Districts like Kailaras, Sheopur, Morena and Bijeypur are situated on the banks of this river.

Write Short notes on khadar and Bhangar Plains.

Difference between Bhangar and Khadar are as follows:

Bhangar:

1. It is a highland compressed of old alluvium

2. It is always about the level of the flood plains.

3. It is often impregnated with calcareous concre­tions known as Kankar.

4. It is not much suited for cultivation.

5. It is known as ‘dhaya’ in Punjab.

Khadar:

1. It is lowland composed of old alluvium

2. It is flooded almost every year and new alluvium is deposited.

3. It is often characterised by clay soil which is very fertile.

4. Intensive agriculture is practised here.

5. It is called ‘bet’ in Punjab.

Discuss the evolution of centre-state relation in post independent India.

Our constitution adopted for federal system of polity. The Features have been taken from American, Canadian and Australian federalism.  Federalism in the Indian constitution is not a matter of administrative convenience, but it is the outcome of our own process and recognition of the ground realities. India adopted a system which if federal in normal times, but unitary in times of emergency.

  • Over the course of post independent history, Centre-state relations have undergone rapid change and it got stabilized by maturity shown by both the entities. Till the rule of Nehru, there was absolutely no confrontation between the centre and state.
  • As same party was in the power. Further cult politics dominated the era with no personality of equal caliber as that of Nehru.
  • This relationship got a jerk and entered into a confrontational phase. As non congress ministries were forming in the state.
  • This was the era when coalition politics was at its nascent stage. But Constitutional provisions were used in illogical manner like use of article 356. Post 1980 phase coincided with the economic liberalised era and its element was also seen in Indian polity also.
  • Very complex system of centre state relationship developed both at the centre and state. Now Coalition politics became an integral part of Indian polity.

Indian Ocean holds an important position for India. Elucidate

Significance for India:

Today, 95% of India’s trade by volume and 68% of trade by value come via the Indian Ocean. Additionally, 80% of India’s crude oil requirement—is imported by sea via the Indian Ocean. Today 40% of world trade passes through the Strait of Malacca and 40 percent of all traded crude oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz, the two crucial choke points in IOR. Hence from security point of view IOR is very crucial.  Further IOR has an implication over our economy too.

  • IOR hold potential for energy exploration, mineral resources and employment opportunities for Indian companies. India is world’s third largest oil importer with maximum import from West and South East Asian countries.
  • For this purpose, Indian Ocean is a very important medium for India’s energy security. Climate change has exacerbated the issue of cyclones and natural disaster.

IOR is important w.r.t cyclone and earthquake management. As these are regional phenomena so cooperation among countries certainly helps in combating disaster in the region. IOR has many island and archipelago this can provide sustainable solution for coastal area development. IOR can engage in cruise ship as done in Pacific Ocean. This provides ground for people to people contact and cultural engagement.

What is the importance of regulating act? What are the features of the act?

It was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.  First time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration in India.

  • The Act designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
  • Governor of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
  • Act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India Company.
  • The Act told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.

RBI has taken several steps to deal with stressed asset problems. Discuss the steps taken by the RBI. Also comment on their success.

Steps taken by RBI: 

Establishment of private Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs)

Many ARCs have been created, but they have solved only a small portion of the problem, buying up only about 5 percent of total NPAs.

  • Strategic debt restructuring scheme: under this creditors could take over firms that were unable to pay and sell them to new owners.
  • Sustainable structuring of stressed assets: under this creditors, could take over firms with debt reduction up to 50% in order to restore their financial viability.
  • Asset quality review: to stream line the balance sheet to reflect the true picture.
  • Indradhanush scheme: capital infusion in PSB’s

Analysis of the scheme:

Success of the schemes is limited. There are several reasons for this:

  • The Asset Quality Review (AQR) was meant to force banks to recognise the true state of their balance sheets but bank keep on ever greening loan.
  • The RBI has encouraged creditors to come together in Joint Lenders Forums, where decisions can be taken by 75 percent of creditors by value and 60 percent by number. But reaching agreement in these Forums has proved difficult, because different banks have different degrees of credit exposure, capital cushions, and incentives.
  • The S4A scheme recognizes that large debt reductions will be needed to restore viability in many cases. But public sector bankers are reluctant to grant write-downs, because there are no rewards for doing so.

Bisalpur Dam Project in Brief

Bisalpur Drinking water cum irrigation project is constructed across river Banas, a tributary of river Chambal near village Bisalpur of Deoli tehsil in Tonk district of Rajasthan. The dam is about 25 km from Deoli town on Jaipur Kota road.

The project comprises of concrete dam 574 meter long with maximum height of 38.50 meter with gross storage capacity of 1095.84 Mucm and live storage capacity of 1040.95 Mcum. Masonry gated ogee type spillway 338.0 meter long crest having 18 numbers of radial gates of size 15×14 meter to pass design discharge of 29046 cusec at MWL.

Right main canal is 51.64 km long with head discharge capacity of 18.34 cusec and Left bank canal is 19.0 km long with 2.25 cusec head discharge capacity to irrigate an area of 81,800 hectare (CCA) in Tonk district. The Ultimate irrigation potential of the project is 55,224 hectare. In addition to the above the project provides 458.36 Mucm of drinking water for Jaipur, Ajmer, Beawar, Kishangarh, Nasirabad and other enroute cities/town/villag

RAS Mains Exam daily Practice 24/12/2018

RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM PRACTICE SOLVED QUESTIONS

Write short notes on Hadoti Plateau?

The region comprises of the eastern & southeastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti. It includes the Bhilwara, Karauli, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Baran & Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.

Population – 11% of total population of the Rajasthan State.

  • Area – 9% of total area of the Rajasthan State.
  • Rainfall – 80cm to 120cm
  • Soil – Black fertile soil.
  • Climate – Very humid.

This region is the north part of the ‘Malwa Plateau’ & it is also called the Hadoti Plateau or Lava Plateau.

The average height of this region is 500 meters.

The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary, which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border.

This area is drained by Chambal River & its tributaries.

Ther ‘Uppermal Plateau’ and ‘Mewar Plateau’ are the parts of Plateau of Hadoti.

‘Chandbadi’ is the highest part of this region.

The Hadoti Plateau is further divided into two regions –

(i) Vindhyan Scarp lands

(ii) Deccan Lava Plateau.

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is a dam across the Mahi River. It is situated 16 kilometres from Banswara town in Banswara district Rajasthan, India. The dam was constructed between 1972 and 1983 for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation and water supply. It is the second largest dam in Rajasthan. It is named after Jamnalal Bajaj.

The dam has an installed capacity of 140 MW

Write short notes on the tributaries of Kali Sindh River.

The Kali Sindh River tributaries are:

Parbati

Originating from the northern slopes of Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh, it branches out from Kali Sindh River further flowing in Baran district of Rajasthan state. It flows through Jhalawar district and the Kota district of the state. The Parbati River catchment is approximately 3180 square miles. The river from these districts of Rajasthan finally merges at the right bank of Chambal River.

Pahuj

Pahuj River is the waterway flowing through the historical city of Jhansi situated in Uttar Pradesh. It is the tributary of Kali Sindh River that further joins the Yamuna River in Etawah of Uttar Pradesh state. The river has also been given another name “Pushpavati” in several religious texts. The river originates from the hills of Jhansi and Tikamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh.

Mahuar

Flowing from the state of Madhya Pradesh, Mahuar River is the tributary of Kali Sindh River. Summers can be really scorching here, all rock and heat. The only respite is this small watercourse called Mahuar. It is not a small river, but during summers the water levels dips. However, the river still runs deep enough to give a cool dip during scorching months.

Kunwari

Kunwari River often spelled as “Kwari river” flows in Bhind, Morena districts of Madhya Pradesh. The river has been branched out of Kali Sindh River and merges with Yamuna River in the Etawah district. Districts like Kailaras, Sheopur, Morena and Bijeypur are situated on the banks of this river.

Why do Western Ghats don’t have River Deltas whereas Eastern Ghats have?

Rivers form deltas when the flow (speed) of the river water slows to the extent such that the silt it carries gets heavier and the water cannot carry it forward to the sea.

Is the river long enough? The length (of the river) from the point of its origins to the sea should be long enough.

How fast does the water drain into the sea? If the water from the river drains too fast then it probably takes the silt along with it into the sea.

How flat is the land? If the land incline is too high, then the silt will be taken into the sea because it cannot fight against the gravitational force. Water falling down an incline is much faster than water flowing on plain ground.

In the case of Eastern Ghats (or east flowing rivers), all the three conditions are satisfied.

The Eastern Ghats are far away from both the seas (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal). Thus the rivers originating from the Eastern side of the Eastern Ghats are long enough. Or simply said, the East flowing rivers are longer in length compared to those which flow west. The length of Ganga is 2525 km while that of Narmada or Tapti is less than half of what Ganga is.

The Narmada’s average speed is higher compared to Ganga’s or Kaveri’s. Because the former travels a smaller distance over a more inclined terrain, and the latter covers a larger distance over a more flat terrain. The silt from Narmada flows directly into the Arabian sea,, while the silt from Kaveri and Ganga remains on the land (thus forming deltas- fertile lands for agriculture).

The Western Ghats are closer to the sea. This also explains why Mumbai and Mangalore receive much higher average rainfall compared to Chennai and Nellore. The clouds easily precipitate over Mumbai because the Western Ghats are much nearer to Mumbai. Any hill station like Matheran or Mahabaleshwar is much nearer to Mumbai compared to any popular hill station like Ooty or Munnar is from Chennai. This means that the incline of the land is larger in the Western coast. Thus the river directly drains faster into the Arabian Sea. Whereas Kaveri and Ganges flow very slowly as they near the coast. Thus the silt they carry becomes heavier and gets deposited in the delta region.

Which factors affect the land use pattern of India?

The land use pattern is determined by certain physical factors of the country such as topography, climate and soil types. The availability of geographical area determines its uses by the country. In India we have various forms of land like plains, plateaus, mountains, etc. which are kept in mind before planning the land use pattern.

There are certain human factors also affecting the land use pattern. They include population density of the country, technological capability and, culture and traditions of the country, etc. The economic development of the country depends on the technological development of the country thus leading to the planning of land use pattern.

Write any four characteristics of Arabian Sea branch of south West monsoon?

1. Progresses slowly as compared to the Bay of Bengal branch Causes more precipitation than the Bay of Bengal branch by June end.

2. It is three times stronger than the Bay of Bengal branch when obstructed by the Western Ghats; they cause heavy rainfall to the windward side of the Sahyadris.

3. It is also responsible for heavy rainfall in the western Himalayan region.

4. It does not cause much precipitation in the coastal areas in the absence of orographic features it results in medium rainfall in the Indo-Gangetic plains, once it reaches the Kutch peninsula.

Which are the left and Right side tributaries of Narmada River?

Tributaries of Narmada:

Left Side Tributaries:

  • Banjar River
  • Sher River
  • Burhner River
  • Shakkar River
  • Dudhi River
  • Tawa River
  • Ganjal River
  • Chhota Tawa River
  • Karjan River

Right Side Tributaries:

  • Hiran River
  • Tendon River
  • Choral River
  • Kolar River
  • Man River

Write Short notes on khadar and Bhangar Plains.

Difference between Bhangar and Khadar are as follows:

Bhangar:

1. It is a highland compressed of old alluvium

2. It is always about the level of the flood plains.

3. It is often impregnated with calcareous concre­tions known as Kankar.

4. It is not much suited for cultivation.

5. It is known as ‘dhaya’ in Punjab.

Khadar:

1. It is lowland composed of old alluvium

2. It is flooded almost every year and new alluvium is deposited.

3. It is often characterised by clay soil which is very fertile.

4. Intensive agriculture is practised here.

5. It is called ‘bet’ in Punjab.

Discuss the evolution of centre-state relation in post independent India.

Our constitution adopted for federal system of polity. The Features have been taken from American, Canadian and Australian federalism.  Federalism in the Indian constitution is not a matter of administrative convenience, but it is the outcome of our own process and recognition of the ground realities. India adopted a system which if federal in normal times, but unitary in times of emergency.

  • Over the course of post independent history, Centre-state relations have undergone rapid change and it got stabilized by maturity shown by both the entities. Till the rule of Nehru, there was absolutely no confrontation between the centre and state.
  • As same party was in the power. Further cult politics dominated the era with no personality of equal caliber as that of Nehru.
  • This relationship got a jerk and entered into a confrontational phase. As non congress ministries were forming in the state.
  • This was the era when coalition politics was at its nascent stage. But Constitutional provisions were used in illogical manner like use of article 356. Post 1980 phase coincided with the economic liberalised era and its element was also seen in Indian polity also.
  • Very complex system of centre state relationship developed both at the centre and state. Now Coalition politics became an integral part of Indian polity.

Indian Ocean holds an important position for India. Elucidate

Significance for India:

Today, 95% of India’s trade by volume and 68% of trade by value come via the Indian Ocean. Additionally, 80% of India’s crude oil requirement—is imported by sea via the Indian Ocean. Today 40% of world trade passes through the Strait of Malacca and 40 percent of all traded crude oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz, the two crucial choke points in IOR. Hence from security point of view IOR is very crucial.  Further IOR has an implication over our economy too.

  • IOR hold potential for energy exploration, mineral resources and employment opportunities for Indian companies. India is world’s third largest oil importer with maximum import from West and South East Asian countries.
  • For this purpose, Indian Ocean is a very important medium for India’s energy security. Climate change has exacerbated the issue of cyclones and natural disaster.

IOR is important w.r.t cyclone and earthquake management. As these are regional phenomena so cooperation among countries certainly helps in combating disaster in the region. IOR has many island and archipelago this can provide sustainable solution for coastal area development. IOR can engage in cruise ship as done in Pacific Ocean. This provides ground for people to people contact and cultural engagement.

What is the importance of regulating act? What are the features of the act?

It was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.  First time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration in India.

  • The Act designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
  • Governor of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
  • Act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India Company.
  • The Act told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.

RBI has taken several steps to deal with stressed asset problems. Discuss the steps taken by the RBI. Also comment on their success.

Steps taken by RBI: 

Establishment of private Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs)

Many ARCs have been created, but they have solved only a small portion of the problem, buying up only about 5 percent of total NPAs.

  • Strategic debt restructuring scheme: under this creditors could take over firms that were unable to pay and sell them to new owners.
  • Sustainable structuring of stressed assets: under this creditors, could take over firms with debt reduction up to 50% in order to restore their financial viability.
  • Asset quality review: to stream line the balance sheet to reflect the true picture.
  • Indradhanush scheme: capital infusion in PSB’s

Analysis of the scheme:

Success of the schemes is limited. There are several reasons for this:

  • The Asset Quality Review (AQR) was meant to force banks to recognise the true state of their balance sheets but bank keep on ever greening loan.
  • The RBI has encouraged creditors to come together in Joint Lenders Forums, where decisions can be taken by 75 percent of creditors by value and 60 percent by number. But reaching agreement in these Forums has proved difficult, because different banks have different degrees of credit exposure, capital cushions, and incentives.
  • The S4A scheme recognizes that large debt reductions will be needed to restore viability in many cases. But public sector bankers are reluctant to grant write-downs, because there are no rewards for doing so.

Bisalpur Dam Project in Brief

Bisalpur Drinking water cum irrigation project is constructed across river Banas, a tributary of river Chambal near village Bisalpur of Deoli tehsil in Tonk district of Rajasthan. The dam is about 25 km from Deoli town on Jaipur Kota road.

The project comprises of concrete dam 574 meter long with maximum height of 38.50 meter with gross storage capacity of 1095.84 Mucm and live storage capacity of 1040.95 Mcum. Masonry gated ogee type spillway 338.0 meter long crest having 18 numbers of radial gates of size 15×14 meter to pass design discharge of 29046 cusec at MWL.

Right main canal is 51.64 km long with head discharge capacity of 18.34 cusec and Left bank canal is 19.0 km long with 2.25 cusec head discharge capacity to irrigate an area of 81,800 hectare (CCA) in Tonk district. The Ultimate irrigation potential of the project is 55,224 hectare.

In addition to the above the project provides 458.36 Mucm of drinking water for Jaipur, Ajmer, Beawar, Kishangarh, Nasirabad and other enroute cities/town/villages.

RAS Mains Practice Question 21/12/2018

RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM PRACTICE TEST SERIES

Write short notes on Popular Lok Devtas of Rajasthan?

Pabu Ji

Pabuji is a folk divinity of Rajasthan. He subsisted in Fourteenth century. He was one of 4 kids of Dhadal Rathore of Kolu, Rajasthan. The ancient Pabuji was a Rajput prince. He is now extensively revered as a divine being by Rabari herdsmen throughout Rajasthan; and he is served by priests of Nayak. Pabuji survived in the isolated arid region of Kolu.

Rawal Mallinath

Rawal Mallinath is a folk idol of Rajasthan. He was the elder lad of Rao Salkhaji, the Mehwanagar ruler in Barmer.  The descendants of Rawal Mallinath’s are the eldest among all abodes of Rathores in the state of Rajasthan. The domiciles of Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sitamau, Ratlam, Idar, Alirajpur and Sailana sketch their roots to Viramdeo.

Veer Teja Ji

Veer Teja Ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. The narration of Rajasthan is crammed with lots of gallant chronicles and illustrations where people have put their lives at menace and reserved the pride and principles like faithfulness, liberty, genuineness, protection, communal transformation etc. integral. Veer Teja Ji was one of the well-known people in the account of Rajasthan.

Ramdev Ji

Ramdev ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. He was the Rajput ruler of 14th century, said to have astounding powers who dedicated his life for the fortifying of subjugated and deprived people and Hindu revivalism which were edged by assailants. He is venerated today by many communal groups. His devotees deem him to be an embodiment of Lord Vishnu.

Khetla Ji

Khetla Ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. His one of the temples is situated in Sonana Village, Rajasthan. The place of worship is the spot of a 2 day fair, held annually during the months of May and June in respect of Khetla ji. The fair draws a hefty number of followers who gather together here during the fair to summon the blessing of the divinity. There are number of temples of Khetla Ji in Marwar, for example Sayala, Sewari etc. Kataria society of Rajasthan regards him as their Kul Devta. They also perform some ceremonies after birth and marriage which is known as ‘Juar’.

Goga Ji

Goga Ji is also recognized as Jahar Veer Gogga. He is a folk divinity, revered in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. He is a combatant conqueror of the area, acclaimed as a saint. He is venerated as a peer among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus.

Eloji

Eloji is a folk divinity and is considered to be the deity of villages. Effigies of Eloji can be instituted roughly in every rural community of Rajasthan. He is revealed as a burly man with moustaches and arrogance on his face. Many folk songs and music are played in honor of sexual power of Eloji.

Give an account of the following:

1) SAKAAR

2) PRAGATI

3) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: PRO-ACTIVE GOVERNANCE AND TIMELY IMPLEMENTATION, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters

NITI Aayog releases ‘Strategy for New India @75 what are the key features of it?

The forty-one chapters in the document have been merged under four sections – Drivers, Infrastructure, Inclusion and Governance.

Objective

The Strategy document aims to further improve the policy environment in which private investors and other stakeholders can contribute their fullest towards achieving the goals set out for New India 2022 and propels India towards a USD 5 trillion economy by 2030.

Key Takeaways

  • With ‘Strategy for New India @ 75′, Niti Aayog aims to accelerate growth to 9-10 percent and make India a USD 5 trillion economy by 2030.
  • The development strategy includes doubling of farmers’ income, boosting ‘Make in India’, upgrading the science, technology and innovation ecosystem, and promoting sectors like fintech and tourism.
  • NITI Aayog prescribed reducing upper age limit to join the civil services to 27 years from the present 30 years for General Category candidates by 2022-23 in a phased manner and also to have one integrated exam for all civil services.
  • It calls for successfully implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme including the establishment of 150000 health and wellness centres and rolling out Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.
  • The document outlines the need for creating agripreneurs, which implies creation of agro-processing industry at a much faster pace to enhance farmer participation though agro processing.
  • It calls for participation of Private Sector in Indian Railways. From ownership of locomotives and rolling stocks to modernising stations, improvement of the railways hinges on private participation.
  • It boasts of expanding the scope of Swachh Bharat Mission to cover initiatives for landfills, plastic waste and municipal waste and generating wealth from waste.
  • The government will have to ease the tax compliance burden and eliminate direct interface between taxpayers and tax officials using technology.
  • It suggests better compensation to banking correspondents, facilitating paperless banking and introducing financial literacy chapters in school curricula to spur financial inclusion.

It recommends identification of the poorest among the minority communities through the socio-economic caste census data for proper targeting of various schemes.

Key recommendations stated under four sections

Recommendations stated under Drivers

  • Steadily accelerate the economy to achieve a GDP growth rate of about 8 percent on average during 2018-23. This will raise the economy’s size in real terms from USD 2.7trillion in 2017-18 to nearly USD 4 trillion by 2022-23.
  • In agriculture, shift the emphasis to converting farmers to ‘agripreneurs’ by further expanding e-National Agriculture Markets and replacing the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee Act with the Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Act.
  • Give a strong push to ‘Zero Budget Natural Farming’ techniques that reduce costs, improve land quality and increase farmers’ incomes.
  • To ensure maximum employment creation, complete codification of labor laws; and upscale and expand apprenticeships.
  • Launch a mission “Explore in India” by revamping minerals exploration and licensing policy.

Recommendations under Infrastructure

  • Expedite the establishment of the Rail Development Authority (RDA), which is already approved.
  • Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways.
  • Develop an IT-enabled platform for integrating different modes of transport and promoting multi-modal and digitised mobility.
  • Deliver all government services at the state, district, and gram panchayat level digitally by2022-23. With the completion of the Bharat Net programme in 2019, all 2.5 lakh gram panchayats will be digitally connected.
  • The three themes in this section revolve around the dimensions of health, education and mainstreaming of traditionally marginalized sections of the population.

Recommendations under Inclusion

  • Successfully implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme including the establishment of 150000 health and wellness centres across the country, and rolling out the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Abhiyaan (PM-JAY).
  • Create a focal point for public health at the central level with state counterparts.
  • Upgrade the quality of the school education system and skills, including the creation of a new innovation ecosystem at the ground level by establishing at least 10,000 Atal Tinkering Labs by 2020.
  • Conceptualize an electronic national educational registry for tracking each child’s learning outcomes.
  • As already done in rural areas, give a huge push to affordable housing in urban areas to improve workers’ living conditions.
  • Recommendations under Governance
  • Implement the recommendations of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission as a prelude to appointing a successor for designing reforms in the changing context of emerging technologies.
  • Set up a new autonomous body ‘Arbitration Council of India’ to grade arbitral institutions and accredit arbitrators to make the arbitration process cost effective and speedy/
  • Address the backlog of pending cases.
  • Expand the scope of Swachh Bharat Mission to cover initiatives for landfills, plastic waste and municipal waste and generating wealth from waste.

What is the Objective behind States’ Start-up Ranking?

  1. The key objective of the exercise was to encourage States and Union Territories to take proactive steps towards strengthening the Start-up ecosystems in their states.
  • The entire exercise was conducted for capacity development and to further the spirit of cooperative federalism.
  • The methodology behind the exercise was aimed at creating a healthy competition environment wherein States were encouraged further to learn, share and adopt good practices.

Which are five types of State System during Vedic period?

1. Rajya (Central kingdom): Ruled by the Raja

2. Bhojya (Southern kingdom): Ruled by the Bhoja

3. Swarajya (Western kingdom): Ruled by the Svarat

4. Vairajya (Northern kingdom): Ruled by the Virat

5. Samrajya (Eastern kingdom):  Ruled by the Samrat

SAARC

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization in South Asia.

Initially there were 7 members in the SAARC but Afghanistan joined it on April 3, 2007.  Now it has 8 members which includes; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. This organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.

Myanmar is not the member of the SAARC.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu (Nepal). The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu on 16 January 1987 and was inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal.

Maitrakas dynasty

Maitrakas was Iranian in origin and ruled in Saurashtra region of Gujarat with Valabhi as capital. Valabhi became centre of learning, culture and trade and commerce under the guidance of Bhatarka. It survived the longest Arab attacks.

What are the causes of water logging in Rajasthan and measures to reduce it?

A study has determined what the most important causes of Water logging is caused by a combination of excess rainfall (for the site), poor external drain- age (runoff), poor internal drainage (water movement in the soil profile) and the inability of the soil to store much water.

Measures:

  1. After flooding, wash down hard surfaces and collect up debris to prevent drains blocking, soil surfaces being covered, and pollutants or contaminants lingering in the garden.
  2. Keep off the soil until it is workable, to avoid compacting it and worsening the conditions.
  3. Remove damaged shoots from affected plants.

Why do the Western Ghats receive more rain than the Eastern Ghats?

The reason why do the Western Ghats receive more rain than the Eastern Ghats are discussed below:

1. The winds from Arabian Sea climb the slopes of the Western Ghats from 900-1200 m. Soon, they become cool, and as a result, the windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall ranging between 250 cm and 400 cm. After crossing the Western Ghats, these winds descend and get heated up. This reduces humidity in the winds. As a result, these winds cause little rainfall in the Eastern Ghats.

2. The Western Ghats block rain-bearing winds which cause rainfall on the western slopes. Whereas South-west monsoon moves parallel to the Eastern Ghats, which cause less rainfall because in the Eastern Ghats unable to block moisture-laden winds

3. The Western Ghats lies in rain-fed area of the Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon whereas Eastern Ghats lies in the rain shadow area of the Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon.

4. The Western Ghats have gentle slope that provides a greater area for sunlight absorption whereas the Eastern Ghats have an abrupt slope.

What if India has two Time Zones?

Recently, the journal Current Science by the Indian Academy of Sciences states that if India has two time zones then it will not only save the Daylight but also increase the productivity.

In the north-eastern states of India, Sun rises and set earlier, which causes loss of many daylight hours in normal days? But this situation worsens in winter because during winter days get shorter, which causes lower productivity and higher electricity consumption. The study estimated that if India has two time zones then India can save 20 million kWh annual electricity.

Some researcher states that if India has two time zones then it will be havoc situation. For Example- Two time zones could lead to railway collisions.

This study also suggested that “how two time zones are feasible for India”.  For Example- If the train clocks are switched at Alipurduar Junction on the West Bengal and Assam border, such collisions can be avoided.

It will be implemented then we have to generate IST-II for that matter a Primary Time Scale (PTS) must be established to ensemble of five caesium clocks and one hydrogen maser, in one of the north-eastern states similar to PTS for IST-I, which is located in Delhi. A caesium clock measures time on the basis of the resonance (or change of energy state of an isotope of caesium) and a hydrogen maser, which measures time on the basis of the resonance of hydrogen across energy states.

Why India need two time zones?

Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.30′ E longitude which divided India into two halves. It is taken as the standard time as it passes through almost the centre of India. But it is worth remembering that it operate a single Time Zone, not for Daylight Saving Time.

But the country’s east–west distance is more than 2,933 kilometres (1,822 mi) covers over 29 degrees of longitude, resulting in the sun rising and setting almost two hours earlier on India’s eastern border than in the Rann of Kutch in the far west. The people of the north-eastern states have to advance their clocks with the early sunrise and avoid the extra consumption of energy after daylight hours.

What is UN Road Safety Trust Fund?

As we know that United Nations Organisation (UNO) is an intergovernmental organization which maintain international peace and security; develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. Recently, it has launched UN Road Safety Trust Fund in order to enhance road safety worldwide.

UN Road Safety Trust Fund was established in April 2018 with an aims to contribute to two major outcomes, assisting UN Member states to (a) substantially curb the number of fatalities and injuries from road traffic crashes, as well as (b) reduce economic losses resulting from these crashes. Building on the best practices and expertise developed through the Decade of Action for Road Safety, the Trust Fund will focus on supporting concrete actions helping to achieve the road safety-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

It is a trust fund managed by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. It aims to accelerate progress in improving global road safety by bridging the gaps in the mobilization of resources for effective action at all levels. Fund will mobilize resources from governments, intergovernmental or nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, philanthropic organizations and individuals. It will focus on strengthening the capacity of government agencies, local governments and city authorities to develop and implement road safety programmes, prioritizing projects in low and middle-income countries.

Initiatives of UN Road Safety Trust Fund

There are two initiatives which are given below:

1. It will support efforts along five pillars of Global Plan for Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-20), which include improved safety of road infrastructure and broader transport networks; strengthened road safety management capacities; enhanced safety of vehicles; improved behaviour of road users and improved post-crash care.

2. It will serve as catalyst for much-needed progress towards road safety targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG targets 3.6 and 11.2 aim to halve number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents and provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems as well as improve road safety for all.

Hence, we can say that, it has potential to galvanise global efforts to address road safety situation to save lives and prevent the loss of opportunity associated with road accidents. But all these initiatives can only achieve through cooperation and universal brotherhood.

What is Cyberspace Internet and how it is different from Internet?

The media such as radio, television and world web has great impact on the society and also became an anthropological interest for a long time. Now a day, the internet and cyberspace created a virtual world and become social and cultural practices because it transcends the boundaries of the nation-state and offer new ways of creating identities and new spaces for self-representation. The emergence of virtual reality of cyberspace or internet or electronic communication has led to examine the ways of seeing, representing and communicating.

What is Cyberspace Internet?

The term ‘Cyberspace’ was coined by William Gibson in his book ‘Neuromancer’ written in 1984. He defined the term as a consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts.

The Cyberspace Internet can be defined as the virtual computer world which is used to form a global computer network to facilitate online communication. In other words, it is a world of information through the internet. More precisely, we can say it is a three-dimensional representation of virtual space in a computer network. It is a large computer network made up of many worldwide computer networks that employ TCP/IP protocol to aid in communication and data exchange activities.

In the last three decades, there has been a shift among global users from USA to the developing countries. The percentage share of the USA has dropped from 66 in 1995 to only 25 in 2005. Now, the majority of the world’s users are in USA, UK, Germany, Japan, China and India. As billions use the internet each year, cyberspace will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans through e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance. Internet together with fax, television and radio will be accessible to more and more people cutting across place and time. It is these modern communications systems, more than transportation, which has made the concept of global village a reality.

How Cyberspace Internet different from Internet?

The internet is basically a global computer network which provides information and communication facilities through interconnected networks by using standardized communication protocols; Whereas, Cyberspace internet is the virtual computer world which is work over the notional environment of computer networks.

In other words, we can say internet is a set of computer networks that communicate using the internet protocol (an intranet) whereas cyberspace is a world of information through the internet.

What is Black Box? How does it Work?

What is ‘Black Box’?

Black Box is also known as the ‘Flight Data Recorder’. The Black Box or Flight Data Recorder of an Airplane is an instrument which records all the activities of the airplane during its flight.

Black Box is generally kept at the back side of the airplane for the security point of view. This Box is made of Titanium metal and is enclosed in a Titanium box which gives it strength to withstand any shock if it falls in sea or falls from the height.

History of Black Box:-

In the year 1953-54, in view of the increasing incidences of Air accidents, it was thought to develop a device which can give information about the reasons for Plane accidents and might also help in saving planes from accidents. Hence, a black box was invented.

Earlier it used to be red in colour and was known by the name ‘Red Egg’. In the early days, its inner walls were black in colour, so it came to be known as a ‘Black Box’.

The Black Box has two separate boxes:

1. Flight Data Recorder: – This box can contain information about direction, altitude, fuel, speed, turbulence, cabin temperature etc. About 88 such values for about 25 hours can be recorded.

This box can withstand a temperature of about 11000°C for one hour and a temperature of 260°C for 10 hours. These boxes are red or pink in color so that can be found easily.

2. Cockpit Voice Recorder:-This box records the sound of the airplane during the last two hours. It records the sound of engine, emergency alarm, cabin and cockpit in order to predict the conditions of the plane before any accident occurred.

How does a Black Box works:-

As we have already told that the Black Box is made up of a strong metal. It can work for 30 days without any electricity. It can withstand a temperature of 11000°C. When this box is lost anywhere, it keeps on emitting the waves along with a beep sound for about 30 days.

This voice can be identified by the investigators from a distance of about 2-3 Kilometers. An interesting fact with regard to Black box is that it can emit waves from the depth of 14000 feet in the sea.

What is the Meaning of Net Neutrality?

The term “Net Neutrality” was coined by the law professor “Tim Wu” at Columbia University in 2003. Net Neutrality refers to the equal treatment for all the internet users. It means all the users of the social media, email, voice calls, online shopping and YouTube videos will have the equal access and speed of the internet.

Under the principle of Net Neutrality; Internet Service Providers will give equal importance to every type of data. So the behaviour of equality with every internet user is called “Net Neutrality”.

What will happen in the absence of the Net Neutrality?

If the Net Neutrality is not in effect then the Internet Service Providers (includes Telecom Operators) may behave like this;

Video calling through WhatsApp may consume more data and speed may also be slow but YouTube may run at good speed and data consumption can also be very low.

What are the main Properties of Net Neutrality?

1. All online content on the network of Internet Service Providers has the same access and speed.

2. Internet Service Providers can not slow down a particular website, that is, it should not happen that the website of Amazon opens quickly and Flipkart at slow speed.

3. Internet Service Providers will not have any preference for any particular company/website.

But if Net Neutrality is eliminated then the speed on the internet will not be equal for all users and internet services will also get costlier.

If I say in very easy words, Net Neutrality is like the road traffic, where every vehicle has the right to move at the same speed. It cannot happen that the owner of a luxury car; cost Rs. 1 crore will run ahead of all vehicles and all the vehicles on the road will give side to the luxury car like an ambulance car but on the other hand the owner of the Rs. 5 lac car will not these benefits.

If Net Neutrality is finished then what will happen?

1. Service providers or big companies can block other sites on their network.

2. Service providers can charge more money for access to a particular website or separate data price can be charged for these services. Like once, Airtel said that if its users want to enjoy video calling on WhatsApp, then users will have to buy a separate data pack of 100 rupees; currently this service is available free for the users.

3. Internet Service Providers may give preference to the content of a particular company. For example, data speed of the WhatsApp can be increased while the speed of the Skype can be reduced.

4. A company can bribe the Internet Service Providers for blocking the website of a particular company and promote website of the briber or others.

Why Telecom Companies are against the Net-neutrality of the internet network?

Telecom companies are worried due to new technology because new technology has affected their business.

For example, the use of SMS service is almost finished due to free app like WhatsApp app. This has reduced the revenue of telecom companies because the earlier SMS packs were sold in large quantities and even on the occasion of festivals, every message was charged up to 2 rupees. Similar losses are due to facility of free video chats because these companies used to generate a lot of revenue from the International Calling earlier.

What are the rules of Net Neutrality in India?

Net Neutrality is applicable in India and all users have access of internet services with a similar speed. However, telecom companies in India are trying to put pressure on the government to end Net Neutrality.

The Government of India argues that internet is still used by very few peoples in India. India is in the initial phase of conveying the internet to every citizen of the country. The number of mobile Internet users in India is likely to reach 478 million by June 2018 but rural India has miles to go in this area. So it is not possible for the government to introduce the concept of Net Neutrality in the country at this juncture.

What is “OneerTM”?

OneerTM is an innovative technology for drinking water disinfection system which was developed by the Council Scientific and Industrial Research and Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Lucknow.

All disease causing pathogens like virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and cyst will be removed from drinking water making it safe for domestic use and for communities. This technique is useful for continuous treatment of water to meet National and International standards prescribed for potable water (WHO etc.). This technology was transferred to M/s Bluebird Water Purifiers on 17 October, 2018.

Let us tell you that Oneer smaller unit is particularly suitable for homes, street food vendors and small establishments.

According to CSIR-IITR this technology will provide access to safe and clean drinking water at a cost of just 2 Paise/Ltr. We know that infection through drinking water results in an increase in morbidity and mortality particularly amongst children. Therefore, this technology will be helpful for rural people since it can be solar powered and the development is done under ‘Make in India Mission’.

About this technology

The technology is based on the principle of anodic oxidation. Through a chamber, raw water is passed and disinfection occurs with the help of singlet oxygen species which was generated at the anode.

Do you know why this technology has been named as Oneer?

The technology has been named as Oneer as ‘O’ for singlet oxygen species and ‘neer’ for water.

Features of OneerTM

A key feature of OneerTM technology is that purified water will retain all essential minerals and there will be no wastage as it happens in reverse osmosis (RO) based purifiers. Also, there is no need to add any type of chemical and water can be stored around 30 hours without the risk of any recontamination. It also consists of an in-built smart sensor system that will provide the real-time information of all operational steps. Depending upon the quality of water it also provides auto self-cleaning system after fixed number of cycles.

Per 5000 litres of water, this system will consume around one unit if electricity and can be operated with solar power as well. Also, the domestic model can be used at homes, street food vendors and small shops, while the community model is suitable for schools, hospitals, restaurants, railway stations etc.

Therefore, we can say that OneerTM is a water purifier technology which can eliminate disease causing pathogens and provide safe drinking water as per national and international standards.

What is Glioblastoma or GBM Grade IV cancer?

Glioblastoma is also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is a type of brain cancer. Among adults, it is most common type of malignant brain tumour. Basically, it is a malignant Grade IV tumour which spread quickly and grows fast in brain.

Let us tell you that there are multiple grades of gliomas i.e. grade II, III and IV but the grade IV is most malignant. Glioblastoma is considered as grade IV tumour.

Where it occurs in the brain?

Glioblastoma is a type of cancer that forms in the brain from star-shaped cells known as astrocytes and the cancer is also called as astrocytoma. It starts in adults in the largest part of the brain that is cerebrum. This type of tumour doesn’t need blood from any where they supply itself due to which they grow easily and quickly.

We can say that Glioblastoma occur is the lobe of the brain, stem of the brain and cerebellum. But more commonly occur in the frontal and temporal lobe.

Is this cancer is common?

It is said that it is most common in males, persons older than 50 and people of Caucasian or Asian ethnicity. Also, brain cancers are not common.

What are the symptoms of Glioblastoma Cancer?

It depends upon the location where the tumour is located in the brain, from where it originated the rate of growth etc. Also, symptoms depend upon the fluid that surrounds the tumour and causes brain swelling.

Common Symptoms are as follows:

– Vomiting

– Constant Headache

– Trouble in thinking or memory loss

– Mood swings and changes in personality

– Blurred vision or sometimes double also.

– Seizures

– Disturbance in speech, problem in speaking

– Nausea

– Muscle weakness

– Weakness or sensory changes of face arm or leg

– Difficulties in balance

Now the question arises that how Glioblastoma tumour is diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Glioblastoma tumour is done by a neurologist, a doctor who has specialization in diagnosing and treating disorders of brain. Several tests, MRI or CT scan are performed which depends upon the symptoms of the patient.

Procedure for the treatment of Glioblastoma

Main focus of the doctors is to slow and control the growth of the tumour as much as possible. The treatments given to the patients are surgery, radiation therapy, Chemotherapy and Electric field therapy.

The first treatment given to the patient is the surgery. Doctors remove tumour in high risk areas of the brain as much as possible.

In Radiation treatment the left over tumour is killed and also slow the growth of the tumour which can’t be removed from the surgery.

In Chemotherapy the most common type of drug given to the patient by the doctors is Temozolomide for glioblastoma. This therapy causes short time side effects but is much less toxic.

Surgically glioblastoma is not curable, only the good part is to remove the tumour as much as possible. But in radiation and chemotherapy treatment progression of the tumour can be delayed.

In Electric field therapy the electric fields are used to target the cells in the tumour while not hurting the normal cells. For this doctor insert electrodes directly into the scalp. The device with the help of this is done is known as Optune. Let us tell you that this FDA therapy has been approved for both newly diagnosed people and people whose glioblastoma has come back.

What is Space Debris and its causes?

The term debris implies that the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up. When it comes to the Space Debris, it referred to the natural debris found in the solar system such as asteroids, comets, and meteoroids (a small rocky or metallic body in outer space).

What causes Space Debris?

The space debris is consists of not only broken pieces of asteroids, comets, and meteoroids but also abandoned pieces of old satellites and used rocket stages including remainder of rocket fuel, paint flakes, frozen liquid coolant, etc.

According to the report of United States Space Surveillance Network, there are more than 13,000 pieces of space debris larger than 10 cm (4 inches), about 200,000 pieces between 1 and 10 cm (0.4 and 4 inches) and also predicted there could be millions of pieces smaller than 1 cm.

How Space Debris will be threat to the operational satellites as well as Earth’s atmosphere?

These debris travels at a high speeds which is up to 8 km per second which might be threats to both manned and unmanned spaceflight. Most of the debris can be found geostationary orbit above equator.

The threat of the collision came into existence when operational satellite and a piece of space debris took place when a fragment from the upper stage of a European Ariane rocket collided with Cerise (French microsatellite) on July 24 1996. This collide partially damages the Cerise, but still functional. The real threat came into light when Iridium 33 (communications satellite owned by the American company Motorola), collided with Cosmos 2251 that destroyed the operational satellite.

Apart from the threat to the operational satellite, it is also a threat to the Earth’s atmosphere as well. Because most of the debris can be found geostationary orbit above the equator, and if debris burns up in the atmosphere, larger objects can reach the ground intact. Hence, despite of their size, there will be significant property damage from the debris.

Tools for tracking and measuring the Space Debris

Lidar (combination of Radar and optical detector) is the main tool for tracking the space debris. Recently, NASA Orbital Debris Observatory tracked space debris with a 3 m (10 ft.) liquid mirror transit telescope. FM Radio waves can also detect debris, after reflecting off them onto a receiver.

Hence, space agencies around the world come up with a single agenda to clean all the debris. Now, they all are actively involved in tracking the largest bits of space debris to mitigate the problem.

What do you know about India’s first floating laboratory?

1. The Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD), Imphal has established India’s first floating laboratory at Loktak Lake to monitor the ecosystem of the lake as well as the water quality.

2. It is a joint venture of Loktak Development Authority (LDA) and Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory Institute (IBSD); and about 15 lakhs spent in setting up this floating laboratory.

3. The Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable laboratory (IBSD) took 4 months to set up this floating laboratory.

4. This floating laboratory will check the oxygen and the pH level of the lake and also will record changes in temperature, acidity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the 300 sq. km of the lake. So that the Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD) can take immediate steps to check water pollution and restore it.

5. This floating laboratory is equipped with all modern equipment such as water quality Analyzer, which will automatically check temperature, temperature, acidity, salinity and electrical conductivity standards.

6. This floating laboratory will have a five-member female researcher who will collect the samples of microorganisms, which may carry potential for use in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and other industries.

7. This floating laboratory model is given by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) of the Central Government to protect the unique ecosystem of the Loktak Lake.

8. The length of the boat is 15 metre and can accommodate 10 people.

9. The lake is shrinking at a speed of 40 sq. km. Therefore, it is a well needed laboratory which will study the nutrients of vegetation and monitor their health so that the hundreds of massive circular rings of floating vegetation called “Phumdis” or floating islands can be taken care of.

10. This floating laboratory will also set up scientific research and social responsibility, because for a few years this has become a dumping yard of lake pollutants which is affecting the ecosystem of the lake.

RAS Mains Test Series Part-1

RAS Mains Test Series

RAS Mains Test Series Part-2

RAS Mains Exam Daily Test 20/12/2018

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Question

Q. 1 Zero Base Budgets

Zero-based budgeting is a method of budgeting in which all expenses must be justified and approved for each new period.

The process of zero-based budgeting starts from a “zero base,” and every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs.

Q. 2 Write the limitations of Auditing

Due to the inherent limitations of audit, auditors are only able to offer reasonable assurance’ over the truth and fairness of the financial statements rather than absolute assurance.

Following are a few limitations of auditing −

Rely on Experts − An Auditor has to rely on experts like engineers, valuers and lawyers for estimation and valuation of fixed assets and estimation of contingent liabilities.

Efficiency of Management − An Auditor does not comment on the efficiency of management working in client organization; no comments on future performance of an organization can be made through audited financial statements.

Checking of All Transactions − It is not possible for an Auditor to check all business transactions especially in big organizations where the number of transactions is very high. An Auditor has to rely on sampling and test checking.

Additional Financial burden − An organization has to bear additional financial burden on account of any fees and other such expenses for conducting an audit.

Not Easy to Detect Some Frauds − It is not easy for an Auditor to detect deeply laid frauds like forgery, misstatements and non-recording of transactions.

Q. 3 what is Geographical Indication (GI)? List down the GI Tag in Rajasthan

A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country). GI’s have been defined in GIs have been defined under Article 22(1) of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. A GI is registered for an initial period of ten years, which may be renewed from time to time.

India being member of WTO enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 or protection of geographical indications in India. The act came into force with effect from 15th September 2003. Darjeeling Tea was the first Indian product to get the geographical indication tag.

Geographical Indications in Rajasthan

S.No.GIFamous Places in Rajasthan
1PhulkariJaipur
2Kota DoriaKota
3Blue PotteryJaipur
4Molela Clay WorkMolela, Nathdwara (Rajsamand)
5Kathputli of RajasthanRajasthan
6Sanganeri Hand Block PrintingJaipur
7Bikaneri BhujiaBikaner
8Kota Doria (Logo)Kota
9Bagru Hand Block PrintJaipur
10Thewa Art WorkPratapgarh
11Makrana marbleMakrana, Nagaur

Q. 4 which district forms the main part of Banas basin? Write its tributaries.

Answer: Banas River Basin extends over parts of Jaipur, Dausa, Ajmer, Tonk, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur,Udaipur, Rajsamand, Pali, Bhilwara and Chittorgarh Districts.

  • It has an area of 45,833 Sq. KM and drained by the River Banas

Banas River & its Tributaries

Tributaries:

  • Berach
  • Kothari
  • Khari
  • Dai
  • Sohadra
  • Morel
  • Mashi
  • Kalisil
  • Dheel

5. Write the name of Wildlife Sanctuaries in Rajasthan?

Answer:                                   

Bund Baretha Wild life Sanctuary

Bhainsrorgarh wildlife Sanctuary             

Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary

Sitamata wildlife Sanctuary                  

Darrah wildlife Sanctuary                   

Shergarh Wildlife sanctuary                 

Jawahar Sagar, Wildlife Sanctuary

Mount abu wildlife sanctuary                

Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary             

Kailadevi Wildlife Sanctuary

Sambhar Wildlife Sanctuary                 

Jamwa Ramgarh Wildlife Sanctuary

Sawai Mansingh wildlife Sanctuary          

National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary         

Ramgarh Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary

6. Write short notes on National Parks of Rajasthan.

  1. Desert National Park
  2. Keoladeo National Park
  3. Ranthambore National Park
  4. Sariska National Park

1. Desert National Park

  • Desert National Park, Rajasthan, India,is situated in the West Indian state of Rajasthan near the town of Jaisalmer.
  • This is one of the largest national parks, covering an area of 3162 km².
  • Park is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert and its diverse fauna.
  • Sand dunes form around 20% of the Park.
  •  The major landform consists of craggy rocksand compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes which are quite suitable for the chinkara to move at high speed. The blackbuck is another common antelope of this region. Its other notable inhabitants are the desertfox, Bengal fox and wolf and desert cat.

Sudashri forest post is the ideal place for observing the wildlife of Desert National Park and is the most suitable in the entire 3162 sq. kms.

Birdlife in this sandy habitat is vivid and spectacular. Birds such as the sandgrouse, partridges, bee-eaters,larks and shrikes are commonly seen. Demoiselle crane and houbara arrive in the winter. The birds of prey seen here are tawny and steppe eagles, long legged and honey buzzards, falcons and kestrels. But the most outstanding of the avifauna is the great Indian bustard. This tall, heavy bird is an epitome of confidence and grace. It is good to see five or six bustards near Sudashri water hole

2. Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan

Area: 232sq.km/2,873 hectares

Established: 1956 as a bird sanctuary, 1981 as a national park

The Keoladeo Ghana National Park or Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary lays between two of India’s most historic cities- Agra and Jaipur. The name Keoladeo is derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva in the sanctuary’s central zone while the Hindi term ‘Ghana’ implies dense, thick areas of forest cover.

  • Prince Bhamji of Morvi state in Gujarat converted this area into a world famous wildlife reserve.
  • Duck shoots were organised in the are a every year by the rulers of Bharatpur, in honour of Viceroy Lord Curzon and his party on 1st December, 1902. The exploits of all visiting dignitaries since 1902 have been engraved on stone plaques standing near the Keoladeo temple.

Largest number of birds (4273) was killed on 12th November, 1938, by Lord Linlithgow, Viceroy & Governor General of India and his party. After independence, this reserve was notified as a bird sanctuary but the former rulers of Bharatpur continued to enjoy their shooting rights over the area till 1972. The area was notified as a National Park in 1981 but made effective only in November, 1982.

Conservation efforts originally started by Dr. Salim Ali received a further impetus when the area was deemed a national park in March 1982. In 1985, Bharatpur was accepted as a World Heritage Site.

Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan

  • One of the largest national parks in north India, Ranthambore is the wildlife paradise for most of the nature lovers.
  •  It is the place where one can find the tremendous amount of tiger species, an exotic land for the specific tiger tours which is called the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve.

The Sawai Madhopur district area of southeastern Rajasthan is the place to explore the widest ranges of tiger species. The park is 110 km away from north east of Kota and is 130 km southwest of Jaipur.

Established in 1955, as the SawaiMadhopur Game Sanctuary, the park was declared as the Project Tiger Reserve in the year 1973. In 1980, Ranthambore was declared as the national park.

  • With dry deciduous types of vegetation, Ranthambore Tiger Reserve brings around 300 species of floras at its explicit areas.
  • Seasonally these deciduous varieties bring lush foliages around the corners of the reserve with Anogeissus pendula forests – a dominant tree species.

Ranthambore is basically known for the presence of ample amount of tiger species. This makes an easy tiger safari tour for the keen tiger lovers. Along with that the other major wild species makes this ranges more flourished for an amazing safari tour. The other wild species along with the majestic tigers one can find here are leopard, Nilgai, wild boar, sambar, hyena, sloth bear and chital. It is also home to wide variety of trees, plants, birds and reptiles.

Sariska National Park, Rajasthan

Area: 800 sq. km (with a core area of 498 sq km).

Established: 1958 as a sanctuary, 1979 as a tiger reserve and 1982 as a national park

Sariska National Park lies in the Aravalli hills and is the former hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Alwar.

  • Sariska it self is a wide valley with two large plateaus and is dotted with places of historical and religious interest, including the ruins of the Kankwari Fort,the 10th century Neelkanth temples, the Buddha Hanuman Temple near Pandupol, the Bharthari Temple near the park office, and the hot and cold springs of Taal vriksha.
  • The large Siliserh Lake is at the north-eastern corner.
  • The forests are drying deciduous, withtrees of Dhak, Acacia, Ber and Salar.
  • The Tigers of Sariska are largely nocturnal and are not as easily seen as those of Ranthambore.
  • The park also has good populations of Nilgai, Sambar and Chital. In the evenings, Indian Porcupine, Striped Hyena,Indian Palm Civet and even Leopard are sometimes seen.

7. What type of climate is there in Rajasthan?

1. The climate of Rajasthan keeps varying throughout the state. In the desert areas, it is usually hot and dry in summer and cold during the winters. Coming to the Aravali range, to the west,both rainfall and humidity are low.

2. Rajasthan is one of the hottest states of India. In Rajasthan, climatic conditions vary throughout the year.Rajasthan weather is usually hot and dry, yet one can see four distinct seasons in this state. These can be classified as summers, Monsoons, autumn(Post-monsoon) and winters.

3. The Climate of Rajasthan in northwestern India is generally arid or semi-arid and features fairly hot temperatures over the year with extreme temperatures in both summer and winter.

4. Due to the Desert Geography, Temperatures frequently climb above 40 to 45 degrees Celsius in most places.

5. Due to its location Rajasthan has summers as the longest season.

6. The cold weather commences early in October and comes to an end in the middle of January. The climate in the cold weather is pleasant to very cold.

7. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall: rainfall due to the South-West Monsoon after summer and rainfall due to Western Disturbances.

8. Write Notes on Most Famous/remembered & decisive Battles of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is predominantly known for its royal kings and their lifestyles that also can be seen through their gorgeous and stunning architectures all through the state which have been a matter of prestige for the entire country. The state used to be home of almost all of the Chauhan rulers and the prominent Rajput Kings and they were known for their bravery and valor. The Rajput women were also known for their dignified lifestyle and love for their motherland and many times they sacrificed their lives to save their modesty. And these sagas cannot get completed until we know about the fierce battles of the state that captures an important part of the history of India.  It happened many times and with many opponents i.e. Delhi rulers, Mughals and outside invaders but the Rajputs always fought bravely for their motherland.

Most remembered & decisive Battles of Rajasthan

The Battle of Tarain (1191& 1192)

These battles were fought between Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Ghori and the battles have a prominent mark inthe Indian history. These two battles were fought in the years 1191 and 1192 consecutively near the town of Tarain in Haryana, between a Mohammad Ghori whoseforce led by Mu’izz al-Din and between Prithviraj Chauhan. During the first battles Prithviraj Chauhan won and recaptures the fortress of Bhatinda and in the second battle the victory flags were elevated by the Ghurid troops and Mu’izz al-Din force took over the Bihar province, and both the battles are known as one of the most decisive battles of India but not only Rajasthan.

Siege of Chittor (1303)

The Rajput Kings fought with Alauddin Khilji many times as the Delhi ruler had many battles with the Rajputs for different reasons. There were many Rajput kings who were killed by the Delhi Sultan while fighting to stop the invasion of the kind in his kingdom and eventually he was killed and was defeated. But the siege of Chittor was a major one. As the Delhi fallen for the Queen of Chittor Rani Padmini and got obsessed over her beauty and wanted to take here into his harem. But according to theoetic tale of Padmavat her husband Raja Ratan Singh was killed while protecting her and Queen Padmini committed Jauhar when he attacked the Chittorgarh Fort.

Battle of Nagaur (1455)

This was fought between the Nagaur Sultanate and the Rajputs of Mewar. The battle started as a dispute between the two brothers of the sultans of Nagaur which led to a fight between Mujahid Khan and Shams Khan, and they later on the latter was defeated by his brother Shams Khan and took aid from Rana Kumbha the ruler of Mewar. But later on Rana Kumbha ought for the capital and took back the capital of Nagaur from him. He took the entire treasury of Shams Khan in form of precious stones and precious jewelry.

Battle of Dholpur (1519)

This battle was fought between Rana Sanga and Ibrahim Lodi. This battle was previously fought between the same two in the year in Khatoli and even in this battle Rana Sanga won and in this consecutive battle was for the Dholpur kingdom and Ibrahim Lodi’s army and it lead to the surrender of the entire army and also the surrendered various properties and many other places that was captured by him. All of them were captured by Rana Sanga after he won te second battle with the sultan.

Invasion of Mewar (1520)

This battle was led by the Gujrat Sultan Muhammad shah II and his fight was with Rana Sanga. The sultan found the Rajput kings a threat and that actually forced him to attack the king of Mewar when he returned from his movement in Gujarat. The sultan led with a massive army of 100 elephants and 10,000 people and attacked the king which gradually sieged one by one the kingdom of the Rajputs such as Dungarpur and Banswara. And as a result the Rajput king stopped Malik Ayas but failed and Dungarpur and Banswara kingdom sacked.

Battle of Chittor (1567)

This battle was again to obstruct the roots of Chittorgarh and this time it was made by the great Mughal King Akbar. And this was a fierce battle between Akbar and the Hindu Rajputs. This was a massive fight between the two and the volume of the fighters were huge as Akbar’s defenses expanded to more 50,000 men and increased to 60,000 troops during the late phases of the attack, and eventually ended in a significant victory of the Mughals. Akbar attacked the Rajputs because the Rajputs became prevailing power after the defeat of Lodi Dynasty a strong contender of the Mughals.

Siege of Ranthambore (1568)

This was a famous siege of the Rajput history that was made by the Mughal king Akbar on the Ranthambore Fort and he was led by a huge army of more than 50,000 men. Akbar thought that Ranthambore Fort was a major risk to Mughal Empire because it was home to the great Hada Rajputs who called themselves as the enemies of the Mughals. And before that Akbar already won the battle of Thanesar and Chittorgarh captured the Ranthambore fort and forced to surrender the Rajput leader Rai Surjan Hada. The battled recorded the use of the largest cannons by the Mughal army.

Battle of Haldighati (1576)

This is one of the major battles in the history of Rajasthan which is mostly remembered of the valor of Maharana Pratap and it was fought by another Rajput Man Singh but he led the forces of Mughal emperor Akbar. Pratap fought fearlessly against the Mughal army and it was continued for four hours but as the Mughal army got themselves in problem as they faced some rumors of Akbar’s hiding in a tunnel. But after two days of fight Maharana got isolated as Man Singh conquered Gogunda and started overtaking all the other capitals including Kumbhalgarh and Udaipur.

Battle of Maonda and Mandholi (1767)

This battle was fought between the Jat rulers of Bharatpur Jawahar Singh and the Rajput ruler Sawai Raja Madho of Amer. The Jat maharaja was leading an army on his way back from Pushkar from Bharatpur when the forces of Sawai Raja Madho Singh attacked them near Maonda and Mandholi. The battle was all about social status and the Rajput king defeated the Jat ruler. This battle lost more than 5000 lives of men who fought against each other and there were many Kachwaha Rajput kings who fought in this battle to make it more memorable.

Battle of Malpura (1800)

Again this battle was between the two groups which were the alliance of the Rajput kings i.e. the Kings of Jaipur which was ruled by the Kachhawas and Jodhpur which was ruled by the Rathoresand Gwalior kingdom which was ruled by the Scindia Marathas. The battle was the result of a crunch between the two governments and lead to a fierce battle. The battle result to the defeat by the Marathas and eventually it lead to sign a treaty to the British of the Jaipur kings and the roots of the battle developed between the increasing sour relationship of Jaipur and Gwalior Scandia’s Government due to debt of money.

9. What was Role of Rajasthan in the Freedom Movement of India?

In today’s Rajasthan (the then Rajputana) province there are many princely states and different sections of the society contributed in their own way to the fight for independence. Few of them are mentioned below-

Lothoo Ram Jat, a farmer is regarded as the Robin Hood of the Shekhawati region. It is believed that he created the grounds of the Revolution of 1857 in Shekhawati region. Tatya Tope was highly impressed from Lothoo and his team and he has all the hopes from them regarding the Revolt in Shekhawati region. However, unfortunately Lothoo Ram Jat died 2 years before the actual revolution began and his team surrendered after his death.

Har lal Singh was an agitator for the farmers’ movement in colonial India. He was the member of Jat Mahasabha created by British to repress Jats from 1925-1929. In the 1940s, he was appointed as the president of the famous political protest movement, the Praja Mandal. Being the president, he performed as an important channel between the urban and peasant communities in their combined efforts for the freedom of India from British rule. After the independence, the Praja Mandals became an integral part of the Indian National Congress. He got appointed as the organiser by the Rajasthan Pradesh Congress Committee in the princely state of Jaipur.

Sagarmal Gopa was a freedom fighter and patriot born in affluent Brahmin family in Jaisalmer. Being a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he actively took part in the non-cooperation movement in 1921.He was driven out of Jaisalmer and Hyderabad. However, even in the exile, he continued to work from Nagpur. He was arrested on 25 May 1941 on his return to Jaisalmer after his father’s death. He was tortured for 5 years in the prison.On 4 April 1946, he was burnt to death at the age of 46.

Rao Tula Ram was born in a family of Jagirdars. He is credited with temporarily driving out the British from Northern-Rajasthan and South-Haryana for the cause of 1857 rebellion. He was great leader, a good administrator and skilled military commander. He left India after the uprising of 1857 ended and met with the rulers of Afghanistan and Iran. He also contacted Tsar of Russia to seek help in forcing out the british from India. However, his plans could not be fulfilled due to his sudden death from dysentery at the age of 38 on 3 September 1863.

10. Write Short notes on Ramsnehi Sect.

SHRI RAMSNEHI SECT/SAMPRADAYA

Shri Ramsnehi Sampradaya was founded by reverend Jagadguru Swami ji Shri 1008 Shri Ramcharan Ji Maharaj. The essence of the preaching of this sect is to inculcate and develop divine virtues in followers and public such as love of Ram (God),kindness, politeness, forgiveness, truthfulness, satisfaction, etc. It is the belief of this sect that their founder provided to the whole world, the name”RAM”, considered to be the holy name of the sol which takes place in the innermost part of the heart of everybody. Their founder showed  the ways of meeting Ram in clear words, He told people that there is no need to discover “RAM” as ‘RAM’ is present everywhere. There is no place where ‘RAM’ is not present. ‘RAM’ is present in every inch of the world and is in every particle of the atom. Their founder advised people to become alert and repeat the name ‘RAM’ again and again and not to lose the smallest part of time of the life which is present in the innermost part of every soul and mixed up with it.The world RAM is the key mantra for the Ramsnehi Sampradaya. This sect preaches that by listening and saying RAM with your heart, releases all distress and gives extreme joy in life because all is RAM and RAM is in all. RAM is the start of worship.

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1. What do you know about ‘Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan’?

Answer:

  • Mangarh Dham (MANGARH HILL) is known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan
  • In a barbaric tribal massacre that was executed on November 17, 1913, nearly a century ago, 500 odd tribal martyrs were killed by British Rulers, in Santrampur taluka of tribal dominated Panchmahal district.
  • Govind Guru and Mangarh massacre have become part of the memory of Bhils. Despite this, it was buried in remote areas of Banswara-Panchmahal, situated on the border of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and this historic tragedy could not have been more than a footnote in the history of India’s freedom fight.
  • He awakened the Bhil community and filled them with a sense of patriotism. The Bhils were so inspired that they sacrificed their lives for freedom. Later, 1500 Guru bhakt Bhils sacrificed heir lives while fighting against the British army. It is therefore also known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan.

2. Enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to implement financial inclusion in the country?

Answer: – Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion simply means to ensure that everyone gets the benefit of the financial services of the nation at an affordable cost in spite of whatever background he belongs. It especially focuses on including Underprivileged and vulnerable group of the society in to the economy and providing them with its benefit and thus further causing growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country through increase of customer base of the financial institutes which will further results in high profits for future and this cycle will keep going with increasing profits.

It enhances GDP growth by broadening the resource base of the financial system by developing a culture of savings among large segment of rural population bringing low-income groups within the perimeter of formal banking sector thus plays its own role in the process of economic development

India and Financial Inclusion

As far as India is concerned it has a long history of putting efforts to have financial inclusion and to some extent, ithas been successful as compared to starting stages of building up of Indian economy after independence but there are still many milestones yet to be achieved in this process. And efforts of current government have enhanced financial inclusion in the society to many folds but we still are in the process figuring out to use this in favoring our economy and make everyone in the reach of its benefit and for this, there are various government schemes available.

Steps and Schemes followed by India for Financial Inclusion

  • Swabhiman Campaign
  • Business correspondent Model

Under this model financial Institutes appoint commission agents who provide financial Services at the doorstep of the publicat remote areas where they are unable to open branches which result in large customer base at low cost. Therefore this model is also known as the cost-efficient model.

Various steps taken in area of banking for financial inclusion are:-

RBI’s Compulsory Requirement of Opening Branches in Unbanked Villages, banks is directed to allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches to be opened during the year in un-banked (Tier 5 and Tier 6) rural centers.

No Frill account- The Central bank had introduced ‘no-frills’ accounts in 2005 to provide basic banking facilities to poor and promote financial inclusion. The accounts could be maintained without or with very low minimum balance. These were later converted into BSBDA

BSBDA- RBI advised all banks to open Basic Saving Bank Deposit (BSBD) accounts with minimum common facilities such as no minimum balance, deposit, and withdrawal of cash at bank branch and ATMs,receipt/ credit of money through electronic payment channels, facility of providing ATM card

JAN DHAN Account- These are similar to BSBDA but with little more features as earlier bank were reluctant to open BSBDA account. Banks also do not provide good service to BSBDA account holder. They even denied service like the debit card. But after JHAN DHAN Yojna this scenario has been completely changed

JHAN DHAN account holder is compulsorily issued RUPAY debit card and many more services. It certainly increased the financial inclusion and made bank account opening a cake walk

Account age should be at least 6 months

Account holder should visit ATM branches at least once in 90 days

Income should be up to 1 lakh per year in rural areas and up to 1.5 lakh year for urban areas

For Loans-

In order to control public to borrow from Schedule banks to lend fix amount in priority sector at affordable rate of interest along with certain government schemes such as – Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc.

For Insurance Sector

Insurance sector also plays a major role in financial inclusion of a country and thus government has various schemes in this sector among which few most recent schemes are-

Pradhan mantri Fasal Bima Yojna: This is a general insurance for crops and this scheme started from Feb 2016 by NDA government and replaced the earlier scheme of UPA government named “National Agricultural Insurance” with few more advantages such as low premium oncrop insurance, use of technology for weather forecasting (like smartphones,drones, remote sensing satellites), Future generation of claim and post-harvest benefits e.t.c

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojna : It isa life insurance scheme from age of 18-50 years (benefit until 55 years) at a premium of Rs 330+(18%gst). It covers till 2 lakh Rs and is under LIC India on behalf of the government of India. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima yojana – started on Jan 2015 for accidental insurance and covers up to Rs 2 lakh in case of death and Rs 1 lakh in case of physical disability at a premium of (Rs 12+GST) for the age group of 18 to 70 years and is under HDFC life on behalf of government of India

Recent steps still in progress

On Recommendation of Nachiket More committee there are various measures are going on among which one is opening of two special kinds of banks in India which are

Payment banks– These banks will only accept deposit from public and will not lend loans, these payment banks will provide payment services and deposit products to its target customers which will be small businesses and low-income households. Till date 11 license shave been granted out of which four banks are functional which are – Paytm,Airtel, Indian postal payment bank, Phinopayment.

Small finance banks– Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.

3. Where is Kaila Devi temple located in Rajasthan?

Answer:Kaila Devi Temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Kaila Devi Village of Karauli district, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The temple is located on the banks of the Kalisil River, a tributary of the Banas River in the hills of Aravali.

4. Why no precipitation in Kachchh and Western Rajasthan?

There is no mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents(which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.

The monsoon  currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by stable anti-cyclonic air.

The hot and dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the ascent of air and absorb its moisture.

Theseconditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan where desert conditions prevail.

Some of the currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unitewith the Bay of Bengal branch.

Although a few air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.

5. What are the component and function of human blood?

Answer:Blood has a number of functions that are central to survival

  • Supplying oxygen to cells and tissues.
  • Providing essential nutrients to cells, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose.
  • Removing waste materials, such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid.
  • Transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues.
  • Forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss.
  • Carrying cells and antibodies that fight infection.
  • Bringing waste products to the kidneys and liver, which filter and clean the blood
  • Regulating body temperature.

It has four main components: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.Blood has many different functions, including: transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues. Forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss.

6. What is LR-SAM or MR-SAM?

Barak 8 also known as LR-SAM or as MR-SAM is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile, designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and combat jets.

India’s decision to buy more Barak 8 Long-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LR-SAM) systems from Israel would significantly bolsterNavy’s ability to to defend against incoming ariel attacks. The Long-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LR-SAM) system is an operational Air and Missile Defence (AMD) system used by Israel’s navy as well as by India’s navy, air and land forces.

LRSAM has long-range engagement capability to penetrate deep water and land to intercept all types of aerial targets like subsonic and supersonic missiles, fighter aircraft, maritime patrolling aircraft (MPA), helicopter and sea skimming missiles. It is capable of countering latest generation anti-ship missiles.

Important Facts about Barak-8 missiles:

  • Barak 8 was jointly developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO), Israel’s Administration for the Development of Weapons and Technological Infrastructure, Elta Systems, Rafael and other companies.
  • The Barak 8 has a length of about 4.5 meters, a diameter of 0.225 meters at missile body, and 0.54 meters at the booster stage, a wingspan of 0.94 meters and weighs 275 kg including a 60 kg warhead which detonates at proximity.
  • The missile has maximum speed of Mach 2 with a maximum operational range of 70 km, which was later increased to 100 km.
  • Barak 8 features a dual pulse rocket motor as well as Thrust vector control, and possesses high degrees of maneuverability at target interception range.
  • Barak-8 incorporates state-of-the-art phased array multi-mission radar, two-way data link, and a flexible command and control system, enabling users to simultaneously engage multiple targets dayand night and in all weather conditions.
  • Also Read | Akash, PAD, AAD and nowS-400 triumph air defence missile system
  • Barak-8 integrates several advanced systems as digital radar, command and control, launchers, interceptors with modern radio frequency seekers, data link and system-wide connectivity.
  • Indian Navy has already deployed the missiles on Kolkata class stealth guided-missile destroyer.
  • The Indian Army has also ordered five regiments of MRSAM version of this missile, which consists of about 40 launchers and 200 missiles for ₹17,000 crore. It is expected to be deployed by 2023 with first deliveries commencing in 2020. MRSAM is the land based configuration of the missile.
  • The land based configuration of themissile consists of a command and control system, tracking radar, missile and mobile launcher systems.
  • The new contract announced by IAI wasentered with Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), which serves as the main contractor in the project.

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Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III Paper-IV
Unit-I
Rajasthan History Administrative Ethics   Rajasthan Current Affairs General Hindi & English
Art-Culture Rajasthan National Current Affairs
Indian History   International Current Affairs
Indian Culture
World History
Unit-II
Economy-Rajasthan Science & Technology Public Administration
Indian Economy Agriculture-Rajasthan Polity & Administration
                                          Unit-III
Sociology Geography-Rajasthan Sports & Yoga
Management Geography-India Behaviour
Accounting & Auditing Geography-World Law
general studies of Rajasthan

Current Affairs for IAS Prelims 2019 Important topics

India GSLV MkIII-D2 successfully launches GSAT-29

India’s GSAT-29 communication satellite was successfully launched by the second developmental flight of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III (GSLV MkIII-D2) today from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota.

The first successful mission of GSLV Mark III was an experimental suborbital flight in 2014. Subsequently, GSLV Mark III-D1 launched GSAT-19, a high throughput communication satellite, with a lift-off mass of 3150 kg, into GTO on June 5, 2017.

GSLV Mk III Launches till Date

S.No. Title Launch Date Launcher Type Payload
3 GSLV Mk III-D2 / GSAT-29 Mission Nov 14, 2018 GSLV-MK-III GSAT-29
2 GSLV Mk III-D1/GSAT-19 Mission Jun 05, 2017 GSLV-MK-III GSAT-19
1 LVM-3/CARE Mission Dec 18, 2014 GSLV-MK-III Crew module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE)

Important Note:

GSLV Mk III is a 3-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO.

  • Two boosters with solid propellant constitute the first stage
  • The core with liquid propellant forms the second stage and the cryogenic engine completes the final stage.

GSAT-29 is a Multiband, multi-beam communication satellite, intended to serve as test bed for several new and critical technologies.

The Q/V-Band communication payload onboard is intended to demonstrate the future high throughput satellite system technologies

Its Ku-band and Ka-band payloads are configured to cater to the communication requirements of users including those from remote areas especially from Jammu & Kashmir and North-Eastern regions of India.

Geo High Resolution Camera will carry out high resolution imaging.

Declaring GSLV MKIII operational, Chandrayaan-2 and Gaganyaan missions will be launched by this heavy-lifter.

The success of GSLV MkIII-D2 marks an important milestone in Indian space programme towards achieving self-reliance in launching heavier satellites. The success of this flight also signifies the completion of the experimental phase of GSLV Mark III.

Source: PIB+ISRO

The Earth Saver-Rule Book on Climate

Climate negotiators from around the world have gathered in Poland to renew their efforts towards finalising a global action plan to prevent adverse impacts of climate change. The annual meeting, informally called COP24 (24th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is being organised in Katowice, an important city in southern Poland’s coal belt. It is being held amidst a series of fresh warnings that current measures announced by countries, some already under way and others to be implemented in the coming years, were hugely inadequate for achieving the agreed objective of keeping the rise in global temperatures within 2°C from pre-industrial times.

The Main Agenda

The main task on the hands of negotiators gathered in Katowice would be to finalise the Book of Rules for the implementation of the Paris Agreement that was clinched at a similar meeting in 2015, and came into effect the following year after the required number of countries had ratified it. For the last two years, negotiators have been working on formulating the rules, procedures, guidelines, and institutional mechanisms through which the provisions of the Paris Agreement would be implemented. These include such things as agreeing on accounting standards to measure emissions, processes for monitoring, reporting and verification (commonly referred to as MRV in climate negotiation circles) of actions being taken by individual countries, mechanisms to raise financial resources and ensure the flow of funds for climate projects, and institutions to facilitate the diffusion of appropriate technologies to countries and regions that need them.

At the COP22 meeting in Marrakech, countries had set themselves a 2018 deadline for the completion of the Rulebook. Though extra rounds of meetings have been held this year in the run-up to the Katowice summit, the countries are still far away from finalising the “Rulebook”. That is because most of the issues to be dealt with and agreed upon, notably those relating to finance, technology, and MRV, are highly contentious, and the negotiators face an uphill task in their attempt to wrap it up in the next two weeks.

There is a growing noise about the need to aim for a 1.5°C target instead of 2°C.

A recent special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the pathways to the 1.5° target is an important item on the agenda in Katowice.

The 1.5°C debate

The Paris Agreement, while seeking to hold the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C from pre-industrial times, also promises to keep Pursuing efforts to attain the 1.5° target. This was done to accommodate the concerns of smaller countries, mainly island nations that face the greatest threat from climate change. At the Paris meeting in 2015, the countries had also called upon the IPCC, a global body of scientists that does periodic reviews of scientific literature to make projections about the Earth’s future climate, to prepare a special report on the feasibility of the 1.5°C target.

Challenges

Recently Emissions Gap report, released by the UN Environment Program, has said if the countries do not substantially enhance their actions before 2030, the 1.5° target would get out of reach. Called for “Unprecedented and Urgent action”, it has reported that total annual global greenhouse gas emissions in 2017, at 53.5 billion tonnes carbon dioxide-equivalent, was 0.7 billion tonnes higher than the previous year.

  • This is the first time in four years that the total emission has shown an increase.
  • The total emissions in 2030 need to be at least 25% below the 2017 level to continue on the 2% pathway, and at least 55% lower if 1.5° target has to be achieved.
  • Recently the World Meteorological Organization reported that global average surface temperatures in 2018 were all set to be the fourth highest ever recorded. The 20 warmest years have all been in the last 22 years, with the top four being the last four years. The report also said that data for the first 10 months of the year showed that global average temperatures were already nearly 1°C above pre-industrial levels.

Osiris-Rex mission

After couple of years chase, NASA spacecraft arrived on December 3 at the ancient asteroid Bennu, its first visitor in billions of years

Important Notes

The carbon-rich asteroid Bennu could hold evidence dating back to the beginning of our solar system 4.5 billion years ago.

As such, it is an astronomical time capsule.

NASA has brought back comet dust and solar wind particles before, but never asteroid samples.

About Osiris-Rex

The $800 million Osiris-Rex mission began with a 2016 launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Both the spacecraft and asteroid’s names come from Egyptian mythology. Osiris is the god of the afterlife, while Bennu represents the heron and creation.

Osiris-Rex is actually a NASA acronym for origins, spectral interpretation, resource identification, security-regolith explorer.

Osiris-Rex aims to collect at least 60g of dust and gravel.

The spacecraft won’t land, but rather use a 10-foot (3-metre) mechanical arm in 2020 to momentarily touchdown and vacuum up particles.

The sample container would break loose and head toward Earth in 2021.

The collection parachuting down to Utah would represent the biggest cosmic haul since the Apollo astronaut’s hand-delivered moon rocks to Earth in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Japan’s second asteroid mission

A Japanese spacecraft, meanwhile, has been hanging out at another near-Earth asteroid since June, also for samples.

It is Japan’s second asteroid mission. This latest rock is named Ryugu and about double the size of Bennu.

Japan has also managed to return some tiny particles in 2010 from its first asteroid mission, also named Hayab

Potentially hazardous asteroids

Both Bennu and Ryugu are considered potentially hazardous asteroids.

That means they could smack Earth years from now. At worst, Bennu would carve out a crater during a projected close call 150 years from now.

First manned mission Soyuz to ISS since October failure

A Soyuz rocket carrying Russian, American and Canadian astronauts took off from Kazakhstan and reached orbit, in the first manned mission since a failed launch in October.

Important Notes

The Russian space agency Roscomos announced that the capsule was successfully launched into orbit.

It was the first manned launch for the Soviet-era Soyuz since October 11, when a rocket carrying Russia’s Aleksey Ovchinin and U.S. astronaut Nick Hague failed just minutes after blast-off, forcing the pair to make an emergency landing.

They escaped unharmed but the launch failed — the first such incident in Russia’s post-Soviet history — raised concerns about the state of the Soyuz programme.

The Soyuz is the only means of reaching the ISS since the U.S. retired the space shuttle in 2011.

India’s heaviest communication satellite GSAT-11 launched from French Guiana

New analysis says Puga has highest geothermal potential

Seaweed-silver combo can fight drug-resistant bacteria in biofilms

ISRO celebrates 1000th Casting Completion by SPROB

Insect stings inspire syringe-needle designs

AstroSat discovers ultraviolet wings of Butterfly Nebula

CSIR develops Less Polluting Firecrackers named – SWAS, SAFAL and STAR

3D scanning technology can tell how clean Indian cities are

Injectable gel may deliver islet cells for type 1 diabetes: study

CSIR develops affordable Water Disinfection System “OneerTM”

Bhuvan Ganga geo-portal and Bhuvan Ganga Mobile App

NITI Aayog Constitutes Himalayan State Regional Council

Rs 75 commemorative coin to mark 75th anniversary of Tricolour hoisting by Bose

HRD Ministry launches LEAP and ARPIT

K9 Vajra, M777 howitzer guns inducted into Army

Kaiga unit sets world record among PHWR for operating uninterrupted for 895 days

West Bengal will observe ‘Rasogolla Day’ on November 14

AstroSat unravels how hot stars evolve in Globular Clusters in the Milky Way

PSLV-C43 launches HySIS and 30 foreign satellites

NASA InSight Lander Arrives on Martian Surface

Chinese scientist claims world’s first gene-edited babies

Buttermilk-based bio-formulation helps in cotton disease control

IMD develops ‘Impact Based Forecasting Approach’ to assess the rise of water level

Dr Harsh Vardhan inaugurates air pollution control device WAYU in Delhi

Sikkim gets real-time landslide warning system

Sensors at Chandmari Village in Sikkim’s Gangtok District

New device developed to tackle pollution in high traffic zones

Dr. Harsh Vardhan inaugurates device to tackle pollution at high traffic zones.

How air pollution is adding to India’s diabetes burden

New approach can help make better titanium alloy for implants

Startup shows how crop residue can generate useful products

New centre to help farmers become climate resilient

Sikkim wins UN FAO Future Policy for Gold Award

Central Government notified minimum environmental flows for River Ganga

Global warming impacts on India will be huge: IPCC

World’s largest ever bird—Vorombe titan

Nepal to be the first country in the world to double its tiger population

Union Environment Minister Releases India’s National Redd+ Strategy

India’s first biofuel powered flight undertakes maiden voyage

Scientists develop promising multi-flowering pea varieties

Climate change affecting hydropower generation in India: study

Northeast losing canopy cover at alarming rate: study

Mars 2020 Rover will land at Jezero Crater

Argentinean paleontologists discover a diminutive grandfather of the dinosaurs in the United States

Faster diagnostic tests developed for tuberculosis

Linking weather extremes with climate change in real-time

‘Pondicherry shark’ spotted third time near Kakinada

PAISA Portal

Integrated Health Information Platform (IHIP)

Who are the Sentinelese in Andaman island?

Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

Why India wants to study human micro biome

Do not disturb this Andaman Island

Drought: When, and how, does a state govt declare one?

InSight on Mars

The bot app

Visas for pilgrims 5 in India under protocol

Rs 75 commemorative coin

Himalayan State Regional Council

J&K all set for President’s rule

Nirankari sect

Air Quality Life Index (AQLI)

Manodhairya Yojana scheme

Lucknow group develops transgenic rice with reduced arsenic accumulation

Kepler Space Telescope Bid ‘Goodnight’ With Final Set of Commands

Frozen super-Earth discovered six light-years away

Ice age crater discovered beneath Greenland glacier

GSLV MkIII-D2 successfully launches GSAT-29

Spinnaker-World’s largest brain like supercomputer switched on

National body set up to study rare form of diabetes

Parker Solar Probe Breaks Record, Becomes Closest Spacecraft to Sun

National Bio-Energy Mission

The National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

National Mission on Seabuckthorn

National Mission For A Green India

National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem

National Water Mission (NWM) Mission

National Mission On Sustainable Habitat

National Mission For Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)

National Solar Mission

The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust

International Whaling Commission

Tribal health Initiative

Tula

Nationally determined contributions

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition

Networked Carbon Markets

Transformative Carbon Asset Facility

World Sustainable Development Summit

Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Tropical forests

National Green Tribunal

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Trillion Trees Programme

Bonn Challenge

UN-REDD Programme

Climate Technology Centre & Network

World Adaptation Science Programme

Minamata Convention on Mercury

How are particulate matters and black carbon related?

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC)

Short Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs)

Climate and Clean Air Coalition

Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action

Under2 Coalition

National Clean Air Programme

UN Climate Resilience Initiative A2R

The Global Climate Change Alliance

Extended Producer Responsibility

Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives

Science, Technology and Innovation Global Assessment Programme

International Basic Sciences Programme

UNESCO Global Geoparks

Positioning India as a global leader in science and technology

Science festival opens in Lucknow

Scientists find genomic regions that decide zinc density in wheat

How heavy metals are helping spread drug resistance

Excess of N fertilizers hampers germination and root growth in rice: study

Scientists open new avenue to study head muscle dystrophy

International Geosciences and Geoparks Programme

International Hydrological Programme

Man and the Biosphere Programme

United Nations World Water Assessment Programme

National Tiger Conservation Authority

Keibul Lamjao National Park

World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought-2018

Global e-Sustainability Initiative

Momentum for Change

Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action

Climate Neutral Now

Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint

Bonn Convention

Wetlands International

This gel can protect farmers from toxic pesticides

CSIR transfers technology for disinfecting water

Breeding dual purpose rubber trees

Integrating technologies to design better healthcare interventions

India’s timekeeper says country need two time zones

Smart spraying can help cut pesticide use in orchards

Innovative products and solutions on display at IISF

Osteoporosis drug may find use in cancer therapy

Sci-Connect promotes spirit of inquiry among young minds in NE

Here is why improved forecasts are not helping prevent floods and droughts

A new effort to bring astronomy and people closer

Scientists take a cue from lotus leaf to make protein measuring device

Thirteen young scientists get Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize

Our universe is less lumpy than estimated

Dark matter with borders

Better lithium ion batteries on the cards

Avalanche forecasting, public awareness can save lives

Heart disease, stroke among top killers in India

Apsara – U Reactor Becomes Operational at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

From hypertension to cancers –alarm bells ringing in India’s tribal belts

Rare basalt columns found in village in Kolhapur

Subsidies on irrigation efficiency may have negative impact on water use

Study finds gaps in publicly funded dialysis programme

New migrant pest threatens major crops

Cutting on rock salt, fluoride toothpastes can help tackle anaemia: study

Kashmir’s Dal Lake harbours bacteria that can degrade pesticides

Scientists find protein role in TB bacteria growth

Nurturing young talents of north-east for science

Cabinet approves Umbrella scheme ‘O-SMART’

ISRO to send three astronauts into Space by 2022

Scientists explain strange behaviour of gut bacteria resistant to TB drugs

Veterinary drug may be repurposed for human cancers: study

Making science education fun for schools kids in NE

Biomass of invasive weed can help treat toxic waste

Cyclone Warning Centre to be set up in Thiruvananthapuram

Gut bacteria are a reservoir of drug resistance genes: study

How Machilipatnam became site of a pioneering discovery in 19th century

CSIR developed PEGylated Streptokinase for the treatment of ischemic strokes

Jammu and Agartala to get Space Research Technology Centres

Scientists decipher how Japanese Encephalitis virus enters brain cells

Tell a good science story and win a prize

Fire load of buildings on the rise: study

Making cellular probes more effective

Dipstick urine test possible to predict drug response in alcoholic hepatitis

Mixed farm-forest landscapes also support bird biodiversity: study

New sensor developed for measuring sea surface temperatures

Government measures to tackle dust pollution

Kargil fossil unravels climatic conditions of early Himalayas

Government has approved 122 new research projects under ‘IMPRINT-2’ scheme

Antibiotic resistant genes found in Kerala mangrove ecosystem

Chinese scientists claimed to have created the first single-chromosome yeast

Scientists develop new method to synthesize bio-conjugates

ISRO is developing green propellants for use in future rocket

Now there is an India tool for autism screening

Arsenic may help kill liver cancer cells

New absorbent may make diapers eco-friendly

Indian scientists find out how Zika virus causes Microcephaly in infants

Worms Frozen for 42,000 Years in Siberian Permafrost, successfully revived

Scutoid-a new geometric shape identified by the Spanish scientists

Scientists help pave the way for a vaccine against TB

Double bonanza awaits sky gazers on July 27

Ten things you must know about the Total Lunar Eclipse on 27th July 2018

Genetic profile of mithuna reveals unique traits

Forgotten icons of the information technology revolution

Low cost prosthetic knee joint coming soon

A peek into gut of Indians throws up surprises

New option emerges for treatment of inflammatory diseases

LIGO-India Observatory in Hingoli District of Maharashtra

Fenugreek and onion are good for diabetic heart

Making recycling of rubber eco-friendly

India to work on futuristic concept of “cyber twin”

Popular vegetable can help prepare a cure for Kala Azar

Indian scientists find faster way to fabricate flexible micro-super capacitors

New technique can make ocean wave energy attractive

How fertilizer use alters soil bacteria communities

How Indian museums can harness power of technology for art authenticity

Argentinean researchers discover the oldest giant dinosaur species that inhabited the Earth

A solar water purifier, with a difference

Indigenous radar to track monsoon winds is now functional

Drug resistance posing new challenge to child survival

ICAT releases First BS-VI engine certificate

ISRO successfully carries out flight tests for Crew Escape System

Study calls for addressing all gender barriers to ensure universal health care

Vitamin D deficiency may be linked to diabetes risk in pre-diabetic women

POLAR 2018-Here is why researchers working in Polar Regions are coming together

NIN launches ‘Nutrify India Now’ App on nutrition content of Indian food

N Chandrasekaran Task Force on Artificial Intelligence recommendations

BEE recommendations on temperature setting of Air Conditioners

Tea seed oil may be healthy option

NavIC frequency too close to WiFi, may cause interference: Study

Manufacturing of Oxytocin formulations for domestic use restricted to public sector

Scientists improvise models to better predict storm surges

National Challenge ‘Ideate for India – creative solutions using technology’

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy conferred Skoch Award for National Significance

Maharashtra launches SMART initiative for Agribusiness, Rural Transformation

Cabinet approves National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems

Cabinet approves implementation of Shahpurkandi Dam on river Ravi

Indian Coast Guard conducts Exercise ‘Clean Sea-2018’ at sea off Port Blair

Sahitya Academy awards for 2018

Ministry Road Transport & Highways notifies Dual- Fuel Usage for Agricultural and Construction Equipment Vehicles

‘Blue Waters Ahoy!’ Chronicling the Indian Navy’s History from 2001-10

Railways earmarks reserved seats in trains for women passengers

‘Sex Sorted Semen’ scheme of Uttar Pradesh

India’s first locomotive-less Train 18, breaches 180 kmph speed limit during test run

Rajnath announces pan-India single-number “112” for women’s safety

Sunil Arora Takes Charge as 23rd Chief Election Commissioner

DAC Approves for Acquisition of Defence Equipment worth Rs 3000 cr

Union Home Minister inaugurates Hornbill Festival

Union Home Minister launches Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) for Nagaland

DAIC and JNU sign MoU to facilitate & enhance Research Activities

Health Ministry approves compensation formula for Hip implant cases

Government launches Bhasha Sangam

Govt revises height norms for STs of NE, Gorkhas in CAPF recruitment

Ganga Exhibition and a Ganga Museum

Maneka Sanjay Gandhi flag off the 2nd Edition of HAUSLA Sports Meet

Himachal Pradesh first state to launch pan-India single emergency number

‘Maitree Diwas’ in Arunachal Pradesh

No homework for classes one and two kids

Raksha Mantri Launches ‘Mission Raksha Gyan Shakti’

Odisha Government launches ‘Mo Cycle’ system

Bihar CM unveils 70 ft tall Lord Buddha’s statue in Rajgir

“Paisa – Portal for Affordable Credit & Interest Subvention Access”, Launched

Notification Issued for Inclusion of Quadric-cycles as Non Transport Vehicles

Sexual Harassment Complaints Portal ‘SHe-Box’

Cabinet approves the Allied and Healthcare Professions Bill, 2018

Cabinet approves continuation of umbrella scheme ‘ACROSS’

N. Chandrababu Naidu launches ‘Bhudhaar’, programme

Qaumi Ekta Week 2018 to promote communal harmony

Binapani Devi conferred with Banga Vibhushan

Traffic Separation Scheme for the south-west coast

Shri Jual Oram inaugurates ‘Aadi Mahotsav’

WCD Ministry nominates three Members of NCW

Govt approves setting up 1023 fast-track courts to dispose off rape, POCSO cases

Govt to refund employers for seven weeks of maternity leave to employees

Odisha to provide free smartphones under Mission Shakti

National Frequency Allocation Plan 2018 (NFAP) was unveiled during India Mobile Congress

Tagore Award for Cultural Harmony for 2014, 2015 & 2016

Govt. constitutes GoM to look into sexual harassment at workplace

Government notifies special courts for Benami transaction cases

Prime Minister dedicates National Police Memorial to the nation in New Delhi

MoU signed between Lady Irwin College & MoRD for Roshni

Indian Navy conducted successful maiden trials of DSRV

Cabinet approves National Council for Vocational Education and training

What is DigiYatra?

India’s first methanol cooking fuel program launched in Assam

UPSC allows facility of withdrawal of applications by candidates

Shri Piyush Goyal Launches Rail Heritage Digitisation Project

‘Smart Trains with Smart Coaches’ unveiled at Rae Bareli

Tribes India launches “Punch Tantra Collection

As gutkha stands banned, dohra rising in UP

Supreme Court declares Centre’s Aadhaar scheme Constitutionally valid

SC forms Justice Amitava Roy committee to look into the aspect of jail reforms

NASA’s Dawn Mission to Asteroid Belt Comes to End

Scientists discover a new species of dinosaur 110 million years old in Argentina

Fourth India International Science Festival

New gamma ray telescope coming up in Ladakh

Experiments in rats show some bad memories can be forgotten

Modifications in school bag can reduce load for children

Cyclone-30 Became Operational at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre

Mini ice age ruled out

Air pollution killing more people than tobacco: study

New invasive weed spotted in Karnataka

World Bank unveils USD 200 bn in climate action investment for 2021-25

New study questions Kerala flood link with climate change

Andaman and Nicobar home to more than 10% of the country’s fauna species

Genetic study reveals presence of rare sub-species of Hog Deer

Greenhouse gas levels in atmosphere break another record, UN report shows

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau gets Asia Environment Enforcement Awards, 2018

Sri Lankan Frogmouth first time sighted in Kerala’s Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary

Govt delegates powers to local bodies for giving environmental clearance

Double whammy of groundwater in India – declining reserves and rising carbon emissions

Balancing food demand and climate goals

Indian landmass is warming, confirms past climate records captured in depths of the earth

NMCG’S Bal Ganga Mela 2018

Greater flamingoes spotted at Hope Island after 25 years

Use your phone camera for real-time pollution check

Odd-Even scheme had little impact on air pollution: study

World Elephant Day 2018

India’s only facility for conservation of endangered species inaugurated at Hyderabad

Prime Minister launches web portal PARIVESH on the occasion of Bio-fuel day

Krishnamurthy Subramanian appointed as new Chief Economic Advisor

Cabinet approves Agriculture Export Policy, 2018

Kolkata-Patna becomes India’s second container cargo sector on Inland Waterways

After the success of container cargo being shipped from Kolkata to Varanasi earlier  this year, Bihar’s

Policy Commission Meeting of the World Customs Organization

Ministry of Finance releases Discussion Paper entitled “3 Essential “S”s of Climate Finance

Procurement of pulses, oilseeds increases by 13 times, says Govt

Protocol on Hygiene and Inspection requirements for the export of Fish Meal signed between Indian and China

National Projects Construction Corporation Limited (NPCC) is now a Mini-ratna

Governor of Tripura Inaugurates 7th International Tourism Martin Agartala

Cabinet clears mandatory jute packaging of 100% food grains

PM launches Ease of Doing Business Grand Challenge

PM launches Ease of Doing Business Grand Challenge

Baba Kalyani report on SEZ Policy Submitted to Commerce Minister

Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme launched

7th RCEP Inter-Sessional Ministerial Meeting concludes in Singapore

Cabinet approves filling of Padur Strategic Petroleum Reserves

Ministry of Food Processing Industries issues guidelines for OPERATION GREENS

RBI starts process to set up Public Credit Registry

Atal Pension Yojana (APY) subscriber base crossed 1.24 crore mark

PM launches historic Support and Outreach Initiative for MSME sector

Estimate Committee suggested GDP overhaul

GI Tag for Alphanso from Konkan

India’s First Global Skills Park in State of Madhya Pradesh

SIDBI launches Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign, Udyam Abhilasha

A new effort to bring astronomy and people closer

Cabinet approves National Digital Communications Policy-2018

Early sowing can increase cotton yield: study

Cabinet approves revise / fix price of ethanol derived from B heavy molasses

Cabinet approves Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan’ (PM-AASHA)

PM announces increase in remuneration for ASHA and Anganwadi workers

National Nutrition Month is being celebrated in September

Tourism becomes the world’s third-largest export sector-UNWTO

PM Modi launches India Post Payments Bank

ICAR organizes two-day conference on Motivating & Attracting Youth in Agriculture (MAYA)

India’s foodgrain production to touch all-time high of over 284 mn tonnes in 2017-18

Measures to promote ‘Zero Budget Natural Farming’in India

‘Paryatan Parv’ to be organized nationwide from 16-27 September, 2018

SAATHI initiative for the power loom sector launched

Worker Population Ratio for Female in India

#MeToo’s importance for women’s jobs

Inclusive Green Growth Index

Emergency Response Support System (ERSS)

Hornbill Festival and Nagaland

The Indian Delegation At COP-24

Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS)

Balancing food demand and climate goals

World Malaria Report 2018

Global Wage Report 2018

RIMES terms Titli cyclone ‘rarest of rare’

More winter birds flock to Ernakulam’s wetlands

PolyCycl (patented) technology

Blue Economy

Logix India 2019

Atmosphere & Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS)

The Allied and Healthcare Professions Bill, 2018

India to study marijuana-derived drugs

ISRO to launch new imaging satellite HySIS

SC rejects fresh plea against Article 370

Andaman & Nicobar Islands: home to a tenth of India’s fauna species

Cherry Blossom festival

Salient features of GST

Goods & Services Tax Council

Soharai art

Kumbhalgarh was a creation of Mewar’s ruler Kumbha

Maharashtra has rich Buddhist heritage and culture

Festive season around the corner

Bhoganandishwara Temple

Single edition saris in hues of gold

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

‘Super-Earth’ found orbiting Sun’s nearest single star

All you need to know about GSLV Mk III – D2/GSAT-29 Mission

When judges legislate

India’s emission targets most ambitious among G20 nations

Papier-Mache art of Kashmir

Spiking Neural Network Architecture (Spinnaker)

Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary

Name changes of places in news

Graphic novels give a push to Bengal’s dying folk arts

Indian Ocean Naval Symposium

Wisdom of the wild

Five Deeps Mission

Atal Innovation Mission and UNICEF announce Young Champions Awards

India GSLV MkIII-D2 successfully launches GSAT-29

Samudra Shakti

Indian Wind Turbine Certification Scheme (IWTCS)

Annual Refresher Programme in Teaching (ARPIT)

Leadership for Academicians Programme (LEAP)

EXERCISE INDRA 2018

70% Youth Unaware of Govt’s Skill Development Programmes: WEF

5 reasons why Finland has the cleanest air in the world

Save Our Rice Campaign (SOR)

Alliance for Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture

Dhole

Dolphin population declines in India’s only dolphin sanctuary

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats

Global Alliance for Clean Cook stoves

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

Bio-Carbon Fund

Connect4Climate

Web Foundation report

India to Release Vultures

‘Oumuamua: Asteroid, comet, or alien spaceship?

New PSU’s Included in CPSE ETF

Decoding the Central Board of the RBI

National River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Conservation and Management) Bill, 2018

“Himalayan Viagra’ under threat from climate change

AI bot ‘ClaRAN’ can spot radio galaxies

Ozone: The Earth’s protective shield is repairing

Multi-Modal Terminal in Varanasi

Public Private Partnership (PPP) through Public Private Partnership Appraisal Committee

India and Morocco

Global Cooling Innovation Summit

SIMBEX 18

Cabinet approves Laying down procedure and mechanism for sale of enemy shares

Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme

NASA’s Ralph and Lucy set to visit Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids in 2021

UN World Food Programme and Ali Baba join hands to achieve zero hunger

Election Commission sets up ‘Sangwari’ polling booths in Chhattisgarh to encourage women voters

PM Narendra Modi celebrated Diwali with jawans of ITBP at Harsil

South Korean First Lady was the chief guest at Ayodhya Deepotsva

National Dhanvantri Ayurveda Award 2018

INS Arihant completes first deterrence patrol

Swachh Bharat Mission announces World Toilet Day Contest for District Collectors

Zika Virus strain that causes Microcephaly not been found in Rajasthan

Odisha launched ‘Saura Jalanidhi’ project for farmers.

Offshore patrol vessel ICGS Varaha launched

‘Train 18’-Indian Railway’s NextGen Shatabdi train

Physical division of Rajasthan Study Notes



Physical Division of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is divided into 4 physical divisions which have further sub-division.

Plains of Western Desert

  • It is a special geographical region which is also called ‘The Great Indian Desert’ or Thar Desert.
  • It covers the districts like Barmer,Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Pali, Jalore, Nagaur, Sikar, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Hanumangarh and Ganganagar.
  • It is further divided into 4 subcategories.

Sandy Arid Region

a) This is a dry region having annual rainfall less than 25 centimeters.

b) Barmer, Bikaner and western part of Jodhpur and Churu are included in this region.

c) Sand Dunes are mostly found in this region.

Luni-Jawai Basin

a. It is a semi arid plain.

b. Luni and its tributaries rivers flow in this region.

c. Pali, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur are included in this region.

d. It is a river-based plain; hence it is called Luni Basin.

Shekhawati Region

It is also called ‘Banger Region’.

Jhunjhunu, Sikar and Churu and Northern part of Nagaur are included in it.

This is a sandy region having sand dunes of less height.

Here the sand dunes are of the transverse type.

Plain of Ghaghar

Plains of Ganganagar and Hanumangarh are formed by the flow of Ghaggar River.

Presently, this river is considered dead because it doesn’t have a flowing way.

Ghaggar River is the ancient river Saraswati which is disappeared.

Thus it became a plain suitable for agriculture.

Aravalli Range

It is the oldest mountain range in the world.

It has a length of 692 km from Delhi to Palanpur in Gujarat.

It is expanded in seven districts of Rajasthan: – Sirohi, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa and Alwar.

It is divided into three subcategories

  1. Southern Aravalli Range
  2. Central Aravalli Range
  3. Northern Aravalli Range

Eastern Plain

  • This region is in the east side of Aravalli region which includes districts like Bharatpur, Alwar, Dholpur,Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk and Bhilwara.
  • This region is the River Basin region which is formed by the collection of soil by rivers.
  • This region has three sub-regions.

Banas-Banganga Basin

  • This plain is formed by Banas River and its tributaries like Banganga, Bedach, Kothari, Den, Sohadra, Manasi, Dhundha,Bandi, Morel, Vaagan, Gambhir, etc.
  • This plain has the height between 150 to 300 metres above the sea level and its slope is towards east.

Chambal Basin

  • This region includes districts likeKota, Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dholpur.
  • Ravines (Bihad) of Chambal are located in Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur.

Central Mahi Basin or Chappan Plain

  1. It is expanded in the district of Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh.
  2. Mahi River began its journey from Madhya Pradesh and flowing through Rajasthan and Gujrat falls in the Arabian Sea.
  3. In Rajasthan, it flows through ‘Bagad’(Local name for Laciniated land) region.
  4. In between Pratapgarh and Banswara, a group of 56 villages is located, thus it is also called Chappan Plain.

South-Eastern Plateau Region or Hadoti Region

It is expanded in the districts like Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar and Baran.

This region has many mountains ranges having the average height of 500 meters.

Mukundra Hills and Bundi Hills are famous spots.

Chambal and its tributaries like Kalisindh,Para van and Parvati flow in this region which is boon for agriculture in this region.

River System and Lakes of Rajasthan

  • Chambal and Mahi are the perennial rivers of Rajasthan.
  • River drainage system of Rajasthan is decided by Aravalli Range which works as the divides the rivers of Rajasthan in two parts.



Geography of India-IAS Prelims 2019

  • The Great mountain of North
  • Northern Plain
  • Peninsular Plateau
  • River,Parks,Wildlife
  • Coastal Plains
  • Thar Desert
  • Islands
  • Practice MCQ

Click Here to Download Complete Study Notes

The Himalayas are the highest and the youngest fold mountain ranges of the world. Their geological structure is young, weak and flexible since the Himalayan uplift is an ongoing process, making them one of the highest earthquake-prone regions of the world.

Formation of Himalayas

The Himalayas are believed to have formed over 50 million years ago with the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate slid below the Eurasian plate, due to its density being higher, and in the process crumbling and buckling up the Eurasian plate into the various mountain ranges that are now apart of the Himalayas.

Ranges of Himalayas

The Himalayas are a series of parallel mountain ranges extending along the North-West to the South-East direction (known as the Strike of the Himalayas). These ranges are separated by longitudinal valleys. They include,

  • Trans-Himalayas
  • The Greater Himalayas or Himadri
  • The Lesser Himalayas or Himachal
  • Shiwalik or the Outer Himalayas
  • The Eastern Hills or Purvanchal

Trans Himalayas

  • They are made of the ocean sediments of the Tethys Sea which was consumed during the collision of Indian and Eurasian plate boundaries.
  • They include the ranges of Karakoram,Ladakh, and Zanskar.
  • Karakoram ranges have their one end originating from the Pamir Knot. Karakoram ranges hold the largest amounts of snow and ice among all of the Himalayan ranges.This is because they are situated in higher latitudes where the snow line(altitude above which there is permanent ice and snow cover).
  • The Karakoram is home to some of the largest glaciers such as Siachen (the second longest glacier outside of Polar Regions), Biafo (longest glacier outside of Polar Regions), Baltoro, Hispar, Trango etc.
  • They are home to some of the tallest peaks in the world such as Mt.K2/Godwin-Austin (8611m), Gasherbrum 1 (8080m), Broad Peak (8051m) etc.
  • Karakoram ranges have gaps in them, which are known as passes. Important among them are –Khunjerab Pass, Karakoram Pass, Sia La Pass, and Bilafond La Pass (immediately west of the Siachen glacier) etc.
  • Ladakh ranges are to the south-east of the Karakoram ranges. They separate the rivers Indus and Shyok (a tributary of Indus). Khardung La Pass (India’s highest motorable pass falls in these ranges). These ranges extend into China where they are known as the Kailash ranges. They include Mt. Kailash and Mansarovar Lake.
  • Pangong Tso (largest saline lake between India and China) and Spanggur Tso are the two salt water lakes situated in these ranges.
  • To the south of the Ladakh, ranges are the Zanskar ranges, which are cut across by the Zanskar River. These ranges extend into Uttarakhand. They contain some prominent peaks like Mt. Kamet, Nanda Devi (a biosphere reserve) Kedarnath etc.Lipulekh Pass that leads to Mansarovar and Mt. Kailash forms a part of these ranges. Spiti Valley, Lahaul Valley, and Kinnaur Valley are also a part of these ranges.

Greater Himalayas 

  • They extend for about 2400 km, making them one of the longest-running fold mountain ranges in the world.
  • Ofthe 28 tallest peaks in the world (higher than 8000 m), 14 are situated in the Himadri.
  • Mt. Everest,Mt. Kanchenjunga, Mt. Makalu etc. are a part of these ranges.
  • Some of the important passes of these ranges include Zojila Pass (connects Srinagar with Leh), Shipki La Pass, Burzil Pass, Nathu La Pass etc.
  • Important glaciers of these ranges include – Rongbuk glacier (largest in the Himadri),Gangotri, Zemu etc.
  • They are separated from the lesser Himalayas by longitudinal valleys which are filled with sediments. These are called the Doons. Prominent Doons include Paatli Dun, Chaukhamba Dun, Dehradun etc.

Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal

  • They are divided into the Pir Panjal range and the Dhauladhar range
  • Pir Panjal range is the longest range of the lesser Himalayas. It is cut across by the Jhelum river, Chenab river. Famous passes of this range include – Pir Panjal Pass, Banihal Pass (connects Jammu and Srinagar)
  • Dhauladhar ranges are the extension of Pir Panjal into Himachal Pradesh. They are cut across by the river Ravi.
  • Mussoorie ranges are also a part of the lesser Himalayas. They divide the waters of Sutlej and Ganga

Shiwalik

Apart from these ranges, Himalayas are also divided on the basis of the regions in which they are found.

  • Kashmir Himalayas – they comprise they trans Himalayan ranges of Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar and the Pir Panjal range of the lesser Himalayas. The cold desert of Ladakh lies in between the Greater Himalayas and the Karakoram range. Kashmir Valley is located between the Greater Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range.
  • Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas – they comprise the ranges between river Ravi in the west and river Kali in the east. It is drained by the Indus and the Ganga river systems.
  • Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas – they are situated between rivers Kali and Teesta.
  • Arunachal Himalayas – they extend from the east of Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east. Their orientation is from the southwest to the northeast direction, unlike the earlier ranges of the Himalayas. Some important rivers crossing these ranges include – Kameng,Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang, Lohit etc. Prominent hills of these ranges include the Dafla hills, Abor Hills, Mishmi hills etc. which are named after the ethnic communities residing in these hills.
  •  Eastern Hills – They are aligned from the north to the south. They include the ranges of Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills,Mizo/Lushai hills.

Rajasthan Current Affairs December 2018

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2018 Special Issue

Current Affairs Monthly Magazine with RAS Mains Exam 100+ Solved Practice Questions.

 

Click Here to Download PDF

New Development Project in Rajasthan RAS Mains Exam Free PDF

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Useful Important Topics

Development Projects Announced in Rajasthan Budget that will Transform Rajasthan

Construction of an underpass

  • Ram Niwas Bagh will now be connected to Jaipur-Delhi National Highway through an international level underpass.

  • The project will be carried out as part of the Smart City Program and Jaipur Smart City Limited (JSCL) has already started inviting the bid for the project.

  • The funding will be provided by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). Additional tunnels will be constructed for the parking that will bring the city at par with the infrastructure of foreign countries.

  • Electric Buses

  • Dravyavati river project

  • Environmental

  • Health

  • Education

  • Tourism

  • Women & Child Development

  • Science & Technology

  • The Nahargarh Sculpture Park

  • Jhalana Leopard Safari

  • Rural & Urban Development

  • Some Other noteworthy Projects

 

Download Free PDF For Complete Study Notes

Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan

Ancient India is an important part of History Syllabus for UPSC IAS/PSC Prelims Exams. Most of the questions related to History, Art and Culture have been appearing from this section in Prelims Exam. Candidates are advised to go through previous year questions to fully understand the nature of questions from Ancient History Part.

Stone Age

1. Paleolithic age

  • Handaxe, cleavers and choppers were characteristic stone tools of Lower Paleolithic Age.
  • These tools were used for chopping, digging and skinning.
  • In India such tools have been excavated from many sites such as Belan valley in Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh, Didwana in Rajasthan, Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh, etc.
  • Tools made on flakes were predominantly used during Middle Paleolithic. Upper Paleolithic Age was characterized by use of tools made on blades and flakes.
  • Nagaur
  • Didwana

Paleolithic groups developed increasingly complex tools and objects made of stone and natural fibers.

Language, art, scientific inquiry, and spiritual life were some of the most important innovations of the Paleolithic era.

2. Mesolithic Age

In Mesolithic period, small stone tools were made. These were used as composite tools and were hafted in woods, bones, etc. Due to small size of the tools, Mesolithic period is also known as Microlithic period Such small tools were an adaptation to new environment where small animals, birds and fishes were abundant.

The period of the earth’s history called the Stone Age was filled with remarkable achievements, made by early humans who roamed the globe following large animals around for food and for clothing. These early nomadic humans called hunter-gatherers needed tools and weapons that would be strong enough to take down animals much larger than what our minds can imagine today.

We called this time the Stone Age because of the tools that early humans used during the period that were crafted from stone. The period began in different places around the world, earlier in places like Africa (2.5 million years ago), and later in places like China (1.7 million years ago).

The first part of the Stone Age was called the Paleolithic Age, also known as the Old Stone Age when the world was particularly cold You could also call this period the Ice Age, when most of the world was covered in ice. Early humans would have needed large animals for their fur in order to make clothing to keep warm and survive.

Neolithic Age was the last phase of Stone Age. The beginning of Neolithic Age is characterized by crop farming and cultivation. This significant change in subsistence resulted in far reaching changes in socio-economic life of people. People transformed their nomadic life into sedentary and settled life. Such changes took relatively less time. This is why the farming practice of that time is called Agricultural Revolution.

The next period of the Stone Age, the world warmed considerably and the Ice Age came to an end This middle part of the Stone Age was known as the Mesolithic Age.

In India, the period began about 12,000 BCE and lasted until 2,000 BCE.

Bagor

  • On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwara District.
  • Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Tools are excavated in large numbers.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
  • Biggest Mesolithic Site in India.

Tilwara

  • On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
  • Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.

Chalcolithic Age

The term Chalcolithic is a combination of two words- Chalcolithic was derived from the Greek words “khalkos” + “líthos” which means “copper” and “stone” or Copper Age. It is also known as the Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus “of copper”) is an archaeological period that is usually considered to be part of the broader Neolithic (although it was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age).

People in this phase used copper tools along with stone tools; hence it is given such name. Chalcolithic Age is considered to be a transition between Stone Age and Bronze Age.

Ahar Culture

  • Also known as Banas Culture.
  • Six Hearth stone are found from a single home which shows the evidence of joint families living under the same roof.
  • Black and Red Ware pottery were found here.
  • Other important sites were Gilund, Balathal, Pachamta, etc.

Chalcolithic Sites in Indian Sub-Continent:

  1. Indus Region
  • Mohenjodaro
  • Harappa
  • Ropar
  • Suratgarh
  • Hanumangarh
  • Chanhudaro
  • Jhukar
  • Amri
  • Jhangar
  1. Ganges Region
  • Kausambi
  • Alamgirpur
  1. Brahmaputra Region
  2. Mahanadi Region
  3. Chambal Region
  • Pseva
  • Nagda
  • Paramar kheri
  • Tungini
  • Metwa
  • Takraoda
  • Bhilsuri
  • Maori
  • Ghanta Bilaod
  • Betwa
  • Bilawati
  • Ashta
  1. Saurashtra Region
  • Rangpur
  • Ahar
  • Prashas Patan
  • Lakhabawal
  • Lothal
  • Pithadia
  • Rojdi
  • Adkot
  1. Narmada Region
  • Navdatoli
  • Maheshwar
  • Bhagatrav
  • Telod
  • Mehgam
  • Hasanpur
  1. Tapi Region
  • Prakash
  • Bahal
  1. Godavari-Pravara Region
  • Joware
  • Nasik
  • Kopergaon
  • Nivasa
  • Daimabad

10. Bhima Region

  • Koregaon
  • Chandoli
  • Umbrage
  • Chanegaon
  • Anacin
  • Hingni
  • Nagarahole
  1. Karnataka Region
  • Brahmagiri
  • Piklihal
  • Maski

The first metal to be used at the end of the Neolithic period was copper which was used in addition to stone by several cultures. The cultures to use stone and copper implements were known as Chalcolithic which means stone-copper phase. The main occupations of the phase were hunting, fishing, and farming.

Following are some Multiple Choice Questions of Ancient History. These questions are also useful for UPSC CSE/State PCS Prelims Exams.

  1. Cleavers and Handaxe were characteristic tools of

(A) Lower Paleolithic Age

(B)  Middle Paleolithic Age

(C)  Upper Paleolithic Age

(D)    Iron Age

2. Chalcolithic Age is also known as

(A) Iron Age

(B) Stone Age

(C) Copper Age

(D) Neolithic Age

 

3. Mature phase of Harappan civilisation is dated between

(A) 3000 BC to 2000 BC

(B) 4000 BC to 3000 BC

(C) 1500 BC to 1000 BC

(D) 2600 BC to 1900 BC

 

4. Chirand in Bihar is a

(A) Lower Paleolithic site

(B) Mesolithic site

(C) Middle Paleolithic site

(D) Neolithic site

 

5. Which of the following is also known as Microlithic period?

(A) Paleolithic

(B) Mesolithic

(C) Neolithic

(D) Chalcolithic

 

6. Which of the following is correct about Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. The cities were planned
  2. Non- standardized weights were used
  3. There was elaborate water drainage system

Select using following codes:

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) 1 and 3 only

(D) 3 only

 

7. At which of the following Indus Valley Civilization yarns of spun cotton have been found?

(A) Harappa

(B) Mohenjodaro

(C) Lothal

(D) Kalibangan

 

8. Which of the following deity was not worshiped in Indus valley civilization?

(A) Vishnu

(B) Peepal tree

(C) Pashupati

(D) Mother goddess

9. the most common motif found on the seals of Indus Valley Civilisation is

(A) Elephant

(B) Bull

(C) Unicorn

(D) Rhinoceros

 

10. Agricultural Revolution took place in

(A) Paleolithic Age

(B) Mesolithic Age

(C) Neolithic Age

(D) Iron Age

Ancient-Medieval-Modern History of Rajasthan

 

 

Download-History of Rajasthan-Complete Study Notes

 

  • Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan

  • Practice MCQ

  • Stone Age

  • Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan

  • Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan

  • Neolithic Age in Rajasthan

  • Practice MCQ

  • Kalibangan Civilizations

  • Ahar-Banas Culture

  • Chalcolithic Phase

  • OCP Culture of Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan during Vedic Period

  • Iron Age in Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan during Mahajanapads

  • Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion

  • Foreign origin theory of Rajputs

  • Pratiharas of Bhinmal

  • The Chauhan Dynasty

  • The Kingdom of Mewar

  • Guhils of Chittorgarh

  • Battle of Rajasthan

  • Mauryan Period

  • Post Mauryan Period

  • Practice MCQ

  • Gupta Period

  • Post Gupta Period

  • Praja Mandal Movement

  • Modern History of Rajasthan (1707-1964)

  • Princely State

  • Revolt of Rajasthan 1857

  • Practice MCQ

  • Peasant & Tribal Movement

  • Some Famous Peasant Movement

  • Some famous Tribal movements

  • Terms Related to Land Revenue System in Rajasthan

  • Land rights in Khalsa system

  • Practice MCQ

  • Land rights in Jagir system

  • Famous Freedom Fighter of Rajasthan                     

  •  Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  • Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

  • Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

  • Practice MCQ

  • Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

  • Kachwaha of Amber

  • Chauhan Dynasty

  • Chauhan of Jalore

  • Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • Practice MCQ

  • Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • Parmar of Abu

  • Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes

 Download-Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes

  1. Physiography of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  • Physical divisions of Rajasthan

  • Peaks of Rajasthan

  • Geology of Rajasthan

  • Seismic Zones & Earthquake Hazard in Rajasthan

  • Western Sandy Plains

  • South-Eastern Rajasthan Pathar

  • Aravalli Range and Hilly Region

  • Eastern Plains of Rajasthan

  1. Climate of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  • Climatic Regions of Rajasthan

  • Temperature Variation in Rajasthan

  • Solar Radiation and Sunshine availability in Rajasthan

  • Wind Regime and associated phenomenon

  • Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

  • Soils of Rajasthan

  • Rainfall in Rajasthan

  • Humidity in Rajasthan

  • Land use pattern of Rajasthan

  • Desertification, Erosion and Conservation of soils in Rajasthan

  • Agro-climatic Zones of Rajasthan

  1. Minerals Resources of Rajasthan and topic Related MCQ

  • Mines & Minerals of Rajasthan

  • Hydrocarbon – Rajasthan Basin

  1. Drainage System of Rajasthan and Related important MCQ

  • Rivers of Rajasthan

  • Lakes in Rajasthan

  1. Demography of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  • Tribes of Rajasthan

  1. Wildlife/National parks/Biosphere of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  2. Water Resource of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  3. Irrigation and Topic Related MCQ

  4. Irrigation in Rajasthan

  5. Major Dam Irrigation Projects in Rajasthan

  6. List of Small and Medium Scale Irrigation Projects

  7. Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project (ERCP)

  8. The Major Canal Irrigation Projects in Rajasthan

  9. Indira Gandhi Canal

  10. Animal Resources of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

  11. Natural Vegetation of Rajasthan and Practice MCQ

  12. Power Resources of Rajasthan and its MCQ

  13. Agriculture and its practices in Rajasthan

  14. Practice MCQ/Previous year solved Geography Questions