Most Important Topics for IAS Prelims 2019

  • WTO
  • UN Reports
  • Summit/Committee
  • Alzheimer disease
  • UPSC/EC/SC power and Functions
  • Western Ghats
  • Namami Ganges
  • Judicial activism and judicial Overreach
  • Judicial appointment: Collegium Vs NJAC
  • Gupta Rulers and its overview
  • Foreign Visitors
  • National Water Framework Bill
  • Real Estate Bill
  • Enemy Property Amendment Bill 2016
  • Juvenile Justice Act, 2015
  • Anti-Hijacking Bill
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2015
  • Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2015
  • Regional Centre for Biotechnology Bill, 2016
  • Industries (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2015
  • Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016
  • SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Rules, 2016
  • Accession of Qutub-ud-Din Aibak
  • Sultanate Period
  • IMPRESS -Scheme
  • Jainism, its principles and 24 Jain Tirthankars
  • Temple Architectures
  • Mauryan Rule overview
  • Ashokan Inscriptions
  • Buddhism
  • Economic growth Vs Environmental conservation
  • Election Funding
  • Free Speech: Rights & Limits
  • Frequent promulgation of Ordinance
  • Full statehood to Delhi: Should it be granted or not?
  • Interstate water disputes: Focus on Cauvery Water Dispute
  • Mob lynching: Is it becoming a new normal
  • RTI amendments
  • The Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill 2018
  • Model Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2017
  • Geospatial Information Regulation Bill
  • Land Acquisition Act and Reforms
  • GST Bill
  • Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017
  • Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy (RISE) 2018
  • SDG India Index: Baseline Report 2018
  • Centre stipulates NOC, conservation fee for groundwater extraction
  • Joint task force to protect wildlife
  • Next two years may see long and strong El Niño
  • Reverse zoonosis occurs in the Southern Ocean
  • NITI Aayog releases Strategy for New India @ 75
  • E-Drishti Software
  • Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Swachh Bharat Mission
  • GSLV-F11 successfully launches GSAT-7A
  • Tughlaq Rulers
  • There is no question of going back to the paper ballot-EC
  • Bolstering Paris
  • Carriage by Air (Amendment) Bill, 2015
  • Indian Ocean may play a bigger role in driving climate change
  • Farout, farthest solar system object discovered
  • UN members adopt Global Compact on Refugees
  • How the rulebook agreed at Katowice further dilutes the Paris Agreement
  • Vijay Nagar Empire-Harihara and Bukka
  • Mughals Rulers, Arts, Architecture and major achievement of Mughal Rulers
  • REDD+ has failed to achieve its objectives: CSE report
  • Unbanked Directed Blood Transfusion (UDBT)
  • The shape of growth matters
  • Being a good neighbour
  • Olive ridley Sea Turtle
  • 30 mn newborns cry out for help
  • Laws to ban certain social practices
  • Entry of foreign universities in India
  • Difference between Fundamental Rights and Constitutional Rights
  • Agreement on Agriculture
  • National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems
  • The marvel at Bhitargaon
  • Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) & Canister Based Launch System
  • Bio-Blitz
  • Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)
  • ISRO tastes first success of 2019, places military satellite Microsat-R in orbit
  • The search for a Lokpal
  • Yellow fever vaccine; necessity and risk
  • Ultima Thule
  • What is New Horizons?
  • UNESCO names Rio as World Capital of Architecture
  • What is Poverty Trap?
  • Chilika Lake possesses 20% of India’s sea grass
  • Kyasanur Forest Disease
  • National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF)
  • 124th Constitutional Amendment
  • Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS)
  • ASER surveys since 2010 show
  • IIP: how this index is calculated, and what it says about factory output
  • New India @75
  • SDG India Index Baseline Report
  • Health System for New India
  • Three Year Action Agenda
  • Young India-Vibrant India initiative for IAS Exam
  • Most Important Government Schemes II
  • Most Important Government Schemes I
  • Provisions of National Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)
  • Respecting national anthem
  • The special court for trying politicians
  • FRDI bill
  • National Medical Commission Bill
  • Barring MPs from practising law
  • Controversy over changing the Constitution
  • Lateral entry: Professionalizing Governance or Committed Bureaucracy?
  • Section 377: Constitutionality Vs Morality
  • Institutions of Eminence: Can the tag help to create world-class universities?
  • Higher Education Commission of India
  • Bad bank: Is it a good idea?
  • Data protection: Privacy Vs Innovation
  • Ayushman Bharat: Can it make India healthier?
  • SC/ST Act judgment: Protecting the innocent or diluting the Protection?
  • Crisis in the sugar sector
  • Khap Panchayats and honour killing
  • National Policy on Biofuels
  • Should the SC proceedings be live streamed?
  • Restriction on the entry of women in places of worship
  • Should India spend more on science or Social welfare?
  • Supreme Court judgement on Caste, Religion in Polls
  • Parliamentary disruptions
  • Uniform civil code
  • Privatization of certain Healthcare Services
  • Agrarian crisis: Issues in farmer economy
  • Issues related to Social Media
  • Criminalization of politics
  • Stubble burning in the neighbourhood of Delhi
  • Marital rape
  • ‘Living wills’/ Euthanasia
  • Separate State Flag in Karnataka
  • Net neutrality
  • Akhbar and his religious philosophy- in Details
  • Aurangzeb and his Policies
  • Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan and wars they fought
  • Price Deficiency Payment mechanism
  • Death penalty for raping minor
  • Representation of the People Act, 1950
  • Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2015
  • Model Shops and Establishments (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Bill, 2016
  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code Bill 2016
  • Sugar Cess (Amendment) Bill, 2015
  • Ayushman Bharat – National Health Protection Mission
  • Indradhanush Scheme for Banks
  • Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Karyakram
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
  • Gram Uday se Bharat Uday Abhiyaan
  • Smart Cities Mission
  • Agriculture Marketing in India
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
  • Rurban Mission
  • Project Sunrise
  • Nationalism vs Regionalism
  • NGOs and Development/ Crackdown on NGOs
  • Dalit assertion and Politics of reservation
  • India in SCO: Benefits and challenges
  • Minimum Support Price
  • Reservation in promotion for SC/ST employees
  • No detention under RTE
  • Interlinking of rivers
  • Compensatory Afforestation
  • Non Performing Assets
  • Amendments to the prevention of Corruption Act
  • Issues related to the appointment of Lokpal
  • Does RBI need more power to monitor Banks?
  • Office of the Speaker: Powers and Issues
  • National Mineral Exploration Policy
  • National Health Policy
  • Modi Government’s Schemes and Policy
  • NITI Aayog’s Draft National Energy Policy
  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy
  • New Aviation Policy
  • National Disaster Management Plan
  • Hydrocarbon Vision 2030 for North-East
  • Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy
  • Triple Talaq Bill
  • Ganga Gram Yojana
  • Autonomy of RBI
  • The future of crypto-financing in India
  • Universal Basic Income
  • India’s Infrastructure needs and the Smart Cities Mission
  • Asia Africa Growth Corridor
  • EPF Tax Issues
  • Demonetisation
  • Cashless Economy
  • Economic Survey 2015-16
  • Union Budget 2016-17: Highlights
  • Union Budget 2016-17: Financial Sector Reforms
  • Payment and Settlement Systems in India: Vision-2018
  • India Post Payments Bank
  • Reforms in FDI Policy
  • National Capital Goods Policy 2016
  • Inflation and its dynamics
  • CRR, SLR, Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate, Bank Rate
  • 4th Industrial Revolution
  • New Silk Route
  • Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS)
  • Kashmir Unrest
  • Andaman isles should’ve been given indigenous names
  • Doubling the Farmer’s income
  • Is AI a danger to humanity?
  • What prevents women from working in India?
  • Special category status
  • National Register of Citizens
  • 14th Finance Commission Recommendations
  • Stand Up India Scheme
  • Agriculture Schemes
  • NBFC Guidelines
  • Double Taxation Avoidance Treaties with other countries
  • European Refugee Crisis
  • Naga Peace Accord
  • The Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Ordinance
  • Police Reforms in India
  • Religious Liberty and Women Rights
  • Cooperative Federalism
  • Representation of the People Act, 1950
  • Fundamental Rights
  • DPSP—Uniform Civil Code, Animal Husbandry, Child Labour
  • Union Executive—Prime Minister and Union Council of Ministers
  • Types of Bills- Money Bill, Finance Bill, Private Member Bill
  • Veto Powers of President
  • Union Judiciary and related provisions
  • Union and State – Administrative Relations
  • Union and State – Financial Relations
  • State Judiciary
  • Transaction of Business Rules
  • Constitutional Position of NCT of Delhi
  • Effectiveness of National Disaster Management Authority in India
  • Cleaning of River Ganga: Programme and Achievement
  • Green Climate Fund
  • Effectiveness of NDMA in India
  • National Green Tribunal of India
  • Climate Change and Food Security
  • GM Mustard Crop Approval and Other Issues
  • Role of Governments in flood mitigation
  • Indus Water Treaty and Analysis
  • Cauvery Water Dispute and Analysis
  • Labour Reforms in India
  • Earth Interior and Earthquake
  • Geological Time scale of Evolution
  • Himalayas in India
  • Landforms
  • Climate and Types of Climates
  • Census 2011
  • Different Indices related to Human Development
  • Monsoon, ITCZ
  • Forests in India
  • Water Resources of India—River systems, Waterfalls
  • Soils in India
  • IIP: how this index is calculated, and what it says about factory output
  • India warming: what trends show
  • Quota for poor: Constitutional and social issues, implications
  • The Amendment procedure
  • Asia Reassurance Initiative Act (ARIA)
  • MPs’ panel proposes legal status for SSC
  • Here’s what Indian scientists achieved in 2018
  • ISRO readies for a busy 2019
  • All along the coastline
  • Exotic trees eating up Western Ghats’s grasslands
  • Implementation of EODB
  • Benefits of RCEP Agreement
  • National Commission for Indian System of Medicine Bill, 2018
  • Social Reforms in the Indian Society and related Acts
  • Indian National Congress
  • India After the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi
  • Life of Mahatma Gandhi and the Movements
  • HSRA and associated leaders
  • Bengal Partition and Delhi Darbar
  • List of Governor General and Associated Works
  • Muslim League
  • Education under British Rule
  • Missile Technology Control Regime and India
  • Brexit Issue
  • India and NSG Membership dynamics
  • Nuclear Security Summit
  • Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
  • Supporting Syria and the Region Conference 2016
  • International Solar Alliance
  • Potassium Bromate
  • Zika Virus
  • 3D Printing Technology
  • Solar Cells
  • GPS
  • Blood
  • National Anti-Profiteering Authority
  • Indian Foreign Policy
  • National Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) Provisions
  • Aadhaar and the Right to Privacy
  • What is altruistic surrogacy?
  • Nationally Determined Contributions
  • Media freedom and Responsible reporting
  • Muslim Personal law: Polygamy/ Triple talaq
  • The merger of PSU banks
  • Privatization of Air India
  • Capital Punishment/death sentence
  • Politics and Economics of farm loan waiver
  • Agriculture Taxing Structure under Britishers
  • Agrarian Revolts
  • Indus Valley Civilisation- Harappan, Mohenjodaro
  • Gautama Buddha, Buddhist Councils and principles of Buddhism
  • Alzheimer protein can be transmitted, says the study
  • Collagen
  • Platelet Factor 4
  • The 2018 Global Gender Gap
  • CAG report on Bihar wildlife
  • International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection
  • Greenhouse gas emissions up 22% between 2010 and 2014
  • Amendment in the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012
  • National Commission for Homoeopathy (NCH) Bill, 2018
  • Telangana, Andhra Pradesh to get separate High Courts
  • President’s rule imposed in Jammu and Kashmir under A-92 of J&K constitution
  • Aadhaar and Privacy issues
  • The ban on cow slaughter/ Beef Ban
  • Cashless Economy
  • Climate Change and related Conferences Chronology — Paris Summit
  • Major Disasters in the Year
  • Renewable Energy
  • Noise Pollution
  • Air Pollution
  • Food Web and Food Chain
  • CoP24 Summit 2018
  • 1857 Revolt and Associated Leaders
  • Indian scientists achieved in 2018
  • Building toilets won’t make India open defecation free: World Bank study
  • Surrogacy Bill, then & now
  • Dam Safety Bill: its objective, the objections
  • Vaccine against Zika long elusive
  • Health Effects of Air Pollutants
  • New peace agreement on Yemen
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
  • Minimum Pension
  • Unnat Bharat Abhiyan
  • E-Education in the country
  • Scholarship Schemes for North-East Students

(Free) Current Affairs Rajasthan-January 2019



Rajasthan Current Affairs January 2019 Study Notes for Competitive Exams with RAS/RTS Mains Practice solved questions for RPSC Mains Exam 2018-19.

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Part-6



1. Write a short note on ‘Maharana Pratap Award’ in the field of sports?

Answer: Maharana Pratap Award:

This is the highest awards for sportsperson in the state of Rajasthan.

The Award includes:

  • Citation
  • Cash prize of INR 1, 00,000
  • Bronze Statute of Maharana Pratap
  • Blazer and Tie

2. What is coal bed methane? What is the problem in the extraction of coal bed methane?

Coal bed methane is found in the impermeable stone and is trapped in the coal seams. A significant portion of this gas remains as free gas in the joints and fractures of the coal seam.  Large quantities of gas are adsorbed on the internal surfaces of the micro pores within the coal itself

Coal bed methane can be accessed by drilling wells into the coal seam and pumping large quantity of water that saturate the seam. Water will occupy the gaps and pores and will push out the gas.

Problem of coal bed methane extraction:

  • It is a capital intensive process and at current state of pricing it is not possible to extract.
  • Private sector has no rights to extract unconventional gas reservoir.
  • Coal bed methane comes under Ministry of petroleum and coal mines come under ministry of coal. So there is overlapping of jurisdiction which creates problems.
  • The technology required is very advanced and the public sector companies have very weak organizational setup to efficiently handle such technologies and extract gas economically.

3. Give an account of the following:

1) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

3) Khilafat movement

4) Lahore conspiracy case

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-4  

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5


JBM: On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000. The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar.

2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

Nagpur session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.

3) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.

4) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.

4. Define- Comets, Dark matter, Dark energy and Fundamental particle

Ans: Comets originate in outer solar system and are formed of cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust that orbit the sun. When a comet’s orbit brings it close to the sun, it heat up and spewn dust and gases into a giant glowing head larger than most planets.

Dark matter

Ans: Roughly 80% of the mass of the universe is made up of material that scientist cannot directly observe. This is called dark matter. Dark matter is completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect.

Dark energy

Ans: Dark energy is a hypothetical term used for a kind of energy that exerts a negative, repulsive pressure, behaving like the opposite of gravity. Like dark matter dark energy is not directly observed, but rather inferred from observations of gravitational interactions between astronomical objects.

Fundamental particle

Ans: All fundamental particle can be divided into one of two categories, fermions and bosons. Particles that make up matter called fermions eg electrons, protons, leptons, quarks. Particles that carry force are called Boson.

Eg Photons, 4-He atoms, gluons, W-bosonetc


5. Give an account of the following:

1) Simon commission

2) Meerut conspiracy

3) Hindustan republic association

4) Radcliff line


(1) Simon commission:

The commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms. It is also known as Indian statutory commission.  It was set up by lord Birkenhead.

(2) Meerut Conspiracy:

Meerut Conspiracy was a controversial court case initiated in British India in March1929 and decided in 1933. Several trade unionists, including three Englishmen were arrested for organizing an Indian railway strike. The British Government convicted 33 leftist trades Union leaders under a false law suit. The Meerut Conspiracy case trial helped the Communist Party of India to consolidate its position among workers.

(3) Hindustan republic association (HRA):

Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 at village Bholachang in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti. Its objective was to establish a “Federated Republic of the United States of India” through an organized and armed revolution.

(4) Radcliff line:

To fix the international boundaries between the two countries, the Boundary Commission was established chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe. The commission was to demarcate Bengal and Punjab into the two new countries. The boundary demarcation line is called Radcliffe line. Its western side serves as India-Pakistan border and eastern side serves as India- Bangladesh border.

6. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

Basis Mitosis Meiosis
Number of divisions One Two – meiosis 1 and meiosis II
DNA replication Occurs during inter-phase Occurs during inter-phase
Role Production of somatic cells for growth of the body Produces gametes or game to genesis
Daughter cell produced Two diploid cells that are genetically identical to parent Four haploid cells (n) contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Genetics Identical cell Variation
Crossing over No Yes it takes place during pro phase 1
Occurs in All organism Reproductive cells of humans, animals, plants and fungi

7. Give an account for the following:

1) Great lakes

2) Lake Baikal

3) Lake Tanganyika

(4)Aral Sea

(a) Great lakes

  • Great Lakes of North America are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
  • Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario [In the order of largest to smallest].
  • Lake Superior is the largest continental lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.

(b) Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal is situated in Siberia, Russia. It is the deepest lake and world largest lake by volume.  It is also the second longest lake.

(c) Lake Tanganyika

It is situated in African rift valley system. It is the longest lake in the world.  It is also second largest in terms of volume.

(d) Aral Sea

It is classical example of human intervention leading to the shrinking of the water bodies. This lake is situated between Kazakistan in the North and Uzbekistan in the south. Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1960s due to the diversion of the river feeding it for irrigation purpose.

8. Give an account of following:

1) Hunter commission

2) Sadler commission

1) Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:

  • Assess wood’s dispatch.
  • To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.

2) Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work

9. Give an account of the following:

1) Vaikkom Satyagraha

2) Delhi proposal

3) Alipore conspiracy

4) Muzaffarpur conspiracy case

(a)Vaikkom Satyagraha:

Vaikkom Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the princely state of Travancore.

(b)Delhi proposal:

Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.

(c)Alipore conspiracy:

The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging.(1908)

(d)Muzaffarpur Conspiracy:

It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack.

10. How does the climate change affect the global distribution of fauna?

Climate change is a result of rapid global warming. The increase of average temperature of earth is termed as Global warming. Global warming is a natural process which has been accelerated by anthropogenic activities. Because of this earth is not getting time to adjust to this change. This is causing climate change.

Effect on fauna:

  • Migratory roots are changing for the birds. For example The arrival of Siberian cranes in India is delayed and they are returning to Russia a bit early.
  • The breeding pattern of birds and aquatic animals is also changing. Tropical fish species are shifting to more temperate waters.
  • Vector borne diseases which were found in tropical areas are also shifting to temperate regions.
  • There is a large scale habitat loss. This is the single biggest reason of pushing species to the brink of extinction. Many endemic species which are confined to a small area like islands have become critically endangered. Right now, 6th mass extinction is going on.
  • Many polar species are finding it uncomfortable to survive in the polar waters because temperature is increasing.

11. Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements.

Ans:  Green Box Subsidies: The subsidies which cause no, or at most minimal, trade distorting effects or effects on production. These subsidies are permitted under WTO regime, for instance; Government services such as research, disease control, and infrastructure and food security.

Amber Box Subsidies: All domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some exceptions) fall into the amber box. For instance, MSP, Procurement Price, sum total of subsidies on inputs like fertilizer, water, credit, power, etc

Blue Box Subsidies: It contains direct payment subsidies which can be increased without limit, so long as payments are linked to production-limiting programs. This is the “amber box with conditions”, conditions designed to reduce distortion. Any support that would normally be in the amber box is placed in the blue box if the support also requires farmers to limit production.

12. Discuss the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?


  • The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
  • Lack of leadership
  • Internal rift in congress
  • Congress failure to influence masses at large.
  • It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
  • Repression by Britishers was another reason

13. Give an account of following.

1) Project Tiger

2) Project Hangul

3) Sea Turtle Project

4) Project snow leopard

1) Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA

2) Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag)
its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m.

3) Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.

4) Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Prades

14. What is excretion? Outline the functions of kidney.

It refers to the elimination/removal of metabolic wastes from the body. There are four major organs of excretions: kidney, lungs, skin and the liver. Out of these four organs kidneys are the primary excretory organs that eliminate metabolic waste products in the form of urine. The major functions of urine are:

  • Excretions of wastes and toxins such as urea, uric acid, ammonia and excess salts.
  • Maintenance of water balance and electrolyte balance in the body
  • Regulation of blood pressure by producing angiotensin, a substance that constricts blood vessels and signals the body to retain water and sodium when blood pressure is low.
  • Regulating the acid base balance to keep the blood pH 7.2-7.4 and body healthy.
  • Regulation of RBC development in bone marrow with the secretion of hormone erythropoietin.

15. Give the account of the following.

1) Andes

2) Rocky

3) Great dividing Range

4) Drakensberg

Andes:  Longest continental mountain range in the world.  They are   found in South America. They formed due to ocean-continent collisions and subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. Mount Aconcagua is the highest peak. (6962m)

The Rocky Mountains:   They are Fold Mountains found in the western margin of the North American continent. They are formed due to oceanic and continent plate collision. The Rocky Mountains took shape during an intense period of plate tectonic activity that resulted in much of the rugged landscape of the western North America.

Great Dividing Range:  This range is found in the Australian continent. They are the third longest land based range in the world. They are also known as Australian Alps. They were formed due to rifting.

Drakensberg mountain: The spectacular and ancient Drakensberg Mountain Range is Southern Africa’s highest range at 3 482 m and stretches an enormous 1 000 km from north to east. In Zulu the range is called uKhahlamba, or the barrier of spears, which does justice to its dramatic basalt buttresses. The Blyde River Canyon is situated in the northern part of the mountain range

16. What is electromagnetic wave? Outline the features of electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic waves or EM waves are waves that are created as a result of vibrations between an electric field and a magnetic field. In other words, EM waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields.

Properties of electromagnetic waves:

  • EM waves are composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
  • They travel with a constant velocity of 3×108m/s in vaccum.
  • They are not deflected by an electric and magnetic field.
  • They are transverse waves which can show interference and diffraction and may be polarised

17. What are the issues attached with the functioning of tribunals?

Article 323A and 323 B of the constitution empowers parliament and state legislature to establish tribunals. Although the tribunals have reduced the burden of cases on High courts, they are facing some issues:

  • Lack of infrastructure and man power availability.
  • These tribunals do not have power to enforce the decree.
  • Now aggrieved party can appeal against the order of quasi judicial bodies which have diluted the objective of the Tribunals.
  • The lack of complexity to deal with the cases.

Way ahead is to reduce the number of tribunals in accordance with the proposal of S jai Shankar committee. New tribunal service can be incorporated so that staffing problem can be dealt with

18. Define following term

1) Current account

2) Capital account

3) Balance of payment

4) Trade balance

Current account: Current account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in share.

Capital account: Capital account of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or liabilities of the residents of the country or its government

Balance of payments: The balance of payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world.

Trade balance: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments

19. What is a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the Benami transactions amendment act?

Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is made by another.

Effect on economy:

  1. Loss of revenue
  2. Generation of black money
  3. Moral hazard for honest tax payers
  4. Artificial inflationary tendencies
  5. Increase in the prices especially of real estate

Provisions of Benami amendment act:

  • Establishment of adjudicating authority
  • Case has to be decided in a year’s time
  • Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two other members.
  • Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these properties.
  • Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.

20. What is Desai-Liaqat proposal?

M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.

Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:

  • Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
  • Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
  • The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.

M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League.

21. What is SEBI? Write down its functions

SEBI stands for securities and exchange board of India. It was set up through a government resolution in an effort to give the Indian stock market an organised structure. Its initial paid up capital up was Rs. 50 Crore.

Main functions and powers of the SEBI are as follows:

  • Registering and stock exchanges, merchant banks, mutual funds, underwriters, registrars to the issues, broker, sub broker, transfer agents and others.
  • Levying various fees and other charges
  • Promoting investor education
  • Inspection and audit of stock exchanges and various intermediaries
  • Performing other functions as may be prescribed from time to time.

22. Explain the nature and different theories of origin of monsoon.

Answer: The Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons

Monsoon is actually a wind regime operating at a level of 20 km from the earth’s surface. It is characterised by seasonal reversal of wind direction at regular intervals.

Although the monsoon is a global phenomenon influenced by a variety of factors not yet completely understood, the real monsoon rains cover mainly the South Asian region, represented by India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and parts of South East Asia.

Besides the monsoons, the Indian climate is influenced substantially by two more factors. The Himalayas contribute a continental nature to the climate, recognised by land winds, dry air, large diurnal range and scanty rainfall. The Indian Ocean, on the other hand, contributes a tropical character to the Indian climate characterised by uniformity of temperature throughout the year, short diurnal range, damp air, and frequent rainfall.

The monsoon system of the Indian subcontinent differs considerably from that of the rest of Asia. The centres of action, air masses involved, and the mechanism of precipitation of the Indian monsoon are altogether different from other monsoon systems.

Classical Theory or Thermal Concept of Indian Monsoons:

According to this theory, the differential heating of land and sea at the time when the sun makes an apparent northward movement is the main cause of the Indian monsoonal regime.

Two factors are mainly responsible for this very strong development of monsoons:

(i) Vast size of the Indian subcontinent and adjacent seas;

(ii) Very high and extensive mountain systems of the Himalayas in the north, extending in an east-west direction, thus posing a formidable physical barrier between tropical and polar air masses.

The second factor is of great meteorological significance.

  • The high mountain chains of the Himalayas which border the subcontinent on three sides work as both a break and motor at the same time.
  • During the winter season, they prevent the penetration of the cold polar air masses from Siberia into the subcontinent, while in summer, the Himalayas do not allow the equatorial maritime air masses to cross the Himalayas and force them to curve round the north-west.
  • The mighty Himalayas produce hydro-dynamic effects that determine the type of precipitation in India.

According to the thermal concept, during the period following the Spring Equinox (March 23), the sun starts its apparent northward shift. As a result, the areas lying north of the equator (tropics and sub-tropics) – get a progressive high incidence of solar radiation.

The effect of this phenomenon on the Indian subcontinent is seen in the form of intense heating of the vast northern plains and the adjoining highlands. As a result, a massive low pressure trough is formed extending from the Punjab plains in the north-west to the Bengal delta in the east.

This low pressure zone attracts wind regimes from the adjoining areas, from short distances in the beginning. But as the level of solar incidence reaches its peak during May-June, the pressure gradient between this low pressure trough and the adjoining seas is so great that it attracts winds from as far as the south of the equator. Accompanying this process and helping this pull of wind regimes is the development of some high pressure centres—in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and over Australia (it being the winter season in Australia).

The wind patterns which are prevalent south of the equator are actually the south-east trade winds which blow from the south-east towards the north-west. These winds, attracted by the low pressure trough over the Indian subcontinent, while moving north of the equator, turn in a clockwise direction (or towards the right), following Farrell’s law. This shift in direction is brought about by the earth’s rotation. Now, the originally south-east trade winds become south-west monsoons blowing towards the north-east.

At this juncture, the Inter- Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) also shifts northwards. The ITCZ is the hypothetical line where the north-east trade winds from the northern hemisphere and the south-east trades from the southern hemisphere meet. The south-west wands now approaching the Indian peninsula have to travel a long distance over the Indian Ocean.

During their long journey, these winds pick up large amounts of moisture and by the time they reach India they are oversaturated. Here, they are known as the south-west monsoons which get divided into the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch because of the shape of peninsular India. There moisture-laden winds cause heavy rainfall on the windward sides.

The Arabian Sea Branch:

This branch of the south-west monsoons strikes the highlands of the Western Ghats at almost right angles. The windward slopes of the Western Ghats receive heavy orogenic precipitation. Although the western currents of the monsoon penetrate further into the Indian mainland the intensity of rainfall goes on decreasing on the leeward side.

While the windward slopes of the Western Ghats are the areas receiving the highest rainfall, the leeward slopes form a well-marked rain-shadow belt which is drought- prone. For instance, the average annual rainfall at Mumbai and Pune is 188 cm and 50 cm respectively, despite the fact that they are only 160 km apart.

The most characteristic feature of the distribution of rainfall on the windward slope is that the amount of rains is heavier higher up the slopes. However, the heavy rains are concentrated in a narrow strip along the Western Ghats.

After crossing the Western Ghats, the rain- bearing air currents descend the eastern slopes where they get warmed up adiabatically. This results in a pronounced rain-shadow area. The higher the mountains-, the larger are the rain-shadow effect. Towards the north, where the Western Ghats are not very high, the difference in the amount of rainfall between the windward and leeward side is rather negligible.

Bay of Bengal Branch:

This branch is active in the region from Sri Lanka to Sumatra Island of the Indonesian archipelago. Like the Western Ghats of India in the case of the Arabian Sea branch, the windward slopes of the West Coast Mountains of Myanmar (Arakan and Tenasserim mountains) get heavy rainfall when the main monsoon currents of this branch strike the Myanmarese coast. Akyab on the west coast records 425 cm during the June-September period. As in case of the leeward sides of the Western Ghats in India, here too, the rain shadow effect is pronounced on the leeward side.

A northern current of this branch strikes the Khasi hills in Meghalaya and causes very heavy rains. Mawsynram (near Cherrapunji), situated on the southern slopes of Khasi hills, has the distinction of recording the highest annual average precipitation in the old.

This is because of its peculiar geographical location. Mawsynram is flanked on all sides by the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills except for a gap through which the rain-bearing winds enter and are forced to rise, thus yielding the heaviest rainfall. Shillong, a mere 40 km away on top of the Khasi hills, receives only about 140 cm of rainfall during June-September.

Another current of the Bay of Bengal branch takes a left turn at the eastern end of the low pressure trough (roughly the Bengal delta). From here, it blows in a south-east to north-west direction along the orientation of the Himalayas. This current causes rainfall over the northern plains.

The monsoon rainfall over the northern plains is assisted by west-moving monsoon or cyclonic depressions called ‘westerly disturbances’. These are formed in the Bay of Bengal and move along the southern fringe of the northern plains causing copious rains there which are vital for the rice crop.

The intensity of rainfall decreases from east to west and from north to south in the northern plains. The decrease westwards is attributed to the increasing distance from the source of the moisture. The decrease in rainfall intensity from north to south, on the other hand, is due to increasing distance from the mountains which are responsible for lifting the moisture-laden winds and causing orogenic rainfall in the plains, especially in the foothills.

The two main branches of the monsoon winds follow different courses:

But originally, they set out to fill the intense low pressure void created in the north-west of the subcontinent. The two branches meet at the Chhotanagpur Plateau. Of the total moisture carried by the two branches, only 20 per cent falls as precipitation. The Arabian Sea branch is more powerful of the two because of two reasons—one, the size of the Arabian Sea is bigger and two, most of the Arabian Sea branch falls over India, while most of the Bay of Bengal branch goes to Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand.

Retreating or North-East Monsoons:

Towards the end of September, the low pressure centre in the north-west begins to disintegrate and eventually shifts to the equatorial region. The cyclonic conditions are replaced by anti-cyclonic ones. As a result, winds start blowing away from the northern region. Similar anti-cyclonic winds blow from the Tibetan highlands and beyond.

This is also the time when the sun makes an apparent movement south of the equator. The ITCZ also moves equator wards. Now the winds that dominate the sub continental landscape are the ones which move from the north-east to the south-west.

These conditions continue from October till mid-December and are known as the retreating monsoons or the north-east monsoons. By December end, the monsoons have completely withdrawn from India. The retreat of the monsoons is markedly gradual in contrast to the ‘sudden burst’ of the south-west monsoons.

Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons the Thermal Concept

The retreating monsoons over the Bay of Bengal pick up moisture on their way which is dropped over eastern or coastal Orissa, Tamil Nadu and parts of Karnataka during October-November. This is the main season of rains over these areas as they almost lie in the rain-shadow area of the south-west monsoons

During October, easterly depressions occur at the head of Bay of Bengal which move southwards and in November get sucked into Orissa and Tamil Nadu coasts causing heavy rain—sometimes with destructive cyclonic winds in coastal and interior areas. The depressions weaken southwards and towards the interiors.

Winter Monsoons:

The stable, dry anti-cyclonic winds prevailing over the subcontinent after the retreat of the south-west monsoons are not capable of causing precipitation because they are free of moisture. Instead, these winds produce dry and fine weather. However, certain areas in the north get winter precipitation: from sources far away.

The north-western parts of India—Punjab and Ganga plains—are invaded by shallow cyclonic disturbances moving from west to east and having their origin in the Mediterranean Sea. These are called “Westerly Disturbances’ which travel across West Asia and Afghanistan before they reach India. These disturbances come with cloudiness and rising temperature in the front and cold wind in the rear.

These disturbances cause upto 5 cm rainfall in Punjab and Kashmir and up to 2.5 cm over the Uttar Pradesh plains. These showers are very good for the rabi crop, especially wheat and gram, and are very effective because of less run­off, less evaporation (because of low winter temperatures) and the fact that moisture from these showers is confined to the root area of the crops.

23. Why no precipitation in Kachchh and Western Rajasthan?

There is no mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents (which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.

The monsoon currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by stable anti-cyclonic air.

The hot and dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the ascent of air and absorb its moisture.

These conditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan where desert conditions prevail.

Some of the currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unite with the Bay of Bengal branch.

Although a few air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.

24. Enumerate salient features of India’s Nano Mission.

Answer: Nano Technology is a knowledge-intensive and “enabling technology” which is expected to influence a wide range of products and processes with far-reaching implications for national economy and development. The Government of India, in May 2007, has approved the launch of a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore for 5 years.

The Department of Science and Technology is the nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this upcoming area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field. For this, research on fundamental aspects of Nano Science and training of large number of manpower will receive prime attention. Equally importantly, the Nano Mission will strive for development of products and processes for national development, especially in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water, materials development, sensors development, drug delivery, etc. For this, it will forge linkages between educational and research institutions and industry and promote Public Private Partnerships.

The Nano Mission has been structured in a fashion so as to achieve synergy between the national research efforts of various agencies in Nano Science and Technology and launch new programmes in a concerted fashion. International collaborative research efforts will also be made wherever required.

25. What is the meaning of ‘Rit’ as per the Vedas?

Answer: Rit/Rita, Sanskrit ṛta (“truth” or “order”), in Indian religion and philosophy, the cosmic order mentioned in the Vedas, the ancient sacred scriptures of India. As Hinduism developed from the ancient Vedic religion, the concept of Rita led to the doctrines of dharma (duty) and karma (accumulated effects of good and bad actions). Rita is the physical order of the universe, the order of the sacrifice, and the moral law of the world. Because of Rita, the sun and moon pursue their daily journeys across the sky, and the seasons proceed in regular movement. Vedic religion features the belief that Rita was guarded by Varuna, the god-sovereign, who was assisted by Mitra, the god of honour, and that the proper performance of sacrifices to the gods was necessary to guarantee its continuance. Violation (anrita) of the established order by incorrect or improper behaviour, even if unintentional, constituted sin and required careful expiation.

26. Is Election Commission of India, a constitutional or statutory body?

Answer:The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state Legislative Assemblies in India, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the country.

The basic difference is that while statutory bodies come into existence by an act of parliament or a state legislature. For example, Delhi University comes into existence by Delhi University Act, 1912. Constitutional bodies come into existence or rather derive their power from Constitution itself.

27. What role does ‘Staffing’ play in the field of management?

Answer: Human resources management is the management of the planning and staffing of intellectual and physical inputs, or people of different skill levels, needed for an organization to meet its objectives. This means hiring the right people for each job in the organization.

The staffing function is a very important function of the management due to the following reasons. Staffing helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs. It helps in the optimum utilization of the human resources. It helps in developing professionals in every field of organizational activity.

28. Describe the span of settlement of Bhil tribe in India?

Answer: Bhils or Bheels are primarily an ethnic group of people in West India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Places they inhabit:

Bhils are popularly known as the bow men of Rajasthan. They are the most widely distributed tribal groups in India. They form the largest tribe of the whole South Asia. Bhils are mainly divided into two main groups the central or pure bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils. The central Bhils are found in the mountain regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and Rajasthan. Bhils are also found in the north eastern parts of Tripura.

Bhils-tribe History:

Bhils belong to the race of the pre-Aryans. The name ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word villu or billu, which according to the Dravidian language is known as Bow. The name Bhil is also finds mentioned in the great epic called Mahabharata and Ramayana. The Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was wandering through the jungles of Dandaka, searching Sita. The popular legend represents them as being descended from Nishada, son of Mahadev by the human female. Nishad was brutal and ugly, who killed his father’s bull and as the consequence he was banished to mountains and forests. During the ancient era they were considered as the great warriors who fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers.

Language and Costumes:

Apart from other states, Bhils comprise 39% of Rajasthan’s total population. Speak Bhili, which is an Indo Aryan language. Bhil women wear traditional saris and the Bhil men wear loose long frock along with pyjama. The peasants wear turbans. Bhils also wear brass ornaments. Bhils are tall, well built with the handsome features. They are known for their truthfulness and simplicity. They love independence. They are brave and their National weapon is bow made of bamboo. Earlier they were the great haunters. They now practice agriculture as the source of livelihood.

Culture and Religion:

Religion practice among the Bhils differs from place to place. Most of them worship local deities like Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba, and Sitalmata. Some of the worship Tiger God called ‘vaghdev’. They have no temples of their own. They consult Badvas -the hereditary sorcerers on all the occasions. Bhils are highly superstitious tribal people. They have Bhagat or Gurus who perform the religious rites. They have village headsmen, who deal with their disputes. Bhils strictly follow rules and regulations. They marry only in their own classes. Their close relationships are tightly based on mutual love and respect. They have rich cultural history and give much importance to dance and music. Ghoomar is the most famous dance among the Bhils. Than Gair is the religious dance drama performed by the men in the month of Shravana (July and August). The Bhils are talented in the sculptured work. They make beautiful horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay.

Fair and Festivals:

The Beneshwar fair is the main festival celebrated among the Bhils. This fair is held during the period of Shivaratri (in the month of January or February) and is dedicated to Beneshwar Mahadev also known as Lord Shiva. On this occasion Bhils gather all together set up camps on the banks of the Som and Mahi River. They perform dance around the fire and sing traditional songs. At night they all of them enjoy Raslila at the Lakshmi Narayan temple. Cultural shows, magic shows, animal shows acrobatic feast are the main attraction of the fair. This fair is actually the combination of two fairs, which are held in reverence of Lord Shiva and the other one that commenced after the setting up of Vishnu temple by Jankunwari. Holy and Dusshera are the other major festivals celebrated among the Bhils in India.

29. Describe the phenomenon of Monsoon?

Answer: the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. This results in the southwest monsoon. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one.

A monsoon is a seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction that usually brings with it a different kind of weather. It almost always refers to the Asian monsoon, a large region extending from India to Southeast Asia where monsoon conditions prevail.

30. Write short Note on Medieval Indo-Islamic Architecture.

  • With establishment of Turkish rule in India, a new phase coming in history of Indian art and architecture. Turks brought Islamic style of architecture in India. This new style easy significantly different from traditional Indian style. But over a period of time both style underwent assimilation.

Essential feature of Indo -Islamic architecture were

Islamic architecture characterised by uses of arches, domes and minarets. Arches were used for making doors. Dome was used to make roof and minarets were erected in 4 corners of building

  • Assimilation of Indian style i.e. trabeate architecture, use of columns and pillars
  • Use of lime mortar as binding agent. Which provided solidarity to the monuments and buildings
  • Charbhagi style brought by Babar added to the beauty of monuments.
  • Double dome architecture was another significant feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Eg. Humayun Tomb, Taj Mahal etc.
  • Use of new techniques like Pietra deura, calligraphy technique, arabesque etc.
  • Elements of Indian architecture like Jali, Chatra, jharaokha, chhajjas etc.

Right from the beginning of Turkish rule to the age of Mughal rule, process of assimilation of Indian and Islamic continued and it lead to the genesis of new kind of architecture in India. It represents our unique, assimilative cultural identity.

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5



1. Write short notes on the followings:

  1. Ghatiyala Inscription
  2. Ghosundi Inscription
  3. BuchKalan Inscription
  4. Ranthambore Fort
  5. Chittorgarh Fort
  6. Mandawa Fort

Ghatiyala Inscription

Ghantiyala or Ghatiyala is a village in Jodhpur Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient names are Rohimsakupaka, Rohimsakupaka and Rohimsaka.

The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in Ghatiyala, twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column is not far distant from an old ruined Jaina structure, now called Mata-ki-Sal.

Ghosundi Inscription

The earliest epigraphic evidence regarding the worship of Lord Narayana is found from the Ghosundi Stone Inscription of Maharaja Sarvatata of 1st Century B.C. Ghosundi is a village in the chittorgarh district of rajasthan.

The inscription record the erection of enclosing wall around the stone object of worship called Narayana Vatika for the divinities  Sankarshana and Vasudeva  by one Sarvatta  who was a devotee of Bhagavat and had performed an Asvamedha Sacrifice.

BuchKalan Inscription

BuchKalan is an ancient historical town in Bilada tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Rajyaghangakam.

This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at BuchKalan in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabha mandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati.

Ranthambore Fort

Ranthambore Fort is housed in the wildlife sanctuary of the same name in Sawai Madhopur. Built in the 10th century by Nagil Jats, these are the oldest remnants of the royalty of Rajasthan. Built on two hills, the fort is mainly in ruins. Witnessing attacks of Mughals, British and ravages of time, few structures remain standing.

Attractions to check out are Hammir’s Court, Badal Mahal, Dhula Mahal, Ganesha temple, Jogi Mahal, Shiva Temple, Ramlal ji Temple and temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath. The roar of the Royal Bengal Tigers and the call of wild animals can be frequently heard. The calls are reminders that the fort is their territory.

Adventure is the allure of the fort. Now it is a free sanctuary of animals which was previously hunting grounds of the Royalty.

Chittorgarh Fort

One of the oldest forts in Rajasthan, Chittorgarh Fort is the origin of many stories of valor, courage and sacrifice. The impregnable fortress is one of the most significant places to learn the history of Rajasthan. The 7th century fort is the land of Meera Bai who drank poison than leave the love of her Lord Krishna, and, Rani Padmini and Karanavati who protected honor by jumping into the fire of Jauhar and the heroics of Gora, Badal and Panna Dhai.

  • The UNESCO World Heritage Site is the breathing grounds of the romantic tales of Rajasthan.
  • Sieged numerous times in various periods of history, a lot of stories lies within its boundaries. Check out the beautiful attractions of Rana Kumbha Mahal, Ratan Singh’s Palace, Badal Mahal, Rani Padmini’s Palace, Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal, etc.
  • The Vijay Stambha and Kirti Stambha and several cenotaphs stand as memorials.

The temples of Kalika mata Temple, Adbuthnath Temple, Kumbha Shyam Temple, etc are worshipped by Hindus and Jains and still draw crowds. The seven gates of Chittorgarh deserve attention as they have lots of history associated with it.

Mehrangarh Fort

Mehrangarh Fort stands as one of the most important heritage sites of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The foundation of the fort was laid way back in 1458 by Rathore ruler, Rao Jodha. The Citadel of the Sun was not once sieged. The fort remains invincible and inspires awe from all. There are numerous mysteries and scandals hidden.

  • What does not hide is its architectural splendor.
  • The exquisite palaces of Moti Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Phool Mahal, Daulat Khana and Sileh Khana.
  • The fort itself is a museum where the lifestyle of the Rathore clan and even Mughals is preserved. From weaponry, palanquins, cradles, musical instruments, furniture to the clothes of the era get an insight of the glorious era.

Taragarh Fort

Taragarh Fort in Bundi is one of the magnificent forts in Rajasthan. The fort overlooking the city of Bundi has sadly been ravaged by time but its charm does not fade. Built in 1354 A.D., the fort remains as glorious remnants of the Chauhan dynasty. The breathtaking views are delightful. The gateway to the fort is decked with stone statues of elephants.

  • There are mainly 3 entries named Lakshmi Pol, Gagudi ki Phatak and Phuta Darwaza.
  • Taragarh fort also houses an excellent network of tunnels which were saviors in times of need. The huge properly planned water reservoirs must be visited.
  • The beautiful Rani Mahal was designed with murals; artwork and lattice artworks inspire awe.
  • The Bhim Burj and Garbha Gunjan, the huge field cannons are few of the popular attractions.

Gagron Fort

One of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, the hill fort of Rajasthan is a beauty. The Gagron Fort is a beautiful site of archaeological importance. This structure is the epitome of a “Jal Durg” as it is surrounded by water on all sides.

  • Built for protection from armies, in 1195 A.D by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire, the fort draws visitors and devotes from all over. Here also lies the tomb of a Sufi saint, Pipa Baba.
  • The glory of the fort has been faded with time but its charm still lives. The Rajputana glory lives in these structures forgotten in the chapters of history.

Mandawa Fort

Founded in 18th Century by Nawal Singh, Mandawa Fort of Shekhawati is an impressive structure of heritage of Rajasthan. The exquisite artwork, architecture and the ambiance has been preserved beautifully and converted into a heritage hotel. The charm has been pleasantly treasured.

  • The medieval themed rooms, balconies, the antique collection, the family portraits of the rulers and their belongings take you back in history.
  • The grand archways and the paintings of Lord Krishna and his cows are a visual treat. Wander through areas opened for tourists and you shall witness the impressive aura and architecture of the Royal state of Rajasthan.

2. Write the Name of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan

There are eight world Heritage sites in Rajasthan Namely:

  1. Chittorgarh Fort
  2. Kumbhalgarh Fort
  3. Ranthambore Fort
  4. Jaisalmer Fort
  5. Gagron Fort
  6. Keoladeo National Park
  7. Jantar Mantar
  8. Amber Fort


3. Write in brief on e-waste management.

The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

• Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
• Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
• Mercury, chromium, lead, and  Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.

Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005

In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.


4. Give an account of the following

1) Mahila e-Haat

2) Sakhi-one stop centres

3) Ujjwala scheme


Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given     financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

5. Give an account of the following:



c) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: PRO-ACTIVE GOVERNANCE AND TIMELY IMPLEMENTATION, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters


6. Discuss the following:

1) Corruption perception index

2) Press freedom index

3) Global peace index

4) World investment report


1) Corruption perception index: Released by Berlin based non- government organisation Transparency International. India’s ranking slid to 81 among a group of 180 countries.

2) Press freedom index: The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters without Borders based upon the organization’s own assessment of the countries’ press freedom records in the previous year. India dropped two ranks from 136 to 138.

3) Global peace index: It is presented by institute for economic and peace. It ranked country on the basis of peace fulness.India ranked at 136th position and Iceland is the most peaceful country.

4) World investment report: Released by UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). It gives analysis on foreign direct investment.

 7. Discuss the importance of Champaran Satyagraha.

This was the first experiment of novel method adopted by Gandhiji i.e. civil disobedience and passive resistance in the Champaran. This has huge historical significance as it marks the advent of Gandhiji in mainline politics and paved the ground for Gandhi ji popularity as leader. It also gave sanctions to the method adopted by Gandhiji.

Gandhiji was able to convince the administration that tinkathia was an exploitative system and need revamping. He became the member of the committee to make an enquiry. The recommendations of the committee were in the favour of Peasants and it recommended to abolish tinkathia and asked to compensate the peasants for illegal collection of rents and taxes.

First time rural problem in general and the problem of peasants were taken into consideration which were obscure hitherto in the Indian politics. It makes the way for participation of peasants in mass movements.


8. Discuss the following:

1) LED

2) Insulated Gate Bipolar transistor

3) Properties of tungsten


(1) LED: Led is light emitting diode. It is a P-N junction diode, which emits light when gets activated. When a suitable energy is applied, electron combines with the electron holes within the device releasing energy in the form of photons.LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times longer than incandescent lamps, and significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps.

(2) Insulated Gate Bipolar transistor: It is a transistor device and forms the basic component of all electronic devices. It used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electric power. IGBTs are also used to generate the (mercury) discharge, which lights up the bulb. It can also fit in a small volume.

(3) Properties of tungsten: Tungsten has a very high melting point; it has low vapor pressure and greatest tensile strength out of all the metals.  Because of these properties tungsten is used as filament in incandescent bulb.

9. Outline the features of the government of India act, 1909.


System of dyarchy was introduced. The dyarchy means a system of double government in which the principle of dyarchy was a division of the executive branch of each provincial government into authoritarian and popularly responsible sections. The first was composed of executive councillors, appointed, as before, by the crown. The second was composed of ministers who were chosen by the governor from the elected members of the provincial legislature. These latter ministers were Indians.

Subjects were divided into two lists: “reserved” which included subjects such as law and order, finance, land revenue, irrigation, etc., and “transferred” subjects such as education, health, local government, industry, agriculture, excise, etc.

Expansion of provincial legislative council- 70% of the members were to be elected. The system of communal representation and class electorate were further consolidated. Women were given right of vote. The legislative council could initiate legislation but governor assent was required. The governor can veto bill and ordinances. The Legislative Councils could reject the budget but the governor could restore it, if necessary. The legislators could ask questions and supplementaries, pass adjournment motions and

Vote a part of the budget, but 75% of the budget was still not votable.


10. Discuss the reproductive events in the Human?

Gametogenesis: The game to genesis is the formation of gametes i.e. sperm in males and ovum in females. It is also known as spermatogenesis and Oogenesis.

Insemination: Insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female animal or plant for the purpose of impregnating or fertilizing the female for sexual reproduction. The sperm is introduced into the uterus of a mammal or the oviduct of an oviparous (egg-laying) animal.

Fertilisation: fusion of male and female gametes and it eventually lead to the formation of zygote.

Implantation: After the formation of blast cyst and its development. Blast cyst gets attached to the uterus wall. This process is called implantation.

Gestation:  Gestation, in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or foetus is developing in the uterus.

Parturition:  Parturition is the process of giving birth to the offspring.

11. What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what are their advantages?

Universal basic income (UBI) is a model for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status. The purpose of the UBI is to prevent or reduce poverty and increase equality among citizens. It is one of the kinds of redistribution system.

It was suggested because:

  • Inefficiencies of existing subsidies scheme.
  • Exclusion error.
  • According to the survey most of the scheme was not able to reach targeted beneficiaries. Often the very districts that house the most number of poor are the ones facing the greatest shortfall in the allocation of.
  • One of the key problems with many programs is that the take-up and effectiveness of targeting will be correlated with a state’s institutional and implementation capacity.

Benefits of UBI:

A UBI has the merit that it will not necessarily be driven by take-up capability from below but given from above to all the deserving. In that sense, it is less likely to be prone to exclusion errors.

And by directly transferring money to bank accounts, and circumventing multiple layers of bureaucracy, the scope for out-of- system leakages (a feature of PDS schemes) is low.



RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-4

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2018-19 Practice Question Answer

1. What do you know about ‘Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan’?


  • Mangarh Dham (MANGARH HILL) is known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan
  • In a barbaric tribal massacre that was executed on November 17, 1913, nearly a century ago, 500 odd tribal martyrs were killed by British Rulers, in Santrampur taluka of tribal dominated Panchmahal district.
  • Govind Guru and Mangarh massacre have become part of the memory of Bhils. Despite this, it was buried in remote areas of Banswara-Panchmahal, situated on the border of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and this historic tragedy could not have been more than a footnote in the history of India’s freedom fight.
  • He awakened the Bhil community and filled them with a sense of patriotism. The Bhils were so inspired that they sacrificed their lives for freedom. Later, 1500 Gurubhakt Bhils sacrificed their lives while fighting against the British army. It is therefore also known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan.

2. Enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to implement financial inclusion in the country?

Answer: – Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion simply means to ensure that everyone gets the benefit of the financial services of the nation at an affordable cost in spite of whatever background he belongs. It especially focuses on including Underprivileged and vulnerable group of the society into the economy and providing them with its benefit and thus further causing growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country through increase of customer base of the financial institutes which will further results in high profits for future and this cycle will keep going with increasing profits.

It enhances GDP growth by broadening the resource base of the financial system by developing a culture of savings among large segment of rural population bringing low-income groups within the perimeter of formal banking sector thus plays its own role in the process of economic development

India and Financial Inclusion

As far as India is concerned it has a long history of putting efforts to have financial inclusion and to some extent, it has been successful as compared to starting stages of building up of Indian economy after independence but there are still many milestones yet to be achieved in this process. And efforts of current government have enhanced financial inclusion in the society to many folds but we still are in the process figuring out to use this in favoring our economy and make everyone in the reach of its benefit and for this, there are various government schemes available.

Steps and Schemes followed by India for Financial Inclusion

  • Swabhiman Campaign
  • Business correspondent Model

Under this model financial Institutes appoint commission agents who provide financial Services at the doorstep of the public at remote areas where they are unable to open branches which result in large customer base at low cost. Therefore this model is also known as the cost-efficient model.

Various steps taken in area of banking for financial inclusion are:-

RBI’s Compulsory Requirement of Opening Branches in Un-banked Villages, banks is directed to allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches to be opened during the year in un-banked (Tier 5 and Tier 6) rural centers.

No Frill account- The central bank had introduced ‘no-frills’ accounts in 2005 to provide basic banking facilities to poor and promote financial inclusion. The accounts could be maintained without or with very low minimum balance. These were later converted into BSBDA

BSBDA- RBI advised all banks to open Basic Saving Bank Deposit (BSBD) accounts with minimum common facilities such as no minimum balance, deposit, and withdrawal of cash at bank branch and ATMs, receipt/ credit of money through electronic payment channels, facility of providing ATM card

JAN DHAN Account- These are similar to BSBDA but with little more features as earlier bank were reluctant to open BSBDA account. Banks also do not provide good service to BSBDA account holder. They even denied service like the debit card. But after JHAN DHAN Yojna this scenario has been completely changed

JHAN DHAN account holder is compulsorily issued RUPAY debit card and many more services. It certainly increased the financial inclusion and made bank account opening a cake walk

Account age should be at least 6 months

Account holder should visit ATM branches at least once in 90 days

Income should be up to 1 lakh per year in rural areas and up to 1.5 lakh year for urban areas

For Loans-

In order to control public to borrow from Schedule banks to lend fix amount in priority sector at affordable rate of interest along with certain government schemes such as – Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc.

For Insurance Sector

Insurance sector also plays a major role in financial inclusion of a country and thus government has various schemes in this sector among which few most recent schemes are-

Pradhanmantri Fasal Bima Yojna: This is a general insurance for crops and this scheme started from Feb 2016 by NDA government and replaced the earlier scheme of UPA government named “National Agricultural Insurance” with few more advantages such as low premium on crop insurance, use of technology for weather forecasting (like smartphones, drones, remote sensing satellites), Future generation of claim and post-harvest benefits e.t.c

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojna : It is a life insurance scheme from age of 18-50 years (benefit until 55 years) at a premium of Rs 330+(18%gst). It covers till 2 lakh Rs and is under LIC India on behalf of the government of India. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima yojna – started on Jan 2015 for accidental insurance and covers up to Rs 2lakh in case of death and Rs 1 lakh in case of physical disability at a premium of (Rs 12+GST) for the age group of 18 to 70 years and is under HDFC life on behalf of government of India

Recent steps still in progress

On Recommendation of Nachiket More committee there are various measures are going on among which one is opening of two special kinds of banks in India which are

Payment banks– These banks will only accept deposit from public and will not lend loans, these payment banks will provide payment services and deposit products to its target customers which will be small businesses and low-income households. Till date 11 licenses have been granted out of which four banks are functional which are – Paytm, Airtel, Indian postal payment bank, Phinopayment?

Small finance banks– Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.

3. Where is Kaila Devi temple located in Rajasthan?

Answer: Kaila Devi Temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Kaila Devi Village of Karauli district, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The temple is located on the banks of the Kalisil River, a tributary of the Banas River in the hills of Aravali.

4. Differentiate between Acute and Chronic diseases, with the help of some examples.

Answer: Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long-developing syndrome, such as osteoporosis or asthma. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma.

Examples of acute diseases include appendicitis, acute leukemia, and strep throat. Some acute diseases do not require hospitalization or medical treatments, such as influenza, whereas others, such as pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction, may require medical attention and extended treatment.

Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Many people with these illnesses become depressed. In fact, depression is one of the most common complications of chronic illness.

5. Enumerate a few reasons that cause phenomenon of ‘Forgetting’ in humans

Answer: This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.

There are three ways in which you can forget information in the STM:

  1. Decay: This occurs when you do not ‘rehearse’ information, ie you don’t contemplate it.
  2. Displacement: Displacement is quite literally a form of forgetting when new memories replace old ones.
  3. Interference

6. Name a few schemes targeted for poverty alleviation in India

Answer: The poverty alleviation programmes in India can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as prevalence of poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations.

 The programmes can be mainly grouped into:

1) Wage employment programmes

2) Self-employment programmes

3) Food security programmes

4) Social security programmes

5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

The five year plans immediately after independence tried to focus on poverty alleviation through sectoral programmes.

1     Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)

2     National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)

3     National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

4     National Maternity Benefit Scheme

5     Annapurna

6     Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

7     Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

7. Identify and describe (in brief) different types of sheep in the state of Rajasthan

Answer: Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan

Jaisalmeri: Found in Jaisalmer.

Naali: Found in Hanumangarh, Churu and Bikaner & Jhunjhunu. …

Maalpuri: Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli & Sawai madhopur.

Magra: Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year.

Pugal: Originated from Pugal in Bikaner.

Chokla or Shekhawati

Sonari or Chanothar

8. Determine the respective importance of generalists and specialists in the Indian Administration

Answer: A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotrophy with a varied diet). A specialist species can thrive only in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.

It is not necessarily true that you would prefer a specialist all the time. A specialist is one who has mastered the skill of one particular trade while a generalist is someone who has a fair knowledge of all trades but not an expert in any. In other words a generalist is Jack.

9. What do you understand by the term ‘Ownership?

Answer: Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property. Ownership is self-propagating in that the owner of any property will also own the economic benefits of that property.

10. Describe the salient features of demography of Rajasthan in the latest census

Answer: As per details from Census 2011, Rajasthan has population of 6.86 Crores, an increase from figure of 5.65 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Rajasthan as per 2011 census is 68,548,437 of which male and female are 35,550,997 and 32,997,440 respectively. In 2001, total population was 56,507,188 in which males were 29,420,011 while females were 27,087,177. The total population growth in this decade was 21.31 percent while in previous decade it was 28.33 percent. The population of Rajasthan forms 5.66 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 5.49 percent.

Recently as per Rajasthan census data, 93.22% houses are owned while 5.36% were rented. In all, 66.73% couples in Rajasthan lived in single family. In 2011, 68.02% of Uttar Pradesh population had access to Banking and Non-Banking Finance Corporation. Only 1.80% of Uttar Pradesh population had internet facility which is likely to improve in 2021 due to Jio. 4.66% of family in Uttar Pradesh owned car while 24.06% owned two wheeler. In few months we will also get details of election data for Rajasthan.

11. Describe the status and potential of non-conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan.

Answer: Rajasthan has become the leading state in tapping wind energy and solar energy for power generation in the country. According to the Government of Rajasthan, the estimated wind energy potential in the state is estimated to be about 5400 MW. A total of 3065.55 MW wind power capacity has been installed by December 2014.

Now, the emphasis has shifted to tapping more of solar Energy for power production and Rajasthan has signed MoUs with investors for setting up of a cumulative generation capacity of 32000 MW in the solar sector recently.

“Rajasthan shines on the solar map of India with 300-330 clear sunny days comparable to deserts of California, Nevada, Colorado and Arizona. Within the state the districts such as Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur are the key regions with best solar radiation. Rajasthan is endowed with two critical resources that are essential to solar power production: high level of solar radiation (6-7 kWh/ m2/ day) and large tracts of relatively flat, undeveloped land,” informs the website of resurgent Rajasthan.

Currently development of Solar-park at Jodhpur is in progress to create 2000 MW Solar Power Plant and Rajasthan has taken the lead ahead of all other states in this sector too. With regard to solar energy production, it is said that the world’s largest 4,000 MW solar project would be built in two phases in Sambhar block of Jaipur.

The first phase will be of 1000 MW and most likely will be commissioned by the end of 2016. Rajasthan is one of India’s most solar-developed states, it is said. As we know that solar energy is the most important non-conventional source of energy because it is non-polluting and helpful in lessening the greenhouse effect.

Rajasthan has decided for promoting generation of electricity from biomass also and is encouraging investments in the sector. The main source for biomass energy in the State of Rajasthan is mustard husk and Julie flora.

Current Affairs Study Notes for IAS Prelims 2019

UPSC CSE IAS Prelims Current Affairs with Practice MCQ


UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2019 Study

Important Study Notes for UPSC and State PSC Exams from September 2018 to February 2019 with Practice MCQ.

Latest Govt Schemes/Reports/Policy/Act/Amendments/issues

UPSC Civil Services IAS Prelims General Studies Paper-I, 2019 comprehensive study material with dedicated focus on syllabus prescribed by the UPSC for Preliminary and Main examinations. There are three main attributes of this edition viz. excellent quality, updated data and Practice questions based on structured analysis and emerging trends. Content development by the best in class authors, experienced subject experts for the aspirants

Key Features:

1. We covered Current Affairs with Static portion and related MCQ in this Book.

2. More than 500 important topics for prelims 2019.

3. A reliable recipe for success

4. Major transformational changes and innovative administrative reforms and policy decision-making

5. Important summits, events, facts and figures with analysis and global as well as regional implications

6. Standard questions with matching techniques based on the emerging trends.

(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test Papers



Some Sample Question for Preview:

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

Which one of the following cattle product is main product of Rajasthan?

What is production possibility of an economy?

What are the some main challenges before agriculture sector in Rajasthan?

How can the paradox of value be resolved?

What are the three types of benefits provided by Social Security?

Why the Need of new Inland Container Depots in Rajasthan?

What are the Main renewable energy sources?

What is inclusive and exclusive growth?

Write short notes on Crop Specific Growth in Rajasthan?

What is the effect of inflation on the economy?

What is the difference between absolute and relative pay?

What is social and economic development?

What are the three indicators of HDI?

What are the major factors of globalization?

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

RBI eases ECB hedging norms for companies. Explain

How has the Green Revolution affected India?

What are the basic objectives of Five year Plans?

Which industry is the major source of employment in Rajasthan?

Describe the Special Area Development Programmes in Rajasthan.

How many districts of Rajasthan are covered by Thar Desert?

What is Gini coefficient and what is the definition?

What are the Components of Human Development?

What are the various industries in Rajasthan?

CAATSA was recently in news. What is CAATSA? How it will affect India?

What is the main occupation of Rajasthan?

Agriculture Ministry takes back report on impact of demonetization on farmers.

Explain in detail the methods to calculate National Income.

In which industry of Rajasthan sodium sulphide is used as raw material?

What causes a kinked demand curve?

Which are the SC, ST, OBC and EBC Welfare initiative taken by government of Rajasthan?

In which year was Bhamashah scheme launched in Rajasthan?

Demonetisation came when world was showing resilience towards negative growth environment. What were the reasons for demonetisation?

What is the difference between FDI and FII?

Examine the role of startup as driver of growth.

Which are the recently welfare Education initiatives of Rajasthan Government?

What is MUDRA? Discuss its significance

What is PPP model? What are the advantages of PPP?

What factors contribute the most to economic growth?

IL&FS Crisis and role of National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)

What is the Land Use Pattern in Rajasthan?

What are the Macro Indicators of Economic Development?

What is per capita income with example?

What is opportunity cost and why is it important?

What are the Mains causes of infant mortality?

What are IMR and MMR?

What are the advantage and disadvantage of PPP?

Describe the Money Illusion with example.

What are the goals of the central bank?

What are the Fiscal Indicators of Rajasthan in 2018-19?

What is interest subvention scheme for farmers?

Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements

What is ease of living index meaning?

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

What are the achievements of green revolution?

What is the impact of demonetization?

Write short notes on Agriculture, Farmer and Animal Husbandry.

What are the steps taken by the government to reduce unemployment?

What are the key facts, important and objectives of National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HARIDAY)?

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

What are the objectives of Trips agreement?

Universal Basic income has its own Pros and Cons. Discuss in the Context of Indian economy?

Why information technologies Markets of today are highly Concentrated Also discuss the need to adapt our Regulatory Policies to new Business Models?

The Disaster That Struck A Coal Mine At Ksan In Meghalaya’s Jaintia Hills District On December 13, Trapping At Least 13 Workers, Is A Shocking Reminder That A Fast-growing Economy Such As India Continues To Allow Dickensian Mining Practices. Discuss

Examine the issues faced by workers of gig economy? Evaluate how they stand in comparison to workers of formal economy?

Explain the role of RBI in the economy and critically analyze whether it makes sense to restrict the primary role of RBI to inflation management?

Which are the Skill, Employment & Youth Programme in Rajasthan?

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment

Inclusive growth and issues arising from it

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance, e-applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures

Vision of a New India – USD 5 Trillion Economies

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

What is PPP?

What are the objectives of PPP?

High Growth Firms have a beneficial spillover effect on MSMEs. Analyze in the context of Indian economy.

We have seen landmark shift in Indian Economy since the adoption of new economic policy in 1991. Discuss the impact that it has had on different sectors of economy?

Food Processing – A Game Changer for Indian Economy?

Write about the Organisation, Scheme and Projects for Rural Development in Rajasthan?

What are the AMRUT Mission and AMRUT Cites of Rajasthan?

Ease of Doing Business Index: India jumps to 77th rank

Reasons behind increase in Patent disposal rate: Reforms in Patent office

Write Govt schemes and policies for Good Governance Indian Economy in the Investment and MSME sector

What is smart city mission? Smart city Programmes of Rajasthan

Discuss India’s poverty decline in the recent report of the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

How to weaken the mandi monopoly in our country?

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY): Crop Insurance Scheme

Explain the Fissures amidst growth: Female foeticide

Huge economic differences between regions of the country

What are the concern and new norms of Credit rating agencies?

UNESCO global education monitoring report 2019

What steps India has taken to address the issue?

What is the role of NITI Aayog?

What is the Green revolution? Analyse the impact of green revolution.

What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what are their advantages?

What do you understand by Tax expenditure?

Indian economy is facing lot of challenges including structural challenges. Outline the structural challenges of Indian economy.

What are Masala bonds? Explain their significance

Is cashless economy feasible in India? Also discuss the impact of it on informal economy?

Which are the main organisation and schemes for Skill Development in Rajasthan?

What is Geographical Indication (GI)? Write some famous GI of Rajasthan?

What is Inland Container Depot?

What was the purpose of PDS? Evaluate its functioning.

What was the mandate of the committee headed by D B Shekatkar? Outline its recommendation.

What is Trade parity Price? And what is e-way bill? And what is OPEC? Explain the cleansing action of Soap?

What is the difference between Tax evasion and Tax avoidance? What are the methods of Tax evasion?

Highlight the Characteristics of Indian economy.

Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

Write an Essay on the Sectoral Composition with respect to contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Employment

What is the role of NITI Aayog?

What is the Green revolution? Analyse the impact of green revolution.

What do you understand by Tax expenditure? Comment on its relevance?

Suggest solutions to deal with the structural challenges of the Indian economy.

What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what is its advantage?

Indian economy is facing lot of challenges including structural challenges. Outline the structural challenges of Indian economy.

Why twin deficit is a concern for any economy? Outline the methods adopted by Government of India to deal with twin deficit.

Why does make in India is essential for sustained growth of India?

What were the objectives of Demonetisation? What were the positive effects?

What is the difference between FDI and FII?

What is SEBI? Write down its functions

What is PPP model? What are the advantages of PPP?

What is PPP? Certain issues are faced by PPP. Examine that.

What is MUDRA? Discuss its significance

What is Inverted duty structure? How it has impacted Indian manufacturing over the years.

What is interest subvention scheme? Discuss its salient features

What is Industrial revolution 4.0? Major components of IR 4.0, What are the advantages for India?

What is globalisation? Examine its impact on the pattern of employment.

What is gender budgeting? What is the rationale behind gender budgeting?

What is FRBM act? Why the objectives of FRBM were not achieved.

What is fiscal consolidation? Provide the ways to achieve it?

What is financial inclusion? How financial inclusion can lead to inclusive growth?

What is Disinvestment? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

What is black money? Discuss its implication in context of India?

What is a monetary policy?

What do you understand by the term inflation? What are the causes of inflation? List down the tools to curb inflation?

What do you understand by decentralized planning?

What do you mean by Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)?

What are the opportunities and challenges confronting the Indian small scale industrial sector in the era of globalization?

What are the objectives of Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana? Discuss its salient features also.

What are the Forms and types of foreign Capital?

What are the efforts taken by Central government to control inflation?

Industrial efficiency is a key to sound economy. In this contest discuss the key initiative taken by India to boost industrial performance.

India’s NPA problem is a chronic problem and exist at a larger scale then peer countries then what factors didn’t allow Indian economy to collapse?

India’s growth story has bypassed the industrial sector. What are the reasons for low performance of industrial sector in India post liberalisation?

In India still after 1991 reforms there is ambivalence towards private sector. Explain with the example

If poverty is a problem, rural poverty poses a greater threat. In this context discuss the reasons for rural poverty.

Give mains reasons of regional imbalance.

Free electric power to the farmers is causing a drain on exchequer and also they are not achieving the desire result. Do you agree with the statement?

Fiscal solidarity is key to foundation of a strong economy. N k singh committee was set up to head a fiscal responsibility and budget management panel? Discuss the features of the act.

FDI is good for a Country like India. But FDI is also not immune from criticism. Discuss the ill effect of FDI.

Farm loan waiver has become a populist tool. Do you think loan waiver is the ultimate solution?

Explain the State Government initiatives for Ease of doing business.

Explain the following terms:

Bank rate

Merchant discount rate

Open Market operations

Repo rate


Explain the following terms

Tax havens



Transfer pricing

Explain in detail the methods to calculate National Income.

Exit problem is the biggest hurdle for Indian firms as per economic survey. To get rid of this Insolvency and Bankruptcy code was passed. What are the features of IBC?

Examine the role of startup as driver of growth.

Examine the methods for the calculation of MSP.

Even though Indian economy is growing at a rate of 7% GDP, but still it has some Inherent vulnerabilities? Discuss

Evaluate the pro and cons of decentralized economic planning.

Unutilised employment potential in the phase of demographic transition will only lead to demographic catastrophe. Explain the cause of Unemployment in India. Steps taken by India to tackle unemployment

Discuss the key issues with real estate sector? Outline the provisions of Real estate (regulation and development) Act, 2016.

Discuss the features of consolidated FDI Policy for 2017.

Development is a myth without rendering women equality. Discuss in the context with women participation in labor force.

Demonetisation came when world was showing resilience towards negative growth environment. What were the reasons for demonetisation?

Define the following terms;

Tier -1 capital

Tier -2 capital


Public debt

CAATSA was recently in news. What is CAATSA? How it will affect India?

Analyze why Indian economy is considered as planned developing economy.

Although India is one of the fastest growing economies the global environment is not conducive enough. Explain the interdependence of global economy with Indian economy.

Air India is severely under stressed but aviation sector is not. Identify the potential and challenges?

A healthy infrastructure is must for a sustained economic growth.

What is BharatMala project? What are the challenges in its implementation?

Demographic dividend is a potential and not destiny. In this context discuss the Advantage of demographic dividend.

Define following term:

Current account

Capital account

Balance of payment

Trade balance

Is cashless economy feasible in India? Also discuss the impact of it on informal economy?

Inflation is a heavy tax and erodes the purchasing power of rupees. Discuss the ways to control inflation.

Economic survey suggested that India’s growth decoupled with the world growth? What is this decoupling and what are the reasons for it?

What are Masala bonds? Explain their significance

What are the aims of the trade policy of India?

Wealth inequality is a serious concern for the Government around the world. What are the reasons for wealth inequality in India? List down the consequence of wealth inequality

Tendulkar committee on estimation of poverty changed the basis of calculating poverty. Discuss.

Tax reforms are the major part of the economic programme. Discuss the reforms taken in the direct taxes and indirect taxes in India.

Subsidies are always been a major tool for the inclusivity. Comment on its efficacy.

Start up India scheme

Recently infrastructure status was given to the logistics sector? Analyse the advantages and major hurdles.

RBI has taken several steps to deal with stressed asset problems. Discuss the steps taken by the RBI. Also comment on their success.

What is Price stabilisation fund?

Post 1991 reform era has seen a major change in the tax system. Discuss the changes?

Post 1991 Indian economy saw a sudden change in outlook. To bring reforms in the financial sector GOI set up Narasimha committee. Discuss its recommendation.

Low skill manufacturing is key to Indian success especially the clothing and manufacturing sector. Do you agree with the statement?

Knowledge based economy has huge potential to grow with sustained rate. But there are concerns with Indian as an eligible country for knowledge based economy. Discuss.

RAS Mains Test-Art and Culture

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Art & Culture of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question


Rajasthan Public Service Commission Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions.
Art and Culture of Rajasthan Solved Practice Questions as per Syllabus and trending topics of Current Affairs.
20/50/100/200 words Solved Question as per RPSC RAS Mains Exam Requirement.

What is the importance of handicraft in our economy?

Handicrafts are hugely important in terms of economic development. They provide ample opportunities for employment even with low capital investments and thus become a prominent medium for foreign earnings. From transforming the traditional Indian arts, and crafts to the customized version of an overseas art form.

Who was Muhnot Nainsi?

  • Born in Jodhpur city, Mohanot Nainsi was the minister and minister of Maharaja Jaswant Singh-I of Jodhpur.
  • Angered by something, the Maharaja put both Nainasi and his brother Sundarasi in prison.
  • Due to tortures in captivity, both brothers committed suicide.
  • Along with being knowledge lover and History lover he was a man of self-pride and brave nature.
  • Munshi Devi Prasad has called Nainsi as Abul Fazal of Rajputana. Nainsi wrote a famous book titled Muhnot Nainsi RI Khyat.

Mirpur Jain Temple, Sirohi

This is also one of the most important Jain temples of Rajasthan which is known for its extensive architecture as it is dated back to the 9th century. The temple was built by the Rajputs and signified as the oldest marble monument in Rajasthan. The temple is having the idol of the 23rd Tirthankar who is the Parsavanatha. The architecture of this temple globally acclaimed and the carvings of the pillars are the true representation of every beautiful note of Hindu mythology.

Goga Ji

  • Birth-1003 A.D. at Dadrewa in the Churu district of Rajasthan
  • Legend Protects from Snakes bites (Jaharpeer).
  • Saint Goga ji fought with Mahmood Gajnavi for protection of cows.
  • Died (Samadhi) -Gogamedi in Hanumangarh District
  • Worship: Main Temple: Gogamedi, built by King Ganga Singh.
  • Villages in Rajasthan has dedicated to him, than is always under Khejri tree.
  • Farmers tie 9 Knot – Goga Rakhadi – to their plough for good harvest.
  • Goga Ji identification – Blue Horse, Spear and Snake

Famous Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

In Rajasthan, the emergence of saint bhakts was witnessed from 16th century to end of 18 century.

Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

  • Dadu Dayal
  • Mira Bai
  • Sundar das
  • Rajjab
  • Bhakhan
  • Wajind
  • Raghavdas
  • Lal Das
  • Charan Das
  • Mavaji

What do you know about Akbari Fort & Museum?

This fort was constructed in 1570 by Akbar and is also called as Daulat-khanna or Magazine. Plans for battle of Haldighati were finalized in this fort in 1576 and Jahangir camped in the fort for 3 years to bring mewar under Mughal control.

• This fort is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture and it is the location from where Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir read out the Farman permitting the British East India Company to trade with India. In 1801, control of fort passed to British who converted it into magazine (armory).

• Currently, the fort is converted into a state museum and houses a collection of Mughal, Rajput armor and sculpture. The fort also has beautiful paintings and Janana portion has excellent Picchikari works.

Main Features of the Mughal Paintings in India

1. Confined to Mughal court:

Mughal painting remained confined to the Mughal court and did not reach the people.

2. A synthesis of Indian and Persian elements:

The Mughal rulers brought Persian painters with them. At the same time they patronized Indian painters and the collaboration between these two schools of painters resulted in the synthesis.

3. Main themes of painting:

Apart from Persian books of fables, themes from Mahabharata were also selected. Indian scenes and landscapes came into vogue.

4. Abundant use of colours:

Golden colours considered to be the symbols of prosperity of the Mughals began to be used increasingly.

5. Climax of Mughal painting:

Jahangir had a very discriminating eye and Mughal painting reached its climax of glory during his reign.

What are the main handicrafts of the people of Rajasthan?

Top 10 Historical Places in Rajasthan?

Which famous folk dance is associated with Rajasthan?

Write the dialects of Rajasthan and their region?

What is Fire Dance in Rajasthan?

Write about some Famous cattle fairs in Rajasthan?

Osian Jain Temple, Jodhpur

Write about two most famous saints in the Bhakti Movement from Rajasthan

Adi Shakti Puja

Write down the name of Prominent Freedom Fighters of Rajasthan

What are the reasons and consequences of the Battle of Tunga?


What were the contributions of Sawai Raja Jai Singh?

Sagarmala Gopa

Explain different types of Rajasthani Paintings?


Describe about famous Lok Devis of Rajasthan (Folk Godesses)

Bala Quila, Alwar

Duleh Rai/Dulha Rao

Write short notes on the following:

1. Shahbad Fort, Baran

2. Shergarh Fort, Baran

3. Nahar Garh Fort, Baran

4. Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur

5. Bhainsrorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh

Describe the Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature.

Rajasthan’s handicraft have its historical and multiple importance, describe?

Expect on the relation between ruler and Samanta/feudatory after the treaty with the Mughals?

Name the Institute which is famous for the exhibiting of puppets.

In how many parts Rajasthan is divided in the sight of folk Dramas?

Which writer demonstrates the predatory history of Rajasthan?

Four dialects of Rajasthan and there region?

For which purpose Walter created the Rajput Hitkarni Sabha?

Aoudak fort

Gentlemen agreement

Toul movement

Arthuna temple Shiva art



Define the name of Terahtali Dance?


Define the contribution of Laxmi Kumari Chundawat in the field of Rajasthan literature

The importance of Sanganer, Bagru and Barmer in the field of dyeing and printing in Rajasthan?

Imported features of Satyprakash joshi’s Radha?

Short note on Blue Pottery

Short note on Anup Singh the ruler of Bikaner?

Feudatory Administrative system’s important features?

Important feature of Jantar–Mantar the astronomical observatory of Jaipur

Impact of Mughals Architect on Rajasthan’s Palaces

Describe Folk entertainment of Rajasthan Describe.

Cultural achievement of Pratap Singh

Explain gavri dance,bhawai dance,ravan hatha andrammat

Political and cultural achievement of Maharana kumbha

Main incidents happened in Bijoliya peasant movement.

Growth of women education in Rajasthan and its hurdals?

Political, Social and economic expects of Prajamandal movements.

Define the important features of Rajasthan painting along with various painting forms and schools.

Explain the various phases in the unification of Rajasthan

Bijolia Edict

Raj Singh (Mewar)’s Achievements/Achievements of Raj singh

Characteristics of Folk Songs

Judicial Administration of Medieval Rajasthan

Explain the Contribution of folk deities & Saints in Society?

Sarangpur Battle

Beli Krishna – Rukman Ri


Shivaji Sagar

Kalsu Bai

1- Describe the Bhakti Saints and folk Gods of medieval Rajasthan.

2- Describe the role of Praja Mandals in the socio-economic upliftment of people.

3-Throw light on the treaties signed between 1803 and 1823 between East India Company and different Rajputana Kingdoms.

4- Shakti Pooja In Rajasthan.

4(a)- Women’s political participation in Freedom Movement in Rajasthan.

4(b) – Role of Castism in Rajasthan

5- Artisan castes in Rajasthan.

6- Rajputana -Madhya Bharat Sabha.

7- Battle of Tunga. 4

8- Jaipur Art during Reign of Sawai Pratap Singh

9- Teej Tyunhara Bawdi, Le dubi Gangaur.

10- Sagar Mal Gopa.

11- Dulha Rai.

12- Mandan Suthradhar

13- Chatra Chauth

14- Nouchoki

15- Kali Bai

16- Gair Dance

17- Thewa Art

18- Morchang

19- Rajasthan Proverb is mirror of religion, Philosophy, policy, agriculture, social traditions, etc.” Explain with examples.

20- Describe various communities of Rajasthan Drawing and comment on their subject matter.

21-Describe the various popular Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

22- Describe the social structure of medieval Rajasthan.

23- Kavi Magh.

24- Merger of Ajmer-Merwara in Rajasthan.

25- Devji.

26- Wedding Customs of Tribals.

27-Rajasthani festivals from Chaitra to Phalguna

28-Role of Rajasthan in 1857 Revolution

29- Gindar Dance

30- Bari- Padla

31- Phad

32- Chitra Shala


34- Saint Ranabai

35- Rasdhari Khayal

36- Tasha

37- Tukkangira and Shah Ali

38- Pushti Marg

39- Describe the Religious Beliefs, Cults and Saints of Rajasthan.

40- Describe the contribution of Tessitorry in Dingal Literature.

41- Illustrate the peasant movements of Rajasthan before independence.

42- Contemporary Scenario of Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

43- Nana Bhai Khant and Kalibai Bheelbala.

44- Cultural contribution of Maharana Kumbha.

45- Vrihad Rajasthan.

46- Shekhawati ki Hawaiian.

47- Thakur Kushal Singh Champavat

48- Rangri tongue.

49- Kukadala

50- Gofan

51- Sugali Mata

52- Pandit Durgalal

53- Ravan Hatta

54- Baneshwar Fair

55- Thewa Art

56- Ludrava

57 – Galiyakote

58- Lakulish Temple

59- Kaithoon

60- Throw light on the historical importance and events of Bijoliya Farmers Movement of Rajasthan.

60(a) – Explain the various stages of unification of Rajasthan.

61- Famous Jain temples of Rajasthan.

62- Haveli Music

63- Chirdawi Khayal

64- Bhope of Rajasthan

65- Sclupture art of Molela.

66- Sacrifice of Krishna Kumari.

67- Motilal Tejawat.

67(a) – Describe Rajasthan’s freedom struggle of 1857

68- Bhoora Singh Shekhawat.

69- Merwarda

70- Sahariya.

71- Bappa Rawal.

72- Ghoomar.

73- Suryamal Mishra.

74- Kiradu

75- Arthuna.

76- Kallaji Rathore

77- Jantar.

78- Dingal.

79- Dr. Komal Kothari.

80- Explain the role of Folk Gods of Rajasthan in the socio-cultural development of the state.

81- Explain the role of Sangeet Natak Academy in Cultural development of Rajasthan.

82- Animal fare of Nagaur.

83- Johar.

84- Devnarayanji ki Phad.

85- L.C. Tacitori

86- Raj Prasthi

87- Gajner.

88- Jainarayan Vyas.

89- Nirnjani Sampradaya.

90- Jan Kavi.

91- Bharthari.

92- Manikya lal Verma.

93- Management of Kanhede

94- Soonhari Kothi

95- Girdhaveri.

96- Bhagri

97- Pabuji.

98- Kiradu.

99- Gair Nirtya.

100- Rawan Hatha.

101- Rohida

102- Jamo

103. Ramgopal Singh

104. Galiyakote.

105- Write about the important Archaeological sites of Rajasthan.

106- Suryamal Mishran Literary activities

107- Cattle fairs in Rajasthan.

108- Rammat.

109- Matsya Union.

110- Pabuji ki Phad.

111- Sagarmala Gopa.

112- Kachi Ghodi Dance

113- Bani- Thani.

114- Battle of Khanva

115- Mithe Shah Dargah

116- Menal.

117- Keshari Singh Baraith

118- Bhatner Fort

119- Algoza

120- Sathin

121- Lal Bagh

122- Goga Pir

123- Kurjan

124- Kolayat

125. Write an essay on ‘Nationalism in Rajasthan Literature.

126. What are the main problems in preserving and maintaining rich historical and cultural heritage of Rajasthan? Suggest measures.

127. Explain the salient features of folk music of Rajasthan.

128. Write the names of five freedom fighters of Rajasthan.

129. Kishangarh School of Painting.

130. Important Tourist Places in Rajasthan.

131. Kanhiyalal sethiya

132. Bishan Singh Shekhawat.

133. Kali Bangha.

134. Praja Mandal.

135. What are the main Problem in preserving and maintaining the rich historical and cultural heritage of Rajasthan? Suggest steps.

136. Write the names of main tribes of Rajasthan and explain their role in the development of Rajasthani art, culture and literature.

137. Write the name of four freedom fighters from Rajasthan.

138. Name four cattle fairs of Rajasthan and their location.

139. Veer Tejaji.

140. Mewar school of painting

141. Important Archaeological sites in Rajasthan.

141. Vijay Dhan Detha.

142. Surya mal Mishran.

143. Write an essay on ‘Nationalism in Rajasthan Literature’?

144. Discuss the main features of ‘Rajput Paintings’.

145. Evaluate the social impact of Praja Mandal Movement in Rajasthan.

146. Kishangarh School Of Painting.

147. Lal Bag.

148. Important tourist places in Rajasthan.

149. Name two places where Nagori- Bullocks are traded in cattle- fairs.

150. Name the author of following:-

(1) Raj Ballabh, (2) Prabandh Chintamani, (3) Vamsha Bhaskar, (4) Kandhe Prabandh.

151.  Describe the teachings of Sunderdas.

(I) Tazim (II) Angarakha

151.  (I) 30 March 1949 A.D. (II) Akbar’s visit to Ajmer.

152. Nritya Ganesh.

153. Bani Thani

154. Fire Dance.

155. Main dialect of Rajasthan

156. Write about Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

157. Freedom struggle in Rajasthan Prior to Independence.

RAS Mains-Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question



This Book is useful for RAS Mains Exam.
Practice Solved Question/Descriptive – Geography of Rajasthan
These Mock Solved Question Answer prepared as per last couple of years RAS Mains analysis.
We have covered almost all trending topics/static topics of geography of Rajasthan.
Answer Style is in 20/50/100/200 words.

Geography of Rajasthan-Solved Test Questions

Sample Preview:

Why Rewat hill of Rajasthan is famous?

Write short note on soils of Rajasthan.

Write the name of World Famous Wildlife Sanctuaries in Rajasthan

How Aravalli hills are formed?

Write the features and motives of first biological Park of Rajasthan?

Write down the Introduction of Aravalli Range and Hilly Region.

Which are the Highest and Low Density cities of Rajasthan as per Census 2011?

Write down the Flora and fauna of Thar Desert?

What are the Soil Classifications of Rajasthan in detail?

Why in spite of Aravalli range Rajasthan receives very less rain?

Which part of India gets the monsoon first?

What are pre monsoon showers?

Describe the physiographic character of Rajasthan and also mention the Importance of Aravali Mountain.

Why the Coromandel Coast gets most of its rain during the winter season?

1- Delineate natural regions of Rajasthan and describe any one of them.

2- Describe the role of RICCO in the industrial development of Rajasthan.

3- Describe the main source of power generation in Rajasthan.

4- Combating drought in Rajasthan.

5- Water Policy 2010 of Rajasthan.

6- Write a short note on Aravalli Range.

7- The district of Rajasthan which have the highest and lowest sex ratio as per 2001 census.

7(a) – Describe the seed Spices of Western Rajasthan.

8- Flora of Thar Desert.

9- Lake Development Projects in Rajasthan

10-What is solar Energy Enterprise Zone (SEEZ) and where is it located?

11- Mewat and its source of humidity.

12- Classification of Soil areas.

13- Dairy Development.

14- Stone Industry of Rajasthan.

15(a) – Main Districts which lie across Indra Gandhi Canal

15(b) – Tribal Mahila Self Help Group- 2 marks 2008

16- Cover Erosion.

17- Describe the Desert Development Projects of Rajasthan.

18-Describe the Population distribution format of rajasthan & illustrate its determining factors.

19- Describe the silent features of Physico Cultural Regions of Rajasthan.

20- Describe the Tribal Area Development & Plans.

21- Execution of Narmada Project in Rajasthan.

22(a) – Talchhapar Sanctuary

22(b) – Kankrej &its main varieties

23- Non-Conventional sources of energy.

24- Takhli Dam Project.

25- Describe the current status of population of Rajasthan and the steps taken to restrict the population growth.

26- Through some light on the administrative setup established in Rajasthan for improving the electricity condition.

27- Give a detailed explaination of the cultural regions of Rajasthan.

28- Through some light on the Chambal project of Rajasthan.

29- Explain various cattle varieties and their regions.

30- Drought and famines are frequent in Rajasthan. Mention the causes and suggest the ways to deal with this problem.

31- Describe the role of public sector industries in economic development of the state.

32- Review the present position of production of lead, Zinc and Copper in Rajasthan, stating the places of availability of the sources.

33- What means are used for irrigation in Rajasthan and what is their contribution in the agricultural development of the state?

34- Jakham River

35- Sambhar Lake

36- Compare the mother and child care programmes in Rajasthan with the other states in India.

37- Describe the Main features of ‘Bisalpur Project’?

38- Discuss the growth of Distance education in Rajasthan. To what extent it would serve the interests of Higher Education in the State?

39- Access the Progress of ‘Heritage Hotel Scheme’ Rajasthan during the last five years.

40- How far do you agree that Rajasthan is a Mazor cement producing state in the country?

41- Mineral oil Exploration in Rajasthan.

42- Solar Energy Projects in Rajasthan.

43-Write on any 5 wildlife sanctuaries in Rajasthan

44(a) – Rajsamand Lake

44(b) – Chappan Plains.

45- Write the names and special features of the main geographical sub-regions of Rajasthan.

46- Access the progress of industrial growth and its impact on Rajasthan in last five years.

47- Why population growth in Rajasthan is very high? What strategy should be adopted to contain it?

48- Why literacy in Rajasthan is very low? What immediate steps should be taken to improve the situation?

49- Name 6 important rivers of Rajasthan.

50-(a) Narmada Canal Project

50-(b) Making Rajasthan Literate

50-(c) Gurushikhar

50-(d) Longewala

50-(e) Dang

50(f) Mahi

50-(g) Thar

50-(h) Mewar

51- Access the progress of oil seeds production programme and its impact on Rajasthan in last five years.

52- Mention five major sectors/areas which would be crucial in the development of Rajasthan in 21st Century. Explain why?

53-Why female Literacy in Rajasthan is lowest in the country? What immediate steps should be taken to improve the situation?

54- Main problems of rapid industrial development of Rajasthan.

55- Explain Salient Features of Geography of Rajasthan.

56- Explain Solar Energy as a good source of energy in Rajasthan.

57- Indra Gandhi Canal Project

58- Aravali Mountain

59- Desertification.


61- Rajsamand

62(a) – Godawan

62(b) – Rathi

62(c) – Uppermal

62(d) – Hadoti

63- Access the Progress of afforestation programmes in Rajasthan.

64- Desert Development Programme.

65- Drought and famines are frequent in Rajasthan. Mention the causes and suggest the ways to deal with this problem.

66- Write briefly about the following mineral wealth in Rajasthan- Tungsten, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and Feldspar

67- What do you understand by Social-Forestry?

68- Why does western Rajasthan receives low amount of annual rainfall?

69- Present a short note on ‘soil degradation’ in Rajasthan. 2.5 marks-RAS/RTS Mains-1994

70- Explain ‘Bio-Gas’ as a good source of energy in the rural areas of Rajasthan.

71- Family Planning Programme in Rajasthan.

72- Name four breeds of cows which are generally classified as ‘Dairy Breed’.

73- Mention the names of two major tributaries of Chambal River.

74- Name two places in Rajasthan where ‘National Parks’ have been established.

75- Cash Crops of Rajasthan.

76- Maru- Ganga.

77- Desertification

77(a) – Vegetation and climate of Rajasthan

77(b)-Tribals of Rajasthan

77(c) – What are the important agro based industries which can be setup in Rajasthan?

78- Mineral resources of Rajasthan

79- Desert Development Programme.

80- The main Rabi crops of Rajasthan.

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

RPSC and RSMSSB Exams Useful Book



  • Rajasthan government scraps minimum education criteria for civic poll candidates
  • International Camel festival to be held at Bikaner from 12 Jan 2019
  • Plan for green zone at Mt Abu with Centre
  • Khajuraho of Rajasthan’ set to regain its lost glory
  • Health ministry confirms 50 Zika cases in Rajasthan
  • Indo-US joint military exercise ‘Vajra Prahar’ begins in Jaipur
  • 4-day Regional meeting of World Customs Organisation held in Jaipur
  • Rajasthan Assembly passed the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj (Amendment) Bill.
  • Jaipur Literature Festival held in Houston
  • PM Modi Inaugurated ‘Parakram Parv’ in Jodhpur
  • Govt working on logistics for farm loan waiver of 50 lakh farmers in Rajasthan

RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key – 6 January 2019

RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key and Question Paper RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key 6 January 2019 SET Wise Paper Solution Sheet RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 6 Jan. 2019 Question Paper PDF – राजस्थान अधीनस्थ और मंत्री सेवा चयन बोर्ड {आरएसएमएसएसबी} ने महिला सुपरवाइजर की परीक्षा 06 जनवरी 2019 को सफलतापूर्वक आयोजित की है. जिन उम्मीदवारों ने 6 जनवरी 2019 को  Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor की परीक्षा दी है अब सभी आवेदक इंटरनेट पर राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर उत्तर कुंजी 6 जनवरी 2019.

उम्मीदवार इसकी आधिकारिक वेबसाइट के माध्यम से ऑनलाइन  Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 06/01/2018  डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं. आपको उत्तर कुंजी के साथ राजस्थान वुमन सुपरवाइजर प्रश्न पत्र पीडीएफ प्रदान की जाएगी .जल्द ही आप नीचे लिंक के माध्यम से आरएसएमएसएसबी महिला सुपरवाइजर उत्तर कुंजी पीडीएफ 6 जनवरी 2019 डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं .

RSMSSB Women Supervisors Question Paper – 6 January 2019 (Answer Key)

राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 6 जनवरी 2019 डाउनलोड पीडीऍफ़

राजस्थान ने विभिन्न परीक्षा केंद्रों में Women Supervisor कि परीक्षा 6 जनवरी 2019 को आयोजित की है।परीक्षा समाप्त होने के कुछ समय बाद आरएसएमएसएसबी महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की बोर्ड के दवारा ऑफिसियल वेबसाइट पर उपलोड कर दी जायेगी.अत अभियार्थी उपर दिए गये लिंक से उत्तर कुंजी देख सकते है. इस परीक्षा मे प्रदेश के कई लाख अभ्यर्थियो के उपस्थित होने की संभावना है, परीक्षा की ऑफिसियल आंसर  5 -7 दिन के अंदर विभाग की वेबसाइट पर जारी कर दी जाएगा.

Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019,Check 6 January 2019 Question Paper Solution

RSMSSB ने उम्मीदवारों की भर्ती के लिए RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 2019 परीक्षा आयोजित की है इसलिए ,Rajasthan Women Supervisor परीक्षा में बहुत से उम्मीदवारों ने भाग लिया था .अब उम्मीदवार RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key 2019 की तलाश में है .उम्मीदवार को सूचित किया जाता है .Rajasthan Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 6 January 2019 आ चुकी है.

उम्मीदवारों को अपेक्षित अंक जानने के लिए RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor परीक्षा की उत्तर कुंजी की जांच करना आवश्यक है .RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019 से उम्मीदवार अपने सवालों के उत्तर की जाँच कर सकते है . नीचे हमने कुछ महत्वपूर्ण टिप्स दिए  है जो RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor ,06 जनवरी पेपर सॉल्यूशन 2019 की जांच करने में आपकी मदद करेंगे.

How to Check RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019?

    सबसे पहले विभाग की आधिकारिक वेबसाइट पर जाएं।

    फिर होम पेज पर RSMSSB Women Supervisor Exam Answer Sheet 2019 लिंक खोजे.

    उस लिंक पर क्लिक करें.

    अब अपना पंजीकरण संख्या और DOB इत्यादि जैसे सभी आवश्यक विवरण दर्ज करें.

    सबमिट बटन पर क्लिक करे.

    फिर आपकी RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key स्क्रीन पर प्रदर्शित होगी

    इसे डाउनलोड करे

नीचे आपको RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Key 2019 के लिए लिंक भी दिया गया है ,लिंक के जरिए भी आप RSMSSB Women Supervisor Answer Key 2019 को देख सकते है .

RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 6 January Answer key: Download Here

RSMSSB Supervisor Answer Key 06th January 2019

Name of the Examination Authority Rajasthan Subordinate and Ministerial Services Selection Board {RSMSSB}
Official Web Portal
Name of the Post Woman Supervisor
Total Posts 180 Posts
Exam Date 06th January 2019
Exam Mode Offline
Admit card publishing date December 2018
Category Answer Key
Status Not available
Job Location Rajasthan
Selection Process Written Exam, Document Verification
Exam Timing 11:00 AM to 02:00 PM

राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की Set A B C D PDF

आरएसएमएसएसबी ने वुमन सुपरवाइजर की परीक्षा आयोजित की है । इसके अलावा, परीक्षा में Set A ,B ,C ,D विभिन्न कोड हैं .अब इन सभी कोडों के राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की  प्रकाशित करेंगे।आधिकारिक उत्तर कुंजी आधिकारिक वेबसाइट द्वारा परीक्षा तिथि के 5 या 7 दिनों के बाद जारी की जाएगी.उम्मीदवार कोचिंग संस्थानो द्वारा अनौपचारिक उत्तर कुंजी परीक्षा के उसी या अगले दिन रिलीज होगी.इसलिए उम्मीदवार को आधिकारिक राजस्थान वुमन सुपरवाइजर उत्तर कुंजी 2019 की तलाश करनी चाहिए.

Rajasthan Women Supervisor Answer Key 06 January 2019 Paper Solution

हमने इस पोस्ट में आपको आरएसएमएसएसबी महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 6 जनवरी 2019 Paper Solution बारे में सभी महत्वपूर्ण जानकारी का उल्लेख करने की कोशिश की है जो 06 जनवरी 2019 को जारी की गई है.उम्मीदवार को सभी विस्तृत जानकारी जो कि ऊपर बताई गई हैं, को जांचना आवश्यक है.RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor 06 Jan. Question Paper Solution और पेपर समाधान की परीक्षा की तारीख और बदलावों के साथ घोषित किया गया है, इसलिए उम्मीदवार अपनी परीक्षा की तारीख और परीक्षा शिफ्ट की चयन के द्वारा Rajasthan Women Supervisor Answer Key 2019 की जांच कर सकेंगे .यदि कोई और जानकारी जानना चाहते हो 06 Jan. Answer Key 2019 for RSMSSB Women Supervisor Exam से संबंधित आप नीचे कमेन्ट करके पूछ सकते है.

इस पोस्ट में आपको RSMSSB Women Supervisor Exam Answer Key Pdf 2019 Set {A B C D} Rajasthan Women Supervisor Answer Sheet 2019 RSMSSB Women Supervisor Exam Solved Paper 2019 RSMSSB महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 6 January 2019 RSMSSB Mahila Supervisor Answer Sheet 06 jan. 2019 PDF राजस्थान महिला सुपरवाइजर आंसर की 06 जनवरी 2019 पीडीऍफ़ के बारे में बताया गया है इस अलावा आपका कोई भी सवाल या सुझाव है तो नीचे कमेंट करके जरुर पूछे