RPSC RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM SOLVED TEST PAPER
IMPORTANT STUDY MATERIAL
1. Write a short note on ‘Maharana
Pratap Award’ in the field of sports?
Answer: Maharana Pratap Award:
This is the highest
awards for sportsperson in the state of Rajasthan.
prize of INR 1, 00,000
Statute of Maharana Pratap
2. What is coal bed methane? What is the problem in the
extraction of coal bed methane?
Coal bed methane is found in the impermeable stone and is trapped in the
coal seams. A significant portion of this gas remains as free gas in the joints
and fractures of the coal seam. Large quantities of gas are adsorbed on
the internal surfaces of the micro pores within the coal itself
Coal bed methane can be accessed by drilling wells into the coal seam
and pumping large quantity of water that saturate the seam. Water will occupy
the gaps and pores and will push out the gas.
Problem of coal bed methane extraction:
- It is a capital intensive process and at current state of pricing it
is not possible to extract.
- Private sector has no rights to extract unconventional gas reservoir.
- Coal bed methane comes under Ministry of petroleum and coal mines come
under ministry of coal. So there is overlapping of jurisdiction which creates
- The technology required is very advanced and the public sector
companies have very weak organizational setup to efficiently handle such
technologies and extract gas economically.
3. Give an account of the following:
1) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920
3) Khilafat movement
4) Lahore conspiracy case
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5
1) JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE-
On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages,
unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park
to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal.
The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked
the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000.
The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of
2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920
session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the
sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of
swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.
3) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat
movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by
Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman
Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more
favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey
simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.
4) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh,
Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the
police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.
4. Define- Comets, Dark matter, Dark energy and Fundamental particle
originate in outer solar system and are formed of cosmic snowballs of frozen
gases, rock and dust that orbit the sun. When a comet’s orbit brings it close
to the sun, it heat up and spewn dust and gases into a giant glowing head
larger than most planets.
Roughly 80% of the mass of the universe is made up of material that scientist
cannot directly observe. This is called dark matter. Dark matter is completely
invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark
matter impossible to detect.
energy is a hypothetical term used for a kind of energy that exerts a negative,
repulsive pressure, behaving like the opposite of gravity. Like dark matter
dark energy is not directly observed, but rather inferred from observations of
gravitational interactions between astronomical objects.
fundamental particle can be divided into one of two categories, fermions and
bosons. Particles that make up matter called fermions eg electrons, protons,
leptons, quarks. Particles that carry force are called Boson.
Photons, 4-He atoms, gluons, W-bosonetc
RAS MAINS 2018-19 REVISION TEST
5. Give an account of the following:
1) Simon commission
2) Meerut conspiracy
3) Hindustan republic association
4) Radcliff line
(1) Simon commission:
commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for
further constitutional reforms. It is also known as Indian statutory
commission. It was set up by lord Birkenhead.
(2) Meerut Conspiracy:
Conspiracy was a controversial court case initiated in British India in
March1929 and decided in 1933. Several trade unionists, including three
Englishmen were arrested for organizing an Indian railway strike. The British
Government convicted 33 leftist trades Union leaders under a false law suit.
The Meerut Conspiracy case trial helped the Communist Party of India to
consolidate its position among workers.
(3) Hindustan republic association (HRA):
Republican Association (HRA) was a revolutionary organization of India
established in 1924 at village Bholachang in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath
Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan
Samiti. Its objective was to establish a “Federated Republic of the United
States of India” through an organized and armed revolution.
(4) Radcliff line:
fix the international boundaries between the two countries, the Boundary
Commission was established chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe. The commission was
to demarcate Bengal and Punjab into the two new countries. The boundary
demarcation line is called Radcliffe line. Its western side serves as
India-Pakistan border and eastern side serves as India- Bangladesh border.
6. What is the difference between mitosis and
Number of divisions
Two – meiosis 1 and meiosis II
Occurs during inter-phase
Occurs during inter-phase
Production of somatic cells for growth of the body
Produces gametes or game to genesis
Daughter cell produced
Two diploid cells that are genetically identical to parent
Four haploid cells (n) contain half the number of chromosomes as the
||Yes it takes place during pro phase 1 |
Reproductive cells of humans, animals, plants and fungi
7. Give an
account for the following:
(a) Great lakes
- Great Lakes of North America are a series of interconnected
freshwater lakes which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence
- Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario.
Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario [In the order of largest to
- Lake Superior is the largest continental lake in the world by area,
and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.
(b) Lake Baikal
Baikal is situated in Siberia, Russia. It is the deepest lake and world largest
lake by volume. It is also the second longest lake.
(c) Lake Tanganyika
is situated in African rift valley system. It is the longest lake in the world.
It is also second largest in terms of volume.
(d) Aral Sea
is classical example of human intervention leading to the shrinking of the
water bodies. This lake is situated between Kazakistan in the North and
Uzbekistan in the south. Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1960s due to the
diversion of the river feeding it for irrigation purpose.
8. Give an
account of following:
1) Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian
Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of
viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission.
The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its
chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:
- Assess wood’s dispatch.
- To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state
institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.
2) Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler
Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of
Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission
recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and
intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year
courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate
stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization
of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the
study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work
9. Give an
account of the following:
Muzaffarpur conspiracy case
Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of
the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam
district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the
princely state of Travancore.
in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the
Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be
incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by
the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the
‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The
British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at
the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged
with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high
treason and punishable with death by hanging.(1908)
was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill
the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs
on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British
women were killed in the attack.
10. How does
the climate change affect the global distribution of fauna?
Climate change is a result of rapid global warming. The increase of average
temperature of earth is termed as Global warming. Global warming is a natural
process which has been accelerated by anthropogenic activities. Because of this
earth is not getting time to adjust to this change. This is causing climate
Effect on fauna:
- Migratory roots are changing for the birds. For example The arrival of
Siberian cranes in India is delayed and they are returning to Russia a bit
- The breeding pattern of birds and aquatic animals is also changing.
Tropical fish species are shifting to more temperate waters.
- Vector borne diseases which were found in tropical areas are also
shifting to temperate regions.
- There is a large scale habitat loss. This is the single biggest reason
of pushing species to the brink of extinction. Many endemic species which
are confined to a small area like islands have become critically
endangered. Right now, 6th mass extinction is going on.
- Many polar species are finding it uncomfortable to survive in the
polar waters because temperature is increasing.
the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements.
Green Box Subsidies: The subsidies
which cause no, or at most minimal, trade distorting effects or effects on
production. These subsidies are permitted under WTO regime, for instance;
Government services such as research, disease control, and infrastructure and
Amber Box Subsidies: All domestic
support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some
exceptions) fall into the amber box. For instance, MSP, Procurement Price, sum
total of subsidies on inputs like fertilizer, water, credit, power, etc
Blue Box Subsidies: It contains
direct payment subsidies which can be increased without limit, so long as
payments are linked to production-limiting programs. This is the “amber box
with conditions”, conditions designed to reduce distortion. Any support that
would normally be in the amber box is placed in the blue box if the support
also requires farmers to limit production.
the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?
- The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous
and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
- Lack of leadership
- Internal rift in congress
- Congress failure to influence masses at large.
- It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
- Repression by Britishers was another reason
13. Give an
account of following.
1) Project Tiger
2) Project Hangul
3) Sea Turtle Project
4) Project snow
1) Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in
Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country
based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA
2) Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a
project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag)
its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m.
3) Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley
turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle
Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute
of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented
in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.
4) Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard
was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage
of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting
conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational
in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal
14. What is
excretion? Outline the functions of kidney.
It refers to the elimination/removal of metabolic wastes from the body.
There are four major organs of excretions: kidney, lungs, skin and the liver.
Out of these four organs kidneys are the primary excretory organs that
eliminate metabolic waste products in the form of urine. The major functions of
- Excretions of wastes and toxins such as urea, uric acid, ammonia and
- Maintenance of water balance and electrolyte balance in the body
- Regulation of blood pressure by producing angiotensin, a substance
that constricts blood vessels and signals the body to retain water and
sodium when blood pressure is low.
- Regulating the acid base balance to keep the blood pH 7.2-7.4 and body
- Regulation of RBC development in bone marrow with the secretion of
15. Give the
account of the following.
3) Great dividing
Longest continental mountain range in the world. They are
found in South America. They formed due to ocean-continent collisions and
subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. Mount Aconcagua
is the highest peak. (6962m)
Rocky Mountains: They are Fold Mountains found in the western
margin of the North American continent. They are formed due to oceanic and
continent plate collision. The Rocky Mountains took shape during an intense
period of plate tectonic activity that resulted in much of the rugged landscape
of the western North America.
Dividing Range: This range is found in the Australian continent. They are
the third longest land based range in the world. They are also known as
Australian Alps. They were formed due to rifting.
mountain: The spectacular and ancient Drakensberg Mountain Range is Southern
Africa’s highest range at 3 482 m and stretches an enormous 1 000 km from north
to east. In Zulu the range is called uKhahlamba, or the barrier of spears,
which does justice to its dramatic basalt buttresses. The Blyde River Canyon is
situated in the northern part of the mountain range
16. What is
electromagnetic wave? Outline the features of electromagnetic waves?
Electromagnetic waves or EM waves are waves that are created as a result of
vibrations between an electric field and a magnetic field. In other words, EM
waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields.
Properties of electromagnetic waves:
- EM waves are composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at
right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the direction of
- They travel with a constant velocity of 3×108m/s in vaccum.
- They are not deflected by an electric and magnetic field.
- They are transverse waves which can show interference and diffraction
and may be polarised
17. What are
the issues attached with the functioning of tribunals?
Article 323A and 323 B of the constitution empowers parliament and state
legislature to establish tribunals. Although the tribunals have reduced the
burden of cases on High courts, they are facing some issues:
- Lack of infrastructure and man power availability.
- These tribunals do not have power to enforce the decree.
- Now aggrieved party can appeal against the order of quasi judicial
bodies which have diluted the objective of the Tribunals.
- The lack of complexity to deal with the cases.
Way ahead is to reduce the number of tribunals in accordance with the
proposal of S jai Shankar committee. New tribunal service can be incorporated
so that staffing problem can be dealt with
1) Current account
2) Capital account
3) Balance of payment
4) Trade balance
Current account: Current
account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in
which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the
central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency
all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in
Capital account: Capital account
of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of
country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or
liabilities of the residents of the country or its government
Balance of payments: The balance of
payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country
and the rest of the world.
Trade balance: The balance of
trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports
for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a
country’s balance of payments
19. What is
a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the
Benami transactions amendment act?
Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real
beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is
made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The
property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is
made by another.
Effect on economy:
- Loss of revenue
- Generation of black money
- Moral hazard for honest tax payers
- Artificial inflationary tendencies
- Increase in the prices especially of real estate
Provisions of Benami amendment act:
- Establishment of adjudicating authority
- Case has to be decided in a year’s time
- Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two
- Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed
from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these
- Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such
transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven
years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of
the fair market value of such Benami property.
20. What is
M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence
to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion
on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National
Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another
attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45
Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend
of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him
proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s
declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:
- Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
- Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste
and the Sikhs.
- The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework
of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.
M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading
Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but
the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League.
21. What is
SEBI? Write down its functions
SEBI stands for securities and exchange board of India. It was set up
through a government resolution in an effort to give the Indian stock market an
organised structure. Its initial paid up capital up was Rs. 50 Crore.
Main functions and powers of the SEBI are as follows:
- Registering and stock exchanges, merchant banks, mutual funds,
underwriters, registrars to the issues, broker, sub broker, transfer
agents and others.
- Levying various fees and other charges
- Promoting investor education
- Inspection and audit of stock exchanges and various intermediaries
- Performing other functions as may be prescribed from time to time.
22. Explain the nature and different
theories of origin of monsoon.
Answer: The Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons
actually a wind regime operating at a level of 20 km from the earth’s surface.
It is characterised by seasonal reversal of wind direction at regular
monsoon is a global phenomenon influenced by a variety of factors not yet
completely understood, the real monsoon rains cover mainly the South Asian
region, represented by India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and parts
of South East Asia.
monsoons, the Indian climate is influenced substantially by two more factors.
The Himalayas contribute a continental nature to the climate, recognised by
land winds, dry air, large diurnal range and scanty rainfall. The Indian Ocean,
on the other hand, contributes a tropical character to the Indian climate
characterised by uniformity of temperature throughout the year, short diurnal
range, damp air, and frequent rainfall.
system of the Indian subcontinent differs considerably from that of the rest of
Asia. The centres of action, air masses involved, and the mechanism of
precipitation of the Indian monsoon are altogether different from other monsoon
Theory or Thermal Concept of Indian Monsoons:
this theory, the differential heating of land and sea at the time when the sun
makes an apparent northward movement is the main cause of the Indian monsoonal
are mainly responsible for this very strong development of monsoons:
(i) Vast size
of the Indian subcontinent and adjacent seas;
(ii) Very high
and extensive mountain systems of the Himalayas in the north, extending in an
east-west direction, thus posing a formidable physical barrier between tropical
and polar air masses.
factor is of great meteorological significance.
high mountain chains of the Himalayas which border the subcontinent on three
sides work as both a break and motor at the same time.
the winter season, they prevent the penetration of the cold polar air masses
from Siberia into the subcontinent, while in summer, the Himalayas do not allow
the equatorial maritime air masses to cross the Himalayas and force them to
curve round the north-west.
mighty Himalayas produce hydro-dynamic effects that determine the type of
precipitation in India.
the thermal concept, during the period following the Spring Equinox (March 23),
the sun starts its apparent northward shift. As a result, the areas lying north
of the equator (tropics and sub-tropics) – get a progressive high incidence of
The effect of
this phenomenon on the Indian subcontinent is seen in the form of intense
heating of the vast northern plains and the adjoining highlands. As a result, a
massive low pressure trough is formed extending from the Punjab plains in the
north-west to the Bengal delta in the east.
pressure zone attracts wind regimes from the adjoining areas, from short
distances in the beginning. But as the level of solar incidence reaches its
peak during May-June, the pressure gradient between this low pressure trough
and the adjoining seas is so great that it attracts winds from as far as the
south of the equator. Accompanying this process and helping this pull of wind
regimes is the development of some high pressure centres—in the Indian Ocean,
Arabian Sea and over Australia (it being the winter season in Australia).
patterns which are prevalent south of the equator are actually the south-east
trade winds which blow from the south-east towards the north-west. These winds,
attracted by the low pressure trough over the Indian subcontinent, while moving
north of the equator, turn in a clockwise direction (or towards the right),
following Farrell’s law. This shift in direction is brought about by the
earth’s rotation. Now, the originally south-east trade winds become south-west
monsoons blowing towards the north-east.
juncture, the Inter- Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) also shifts northwards.
The ITCZ is the hypothetical line where the north-east trade winds from the
northern hemisphere and the south-east trades from the southern hemisphere
meet. The south-west wands now approaching the Indian peninsula have to travel
a long distance over the Indian Ocean.
long journey, these winds pick up large amounts of moisture and by the time
they reach India they are oversaturated. Here, they are known as the south-west
monsoons which get divided into the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal
branch because of the shape of peninsular India. There moisture-laden winds
cause heavy rainfall on the windward sides.
This branch of
the south-west monsoons strikes the highlands of the Western Ghats at almost
right angles. The windward slopes of the Western Ghats receive heavy orogenic
precipitation. Although the western currents of the monsoon penetrate further
into the Indian mainland the intensity of rainfall goes on decreasing on the
windward slopes of the Western Ghats are the areas receiving the highest
rainfall, the leeward slopes form a well-marked rain-shadow belt which is
drought- prone. For instance, the average annual rainfall at Mumbai and Pune is
188 cm and 50 cm respectively, despite the fact that they are only 160 km
characteristic feature of the distribution of rainfall on the windward slope is
that the amount of rains is heavier higher up the slopes. However, the heavy
rains are concentrated in a narrow strip along the Western Ghats.
the Western Ghats, the rain- bearing air currents descend the eastern slopes
where they get warmed up adiabatically. This results in a pronounced
rain-shadow area. The higher the mountains-, the larger are the rain-shadow
effect. Towards the north, where the Western Ghats are not very high, the
difference in the amount of rainfall between the windward and leeward side is
Bay of Bengal
This branch is
active in the region from Sri Lanka to Sumatra Island of the Indonesian
archipelago. Like the Western Ghats of India in the case of the Arabian Sea
branch, the windward slopes of the West Coast Mountains of Myanmar (Arakan and
Tenasserim mountains) get heavy rainfall when the main monsoon currents of this
branch strike the Myanmarese coast. Akyab on the west coast records 425 cm
during the June-September period. As in case of the leeward sides of the
Western Ghats in India, here too, the rain shadow effect is pronounced on the
current of this branch strikes the Khasi hills in Meghalaya and causes very
heavy rains. Mawsynram (near Cherrapunji), situated on the southern slopes of
Khasi hills, has the distinction of recording the highest annual average
precipitation in the old.
because of its peculiar geographical location. Mawsynram is flanked on all
sides by the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills except for a gap through which the
rain-bearing winds enter and are forced to rise, thus yielding the heaviest
rainfall. Shillong, a mere 40 km away on top of the Khasi hills, receives only
about 140 cm of rainfall during June-September.
current of the Bay of Bengal branch takes a left turn at the eastern end of the
low pressure trough (roughly the Bengal delta). From here, it blows in a
south-east to north-west direction along the orientation of the Himalayas. This
current causes rainfall over the northern plains.
rainfall over the northern plains is assisted by west-moving monsoon or
cyclonic depressions called ‘westerly disturbances’. These are formed in the
Bay of Bengal and move along the southern fringe of the northern plains causing
copious rains there which are vital for the rice crop.
of rainfall decreases from east to west and from north to south in the northern
plains. The decrease westwards is attributed to the increasing distance from
the source of the moisture. The decrease in rainfall intensity from north to
south, on the other hand, is due to increasing distance from the mountains
which are responsible for lifting the moisture-laden winds and causing orogenic
rainfall in the plains, especially in the foothills.
The two main
branches of the monsoon winds follow different courses:
originally, they set out to fill the intense low pressure void created in the
north-west of the subcontinent. The two branches meet at the Chhotanagpur
Plateau. Of the total moisture carried by the two branches, only 20 per cent
falls as precipitation. The Arabian Sea branch is more powerful of the two
because of two reasons—one, the size of the Arabian Sea is bigger and two, most
of the Arabian Sea branch falls over India, while most of the Bay of Bengal
branch goes to Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand.
end of September, the low pressure centre in the north-west begins to
disintegrate and eventually shifts to the equatorial region. The cyclonic
conditions are replaced by anti-cyclonic ones. As a result, winds start blowing
away from the northern region. Similar anti-cyclonic winds blow from the
Tibetan highlands and beyond.
This is also
the time when the sun makes an apparent movement south of the equator. The ITCZ
also moves equator wards. Now the winds that dominate the sub continental
landscape are the ones which move from the north-east to the south-west.
conditions continue from October till mid-December and are known as the
retreating monsoons or the north-east monsoons. By December end, the monsoons
have completely withdrawn from India. The retreat of the monsoons is markedly
gradual in contrast to the ‘sudden burst’ of the south-west monsoons.
Mechanism of Indian Monsoons the Thermal Concept
monsoons over the Bay of Bengal pick up moisture on their way which is dropped
over eastern or coastal Orissa, Tamil Nadu and parts of Karnataka during
October-November. This is the main season of rains over these areas as they
almost lie in the rain-shadow area of the south-west monsoons
October, easterly depressions occur at the head of Bay of Bengal which move
southwards and in November get sucked into Orissa and Tamil Nadu coasts causing
heavy rain—sometimes with destructive cyclonic winds in coastal and interior
areas. The depressions weaken southwards and towards the interiors.
dry anti-cyclonic winds prevailing over the subcontinent after the retreat of
the south-west monsoons are not capable of causing precipitation because they
are free of moisture. Instead, these winds produce dry and fine weather.
However, certain areas in the north get winter precipitation: from sources far
north-western parts of India—Punjab and Ganga plains—are invaded by shallow cyclonic disturbances
moving from west to east and having their origin in the Mediterranean Sea.
These are called “Westerly Disturbances’ which travel across West Asia and
Afghanistan before they reach India. These disturbances come with cloudiness
and rising temperature in the front and cold wind in the rear.
disturbances cause upto 5 cm rainfall in Punjab and Kashmir and up to 2.5 cm
over the Uttar Pradesh plains. These showers are very good for the rabi crop,
especially wheat and gram, and are very effective because of less runoff, less
evaporation (because of low winter temperatures) and the fact that moisture
from these showers is confined to the root area of the crops.
23. Why no precipitation in Kachchh
and Western Rajasthan?
There is no
mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost
north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents
(which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.
currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by
stable anti-cyclonic air.
The hot and
dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn
towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the
ascent of air and absorb its moisture.
conditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan
where desert conditions prevail.
Some of the
currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur
plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unite
with the Bay of Bengal branch.
Although a few
air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards
Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing
rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi
in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.
24. Enumerate salient features of
India’s Nano Mission.
Answer: Nano Technology is a knowledge-intensive and “enabling
technology” which is expected to influence a wide range of products and
processes with far-reaching implications for national economy and development.
The Government of India, in May 2007, has approved the launch of a Mission on
Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore
for 5 years.
of Science and Technology is the
nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this
upcoming area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so
that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field. For this, research
on fundamental aspects of Nano Science and training of large number of manpower
will receive prime attention. Equally importantly, the Nano Mission will strive
for development of products and processes for national development, especially
in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water, materials development,
sensors development, drug delivery, etc. For this, it will forge linkages
between educational and research institutions and industry and promote Public
Mission has been structured in a fashion so as to achieve synergy
between the national research efforts of various agencies in Nano Science and
Technology and launch new programmes in a concerted fashion. International
collaborative research efforts will also be made wherever required.
25. What is the meaning of ‘Rit’ as
per the Vedas?
Answer: Rit/Rita, Sanskrit ṛta (“truth” or “order”), in Indian religion
and philosophy, the cosmic order mentioned in the Vedas, the ancient sacred
scriptures of India. As Hinduism developed from the ancient Vedic religion, the
concept of Rita led to the doctrines of dharma (duty) and karma (accumulated
effects of good and bad actions). Rita is the physical order of the universe,
the order of the sacrifice, and the moral law of the world. Because of Rita,
the sun and moon pursue their daily journeys across the sky, and the seasons proceed
in regular movement. Vedic religion features the belief that Rita was guarded
by Varuna, the god-sovereign, who was assisted by Mitra, the god of honour, and
that the proper performance of sacrifices to the gods was necessary to
guarantee its continuance. Violation (anrita) of the established order by
incorrect or improper behaviour, even if unintentional, constituted sin and
required careful expiation.
26. Is Election Commission of India,
a constitutional or statutory body?
Answer: –The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional
authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body
administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state Legislative
Assemblies in India, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the
difference is that while
statutory bodies come into existence by an act of parliament or a state
legislature. For example, Delhi University comes into existence by Delhi
University Act, 1912. Constitutional bodies come into existence or rather
derive their power from Constitution itself.
27. What role does ‘Staffing’ play in
the field of management?
Answer: Human resources management is the management of the planning and
staffing of intellectual and physical inputs, or people of different skill
levels, needed for an organization to meet its objectives. This means hiring
the right people for each job in the organization.
function is a very
important function of the management due to the following reasons. Staffing
helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs. It
helps in the optimum utilization of the human resources. It helps in developing
professionals in every field of organizational activity.
28. Describe the span of settlement
of Bhil tribe in India?
Answer: Bhils or Bheels are primarily an ethnic group of
people in West India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of
Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone
of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Places they inhabit:
popularly known as the bow men of Rajasthan. They are the most widely
distributed tribal groups in India. They form the largest tribe of the whole
South Asia. Bhils are mainly divided into two main groups the central or pure
bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils. The central Bhils are found in the mountain
regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and
Rajasthan. Bhils are also found in the north eastern parts of Tripura.
to the race of the pre-Aryans. The name ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word villu
or billu, which according to the Dravidian language is known as Bow. The name
Bhil is also finds mentioned in the great epic called Mahabharata and Ramayana.
The Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was wandering through the
jungles of Dandaka, searching Sita. The popular legend represents them as being
descended from Nishada, son of Mahadev by the human female. Nishad was brutal
and ugly, who killed his father’s bull and as the consequence he was banished
to mountains and forests. During the ancient era they were considered as the
great warriors who fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers.
other states, Bhils comprise 39% of Rajasthan’s total population. Speak Bhili,
which is an Indo Aryan language. Bhil women wear traditional saris and the Bhil
men wear loose long frock along with pyjama. The peasants wear turbans. Bhils
also wear brass ornaments. Bhils are tall, well built with the handsome
features. They are known for their truthfulness and simplicity. They love
independence. They are brave and their National weapon is bow made of bamboo.
Earlier they were the great haunters. They now practice agriculture as the
source of livelihood.
practice among the Bhils differs from place to place. Most of them worship
local deities like Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba, and Sitalmata. Some of the
worship Tiger God called ‘vaghdev’. They have no temples of their own. They
consult Badvas -the hereditary sorcerers on all the occasions. Bhils are highly
superstitious tribal people. They have Bhagat or Gurus who perform the
religious rites. They have village headsmen, who deal with their disputes.
Bhils strictly follow rules and regulations. They marry only in their own
classes. Their close relationships are tightly based on mutual love and
respect. They have rich cultural history and give much importance to dance and
music. Ghoomar is the most famous dance among the Bhils. Than Gair is the
religious dance drama performed by the men in the month of Shravana (July and
August). The Bhils are talented in the sculptured work. They make beautiful
horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay.
fair is the main festival celebrated among the Bhils. This fair is held during
the period of Shivaratri (in the month of January or February) and is dedicated
to Beneshwar Mahadev also known as Lord Shiva. On this occasion Bhils gather
all together set up camps on the banks of the Som and Mahi River. They perform
dance around the fire and sing traditional songs. At night they all of them
enjoy Raslila at the Lakshmi Narayan temple. Cultural shows, magic shows,
animal shows acrobatic feast are the main attraction of the fair. This fair is
actually the combination of two fairs, which are held in reverence of Lord
Shiva and the other one that commenced after the setting up of Vishnu temple by
Jankunwari. Holy and Dusshera are the other major festivals celebrated among
the Bhils in India.
29. Describe the phenomenon of
Answer: the monsoon is a result of the shift
of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the
vertical sun. This results in the southwest monsoon. The dynamic theory
explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local
A monsoon is a
seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction that usually brings with it a
different kind of weather. It almost always refers to the Asian monsoon, a
large region extending from India to Southeast Asia where monsoon conditions
30. Write short Note on Medieval
- With establishment of Turkish rule in
India, a new phase coming in history of Indian art and architecture. Turks
brought Islamic style of architecture in India. This new style easy
significantly different from traditional Indian style. But over a period of
time both style underwent assimilation.
Essential feature of Indo -Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture characterised by uses of
arches, domes and minarets. Arches were used for making doors. Dome was used to
make roof and minarets were erected in 4 corners of building
- Assimilation of Indian style i.e.
trabeate architecture, use of columns and pillars
- Use of lime mortar as binding agent.
Which provided solidarity to the monuments and buildings
- Charbhagi style brought by Babar added
to the beauty of monuments.
- Double dome architecture was another
significant feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Eg. Humayun Tomb, Taj
- Use of new techniques like Pietra deura,
calligraphy technique, arabesque etc.
- Elements of Indian architecture like
Jali, Chatra, jharaokha, chhajjas etc.
Right from the beginning of Turkish rule to the
age of Mughal rule, process of assimilation of Indian and Islamic continued and
it lead to the genesis of new kind of architecture in India. It represents our
unique, assimilative cultural identity.