UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Quiz-3

Important Books for Competitive Exams 2019

[WATU 5]

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 Quiz-2

Important Books for Competitive Exams 2019

[WATU 4]

Daily Current Affairs 19-24 April 2019

UPSC IAS Prelims and State PSC Exams-2019 Current Affairs MCQ

1. Which article of the Indian Constitution has the provision of Finance Commission in India?

a) Article 275

b) Article 280

c) Article 265

d) Article 360

Answer: b only

Explanation: The Finance Commission is constituted by the President under article 280 of the Constitution, mainly to give its recommendations on distribution of tax revenues between the Union and the States and amongst the States themselves.

2. With reference to the union government offering grants-in-aid to state government, name the article that has the provision?

a) Article 275

b) Article 280

c) Article 265

d) Article 360

Answer: a only

Explanation: Article 275 provides for the payment of such sums as Parliament may by law provide as grants-in-aid of the revenues of such States.

3. which among them are the duties levied by the Union but Collected and Appropriated by the States?

a) Succession duty in respect of property other than agriculture land.

b) Estate duty in respect of property rather than agricultural land.

c) Stamp duty and duties of excise on the medical and toilet preparations.

d) Taxes on railway fares and freights

Answer: c only

Explanation: Stamp duty and duties of excise on the medical and toilet preparations are levied by the Union but Collected and Appropriated by the States.

4. With reference to the taxes levied and collected by the Union, which among following are assigned to the States?

a) Taxes on transactions in stock exchange.

b) Tax of sale and purchase of newspapers including advertisements

c) Estate duty in respect of property other than agriculture land.

d) Stamp duty and duties of excise on the medical and toilet preparations.

Find out the correct option from below:

Answer: a, b and c only

Explanation: The duties and taxes shall be levied and collected by the Government of India but shall be assigned to the States are duties in respect of succession to property other than agricultural land, estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land, Terminal taxes on goods or passengers carried by railway, sea or air and taxes on railway fares and freights.

5. With reference to the Election Commission of India, name the authority who appoints the members?

a) President of India

b) Prime Minister of India

c) Elected by MPs

d) Appointed by Chief Election Commissioners

Answer: a only

Explanation: President of India appoints the members of the Election Commission of India.

6. With reference to monetary policy of RBI, which of the statements are correct?

a) It is aimed at managing the quantity of money to meet the requirements of different sectors of the economy.

b) Monetary policy is different from fiscal policy.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: Monetary policy consists of the process of drafting, announcing and implementing the plan of actions taken by the central bank, currency board or other competent regulatory authority of a country that determines the scope and impact of the key drivers of the economic activity in that country.

7. With reference to the term, Systemically Important Banks, which of the banks are identified in such terms?

a) SBI



Answer: Above all

Explanation: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has named State Bank of India (SBI), ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank as Domestic Systemically Important Banks (D-SIBs).

8. With reference to the National Voluntary Guidelines on social, environmental and economic responsibilities, released by Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs, which of the following are correct?

a) Businesses should provide goods and services in a manner that is sustainable and safe.

b) Businesses should respect the interests of and be responsive to all their stakeholders.

c) Businesses should respect and promote human rights.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: The Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs has released the National Guidelines on responsible business conduct and revised the National Voluntary Guidelines on social, environmental and economic responsibilities of business, 2011. These guidelines on responsible business conduct aim to urge businesses to actualize the following principles in letter and spirit.

9. With reference to the Interim Budget, which of the following are correct?

a) Interim Budget is presented by the outgoing government during the last year of its tenure before elections.

b) It is generally meant for the first 2-4 months of the fiscal year in which the elections are scheduled.

c) It does not include the proposal on the income part of the budget through collection of taxes.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Interim Budget is presented by the outgoing government during the last year of its tenure before elections. It is presented by the new government during the first term of its tenure after it takes charge. It is also known as vote on account or approval, which the government seeks from the parliament for essential spending for a limited period.

10. Which of the following are correct?

a) The annual budget is presented in two parts. It includes the detailed structure of income and future ways to raise funds.

b) The full budget is passed by the Lok Sabha only after proper discussions and voting on demand for grants.

c) It does not include the proposal on the income part of the budget through collection of taxes.

Answer: b and c only

Explanation: It is presented by the new government during the first term of its tenure after it takes charge. The annual budget is presented in two parts. It includes the detailed structure of income and future ways to raise funds.

11. Name the state associated with New Year celebrations known as ‘Vishu’?

a) Tamil Nadu

b) Kerala

c) Andhra Pradesh

d) Rajasthan

Answer: b only

Explanation: Vishu is an Indian festival celebrated in one of the Indian state Kerala and in coastal Kanyakumari nearby regions and their diaspora communities.

12. With reference to Open Market Operations (OMO), which of the following statements are correct?

a) Buying and selling of government securities in the open market.

b) Open Market Operations of securities’ purchases inject money into the banking system and stimulate growth.

c) It helps to implement and control monetary policy.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Open market operations (OMO) are the most flexible and most common tool that the Fed uses to implement and control monetary policy in India. However, the discount rate and reserve requirements are also used.

13. Name the telescope which is has captured the direct image of a black hole?

a) Event Horizon Telescope

b) Great Cloud Telescope

c) Great Globe Telescope

d) Half Horizon Telescope

Answer: a only

Explanation: In a breakthrough, the first ever direct image of a black hole has been captured, thanks to Event Horizon Telescope (EHT).

14. With reference to Anthos platform which helps to run apps from anywhere, name the technology giant associated with it?

a) Google

b) Microsoft

c) HCL

d) Wipro

Answer: a only

Explanation: Google has introduced a new open platform called Anthos to run and manage apps from anywhere. Based on the Cloud Services Platform that Google announced in 2018, Anthos lets users run applications on existing on-premise hardware investments or in the Public Cloud.

15. With reference to Order of St Andrew the Apostle, name the country associated it?

a) Japan

b) Prussia

c) Russia

d) Bulgaria

Answer: c only

Explanation: Russia’s highest state decoration, Order of St Andrew, for exceptional services in promoting special and privileged strategic partnership between the two countries.

16. With reference to 24X7 pollution charge zone which is currently in news, name the city which implemented the scheme?

a) Bangalore

b) Hong Kong

c) London

d) Delhi

Answer: c only

Explanation: London is the first city in the world to implement a 24-hour, seven day a week Ultra Low Emission Zone.

17. What is/are the purpose/purposes of the Geological Survey of India (GSI)?

a) Enable and facilitate the providing of objective, impartial and up-to-date geological expertise and geoscientific information.

b) Explore and scientifically assess mineral, energy and water resources for the country.

c) Conduct ground level surveys about the minerals deposits

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Geological Survey of India aims to facilitate the providing of objective, impartial and up-to-date geological expertise and geo-scientific information of all kinds, particularly for decision-making for policy, commercial, economic and societal needs.

18. With reference to ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’, what are the objectives?

a) Conservation and protection of the Asian Rhino species.

b) Review the population of the Greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhinos every four years.

c) Undertake studies on health issues of the rhinos.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species.

19. With reference to National Crime Records Bureau, which of the following are correct?

a) Collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC).

b) Function as a repository of information on crime and criminals.

c) To Empower Indian Police with Information Technology and criminal Intelligence.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) was created to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.

20. With reference to preparation of noise pollution maps, name the regulatory body which issued the directive?

a) Central Pollution Control Board

b) Ministry of Environment and Forest

c) Supreme Court

d) National Green Tribunal

Answer: Above all

Explanation: The National Green Tribunal has directed the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to prepare a noise pollution map and remedial action plan to solve the issue across the country.

21. With reference to National Rural Livelihood Mission, consider the following statement:

a) It aims to promote self-employment and organization of rural poor.

b) It aims to organize the poor into SHG (Self Help Groups) groups and make them capable for self-employment.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) is a poverty alleviation project implemented by Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. This scheme is focused on promoting self-employment and organization of rural poor. The basic idea behind this programme is to organize the poor into SHG (Self Help Groups) groups and make them capable for self-employment.

22. With reference to Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) of the union government, consider the following statement:

a) IRDP aims to raise families of identified people below poverty line by creation of opportunities for self-employment in the rural sector.

b) IRDP is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme funded on a 50:50 basis by the centre and the states.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: The Integrated Rural Development Program is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme funded on a 50:50 basis by the centre and the states. The scheme has been in operation in all the blocks of the country since the year 1980. Under this scheme Central funds are allocated to states on the basis of proportion of rural poor in a state to the total rural poor in the country.

23. With reference to National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, consider the following:

a) It is renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).

b) It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by offering at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: It is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’. It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

24. In the context of Universal Basic Income (UBI) scheme, which among the following are correct?

a) It is a model for providing a sum of money to all citizens of a country with a given sum of money, regardless of their income.

b) It could increase the purchasing power of the poor section of the society.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: In the Economic Survey 2016-17, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley advocated Universal Basic Income scheme (UBI) in place of various social welfare schemes in the country, in an effort to reduce poverty and income inequality in the country.

25. With reference to Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMGAY), which of the following are correct?

a) It is a social welfare flagship programme which aims to provide housing for the rural poor.

b) Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) (PMAY-U) for the urban poor is also the part of the programme.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMGAY) has two components: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) (PMAY-U) for the urban poor and Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin) (PMAY-G and also PMAY-R) for the rural poor.

26. Which of the following statements is/are correctly regarding Smart India Hackathon 2019?

a) It is a unique Open Innovation Model for identifying new and disruptive technology innovations to solve the challenges faced in India.

b) It aims to build funnel for ‘Startup India’ campaign.

c) Provide opportunity to citizens to provide innovative solutions to India’s daunting problems.

d) It is a nationwide initiative to provide students a platform to solve some of pressing problems we face in daily lives.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Smart India Hackathon 2019 is a nationwide initiative to provide students a platform to solve some of pressing problems we face in our daily lives, and thus inculcate a culture of product innovation and a mindset of problem solving.

27. Which among the following is the first municipal corporation setup in India?

a) Delhi Municipal Corporation

b) Bombay Municipal Corporation

c) Madras Municipal Corporation

d) Kolkata Municipal Corporation

Answer: c only

Explanation: The Madras Corporation is the oldest municipal body of the Commonwealth of Nations outside the United Kingdom. It was formed in 1688 to control the powers of the Governor of Madras.

28. In which year did India become a sovereign democratic republic?

a) 26th January 1950

b) 15th August 1947

c) 30th January 1948

d) 14th January 1947

Answer: b only

Explanation: Republic Day honours the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act as the governing document of India and became a sovereign democratic republic.

29. in which year, the first census of India was conducted?

a) 1947

b) 1872

c) 1857

d) 1867

Answer: b only

Explanation: The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times, as of 2011. While it has been conducted every 10 years, beginning in 1872 and completed on 1881.

30. How many islands are present in the Lakshadweep Islands?

a) 40

b) 38

c) 36

d) 30

Answer: c only

Explanation: Lakshadweep has 10 inhabited islands, 17 uninhabited islands, attached islets, 4 newly formed islets and 5 submerged reefs. 10 inhabited islands are, Andrott, Amini, Agatti, Bitra, Cheetal, Kadmatt, Kalpeni, Kavaratti, Kiltan and Minicoy. There are 36 Islands in Lakshadweep group.

31. With Cotton production of India crossing new heights, name the largest cotton growing state?

a) Maharashtra

b) Gujarat

c) Bihar

d) Andhra Pradesh

Answer: b only

Explanation: Gujarat produces around 95 Lakh Bales of cotton, which stands around 30% of the complete cotton production of the country.

32. With reference to Minimum Support Price (MSP), consider the following?

a) Aims to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices.

b) It is a guarantee price for farmers for their produce from the Government.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).

33. With reference to National Horticulture Mission, consider the following statements:

a) NHM aims to provide holistic growth of the horticulture sector through an area based regionally differentiated strategies.

b) Its objective is to create opportunities for employment generation for skilled and unskilled person.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: National Horticulture Mission (NHM) is an Indian horticulture Scheme promoted by Government of India. It was launched under the 10th five-year plan in the year 2005-06.While Government of India contributes 85%, 15% share is contributed by State Governments.

34. With reference to National Bamboo Mission, consider the following statements:

a) Promote the growth of the bamboo sector through as an area based regionally differentiated strategy.

b) To promote marketing of bamboo and bamboo based handicrafts.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: National Bamboo Mission (NBM) is being implemented as a sub scheme. It envisages promoting holistic growth of bamboo sector by adopting area-based, regionally differentiated strategy and to increase the area under bamboo cultivation and marketing.

35. With reference to the launch of e-Charak platform for medicinal plants, name the ministry associated with the initiative?

a) Ministry of Corporate affairs

b) Ministry of Home Affairs

c) Ministry of Ayush

d) Ministry of Agriculture

Answer: c only

Explanation: e-Charak has been jointly developed by the National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Ministry of Ayush, Government of India and Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC).

36. Name the government body associated with committee to boost digital payments?

a) RBI

b) Ministry of Finance

c) Digital India

d) Department of Income Tax

Answer: an only

Explanation: Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has constituted a High-Level Committee on Deepening of Digital Payments to encourage digitisation of payments and enhance financial inclusion. The five-member committee will be headed by UIDAI’s former Chairman Nandan Nilekani.

37. Name the countries, which are planning to use India as a base to address their food security concerns?

a) Iran and Iraq

b) UAE and Saudi Arabia

c) Iran and Saudi Arabia

d) Iraq and Saudi Arabia

Answer: b only

Explanation: Union Commerce Ministry has announced that the UAE and Saudi Arabia had decided to use India as a base to address their food security concerns. For the first time, India’s export policy identifies the potential of agriculture along with horticulture, dairy, plantation and fisheries. The farm-to-port project will be similar to a special economic zone but in the style of a corporatised farm, where crops would be grown keeping a specific UAE market in mind. The concept has been accepted by both governments.

38. Su Tseng Chang was appointed as the new premier of which country?

a) Malaysia

b) Taiwan

c) Indonesia

d) Singapore

Answer: b only

Explanation: Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen has appointed Su Tseng-chang as Prime Minister during a Cabinet reshuffle.

39. Which countries are involved in the dispute of Chagos Islands?

a) United States and India

b) UK and Mauritius

c) Maldives and Srilanka

d) India and UK

Answer: b only

Explanation: Sovereignty over the Chagos Islands is disputed between Mauritius and the United Kingdom, where India is supporting the former.

40. Name the cricket team which won the Duleep Trophy 2018?

a) India Yellow

b) India Green

c) India Blue

d) India Orange

Answer: c only

Explanation: India Blue has won 2017-18 Duleep Trophy by defeating defending champion India Red by an innings and 187 runs.

41. Which of the following statements regarding the new amended version of the Forests rights act are true?

1) Under the act Forest dwellers can transport minor forest produce by any appropriate means of transport.

2) Transit passes for transporting minor forest produce will be issued by a committee constituted by the district administration.

3) No committee or individual official at the panchayat, block or forest range level except the forest rights committee shall be eligible to receive, decide or reject the forest rights claims.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

42. Which of the following pairs of tribals and their inhabiting states are correctly matched ?

1) Kand :Odisha

2) Warli : Gujarat

3) Adiyan :Tamilnadu

4) Chakma : Nagaland

5) Asur : West Bengal

a) 1,2 & 3 only

b) 1,3 & 5 only

c) 3,4 & 5 only

d) all of the above

43. With respect to the Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits (SAECK)to be distributed by the Union home ministry which of the following statements are true ?

1) The Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits (SAECK) or ‘rape investigation kits’ are designed to carry out immediate medico-legal investigation and aid in furnishing evidence in sexual assault and rape cases.

2) Each kit comprises essential items that will aid in furnishing evidence such as blood and semen samples in sexual assault and rape cases, helping the prosecution to gather evidence.

3) Under the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects and the States are competent to equip their police stations suitably with these kits.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

44. Consider the following statements with respect to solar energy production :

1) ‘Solar PV’ works by photons in sun’s rays knocking off electrons in the semi-conducting material in the panels and channels them through a wire the stream of electrons is electricity.

2) While Solar thermal systems, in contrast, suck up sun’s heat and conduct it to where it is needed – such as for drying of spices or fish or wet paint.

3) There is no loss in conversion of light energy into electric energy in a solar PV but a Solar thermal system has high conversion losses.

Which of the above statements are true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q45. Which of the following is the first country to allow voting through mobile phones in a parliamentary election?

a) Lithuania

b) Estonia

c) Latvia

d) Kenya

46. Consider the following statements regarding Net Interest Income (NII):

1) Net interest income is the difference between the revenue that is generated from a bank’s assets and the expenses associated with paying its liabilities.

2) A bank can earn more interest from its assets than it pays out on its liabilities, which means the bank is profitable.

3) Banks with variable rate assets and liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than those with fixed rate assets and liabilities.

Which of the above statements are true?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

47. Which of the following are important sites of nesting places of olive ridley turtles across the world?

1) Galapagos islands

2) Gulf of California

3) Gahirmatha

4) Coromandal coast

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 3 & 4 only

c) all the above

d) 1 & 3 only

48. Which of the following statements regarding India’s pollution statistics are true?

1) India can achieve its air quality goals if it completely eliminates emissions from household sources

2) A recent study has pointed out that the use of firewood, kerosene and coal in the households contributed to about 40% of the PM 2.5 pollution in the Gangetic basin districts.

3) If all households transitioned to clean fuels, about 13% of premature mortality in India could be averted.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

49. Which of the following statements with respect to sexual harassment at workplace (prevention, prohibition & redressal) 2013 act are true?

1) The Act uses a definition of sexual harassment which was laid down by the Supreme Court of India in Vishaka v. State of Rajasthan (1997).

2) The Supreme Court asserted that in case of a non-compliance or non-adherence of the Vishaka Guidelines, it would be open to the aggrieved persons to approach the Supreme Court only.

3) Under the act Government can order an officer to inspect workplace and records related to sexual harassment in any organisation.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

50. Mount Agung which recently erupted is in which of the following countries?

a) Bali

b) Java

c) New Zealand

d) Japan


41(c), 42(b), 43(d), 44(a), 45(b), 46(c), 47(c), 48(d), 49(c), 50(a)

Source: Civilservicesindia+The Hindu+PIB

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-7

Write short Notes:-

1. Jakham Dam

  • Jakham Dam is located in Pratapgarh District in Rajasthan. It is located in Anooppura village of Pratapgarh Tehsil; the dam is a main irrigation project of the area.

This dam is built on the Jakham River, which originates from a small village Jakhamia in Chhoti Sadri sub division. The Jakham dam’s foundation was laid on 14 May 1968 by then chief minister Mohan Lal Sukhadia.

2. Bhiwadi

  • Bhiwadi is a city in Alwar district of Rajasthan state in India. It is an industrial hub in Rajasthan. It is part of the National Capital Region.

3. Kali Sindh River

  • The Kali Sindh is a river in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. It belongs to the Ganges Basin. The Kali Sindh originates from Bagli (District Dewas) in Madhya Pradesh. It crosses the State Highway No 18 connecting Indore and state capital Bhopal near Sonkatch. The main tributaries of the Kali Sindh are Parwan, Niwaj and Ahu, Kuwari and Betwa Rivers.

It makes boundary of Shajapur and Rajgarh districts and enters Jhalawar and Kota districts of Rajasthan. The river then joins Chambal River at the downstream of Baran District in Rajasthan.

4. Palana Lignite Coal Fields

  • Palana and Khari mines of Bikaner district in Rajasthan carry Lignite deposits (inferior quality of coal). The coal produced is mainly used in the thermal power plants and railways.

5. National Desert Park

  • Desert National Park is situated in the West Indian state of Rajasthan near the Jaisalmer and Barmer. This is one of the largest national parks, covering an area of 3162 km². The Desert National Park is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert. Sand dunes form around 20% of the Park.

Despite a fragile ecosystem there is an abundance of birdlife. The region is a haven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. Many eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures are spotted here. Desert National Park has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old.

6. Irrigation by Persian Wheel

The Persian wheel method is popular in the central and eastern region where the ground water table is comparatively high. One Persian wheel can irrigate up to one hectare of land.

7. When was Hurda meeting organized? What were its objectives?

The land of Rajasthan has witnessed very few moments when its warriors united on a common issue shading all the differences. One such occasion was the battle of Khanwa when all the kings fought in unison against the mighty Mughal Babar. May be it was the charismatic leadership provided by Maharana Sangram Singh. But the bitter truth is that after Sangram Singh the threads of unity shattered. The death of Aurangzeb coincided with the rise of Maratha power.

  1. The Maratha power reached its zenith under the leadership of Peshwas. They used to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi as tax or tribute. In the first half of eighteenth century their interference in the politics of Rajasthan reached disturbing levels.
  2. They started plundering territories of Rajasthan inflicting defeats on various rulers. Even kingdoms of high stature like Mewar were humbled by the Marathas.
  3. At this time Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur tried to unite all Rajput rulers under one umbrella by convening Hurda Conference. It was attended by almost all Rajput kings.

8. What are the Problems of draughts and desertification in Rajasthan?

The major factors responsible for the desertification of Thar Desert of Rajasthan are climatic factors such as high temperature, low rainfall and high wind velocity and biotic factors like overgrazing of livestock (mainly cattle), intensive crop cultivation, indiscriminate deforestation and exploitation of natural.

9. What are the Causes of environmental pollution in the desert area of Rajasthan?

1. Wind erosion is a major problem in the desert regions of Rajasthan resulting in loss of top soil, damaging crop plants, and burying viable agricultural lands.

2. Water erosion tends to occur in the wetter parts of the arid zone and the semi-arid areas of India.

3. Rapid population growth contributes to land degradation in India. On one hand, the growing population has disrupted traditional systems of land tenure and inheritance extending agricultural activities to marginal lands which are much more vulnerable to land degradation. On the other hand, slums are built on some of the region’s best agricultural land. People have the imperative to produce more food on shrinking plots, and then turn to adopt intensive agricultural techniques which make soil resources face a constant danger of depletion.

4. Unsustainable land use can also lead to land degradation. Much of the land currently under cultivation was regarded, until recently, suitable only for animal husbandry, which causes two problems: first, growing food crops on such land has led to the development of unsustainable agricultural practices such as intensive irrigation and over-cropping; second, it has pressed grazers onto more marginal land which may lead to overgrazing. Both have contributed to the growing problem of erosion.

5. Irrigation of soils makes them prone to Stalinization, alkalinization or even water-logging.

6. Over-cropping reduces the available organic matter in the soil. Humus loss decreases the ability of the soil to hold water, speeds precipitation runoff, increases the chance of flooding and water erosion, and makes the area more vulnerable to drought.

7. Mine spoils are becoming a driver of land degradation in the arid lands of India.

8. Trade and globalization contribute to land degradation in India as well. The importance of cash crops and food crop exports is likely to grow. This development is predicted to force more food production onto marginal areas, which will augment existing problems, especially related to erosion.

10. What are the reasons for the development of cement industry in Rajasthan?

The industry depends upon the availability of limestone, clay or shale and gypsum. These natural materials are mined in different regions; as such factories are set up close to the sources of raw material.

Development of means of transport and availability of capital are other factors which determine development of cement industry. It is because of developmental work in the country, like construction of multipurpose river valley projects, means of transport, industries and housing activity. Rajasthan has rich potentials for cement manufacturing. Cement factories are located at Lakheri, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Banas, Beawar, Nimbahera and Sirohi.


11. Describe Aravali Hill Development Programme

  • In the year 2000, Government of Rajasthan engaged ARAVALI to undertake a baseline study to demarcate the Magra Area and identify the development gaps and priority for its development.
  • Based on the survey, the government allocated funds for the development of the area. In the year 2005, again Government of Rajasthan requested Aravali to prepare a proposal detailing out situational analysis and identifying appropriate solutions in terms of natural resource enhancement, infrastructure development and capacity building aspects and finally proposing a strategic plan of Bhilwara district.

12. Write short notes on Mansagar Lake

  • Man Sagar Lake is an artificial lake, situated in Jaipur, the capital of the state of Rajasthan in India. It is named after Raja Man Singh, the then ruler of Amer, who constructed it in c. 1610 by damming the Dravyavati River.
  • The Jal Mahal is situated in the middle of the lake.

Write short notes on the followings:

13. Ghatiyala Inscription

14. Ghosundi Inscription

15. BuchKalan Inscription

16. Ranthambore Fort

17. Chittorgarh Fort

18. Mandawa Fort

13. Ghatiyala Inscription

Ghantiyala or Ghatiyala is a village in Jodhpur Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient names are Rohimsakupaka, Rohimsakupaka and Rohimsaka.

The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in Ghatiyala, twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column is not far distant from an old ruined Jaina structure, now called Mata-ki-Sal.

14. Ghosundi Inscription

The earliest epigraphic evidence regarding the worship of Lord Narayana is found from the Ghosundi Stone Inscription of Maharaja Sarvatata of 1st Century B.C. Ghosundi is a village in the chittorgarh district of rajasthan.

The inscription record the erection of enclosing wall around the stone object of worship called Narayana Vatika for the divinities  Sankarshana and Vasudeva  by one Sarvatta  who was a devotee of Bhagavat and had performed an Asvamedha Sacrifice.

15. BuchKalan Inscription

BuchKalan is an ancient historical town in Bilada tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Rajyaghangakam.

This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at BuchKalan in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabha mandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati.

16. Ranthambore Fort

Ranthambore Fort is housed in the wildlife sanctuary of the same name in Sawai Madhopur. Built in the 10th century by Nagil Jats, these are the oldest remnants of the royalty of Rajasthan. Built on two hills, the fort is mainly in ruins. Witnessing attacks of Mughals, British and ravages of time, few structures remain standing.

Attractions to check out are Hammir’s Court, Badal Mahal, Dhula Mahal, Ganesha temple, Jogi Mahal, Shiva Temple, Ramlal ji Temple and temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath. The roar of the Royal Bengal Tigers and the call of wild animals can be frequently heard. The calls are reminders that the fort is their territory.

Adventure is the allure of the fort. Now it is a free sanctuary of animals which was previously hunting grounds of the Royalty.

17. Chittorgarh Fort

One of the oldest forts in Rajasthan, Chittorgarh Fort is the origin of many stories of valor, courage and sacrifice. The impregnable fortress is one of the most significant places to learn the history of Rajasthan. The 7th century fort is the land of Meera Bai who drank poison than leave the love of her Lord Krishna, and, Rani Padmini and Karanavati who protected honor by jumping into the fire of Jauhar and the heroics of Gora, Badal and Panna Dhai.

  • The UNESCO World Heritage Site is the breathing grounds of the romantic tales of Rajasthan.
  • Sieged numerous times in various periods of history, a lot of stories lies within its boundaries. Check out the beautiful attractions of Rana Kumbha Mahal, Ratan Singh’s Palace, Badal Mahal, Rani Padmini’s Palace, Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal, etc.
  • The Vijay Stambha and Kirti Stambha and several cenotaphs stand as memorials.

The temples of Kalika mata Temple, Adbuthnath Temple, Kumbha Shyam Temple, etc are worshipped by Hindus and Jains and still draw crowds. The seven gates of Chittorgarh deserve attention as they have lots of history associated with it.

18. Mehrangarh Fort

Mehrangarh Fort stands as one of the most important heritage sites of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The foundation of the fort was laid way back in 1458 by Rathore ruler, Rao Jodha. The Citadel of the Sun was not once sieged. The fort remains invincible and inspires awe from all. There are numerous mysteries and scandals hidden.

  • What does not hide is its architectural splendor.
  • The exquisite palaces of Moti Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Phool Mahal, Daulat Khana and Sileh Khana.
  • The fort itself is a museum where the lifestyle of the Rathore clan and even Mughals is preserved. From weaponry, palanquins, cradles, musical instruments, furniture to the clothes of the era get an insight of the glorious era.

19. Taragarh Fort

Taragarh Fort in Bundi is one of the magnificent forts in Rajasthan. The fort overlooking the city of Bundi has sadly been ravaged by time but its charm does not fade. Built in 1354 A.D., the fort remains as glorious remnants of the Chauhan dynasty. The breathtaking views are delightful. The gateway to the fort is decked with stone statues of elephants.

  • There are mainly 3 entries named Lakshmi Pol, Gagudi ki Phatak and Phuta Darwaza.
  • Taragarh fort also houses an excellent network of tunnels which were saviors in times of need. The huge properly planned water reservoirs must be visited.
  • The beautiful Rani Mahal was designed with murals; artwork and lattice artworks inspire awe.
  • The Bhim Burj and Garbha Gunjan, the huge field cannons are few of the popular attractions.

20. Gagron Fort

One of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, the hill fort of Rajasthan is a beauty. The Gagron Fort is a beautiful site of archaeological importance. This structure is the epitome of a “Jal Durg” as it is surrounded by water on all sides.

  • Built for protection from armies, in 1195 A.D by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire, the fort draws visitors and devotes from all over. Here also lies the tomb of a Sufi saint, Pipa Baba.
  • The glory of the fort has been faded with time but its charm still lives. The Rajputana glory lives in these structures forgotten in the chapters of history.

21. Mandawa Fort

Founded in 18th Century by Nawal Singh, Mandawa Fort of Shekhawati is an impressive structure of heritage of Rajasthan. The exquisite artwork, architecture and the ambiance has been preserved beautifully and converted into a heritage hotel. The charm has been pleasantly treasured.

  • The medieval themed rooms, balconies, the antique collection, the family portraits of the rulers and their belongings take you back in history.
  • The grand archways and the paintings of Lord Krishna and his cows are a visual treat. Wander through areas opened for tourists and you shall witness the impressive aura and architecture of the Royal state of Rajasthan.

22. Write the Name of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan

There are eight world Heritage sites in Rajasthan Namely:

  1. Chittorgarh Fort
  2. Kumbhalgarh Fort
  3. Ranthambore Fort
  4. Jaisalmer Fort
  5. Gagron Fort
  6. Keoladeo National Park
  7. Jantar Mantar
  8. Amber Fort

23. Write in brief on e-waste management.

The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

• Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
• Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
• Mercury, chromium, lead, and  Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.

 Give an account of the following

24) Mahila e-Haat

25) Sakhi-one stop centres

26) Ujjwala scheme


Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given     financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

 Give an account of the following:



29) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters

30. Discuss the importance of Champaran Satyagraha.

This was the first experiment of novel method adopted by Gandhiji i.e. civil disobedience and passive resistance in the Champaran. This has huge historical significance as it marks the advent of Gandhiji in mainline politics and paved the ground for Gandhi ji popularity as leader. It also gave sanctions to the method adopted by Gandhiji.

Gandhiji was able to convince the administration that tinkathia was an exploitative system and need revamping. He became the member of the committee to make an enquiry. The recommendations of the committee were in the favour of Peasants and it recommended to abolish tinkathia and asked to compensate the peasants for illegal collection of rents and taxes.

First time rural problem in general and the problem of peasants were taken into consideration which were obscure hitherto in the Indian politics. It makes the way for participation of peasants in mass movements.

 Give an account of the following:

31) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

32) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

33) Khilafat movement

34) Lahore conspiracy case


31) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

JBM: On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000. The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar.

32) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

Nagpur session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.

33) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.

34) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.

Give an account of following:

35) Hunter commission

36) Sadler commission

Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:

•       Assess wood’s dispatch.

•       To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.

Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work

Give an account of the following:

37) Vaikkom Satyagraha

38) Delhi proposal

39) Alipore conspiracy

40) Muzaffarpur conspiracy case

Vaikkom Satyagraha:

Vaikkom Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the princely state of Travancore.

Delhi proposal:

Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.

Alipore conspiracy:

The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging (1908).

Muzaffarpur Conspiracy:

It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack.

41. Discuss the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?


  • The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
  • Lack of leadership
  • Internal rift in congress
  • Congress failure to influence masses at large.
  • It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
  • Repression by Britishers was another reason

Give an account of following.

42) Project Tiger

43) Project Hangul

44) Sea Turtle Project

45) Project snow leopard

Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA

Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag) its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m

Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.

Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Prades

Define following term

46) Current account

47) Capital account

48) Balance of payment

49) Trade balance

Current account: Current account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in share.

Capital account: Capital account of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or liabilities of the residents of the country or its government

Balance of payments: The balance of payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world.

Trade balance: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments

50. What is a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the Benami transactions amendment act?

Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is made by another.

Effect on economy:

  1. Loss of revenue
  2. Generation of black money
  3. Moral hazard for honest tax payers
  4. Artificial inflationary tendencies
  5. Increase in the prices especially of real estate

Provisions of Benami amendment act:

  • Establishment of adjudicating authority
  • Case has to be decided in a year’s time
  • Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two other members.
  • Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these properties.
  • Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.

51. What is Desai-Liaqat proposal?

M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.

Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:

  • Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
  • Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
  • The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.

M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 free Quiz

[WATU 2]

Petya Ransomware Attack

Key Features:

Petya Ransomware was part of a new wave of cyber-attacks that had hit computer servers all across Europe, locking up computer data and crippling enterprise services in the corporate sector.

  1. Ransomware is a type of malware that blocks access to a computer or its data and demands money to release it.
  2. When a computer is infected, the Ransomware encrypts important documents and files and then demands a ransom, typically in Bitcoin, for a digital key needed to unlock the files
  3. Ukraine and Russia are the worst affected, though the attack has also impacted some companies in the US and other Western European countries

NASA Developing First Asteroid Deflection Mission

Key Feature:

NASA is developing the first-ever mission that will deflect a near-Earth asteroid, and help test   the systems that will allow mankind to protect the planet from potential cosmic body impacts in future.

  1. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) — which is being designed and would be built and managed by the John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory.
  2. DART would be NASA‘s first mission to demonstrate what‘s known as kinetic impact or technique — striking the asteroid to shift its orbit — to defend against a potential future asteroid impact.
  3. The target for DART is an asteroid, Didymos that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022 and then again in 2024.
  4. The Didymos asteroid system has been closely studied since 2003. It has been classified as potentially hazardous asteroid.

Two Stages to Orbit (TSTO) Space Transportation System

Key Features:

Recently India became the fifth nation to successfully conduct the flight demonstration of a scaled down version of a winged-body reusable launch vehicle.

It is a stepping stone towards fully reusable Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) space transportation system.

  1. TSTO launch vehicle can launch payload to Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) with 15 times reusability.
  2. It also validates the critical technologies such as autonomous navigation, guidance & control, reusable thermal protection system and re-entry mission management
  3. Low earth orbit is defined as an orbit within a locus extending from the earth‘s surface up to an altitude of 1,200 miles.
  4. Most communication applications use LEO satellites because it takes less energy to place the satellites into LEO.
  5. Also, they need less powerful amplifiers for successful transmission.
  6. As LEO orbits are not geostationary, a network of satellites is required to provide continuous coverage.

Electric Propulsion System

Recently, ISRO has planned to launch GSAT-20, based on electric propulsion technology which has helped in reducing the weight of the satellite to just 3.5 tonnes.

  1. Electric Propulsion System (EPS) can reduce the dependence on chemical propellant thereby increasing the payload capacity of the vehicle.
  2. Electric Propulsion system helps in orbit correction of a satellite.
  3. It helps in maintaining a satellite on its path during its entire life duration.
  4. This system provides small but accurate thrust to a satellite in its orbit.
  5. The new system converts solar energy available in the space into electrical energy and later to kinetic energy by generating thrust that propels a satellite.
  6. This system has been already tested by Russian space agency and NASA.
  7. It has immense capability to eventually lower the cost of launches.

Green Propellants by ISRO

Key features:

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is developing green propellants for future rockets, considering the harmful effects of exhausts released by rockets on the earth’s atmosphere.

  1. ISRO has developed eco-friendly solid propellant based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer at the laboratory level, which will eliminate the emission of chlorinated exhaust products from rocket motors.
  2. The LOX/LH2 (liquid oxygen – liquid hydrogen) combination is already being used in the cryogenic upper stages of GSLV and GSLV Mk-III launch vehicles.
  3. Additional Facts: ISRO has successfully developed ISROSENE, which is a rocket grade version of kerosene as an alternative to conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.
  4. The propellants that are being used now have a very reactive effect on the ozone layer due to the release of chlorinated exhaust products.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020: Important Study Notes

UPSC and State Public Services Commission Prelims and Mains Exam 2019-20

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Western Disturbances

  • Western Disturbance is an extra tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent.
  • It is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the westerlies.
  • Extra-tropical storms are a global phenomenon with moisture usually carried in the upper atmosphere, unlike their tropical counterparts where the moisture is carried in the lower atmosphere.
  • Western disturbances bring moderate to heavy rain in low-lying areas and heavy snow to mountainous areas of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • Precipitation has great importance in agriculture, particularly for the Rabi crops. Wheat among them is one of the most important crops, which helps to meet India’s food security.


UNESCO Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development.

At present, there are 147 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 41 countries

UNESCO Global Geoparks is given this designation for a period of four years after which the functioning and quality of each UNESCO Global Geoparks are thoroughly re-examined during a revalidation process.

In 2018 Lonar Lake in Maharashtra and St. Mary’s Island and Malpe beach in coastal Karnataka are listed for UNESCO Global Geopark Network status.

Helium Hydride Ion

Scientists have detected that Helium hydride ion (HeH+) was the first molecule to be formed in the universe.

During big bang, ionized hydrogen and neutral helium atoms reacted to form HeH+.

The molecule will emit its strongest spectral line at a characteristic wavelength of 0.149 mm.

NASA’s high-flying observatory SOFIA detected this molecule towards a planetary nebula.


Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an aircraft with reflecting telescope, flying into the stratosphere at 38,000-45,000 feet.

SOFIA is put above Earth’s infrared-blocking atmosphere, allowing astronomers to study the solar system and beyond in ways that are not possible with ground-based telescopes.

The observatory’s mobility allows researchers to observe from almost anywhere in the world and enables studies of transient events that often take place over oceans where there are no telescopes.

Genome Sequencing

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with co-operation of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) has initiated a genome sequencing project for educating a generation of students on the “usefulness” of genomics.

Globally, many countries have undertaken genome sequencing of a sample of their citizens to determine unique genetic traits, susceptibility (and resilience) to disease.

This is the first time that such a large sample of Indians will be recruited for a detailed study.

The project aims to sequence at least 10,000 Indian genomes, where Genomes will be sequenced based on a blood sample.

International Fleet Review

International Fleet Review (IFR) is a parade of naval ships, aircraft and submarines, and is organized by nations to promote goodwill, strengthen cooperation and showcase their organizational capabilities.

IFR also serves as an ideal platform for the world’s navies to showcase their prowess and indigenous ship designing and shipbuilding capabilities in a global/ international arena.

Indian Navy warships INS Kolkata and INS Shakti will be participating in IFR 2109, China.

Indo-Pacific Division

Ministry of External Affairs has setup Indo-Pacific division to integrate the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), ASEAN region and the Quad to the Indo-Pacific table.

Countries falling in the direct hinterland of the vast Indian and Pacific oceanic expanse are termed ‘Indo-Pacific countries’.

It is a multipolar region, contributing more than half of the world’s GDP and population.

It has several important regional trading blocs, many of which have implemented free trade agreements (FTAs) in goods and services and some of which have even been elevated to the Customs Union.

This move will give a coherent architecture to the policy articulated at the Shangri-La Dialogue in 2018.

Shangri-La Dialogue is an annual security dialogue that brings together defence ministers and military chiefs from 28 Asia-Pacific countries to talk about security in the region.

Tiger census

Tiger census in India is conducted every four years by the National Tiger Conservation Authorities (NTCA).

The first all India tiger census was conducted in 2006.

Wildlife Institute of India (WII), a Union Environment Ministry funded body, is coordinating agency for the tiger estimation exercise.

NTCA uses an android app named MSTrIPES (Monitoring system for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status), for the proper location data feeding and filling the record more accurately.

The app will capture the forest team’s route throughout the forest and assist them in uploading geo-tagged images into the database

According to the last survey conducted in 2014, the tiger count was 2,226.


Microplastics are a type of plastic fragment that is less than five millimetres in length, which are atmospheric pollutants.

Microplastics include fragments, fibres and sheet-like pieces of film.

According to recent reports, microplastics are carried away by winds and being deposited in a remote, high-altitude mountain location far from any major city causing microplastic-pollution.

Zinc Deficiency

According to recent research, it is found that inadequate zinc intake has been rising in India for decades, causing tens of millions of people to become newly deficient in it.

Rising carbon dioxide levels can accelerate zinc deficiency in crops and thus in human consumption.

The highest rate of inadequate zinc intake was concentrated mainly in the southern and northeastern States with rice-dominated diets: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur and Meghalaya.

Salt Tolerant Rice

Researchers have developed a new salt-tolerant transgenic rice plant by over-expressing a gene from wild rice called Porteresia coarctata into the commonly used IR 64 indicia rice variety.

Porteresia coarctata is a native of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar and is grown mainly in saline estuaries.

The new crop can withstand salt concentration of up to 200 micromoles per litre or about half as saline as seawater without affecting normal growth and grain yield under greenhouse conditions.

Origin of life from Ponds

According to a recent study, primitive ponds may have provided a suitable environment for creating the earth’s first life forms, more so than oceans.

Shallow water bodies could have held high concentrations of nitrogen, a key ingredient for jump-starting life on the earth.

Nitrogenous oxides were likely deposited in water bodies, including oceans and ponds, as remnants of the breakdown of nitrogen in earth’s atmosphere.

Atmospheric nitrogen comprises two nitrogen molecules, linked via a strong triple bond that can only be broken by an extremely energetic event namely, lightning.

In the ocean, UV light and dissolved iron would have made nitrogenous oxides far less available for synthesizing living organisms.

In shallow ponds, however, life would have had a better chance to grow, mainly because ponds have much less volume over which compounds can be diluted.

 As a result, nitrogenous oxides would have built up to much higher concentrations in Ponds.

Mariana Trench

  1. The Mariana Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean and has the deepest natural trench in the world.
  2. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth’s crust averaging about 2,550 km long and 69 km wide.
  3. The maximum known depth is 10,994 meters (36,070 ft) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep.
  4. For comparison: if Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres (1.2 mi) under water.
  5. The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the centre of the Earth since the Earth is not a perfect sphere.
  6. Recently scientists have discovered unique oil-eating bacteria in the Mariana Trench.
  7. The found microorganisms eat compounds similar to those in oil and then use it for fuel.

3D- Printed Heart

Recently Scientists have unveiled a 3D print of a heart with human tissue and vessels.

This invention is a major medical breakthrough that advances possibilities for transplants in near future.

Maternal Spindle Transfer

Fertility doctors in Greece and Spain have produced a baby from three people in order to overcome a woman’s infertility; the team used a technique called maternal spindle transfer (MST).

It was developed to help families affected by deadly mitochondrial diseases which are passed down from mother to baby.

The experimental form of MST uses an egg from the mother, sperm from the father, and another egg from a donor woman.

All cells have mitochondria, which are like power packs for the cells and create the energy that keeps cells alive.

While a child’s DNA is a mixture from both the mother and father, mitochondria are separate “packages of genetics” that come solely from the mother.

Some people have a mitochondrial disease a problem with the genetics in their mitochondria which can lead to severe, life-threatening conditions, although this is rare.

One treatment for a woman who might have one of these diseases is to replace the mitochondria in her eggs via IVF.

Central Monitoring Committee on Pollution

  1. National Green Tribunal (NGT) has formed a Central Monitoring Committee to prepare and enforce a national plan to make over 350 river stretches across the country pollution free.
  2. The Chairman of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will be the nodal authority for coordination.
  3. The Chief Secretaries of the states will act as the nodal agency at the state level.
  4. The committee has been composed to monitor pollution of rivers, as it has caused a serious threat to the safety of water and environment.

Besides checking river pollution, the central monitoring committee will coordinate with the River Rejuvenation Committees of the states and oversee the execution of the action plans.

Wholesale Price Index

A wholesale price index (WPI) is an index that measures and tracks the changes in the price of goods in the stages before the retail level – that is, goods that are sold in bulk and traded between entities or businesses instead of consumers.

Usually expressed as a ratio or percentage, the WPI shows the included goods average price change and is often seen as one indicator of a country’s level of inflation.

Some countries use WPI changes as a central measure of inflation, but India has adopted new CPI to measure inflation.

WPI is published by the Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, where CPI is released by CSO.

The Wholesale Price Index focuses on the price of goods traded between corporations, rather than goods bought by consumers, which is measured by the Consumer Price Index.

DART Mission

  • Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is NASA’s first mission to demonstrate kinetic impact or technique which will strike the asteroid to shift its orbit to defend against a potential future asteroid impact.
  • The target for DART is an asteroid that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022 and then again in 2024.
  • The asteroid is called Didymos, an asteroid binary system that consists of two bodies: Didymos A, and Didymos B.
  • The kinetic impact technique works by changing the speed of a threatening asteroid by a small fraction of its total velocity, which would shift the asteroid’s path away from Earth.

Nirbhay Missile

Nirbhay is a Long Range Sub-Sonic Cruise Missile designed and developed by DRDO.

The missile has been recently test fired from the Integrated Test Range (ITR), located in Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha.

The missile has way point navigation and sea-skimming capability to cruise at very low altitudes.

Leucistic Squirrel

For the first time, Leucistic five-striped palm squirrel has been reported from north India.

Funambulus pennanti is more frequently found in the northern part of India including Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar.

Colour abnormalities are very rare in wild mammals; these abnormalities may be governed by several factors like environmental pollution, congenital infection, low nutrition food and genetic causes.

Leucism is a condition where there is partial loss of pigmentation in animals on the skin; however, the loss of colour does not extend to the eye.

On the other hand, in albinism, the affected individual is totally white, with red eyes.

The survival rate of Leucistic animals is comparatively lesser than non-Leucistic ones because of their distinctive features which easily gets noticed by predators.

Yangtze giant soft-shell turtles

  • The only known female member of Yangtze giant soft-shell turtle has died recently in China.
  • The animal was one of four known to be remaining in the world, rest three turtles are male.
  • It is also known as the Red River giant soft-shell turtle.
  • It is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List.


Odisha Chief Minister announced a new programme “PEETHA” for transparency and awareness on various government schemes.

The programme, the Peoples Empowerment Enabling Transparency and Accountability or PEETHA aims to improve transparency in the distribution of individual and social benefits.

TROPEX- 2019 Exercise

Indian Navy will conduct its flagship large-scale coastal defence exercise “Theatre Level Operational Readiness Exercise” (TROPEX) from next year to test the robustness of entire coastal security apparatus.

It is an annual exercise that takes place on Western Seaboard.

It is a tri-service exercise in which troops from the Indian Army and fighter aircraft from Indian Air will also participate.

It is conducted to test various aspects of not only joint combat capabilities but also to test the war capabilities of three services in a war-like situation.


Swadesh Darshan scheme is one among the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Tourism for development of thematic circuits in the country in a planned and prioritized manner.

The scheme was launched in 2014 -15.

Under this scheme, the Government is focussing on the development of quality infrastructure in the country with the objective of providing better experience and facilities to the visitors on one hand and on other hand fostering the economic growth.

One World One Sun One Grid

  1. 24thmeeting of Conference of Parties (COP-24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held at Katowice, Poland.
  2. This year the theme of the Indian Pavillion was “One World One Sun One Grid”.
  3. India will try for achieving 175 GW target for installed Renewable Energy capacity by 2022.
  4. India stands 4th in wind power 5th in renewable power and 5th in solar power.   
  5. Under Ujjwala scheme, 58 million households are already covered under and it will not only contribute to improved health of women and children but also help on reducing deforestation.
  6. India also pledged to get rid of single-use plastic by 2022 across the country.
  7. India’s leadership in global climate action has been recognized and PM Narendra Modi has been awarded the “champions of Earth Award” this year by the United Nations in promoting International Solar Alliance and resolve to make India plastic free by 2022.

Rihand Dam

Rihand Dam, also known as Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar, is the country’s largest reservoir by volume and largest artificial lake, located on the Rihand River.

Its catchment area spread over Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh

The largest floating solar plant to date is a 2MW one in Vishakhapatnam.

Another is a 500-kWh plant built by the Kerala State Electricity Board at the Banasura Sagar Dam.

Recently a 50 Mega Watt floating solar plant will be set up in the country’s largest reservoir Rihand dam in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh.

PRASAD (Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive) Scheme

  • The scheme was launched by Ministry of Tourism in 2014-15.
  • The scheme aimed at infrastructure development such as entry points (road, rail, and water transport), last mile connectivity and basic tourism facilities.
  • Under the scheme ‘Prasad’, the Ministry of Tourism provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to State Governments/Union Territory Administrations for development and beautification of the identified pilgrimage destinations.
  • It is a 100% Central Government funded scheme.
  • Initially, Twelve cities were identified, namely Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh), Gaya(Bihar), Dwaraka(Gujarat), Amritsar(Punjab), Ajmer(Rajasthan), Kanchipuram(Tamil Nadu), Velankanni (Tamil Nadu), Puri(Odisha), Varanasi(Uttar Pradesh), Mathura(Uttar Pradesh), Kedarnath (Uttarakhand) and Kamakhya (Assam) for development under PRASAD by the Ministry of Tourism.
  • To implement the PRASAD scheme a Mission Directorate has been set up in the Ministry of Tourism.
  • Recently, Centre has included Gangotri and Yamunotri in Uttarakhand, Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh and Parasnath in Jharkhand under this central scheme to develop pilgrimage and heritage destinations in the country.

With the new additions, the number of sites under the Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive (PRASAD) scheme has now become 41 in 25 states.


Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) said that a ban on the use of the antibiotic colistin would be a step in the right direction.

India’s highest drug advisory body, the Drug Technical Advisory Board had recommended a stoppage on the use of colistin by poultry farmers.

Colistin is a last resort antibiotic which is administered to human beings when most other antibiotics fail to function.

However, it is indiscriminately used by the poultry industry to promote growth and prevent the occurrence of infections in chicken.

Increasing evidence has linked this to the development of resistance against colistin in humans.


NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft completed its journey to arrive at the asteroid Bennu on 3 December 2018.

The primary goals of this survey are to refine estimates of Bennu’s mass and spin rate and to generate a more precise model of its shape.

The mission will help scientists investigate how planets formed and how life began, as well as improve our understanding of asteroids that could impact Earth.

Geosynchronous satellite

A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the same as the Earth’s rotation period.

A satellite in such an orbit is at an altitude of approximately 36000 km above mean sea level.

A special case of the geosynchronous satellite is the geostationary satellite, which has a geostationary orbit– a circular geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth’s equator.

Geostationary satellites have the special property of remaining permanently fixed in exactly the same position in the sky, as viewed from any location on Earth, meaning that ground-based antennas do not need to track them but can remain fixed in one direction.

Such satellites are often used for communication purposes.


ISRO’s heaviest and most-advanced high throughput communication satellite GSAT-11 was successfully launched from the Spaceport in French Guiana on December 5, 2018.

The launch vehicle Ariane 5 VA-246 lifted off from Kourou Launch Base, French Guiana carrying India’s GSAT-11 and South Korea’s GEO-KOMPSAT-2A satellites, as scheduled.

Ariane 5 is one of three launch vehicles operated by Arianespace along with Soyuz and Vega.

The 5,854-kg GSAT-11 will provide high data rate connectivity to users of Indian mainland and islands through 32 user beams in Ku-band and 8 hub beams in Ka-band.

GSAT-11 will boost the broadband connectivity to rural and inaccessible Gram Panchayats in the country coming under the Bharat Net Project, which is part of Digital India Programme.

GSAT-11 will be positioned at 74-degree east longitude in the geostationary orbit.

Subsequently, the two solar arrays and four antenna reflectors of GSAT-11 will be deployed in orbit.

Mukhyamantri Tirth Yatra Yojana

Under the scheme, any resident of Delhi above 60 years of age will be eligible for the scheme and those above 70 years can have one attendant.

The scheme does not have any income criterion, but preference will be given to those who are from the economically weaker section.

The applicant should not be an employee of the central, state, local government or autonomous bodies.

The journey will be performed through Indian Railways.

A total of 77,000 pilgrims will be able to avail this facility every year.

The pilgrimage duration will be of three days and two nights and will be for any of the following routes:

(a) Delhi-Mathura-Vrindavan-Agra-Fatehpur Sikri-Delhi;

(b) Delhi-Haridwar-Rishikesh-Neelkanth-Delhi;

(c) Delhi-Ajmer-Pushkar-Delhi;

(d) Delhi-Amritsar-Wagah border-Anandpur Sahib-Delhi;

(e) Delhi-Vaishno Devi-Jammu-Delhi.

The Scheme will help and promoting communal harmony and brotherhood in society.

Shahpurkandi Dam

The Union Cabinet has approved implementation of Shahpurkandi Dam Project, Punjab on river Ravi.

Central Assistance of Rs. 485.38 cr (for irrigation component) would be provided over five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23.

Implementation of this project would help to minimize some of the water of the River Ravi which at present is going waste through the Madhopur Headworks downstream to Pakistan whereas there is a requirement for the same for use in Punjab and J&K.

Funding for Central Assistance to Shahpurkandi Dam project shall be made through NABARD under the existing system for funding of 99 PMKSY-AIBP projects under LTIF.

The project would be implemented by Govt. of Punjab with Central Assistance of Rs. 485.38 crore the project would be completed by June 2022.

Digital Sky Platform

The DGCA announced the Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR) to enable safe flying of Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS) popularly referred to as drones in India.

It specified the obligations of operators, remote pilots/ users and manufacturers/ OEM for safe operations of RPAS and co-operative use of airspace.

It also announced Digital Sky Platform, a first of its kind that implements ‘no permission, no take-off’ (NPNT) – a novel system of software based self-enforcement to minimize deviations from the CAR.

The Digital Sky Platform will register and monitor the drones, pilots, and operators for online permission before the take-off.

This platform is built to evolve with the needs of the rapidly changing industry with Digital Sky Service Providers (DSPs) by extending the functionality of the platform through Application Program Interfaces (APIs).

Emergency Response Support System (ERSS)

The Union Home Minister launched Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) for the State of Nagaland at Kohima.

Nagaland is the first amongst the North-Eastern States and the second State in India to launch Pan-India single emergency number ‘112’ under ERSS.

Under this project, one Emergency Response Centre (ERC) has been established in Kohima along with 3 District Command Centers (DCCs), namely Kohima, Dimapur and Mokokchung.

The Emergency Response Centre is capable of receiving emergency calls through voice call to 112 emails; panic buttons activated calls and 112 India mobile App.

State of Nagaland has integrated ERSS with Tourist Police and Highway patrol and will expand to interior districts subsequently.

As a special feature, to ensure safety of women, a unique ‘SHOUT’ feature exclusively for women has been introduced in 112 India mobile App.

This feature allows victims to seek immediate assistance from registered volunteers in the vicinity apart from contacting Emergency Response Centre.

Tree Cover & Forest Cover

The MoEFCC defines ‘forest cover’ in India as all lands, more than one hectare in area with a tree canopy density of more than 10%.

The ‘tree cover’ is defined as tree patches outside recorded forest areas exclusive of forest cover and less than the minimum mappable area of one hectare.

Classification scheme for the purpose of Forest Cover assessment is described as follows:

Class Description

Very Dense Forest  All lands with tree canopy density of 70% and above.

Moderately Dense Forest  All lands with tree canopy density of 40% and more but less than 70%.

  • Open Forest all lands with tree canopy density of 10% and more but less than 40%.
  • Scrub Degraded forest lands with canopy density less than 10%.
  • Non-forest   Lands not included in any of the above classes.

Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS)

The Ministry of Human Resources Development has launched the Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS) for providing industry apprenticeship opportunities to the general graduates exiting in April 2019 through the National Apprenticeship Promotional Scheme (NAPS).

SHREYAS is a programme basket comprising the initiatives of three Central Ministries, namely the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship and the Ministry of Labour& Employment viz the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS), the National Career Service (NCS)and introduction of BA/BSc/BCom (Professional) courses in the higher educational institutions.

  • SHREYAS is a programme conceived for students in degree courses, primarily non-technical, with a view to introduce employable skills into their learning, promote apprenticeship as integral to education and also amalgamate employment facilitating efforts of the Government into the education system so that clear pathways towards employment opportunities are available to students during and after their graduation.
  • To enhance the employability of Indian youth by providing ‘on the job work exposure’ and earning of stipend.
  • In all the tracks together, it is proposed to cover 50 lakh students by 2022.

Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme

To cater to the needs and aspirations of the youth, the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) has come up with a youth-friendly this scheme for attracting them to cooperative business ventures.

The newly launched scheme would encourage cooperatives to venture into new and innovative areas.

The scheme will be linked to Rs 1000 crore ‘Cooperative Start-up and Innovation Fund (CSIF)’ created by the NCDC.

The funding for the project will be up to 80% of the project cost for these special categories as against 70% for others.

The scheme envisages 2% less than the applicable rate of interest on term loan for the project cost up to Rs 3 crore including 2 years moratorium on payment of principal.

It would have more incentives for cooperatives of North Eastern region, Aspirational Districts and cooperatives with women or SC or ST or PwD members.

All types of cooperatives in operation for at least one year are eligible.


  • It is popular local traditional brew (liquor) distilled from the cashew fruit.
  • Cashew feni was given the Geographical Indication tag as manufactured goods.
  • The name feni is derived from Sanskrit word ‘phena’ meaning froth or foam.
  • It is also distilled from fermented toddy from coconut palm.
  • It is prepared in a typical Portuguese way that does not entail the use of electricity in the process.

Inclusive Internet Index 2019

The Inclusive Internet Index, commissioned by Facebook and conducted by The Economist Intelligence Unit, seeks to measure the extent to which the Internet is not only accessible and affordable, but also relevant to all, allowing usage that enables positive social and economic outcomes at individual and group level.

The aim of the Inclusive Internet Index is to provide researchers and policymakers with the information they need to enable the beneficial use of the Internet, irrespective of age, gender, location or background.

The index assesses the performance of 100 countries in four categories of inclusion: Accessibility, Affordability, Relevance and Readiness. Each category incorporates key indicators of internet inclusion, including quantitative measures such as network coverage and pricing, and qualitative measures such as the presence of e-inclusion policies and the availability of local-language content.

Sweden has topped the rankings followed by Singapore and the US.

India has been ranked 47th.

 PRANAM Commission

Assam has launched the PRANAM Commission, a panel set up to look after the issues concerning a Bill brought in for protection of parents of state government employees.

The Parents Responsibility and Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM) Bill, stated to be the first-of its-kind Bill in the country, is an effort to protect elderly parents of government employees in their times of need.

To ensure that no state government employee ignores their elderly parents and unmarried differently-abled siblings.

The PRANAM Bill makes it mandatory for the state government employees to look after their parents and unmarried differently-abled siblings who do not have their own sources of income.

Under the bill’s provisions, if the PRANAM Commission gets a complaint that parents of a state government employee are being ignored, then 10 or 15 per cent of the employee’s salary will be deducted by the government and paid to the parents or differently-abled siblings.

The employees of private companies and the central government working in the state would also be covered by the bill at a later stage.

Mirage 2000 Fighter Jet

  • Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 fighters were used to destroy the Jaish-e-Mohammad camps at Balakot along the Line of Control.
  • It is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation fighter jet.
  • It is manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
  • It gained prominence after their remarkable success rate in the 1999 Kargil war.
  • It has a maximum climbing speed of 60,000 feet per minute and is designed for all weather penetration at low altitude.

Benefits of Repo Rate

It will make the system more transparent since every borrower will know the fixed interest rate and the spread value decided by the bank.

It will help borrowers compare loans in a better way from different banks.

Under the new system, a bank is required to adopt a uniform external benchmark within a loan category so that there is transparency, standardisation and ease of understanding for the borrowers.

This would mean that same bank cannot adopt multiple benchmarks within a loan category.

Repo Rate

Technically, Repo stands for ‘Repurchasing Option’.

It refers to the rate at which commercial banks borrow money from the RBI in case of shortage of funds. It is one of the main tools of RBI to keep inflation under control.

When we borrow money from the bank, they charge an interest on the principal. Basically, it is cost of credit.

Similarly, banks too can borrow money from RBI during cash crunch on which they must pay interest to the Central Bank. This interest rate is repo rate.

Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)

Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) is the minimum interest rate, below which a bank is not permitted to lend. RBI can give authorization for the same in exceptional cases.

MCLR replaced the earlier base rate system to determine the lending rates for commercial banks.

RBI implemented it on 1 April 2016 to determine rates of interests for loans.

It is an internal reference rate for banks to decide what interest they can levy on loans.

For this, they take into account the additional or incremental cost of arranging additional rupee for a prospective buyer.

Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM)

India has successfully test-fired two indigenously developed Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM) from a test range off the Odisha coast.

  1. The trials were conducted by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from Launch Complex 3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur.
  2. This missile has been developed to replace the ‘Akash’ missile defence system, and has 360-degree coverage, light weight, high mobility and shorter second reaction time as compared to ‘Akash’.
  3. It also uses solid fuel propellant and has a stated range of strike range of 25-30 km with capability of hitting multiple targets.

It is capable of hitting the low flying objects.

It successfully demonstrated the robust Control, Aerodynamics, Propulsion, Structural performance and high maneuvering capabilities thus proving the design configuration.

Radars, Electro Optical Systems, Telemetry and other stations have tracked the Missiles and monitored through the entire flights.

Exercise Sampriti-2019

It is an important bilateral defence cooperation endeavour between India and Bangladesh and this will be the eighth edition of the exercise which is hosted alternately by both countries.

As part of the ongoing India Bangladesh defence cooperation, the joint military exercise will be conducted at Tangail, Bangladesh.

The exercise is aimed to strengthen and broaden the aspects of interoperability and cooperation between the Indian and Bangladesh Armies.

The exercise will involve tactical level operations in a counter insurgency and counter terrorism environment under the UN mandate.

In addition to understanding each other in tactical level operations, emphasis will also be laid for greater cultural understanding to strengthen military trust and cooperation between the two nations.

Phen Wildlife Sanctuary

It is a popular buffer zone of Kanha national park, Madhya Pradesh.

It lies in Southern region of Kanha tiger reserve, close to Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh state borders.

It was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in year 1983 by Government of Madhya Pradesh.

The Fauna at this sanctuary mainly consists of the Tiger, Leopard, Wild boar, Cheetal, Sambar etc.

Marine Clouds

Marine clouds could break up and vanish if CO2 in the atmosphere triples.

It protects us from hothouse Earth conditions by reflecting sunlight back into space.

It is the stratocumulus clouds that cover about 20 % of subtropical oceans, mostly near western seaboards such as the coasts of California, Mexico and Peru.

These clouds cool and shade the earth as they reflect the sunlight that reflects them back into space.

Due to the rise in Carbon Dioxide it may become unstable and disappear.

The consequence will trigger a spike in global warming.

Global Digital Health Partnership (GDHP)

Global Digital Health Partnership (GDHP) is an international collaboration of governments, government agencies and multinational organisations.

It is dedicated to improving the health and well-being of their citizens through the best use of evidence-based digital technologies.

Governments are making significant investments to harness the power of technology and foster innovation and public-private partnerships that support high quality, sustainable health and care for all.

The GDHP facilitates global collaboration and co-operation in the implementation of digital health services.

Hayabusa 2 and Ryugu asteroid

  1. Hayabusa 2 is a Japanese probe sent to collect samples from an asteroid for clues about the origin of life and the solar system.
  2. It fired a bullet into the surface of the Ryugu asteroid.
  3. The Ryugu asteroid is thought to contain relatively large amounts of organic matter and water from some 4.6 billion years ago when the solar system was born.
  4. It was launched in December 2014 and is scheduled to return to the Earth with its samples in 2020.
  5. The probe will observe the surface of the asteroid with its camera and sensing equipment.

Central Information Commission (CIC)

The Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act is the authorized quasi judicial body, established in 2005.

It acts upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests due to either the officer not having been appointed, or because the respective Officer refused to receive the application for information under the RTI Act.

The Commission includes 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10 Information Commissioners (IC) who are appointed by the President of India.

CIC and members are appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a committee consisting of—Prime Minister as Chairperson, the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha; a Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister.

Hindu Succession Act, 1956

Under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956, only sons had a direct right to ancestral property, excluding daughters from inheritance claims where the father did not leave a will.

From the 1970s onwards, changes in inheritance legislation sought to empower women by strengthening their financial and social position and reducing dependence on male relatives.

The traditional preference for sons was also supposed to lessen, because daughters, backed by possession of the family home, would be able to offer parents security in old age.

Equally, this was expected to eradicate the dowry system, a key contributing factor to the perception of a daughter as a financial burden.

MUDRA Scheme

The Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana was introduced in April 2015 as an effort to extend affordable credit to micro and small enterprises.

Loans up to Rs. 10 lakh are extended to these non-corporate, non-farm enterprises by the Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) through last-mile financial institutions.

So far, 15.56 crore loans worth a total of Rs. 7.23 lakh crore have been disbursed.

In December 2017, faced with mounting criticism on the failure to create job opportunities, the Labour Ministry had asked the Labour Bureau to initiate the survey on jobs created through the MUDRA scheme.

Wallace’s giant bee

It is the world’s largest bee that was recently rediscovered in a remote part of Indonesia.

Wallace’s giant bee was discovered in the 19th century by British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists the bee as “vulnerable”.

It was nicknamed the “flying bulldog as it is nearly four times bigger than the European bee.

It lives in the Indonesian island region of North Moluccas and makes its nest in termite mounds.

Invisible Ink

The NPL prepared the ‘invisible ink’ as part of a pilot project mooted by the Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd. (MVPL)

It is a transparent liquid as an organic-inorganic mixture that was biodegradable and could be washed off in 48 hours.

It works on the well-known principle of fluorescence — certain materials emit a characteristic glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.

The NPL ink, however, glows only when exposed to a narrow band of frequencies of ultraviolet (UV) light.

The NPL’s invisible ink experiment is linked to a larger project of creating security inks that could be used to make bank notes and documents, such as passports, more secure.

Indelible Ink in India

The ink was first used during India’s third General Elections in 1962. Indelible ink has been used in every General Election since

At the time, the country’s election commission was having a tough time dealing with identity theft, as they soon discovered that there were duplicate or fake votes.

Indelible ink is made of a chemical compound called silver nitrate.

When applied to the skin and exposed to ultraviolet light, it leaves a mark that is almost impossible to wash off.

The stain is so strong; in fact, it is only removed when the external skin cells are replaced

When put on the skin, silver nitrate reacts with the salt present on it to form silver chloride.

Silver chloride is not soluble in water, and clings to the skin. It cannot be washed off with soap and water.

Fernandina Giant Tortoise

  • It is a rare Giant Tortoise (Chelonoidis phantasticus).
  • It was feared to be extinct but has been found in a remote part of the Galapagos island of Fernandina recently.
  • The IUCN listed it as critically endangered & possibly extinct.
  • Its habitat is largely dry brush land at lower elevations, but much of that habitat has been destroyed by extensive lava flows.
  • Fernandina is the third largest Galapagos Island and features the La-Cumber volcano, one of the most active in the world.


It is a ritual art and folk dance form performed at Bhadrakali temples in the state of Kerala.

The word ‘Padai-ani’ means line-up or formation of the soldiers.

The story behind Padayani is the re-enactment of the killing of Demon Darika and calming the Goddess Kali after it.

The dance is to appease the Goddess so that there is eradication of social evils and there is rain, good crop and prosperity.

Permanent Resident Certificate

  1. Permanent resident certificate is a legal document issued to Indian citizens that serves as evidence of residence and is required to be submitted as residential proof for official purpose.
  2. It is a domicile certificate otherwise called as Permanent Residence Certificate (PRC) to the residents of the state who stayed therein over a period.
  3. Those citizens who are not currently residing in the state but are sure of permanently staying therein can also apply for it.
  4. Besides the permanent residence certificate, the State also offers Temporary Residence Certificate (TRC) for those who reside in the State on a temporary basis.
  5. It enables the citizens to avail various policies and claims made in their particular state.

Bacteria Wolbachia

Key Points

Recently successful experiments were conducted in Australia, which demonstrated the positive correlation between presence of Wolbachia bacteria in mosquitoes and reduced spread of diseases such as Malaria and Dengue.

Wolbachia bacteria are a tiny bacterium that is present in up to 60% of all species of insects, including several mosquito species.

  1. It is one of the world‘s most common parasitic microbes and possibly the most common reproductive parasite in the biosphere.
  2. But it is usually not present in the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the primary species responsible for transmitting dengue, chikungunya and Zika.
  3. When present in the mosquito, the viruses (E.g. Zika Virus) cannot replicate and hence small numbers of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes are released in target areas.
  4. Once Wolbachia carrying mosquitoes are released, they breed with wild mosquitoes and over time, the majority of mosquitoes carry Wolbachia.

Thermal Battery Plant

India became home to the world‘s first-ever thermal battery plant which was inaugurated recently in Amravati, Andhra Pradesh.

It aims to create a new energy storage form that is expected to have commercial applications, while also maintaining a low carbon footprint, and being less dependent on external factors like weather.

It will be owned by Bharat Energy Storage Technology Private Limited (BEST).

It will have a battery capacity of 1000MW which is expected to be upgraded to a 10GW capacity by 2025.

It could provide energy solutions for electrical grids, transport and telecom services (help boost signal strength).

 Key Points:

  1. It is considered to be even better than solar energy which cannot be charged or utilized to their optimum potential after sunset or even when the skies are densely clouded.
  2. Conventional  battery  technology  work  on  basis  of  electrical  energy  and  is  based  on  system of charging and discharging cycles that are driven by electricity.
  3. Thermal battery use thermal energy to operate i.e. energy created by temperature differences.
  4. The energy transfer in this battery helps to store heat when heat travels from one part of battery setup to other.
  5. For this transmission, thermal battery consists of two parts viz. cool zone (sink) and hot source.

Digital North East Vision 2022

Key Points

Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) recently released The Digital North East Vision 2022 in Guwahati, Assam.

The vision document emphasizes on leveraging digital technologies to transform lives of people of north east and enhance ease of living.

It identifies eight digital thrust areas namely, Digital Infrastructure, Digital services, Promotion of Electronics Manufacturing, Digital empowerment, Promotion of IT and ITeS including BPOs, Digital Payments, Innovation & Startups and Cyber security.


India’s first manned space flight – Gaganyaan – is expected to send three persons into the space for seven days and the spacecraft will be placed in a low earth orbit of 300-400 km.

ISRO and Roscosmos (Russia’s federal space agency) have agreed to worked together for India’s first manned space mission Gaganyaan.

Key Points:

  1. India will launch its second lunar mission on January 3 next year which will land on the moon with a lander and rover.
  2. ISRO conducted its first pad abort‘test that was successful.
  3. The pad abort‘ test or Crew Escape System is an emergency escape measure that helps pull the crew away from the launch vehicle when a mission has to be aborted.
  4. The crew will be selected by Indian Air Force (IAF) and ISRO jointly after which they will undergo training for two-three years.
  5. It will conduct microgravity experiment during the mission.
  6. India will become fourth nation in the world after the United States, Russia and China to send astronaut into space
  7. Former Indian Air Force (IAF) pilot Rakesh Sharma was first Indian to travel to space.
  8. He was part of the Soviet Union‘s Soyuz T-11 expedition, launched in 1984, as part of the Intercosmos programme.

The Ebola virus

Key Points:

The Ebola virus returned to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) just days after the World Health Organization (WHO) announced, on July 24, that the Ebola outbreak had ended there.

In 2014, Ebola first outbreak had struck three West African countries (Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone)

It is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus of Ebola virus.

  • Ebola virus (species Zaire Ebola virus)
  • Sudan virus (species Sudan Ebola virus)
  • Tai Forest virus (species Tai Forest Ebola virus, formerly Cote d’Ivoire Ebola virus)
  • Bundibugyo virus (species Bundibugyo Ebola virus)

MCR 1 Gene

Key Points:

  1. Mcr-1 gene seen in K. pneumoniae bacteria
  2. mobilized colistin resistance (mcr-1) gene that confers multidrug-resistance has now been reported in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria
  3. This gene endows resistance against last hope antibiotic — colistin
  4. The mcr-1 gene is usually found in the plasmid (small DNA in the cytoplasm)
  5. Colistin, also known as polymyxin E, is an antibiotic produced by certain strains of the bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa.
  6. Colistin has also been used recently to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bacteremia caused by MDR bacteria, such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii.

5G (Fifth Generation)

Key Points:

  1. TRAI gives nod for sale of 5G spectrum
  2. The government has set up a high level forum to evaluate road-maps and formulate a strategy to adopt 5G in the country by 2020.
  3. 5G is a wireless communication and next generation mobile networks technology after 4G LTE networks.
  4. The final standard for 5G will be set up by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
  5. India lacks a strong backhaul to transition to 5G.
  6. Backhaul is a network that connects cells sites to central exchange.


IAS Prelims 2019: Art and Culture Revision Notes

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Indian Art and culture for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary -2019

Indian Art can be classified under three headings:-

  1. Performing Arts
  2. Visual Arts
  3. Literary Arts
  4. Performing Arts

Performing arts include the various dance forms, music, Indian theatre and puppetry.

Dance forms are further divided into: Classical Dances & Regional (folk) Dances

Classical dance forms of India:-

  1. Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu)
  2. Mohiniyattam (Kerala)
  3. Kathakali (Kerala)
  4. Kathak (North and West of India)
  5. Odissi (Odisha)
  6. Manipuri (Manipur)
  7. Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)
  8. Sattriya (Assam)

Regional dance forms of India: There are many folk dance forms in India from different parts. You must learn about the major ones like Chhau, Bihu dance, Garba, Dhamal dance, Dumhal, Chakyar Koothu, Lavani, Bhangra, etc.

Coming to the next topic, i.e., music of India; this can be divided into three styles:-

  1. Carnatic music
  2. Hindustani music
  3. Regional music (folk)

Carnatic and Hindustani are two classical music styles in India. There are some differences and some similarities between these two styles.

Difference between Hindustani and Carnatic music

You must also read about musical instruments in India. There are four basic kinds of instruments. They are:-

  1. Tata Vadya (Chordophones) – stringed instruments like Sitar, Veena, Santoor, etc.
  2. Sushira Vadya (Aerophones) – wind instruments like flute, Shehnai, Nadaswaram, etc.
  3. Avanaddha Vadya (Membranophones) – percussion instruments like Mridangam, Tabla, Dholak, etc.
  4. Ghana Vadya (Idiophones) – solid instruments that don’t require tuning (mostly used as accompaniments for tribal and folk music and dance).

Theatre and puppetry are also important aspects of performing arts in India.

Theatre forms in India – traditional and modern

Puppetry – string puppets, rod puppets, shadow puppets and glove puppets.

Visual Arts

Visual arts can be divided into three:-Architecture, sculpture and painting.

Indian architecture can be studied under the following:

  1. Pre-historic architecture
  2. Indus valley civilization
  3. Temple architecture
  4. Buddhist architecture
  5. Indo-Islamic architecture
  6. Modern architecture

Indian sculpture can be read under the following:

  1. Pre-historic
  2. Indus valley civilization
  3. Buddhist sculpture
  4. Gupta sculpture
  5. Medieval sculpture
  6. Modern India sculpture

Indian painting can be studied under the following:

  1. Miniature paintings
  2. Wall paintings of India
  3. Modern Indian painting
  4. Literary Arts

Literary arts can be studied under:

  1. Vedic literature
  2. Puranas
  3. Classical Sanskrit literature
  4. Early Dravidian literature
  5. Pali and Prakrit literature
  6. Medieval literature
  7. Trends in medieval literature
  8. Women poets in Bhakti literature
  9. Modern Indian literature
  10. Emergence of nationalism
  11. Literature of nationalism, reformism and revivalism
  12. Indian romanticism
  13. Emergence of Gandhi
  14. Progressive literature
  15. Literary scene after independence
  16. Dalit literature
  17. Use of mythology
  18. Contemporary literature

Under Indian culture, you should study religion and Indian philosophy. Apart from that, you should also include while reading history for IAS exam, the ‘culture’ of a particular time period, like the position of women, royal patronages for the arts, etc.

Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan


1. Literature & Language of Rajasthan

2. Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthani Language
  • Rajasthani Literature

3. Art & Handicrafts of Rajasthan

4. Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthani Paintings
  • Rajasthani Folk Arts

5.  Rajasthan Festivals & Fairs

6. Practice MCQ

  • Compositions of Literature of Rajasthan
  • Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan
  • Festivals & Fairs of Rajasthan

7. Rajasthani Folk Dances

8. Practice MCQ

  • Folk Music Instruments of Rajasthan
  • Folk Dramas of Rajasthan
  • Rajasthani folk dances

9.  Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

10. Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

11. Practice MCQ

  • Havelis, Cenotaph & Tombs of Rajasthan
  • Sculptures of Rajasthan

12. Saints and Lok Devta of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ

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Art culture Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

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Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

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Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice Questions for RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam and other Competitive Exams of Rajasthan.


  1. Political Background of Rajasthan
  2. Govt of India Acts
  3. Important term used in Polity
  4. Governor
  5. Chief Minister
  6. Council of Ministers
  7. State Legislature
  8. Election Commission
  9. High Court
  10. Rajasthan State Legal Service Authority
  11. Lok Adalats in Rajasthan
  12. Administration of Rajasthan
  13. Chief Secretary
  14. State Secretariat
  15. Directorates
  16. Administrative Setup
  17. Local Self Government in Rajasthan
  18. Panchayati Raj in Rajasthan
  19. Urban Local Government
  20. Important Constitutional, Statutory & Executive bodies
  21. Rajasthan Public Service Commission
  22. Advocate General of Rajasthan
  23. Inter-State Council
  24. Rajasthan State Human Rights Commission
  25. Rajasthan State Information Commission
  26. Lokayukta
  27. Rajasthan State Commission for Women
  28. Chief Minister’s Advisory Council
  29. Rajasthan Police
  30. Mewar Bhil Corps
  31. Miscellaneous

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Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes with practice MCQ

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela


I am presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, forest, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I have tried to avoid mistakes, if there is any minute mistakes in it please comment and that will help to improve the book when a revised edition comes out. It is honest hope that this book will prove useful for Aspirants.

Best wishes!!

Er. R.P.Meena


Content                                                 Pages

  1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                             3-10
  2. Geology of Rajasthan                                                    11-47  
  3. Disaster Management                                                   48-53
  4. Physical divisions                                                          54-73
  5. Mountain Peaks                                                             74-78
  6. Climate of Rajasthan                                                     79-103
  7. Drainage/River  System                                               104-125
  8. Lakes in Rajasthan                                                         126-132
  9. National Parks                                                                133-143
  10. Wildlife Sanctuary                                                         144-146
  11. Soils of Rajasthan                                                           147-159
  12. Irrigation Development                                                 160-172
  13. Agriculture                                                                     173-183
  14. Minerals and Mines                                                       184-213
  15. Rajasthan Basin(Hydrocarbon)                                   214-220
  16. Livestock of Rajasthan                                                  221-233
  17. Classification of forest                                                   234-235
  18. Natural Vegetation                                                        236-238
  19. Transportation in Rajasthan                                         239-256
  20. Tribes of Rajasthan                                                         257-267
  21. Population-2011                                                            268-308
  22. Practice Solved Questions                                             309-379

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Daily Current Affairs 11-18 April 2019

1. With reference to the widely acclaimed tiger conservation project, ‘Project Tiger’, choose the year, in which the project was launched?

a) 1981

b) 1971

c) 1973

d) 1991

Answer: c only

Explanation: Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s tenure.

2. With reference to Central Zoo Authority, which of the following are correct?

a) It was formed to bring Indian zoos up to international standards.

b) It also regulates the exchange of animals of endangered category among zoos.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: The Central Zoo Authority (CZA) is the body of the government of India responsible for oversight of zoos. It is an affiliate member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA).

3. With reference to Biosphere reserve, which of the following are statements are correct?

a) These are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting conservation of biodiversity.

b) They are also considered as living laboratories for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and air.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internationally recognized, nominated by national governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. They serve in some ways as ‘living laboratories’ for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and biodiversity.

4. With reference to Olive ridley sea turtle, which place in India is considered as largest breeding ground?

a) Gahirmatha Beach Odisha

b) Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park

c) Gulf of Mannar

d) Gulf of Kutch

Answer: a only

Explanation: The Gahirmatha Beach in Kendrapara district of Odisha (India), which is now a part of the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, is the largest breeding ground for these turtles.

5. Name the state/states which have pleaded to central government to declare Nilgai stag as a vermin?

a) Tamil Nadu

b) Maharashtra

c) Kerala

d) West Bengal

Answer: b only

Explanation: The populations of nilgai in India are so large that farmers in the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh have pleaded to the government to cull them.

6. Operation Madad which was recently in news, is associated which defence unit?

A) Indian Coast Guard

b) Indian Navy

c) Indian Army

d) Indian Airforce

Answer: b only

Explanation: Operation Madad is the name of rescue operations conducted by Indian Navy in various occasions within India.The word ‘madad’ in Hindi means help.

7. Name the river associated with Polavaram Project in Andhra Pradesh?

a) Godavari

b) Narmada

c) Krishna

d) Polar

Answer: a only

Explanation: Polavaram Project is an underconstruction multi-purpose irrigation project on the Godavari River in the West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh.

8. With reference to the following, which are the features of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)?

a) It refers to the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country.

b) It includes all private and public consumption, government outlays, investments, private inventories and paid-in construction costs.

c) It also includes all final goods and services produced by resources owned by that country.

d) It is used as a measure of a country’s standard of living.

Answer: a, b and d only

Explanation: GDP doesnot include all final goods and services produced by resources owned by that country. It is a total market value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy during a specified period of time.

9. Name the state which will be housing the National Sports Stadium for differently abled in India?

a) Manipur

b) Meghalaya

c) Assam

d) West Bengal

Answer: b only

Explanation: The Indian government plans to construct an international standard stadium for the differently-abled sportspersons in Meghalaya.

10. The government scheme, SPARC which is associated with the promotion of Academic Research is related to which ministry?

a) Ministry of Science and Technology

b) Ministry of Human Resource Development

c) Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment

d) Ministry of Electronics and IT

Answer: b only

Explanation: The Ministry of Human Resource Development has launched the web portal of the Scheme – Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC) in New Delhi.

11. With reference to the purchase of T-90 tanks in the Indian Army, name the country associated with manufacturing of the armoured fighting vehicle?

a) US

b) Russia

c) France

d) Germany

Answer: b only

Explanation: India has begun talks with Russia for a multi-million dollar deal to upgrade the army’s nearly 1,000 T-90 tanks.

12. With the recent remeasurement of Mt Everest, name the country/countries involved in the task?

a) India

b) Nepal

c) US

d) China

Answer: b only

Explanation: Nepal has begun remeasuring Mount Everest to check if the height of the world’s tallest peak was altered by a powerful earthquake that struck the nation in 2015

13. Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which is recently in the news, name the countries associated with it?

a) Iraq

b) Iran

c) Saudi Arabia

d) Kuwait

Answer: b only

Explanation: The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps is a branch of Iran’s Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.

14. With reference to National Green Tribunal (NGT), which of the following statements are correct?

a) It is a dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters.

b) It is guided by the principles of natural justice.

Answer: both a and b

Explanation: National Green Tribunal (NGT)’s dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy environmental justice and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts.

15. Global Cooling Coalition, which is in news recently, was launched in which country?

a) Denmark

b) Britain

c) Russia

d) Malaysia

Answer: a only

Explanation: Global Cooling Coalition on clean and efficient cooling was launched and concluded in Copenhagen, Denmark.

16. With reference to Current Account Deficit (CAD), which among the following are correct?

a) It is a measurement of a country’s trade where the value of the goods and services it imports exceeds the value of the products it exports.

b) The largest component of a current account deficit is the trade deficit.

c) A current account deficit is helpful to the debtor nation. Foreigners are willing to pump capital into it.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: A current account deficit is created when a country relies on foreigners for the capital to invest and spend. Depending on why the country is running the deficit, it could be a positive sign of growth. It could also be a negative sign that the country is a credit risk.

17. The term Foreign exchange reserve which is recently in news is related to.

a) These are assets which held on reserve by RBI in foreign currencies.

b) It includes banknotes, deposits, bonds, treasury bills and other government securities.

c) These reserves are used to back liabilities and influence monetary policy.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Foreign exchange reserves are assets held on reserve by a central bank in foreign currencies. These reserves are used to back liabilities and influence monetary policy.

18. What are the functions of International Monetary Fund (IMF)?

a) It offers financial assistance to member countries with balance of payments problems.

b) It assists its member countries in designing economic policies that manage their financial situations more efficiently.

c) It strives to maintain international monetary system’s stability.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was created in 1945 and is governed by and accountable to its 188 member countries. It strives to ensure the international monetary system’s stability. The IMF functions in three main areas: overseeing the economies of member countries, lending to countries with balance of payments issues and offering technical assistance to its member countries.

19. What are the features for Prime Minister’s Fellowship Scheme for Doctoral Research?

a) To encourages young, talented, enthusiastic and result-oriented scholars to take up industry-relevant research.

b) It is a public-private partnership (PPP) between Science and Engineering Research Board.

c) The Apex Council is the highest decision-making body of this scheme

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Prime Minister’s Fellowship Scheme for Doctoral Research is aimed at encouraging young and talented scholars to take up research. Under this scheme, the full-time PhD scholars get double the money that they get for doing research.

20. Which among the following are the benefits of Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana?

a) Interest free loan to purchase stove and refill by Oil Marketing Companies.

b) Financial support of Rs 1600 for each LPG connection to the BPL households.

c) Clean fuel to women who are below poverty line who generally use unclean cooking fuels.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana Scheme aims to provide clean fuel to women who are below poverty line who generally use unclean cooking fuels that does more harm than good and replace the same with LPG.

21. The Cabinet has approved the extension of duration of New Urea Policy-2015 for existing gas based urea unit.

Which of the following statements regarding the National Urea Policy-2015 are true?

1) It aims to maximise domestic urea production in the country and to make the urea sector competitive globally in terms of energy efficiency.

2) It also has the objective of rationalizing the subsidy burden on the government.

3) It will drive urea units to select better technology and different measure to reduce energy consumption.

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) All the above

22. India is a signatory to which of the following international conventions/protocols?

1) UN refugee convention of 1951

2) UN convention against torture 1984

3) UN refugee protocol 1967

4) The minimum age convention 138

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 2 & 4 only

D) all of the above

23. Consider the following statements regarding the recently test fired Nirbhay cruise missile:

1) It is a supersonic cruise missile which is capable of loitering and cruising at 0.7 Mach at altitude as low as 100 metre.

2) Indigenously developed by the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO), the Nirbhay missile can carry warheads of up to 300 kg.

3) It can travel with a turbofan or turbojet engine and is guided by a highly advanced inertial navigation system.

Which of the above statements are true?

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

24. Which one of the following statements regarding thunderstorms is true?

1) Thunderstorms arise when layers of warm, moist air rise in a large, swift updraft to cooler regions of the atmosphere.

2) Thunderstorms are known to occur in almost every region of the world, though they are frequent in Polar Regions while infrequent at areas where latitudes are higher than 50° N and 50° S.

3) Thunderstorms are most likely in the spring and summer months and during the afternoon and evening hours, but they can occur year-round and at all hours.

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

25. Which one of the following states in India does not have a tiger reserve within its territory?

a) Mizoram

b) Gujarat

c) Maharashtra

d) Rajasthan

26. Which of the following statements regarding the spread of antibiotic resistance across the world are true?

1) The majority of the world’s annual 5.7 million antibiotic-treatable deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, where the mortality burden from treatable bacterial infections far exceeds the estimated annual 700,000 deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections.

2) Worldwide, the irrational use of antibiotics and poor antimicrobial stewardship lead to treatment failure and propagate the spread of drug resistance which, in turn, further narrows the available array of effective antibiotics.

3) Even after the discovery of a new antibiotic, regulatory hurdles and substandard health facilities delay or altogether prevent widespread market entry and drug availability.

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

27. Sugar cane, Sunflower, Pumpkin, cucumber, bitter gourd etc are examples of which of the following types of crops?

a) Kharif crops

b) Rabi Crops

c) Zaid crops

d) Cereal crops

28. Consider the following statements regarding Unified Payments Interface (UPI):

1) Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is an instant real-time payment system developed by National Payments Corporation of India facilitating inter-bank transactions. The interface is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India and works by instantly transferring funds between two bank accounts on a mobile platform.

2) UPI is a great solution, but it has some hurdles to adoption such as linking phone numbers, linking bank account, entering debit card number, etc.

3) While some of the growth can be attributed to the low base, the astronomical increase in transactions has meant that UPI is now competing seriously with the incumbent forms of digital payments such as credit cards and debit cards.

Which of the above statements are true?

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

29. Which of the statements regarding ethanol production are true?

1) In India, ethanol production is mostly by fermenting molasses to meet the annual target of 5% blending of petrol with ethanol.

2) India has set a target of blending petrol with 20% of biofuel by 2022, without using sources such as rice and wheat straw which are considered important for addressing food inflation.

3) Lignocelluloses are the most abundantly available raw material on the Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bio-ethanol.

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) All the above

30. Which of the following countries other than Paraguay is the only landlocked country in the South American continent?

a) Peru

b) Brazil

c) Bolivia

d) Uruguay


21(d), 22(c), 23(b), 24(d), 25(b), 26(d), 27(c), 28(d), 29(c), 30(c)

Source:Civilservicesindia+PIB+The Hindu

Menstrual Hygiene for Adolescent Girls Schemes

About Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)
One of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission is to provide every village in the country with a trained female community health activist ASHA. Selected from the village itself and accountable to it, the ASHA will be trained to work as an interface between the community and the public health system.Other Information of Menstural Hygiene Scheme – The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has been implementing this scheme for promotion of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years primarily in rural areas as part of the Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram.  

To address the need of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls residing primarily in rural areas, Government of India is supporting the Menstrual Hygiene Scheme.

Under the Menstrual Hygiene Scheme –

  • Funds are provided to States/UTs through National Health Mission for decentralized procurement of sanitary napkins packs for provision primarily to rural adolescent girls at subsidized rates.

This scheme is encompassing the following:

  • Increasing awareness among adolescent girls on Menstrual Hygiene
    • Improving access to and use of high quality sanitary napkins by adolescent girls in rural areas.
    • Ensuring safe disposal of Sanitary Napkins in an environmentally friendly manner.
    • Provision of funds to ASHAs to hold monthly meeting with adolescents to discuss issues related to menstrual hygiene.

Information Education and Communication (IEC) Material Developed:

  • A range of IEC material has been developed, using a 360 degree approach to create awareness among adolescent girls about safe & hygienic menstrual health practices including audio, video and reading materials for adolescent girls and job-aids for ASHAs and other field level functionaries for communicating with adolescent girls.
    • ASHAs across the country are trained and play a significant role in promotion of use and distribution of the sanitary napkins.
    • Department of Health Research, under the Ministry of Health, is involved in assessment of all newer, alternative, environment friendly menstrual hygiene products to look into their safety and acceptability features.

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims 2020: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

ias prelims exam 2020 solved questions



General Studies Paper-I

Highly Expected (2000-Solved MCQ)

IAS Preliminary Examination 2020 High Yield Solved Questions Covered The Following Topics:

Current Affairs

Art and Culture

Indian Economy

Latest International Affairs

Indian Polity

Latest Govt Schemes

Science and Technology

Environment and Ecology

Geography (India + world)

Indian History


This document is the compilation of 100 questions that are part of InsightsIAS’ famous REVISION initiative for UPSC civil services examination – 2019 (which has become most anticipated annual affair by lakhs of IAS aspirants across the country). These questions are carefully framed so as to give aspirants tough challenge to test their knowledge and at the same time improve skills such as intelligent guessing, elimination, reasoning, deduction etc – which are much needed to sail through tough Civil Services Preliminary Examination conducted by UPSC. does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you!!

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ


This document is the compilation of 100 questions that are part of InsightsIAS’ famous REVISION initiative for UPSC civil services examination – 2019 (which has become most anticipated annual affair by lakhs of IAS aspirants across the country). These questions are carefully framed so as to give aspirants tough challenge to test their knowledge and at the same time improve skills such as intelligent guessing, elimination, reasoning, deduction etc – which are much needed to sail through tough Civil Services Preliminary Examination conducted by UPSC. does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you!!


This document is the compilation of 100 questions that are part of InsightsIAS’ famous REVISION initiative for UPSC civil services examination – 2019 (which has become most anticipated annual affair by lakhs of IAS aspirants across the country). These questions are carefully framed so as to give aspirants tough challenge to test their knowledge and at the same time improve skills such as intelligent guessing, elimination, reasoning, deduction etc – which are much needed to sail through tough Civil Services Preliminary Examination conducted by UPSC. does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you!!


This document is the compilation of 100 questions that are part of InsightsIAS’ famous REVISION initiative for UPSC civil services examination – 2019 (which has become most anticipated annual affair by lakhs of IAS aspirants across the country). These questions are carefully framed so as to give aspirants tough challenge to test their knowledge and at the same time improve skills such as intelligent guessing, elimination, reasoning, deduction etc – which are much needed to sail through tough Civil Services Preliminary Examination conducted by UPSC. does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you!!

Insights Revision Tests for Prelims 2019 Test 1-4

This document is the compilation of 100 questions that are part of InsightsIAS’ famous REVISION initiative for UPSC civil services examination – 2019 (which has become most anticipated annual affair by lakhs of IAS aspirants across the country). These questions are carefully framed so as to give aspirants tough challenge to test their knowledge and at the same time improve skills such as intelligent guessing, elimination, reasoning, deduction etc – which are much needed to sail through tough Civil Services Preliminary Examination conducted by UPSC. does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you!!

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

UPSC Civil Services Examination 2018 Prelims Answer Key

All PDF which are provided here are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don’t make them Commercial. We request you to respect our Hard Work. does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you!!

PM Ujala Yojana

Unnat Jyoti by Affordable Lighting for All (UJALA) is a Zero subsidy Scheme launched by the Government of India in an effort to popularize the message of energy efficiency in the country.

The scheme is being implemented by a Public Sector Undertaking of the Government of India, Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) under the Union Ministry of Power and the Electricity Distribution Company.

It is a LED based Domestic Efficient Lighting Programme (DELP) targeting promotion of reduced energy consumption, energy savings and efficient lighting. Under the scheme, Electricity Distribution Company would distribute LED bulbs at subsidized rates to every grid-connected customer with a metered connection

FAME-India Scheme

The Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME) India was launched in 2015 under National Electric Mobility Mission (NEMM). It aims at promoting eco-friendly vehicles in the country. The scheme is being administered by the Heavy Industries Ministry.

Objectives of the scheme:

Provide fiscal and monetary incentives for adoption and market creation of both hybrid and electric technologies vehicles in the country and incentivise all vehicle segments, including two- wheelers, three wheeler auto, passenger four- wheeled vehicle, light commercial vehicles and buses. In order to promote manufacturing of electric and hybrid vehicle technology and to ensure sustainable growth of the same, Department of Heavy Industry is implementing FAME-India Scheme- Phase-I [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India] from 1April 2015. The scheme, which was initially upto 31April 2017, has been extended upto 31March, 2019 or till Notification of FAME-II, whichever is earlier.

The Phase-II of the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME-India) Scheme proposes to give a push to electric vehicles (EVs) in public transport and seeks to encourage adoption of EVs by way of market creation and demand aggregation.

Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question: RAS Mains Exam

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Question.

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  1. What is the Political Background of Rajasthan?
  2. What is unification?
  3. What is the role of Pro-term Speakers of Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha?
  4. Briefly describe the Integration of Rajasthan
  5. What do you know about Greater Rajasthan?
  6. Write short notes on The Indian Councils Act, 1861
  7. Which are the important bodies in Rajasthan?
  8. What is Inter-State Council?
  9. What is the Composition of the inter-state Council?
  10. What is a no-confidence motion?
  11. What is the Legal Guardian of Cows?
  12. What is Special Category Status?
  13. Write short notes on the following:
  14. Rashtriya Ekta Diwas
  15. # Powerof18 Campaign
  16. Constitution Day of India
  17. What are the recommendations of Punchhi Commission?
  18. What is the Composition of State Human Rights Commission?
  19. What are the Executive Powers & Functions of a Governor?
  20. Who is a ‘Citizen’ with reference to Citizen’s Charter?
  21. What do you know about United States of Rajasthan?
  22. What do you know about United States of Greater Rajasthan?
  23. What is State Re-organization Act (1956)?
  24. Write facts related to Unification Process of Rajasthan.
  25. Write short notes on The Regulating Act, 1773
  26. What is the role and function of Advocate General of Rajasthan?
  27. What do you know about Rajasthan Union?
  28. Whether Citizen’s Charter is legally enforceable?
  29. Write notes about Rajasthan State Commission for Women
  30. Write short notes on The Charter Act of 1813
  31. What are the Powers & Functions of Chief Minister of State?
  32. What are the power and functions of UPSC?
  33. Who elects the Council of Ministers?
  34. How is Council of Ministers formed?
  35. What was the immediate purpose of the Commission on Human Rights?
  36. What is the difference between Cabinet and Council of Ministers?
  37. Who can be investigated by the Lokpal?
  38. What is a Centre state relation in India?
  39. What are the eligibility conditions for Chief Minister?
  40. What does a whip do?
  41. Is Election Commission of India a constitutional body? Explain
  42. What is the Organizational Structure of the Election Commission?
  43. What type of cases is heard in High Court?
  44.  Write notes on the 73rd Constitutional Amendment act of 1992.
  45. The act says Gram Sabha as the foundation of the Panchayati Raj System. Analyse
  46. What is the Composition of Panchayats in Rajasthan?
  47. What is the Historical Background and types of Urban Local Government?
  48. What are the Constitutional Provisions of Urban Local Government?
  49. Write in detail about the Composition of Municipal Bodies.
  50. What is the role and functioning of Urban Local Government in Rajasthan?
  51. What are the Constitutional Provisions related to Composition of RPSC?
  52. What are the Powers & Functions of Rajasthan public service commission?
  53. Write notes on Advocate General of Rajasthan
  54. What is the role of State Legislature? How it formed?
  55. What is the Method of Abolition or Creation of a State Legislative Council?
  56.  What is the Citizenship Act 1955?
  57. Which countries of the world have Lokpal?
  58. What is the Composition of the Lokpal?
  59. What is the ordinance making power of the Governor?
  60. Write the name of three urban local bodies?
  61. A federal structure for India was 1st put forward by the?
  62. Which are the discretionary powers given to the Governor of a State?
  63. Which bodies, does the Chief Minister of a State hold membership?
  64. Who is an illegal immigrant?
  65. What is the issue with Article 35A?
  66. What is the difference between pardoning powers of president and governor?
  67. What is Inner Line Permit (ILP)?
  68. Which are the different types of state legislatures?
  69. What is the Composition of State Legislature?
  70. What are the Business Procedure Rules of Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha?
  71. What do you know about United Rajasthan?
  72. Who can disqualify from the member of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State?
  73. What is the Process of Passing of Bill?
  74. What is Election Code of Conduct?
  75. What are the Main/General Features of Lok Adalats?
  76. What is the main function of administration?
  77. What are the Powers and functions of Chief Secretary of State?
  78. What are the main objectives of Citizen’s Charter?
  79. What is the relation between Secretariat & Directorate?
  80. What are the functions & responsibilities of the District Collector?
  81. What is difference between local government and local self government?
  82. What was the Role and functions of Panchayats during Ancient and Medieval period in Rajasthan?
  83. Write about the Origin & Growth of Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha.
  84. What are the power and functions of Rajasthan State Information Commission?
  85. Who is entitled for Free Legal Aid?
  86. What is the main purpose of Lok Adalat?
  87. Write short notes on Mewar Bhil Corps
  88. What are the advantages of Lok Adalat?
  89. What are the features of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir?
  90. What is interim budget?
  91. What is the difference between single citizenship and dual citizenship?
  92. Write short notes on Rajasthan Information Commission
  93. Write notes on History of Lokayukta in Rajasthan.
  94. What are the Aim & Objectives of Rajasthan State Commission for Women?
  95. What is the Composition of State Information Commission?
  96. Which are the recent initiatives taken by Rajasthan State Commission for Women?
  97. What is the aim of Chief Minister’s Advisory Council?
  98. Why Mewar Bhil Corps was created?
  99. What are the roles of Sub-Ordinate Courts in Rajasthan?
  100. What are the functions of Rajasthan State Legal Service Authority?
  101. What are the key features of Kamlesh Chandra Committee?
  102. What do you know about Cantonment Board Ajmer?
  103. What are the main power and functions of Revenue Board Ajmer?
  104. What do you know about Special Appeal?
  105. What is difference between fundamental rights and DPSP?
  106. What do you know about Social Accountability Bill of Rajasthan govt?
  107. What do you know about the formation of ‘Matsya Union’?
  108. What is the role of State Level Fair development Authority?
  109. Rajasthan Civil Services Appellate Tribunal
  110. What role do women play in Indian politics?
  111. Define the system of judicial review?
  112. Which circumstances, the Governor can reserve a state bill for the consideration of the President?
  113. What are the functions of the municipalities under 74th Amendment act?
  114. While appointing a Lokayukta, the Governor in most of the states consults?
  115. Which is the administrative function of a Village Panchayat?
  116. What is Appellate Tribunal against Benami Transactions?
  117. What are Denotified tribes?
  118. Why Delhi cannot be a full- fledged state?
  119. What are Government Bills?
  120. Define the following Terms
  121. Appropriation Bill
  122. Ballot
  123. Bill
  124. Budget
  125. Bulletin

119. Define the following terms:

  1. Calendar of Sittings
  2. Calling Attention
  3. Casting Vote
  4. Crossing the floor
  5. Demand for Grants

120. Define the following terms:

  1. Financial Business
  2. Half-an-Hour Discussion
  3. Leader of the Council
  4. Leader of the Opposition
  5. Leave of absence

121. Define the following terms:

  1. Motion of Thanks
  2. Naming a Member
  3. Ordinance
  4. Panel of Vice-Chairmen
  5. Papers laid on the Table
  6. Personal explanation

   122. Write short notes on the following financial committees?

  1. Public Accounts Committee
  2. Public Undertakings Committee

123. Define the following terms:

  1. Point of Order
  2. Precincts of Rajya Sabha
  3. Private Members’ Resolution
  4. Prorogation
  5. Putting the Question
  6. Question Chart

124. Define the following Terms

(1) Act

 (2) Ad hoc Committee

(3) Adjournment of Debate

 (4) Adjournment of the sitting of the House

 (5) Adjournment sine-die

Kusum (Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan) Scheme

The KUSUM (Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan) scheme was announced in the Union Budget in 2018 with an aim to promote use of solar power among farmers. Under this scheme farmers would be provided with solar water pumps.

Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM)’ provides for:

Installation of grid-connected solar power plants each of capacity up to 2 MW in the rural areas.

Installation of standalone off-grid solar water pumps to fulfill irrigation needs of farmers not connected to grid.

Solarisation of existing grid-connected agriculture pumps to make farmers independent of grid supply and also enable them to sell surplus solar power generated to DISCOM and get extra income; and Solarisation of tube-wells and lift irrigation projects of Government sector.

Central Government’s plan

The government has planned to provide 27.5 lakh solar pumps (17.50 lakh standalone + 10Lakh Grid-connected) under the scheme. It will help farmers install total 10 GW of Solar Power Plants of intermediate capacity of 0.5 to 2 MW each. It also envisages 50,000 Grid-connected tube-wells/lift irrigation and drinking water projects.

Project Mausam

Project  Mausam is  the  initiative  of  Ministry  of  Culture  to  be  implemented  by  the  Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) as the nodal agency with research support of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) and National Museum as associate bodies

Project Mausam is to showcase a Transnational Mixed Route (including Natural and Cultural Heritage) on the World Heritage List.

It aims to understand how the knowledge and manipulation of the monsoon winds has shaped interactions across the Indian Ocean and led to the spread of shared knowledge systems, traditions, technologies and ideas along maritime routes.

The project collates archaeological and historical research and document the diversity of cultural, commercial and religious interactions among the 39 Indian Ocean countries.

Seva Bhoj Yojana

The  Union  Ministry  of  Culture  on  June  1,  2018  introduced  a  new  scheme  called  “Seva  Bhoj  Yojna”  to reimburse the central share of CGST and IGST on items for food/Prasad/langar/Bhandara offered free of cost by charitable religious institutions.

About the Yojana:

The scheme seeks to reimburse the central government’s share of Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) and Integrated Goods and Service Tax (IGST) on purchase of raw items such as ghee, edible oil, atta, maida, rava, flour, rice pulses, sugar and jaggery, which go into preparation of food/Prasad/langar/Bhandara offered free of cost by religious institutions.

  1. The main objective of the scheme is to lessen the financial burden of such charitable religious institutions, which provide free of cost without any discrimination to the general public and devotees.
  2. The institutions/organizations should have been in existence for preceding three years before applying for assistance.

Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY)

Implemented by Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation it aims at tackling ever-deepening crisis of depleting groundwater level. It is designed as a Central Sector Scheme with a total outlay of Rs. 6,000 Crore and is proposed to be implemented with World Bank assistance.

Scheme: The scheme is to be implemented over a period of five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23, with World Bank assistance.

The objective of scheme is to recharge ground water and create sufficient water storage for agricultural purposes.

  1. It also focuses on revival of surface water bodies so that groundwater level can be increased, especially in the rural areas.
  2. The scheme is launched in 7 water-stressed states: Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
  3. These States represent about 25% of the total number of over-exploited, critical and semi-critical blocks in terms of ground water in India.
  4. They also cover two major types of groundwater systems found in India – alluvial and hard rock aquifers- and have varying degrees of institutional readiness and experience in groundwater management.

Namami Gange Programme

It was launched in 2015 by ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation with an objective to clean and protect the Ganga River in a comprehensive manner.

It is also known as Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project and it’s a Central government Project (100% centrally funded). It will cover 8 states & 12 rivers.

Main components include Expanding waste/sewage treatment, River Front Development, River surface cleaning, Biodiversity, Afforestation, Public awareness, Industrial effluent monitoring and Ganga Gram.

Interventions taken under Namami Ganga include-

  1. Sustainable Municipal Sewage Management
  2. Managing Sewage from Rural Areas.
  3. Managing Industrial discharge and pollution abatement
  4. Enforcing River Regulatory Zones on Ganga Banks, Restoration and Conservation of wetlands, Efficient Irrigation methods.
  5. Ensuring Ecological rejuvenation by conservation of aquatic life and biodiversity
  6. Promotion of Tourism and Shipping in a rational and sustainable manner
  7. Knowledge Management on Ganga through Ganga Knowledge Centre

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

  1. It is an outcome based skill certification scheme implemented by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).
  2. The objective is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood.
  3. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).
  4. Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government. The Various components are short term training, recognition of prior learning, special projects, Kaushal and rozgarmela, placement guidelines and monitoring guidelines.

National Apprentice Promotion Scheme

It is implemented by Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship with an objective to provide apprenticeship training to over 50 lakh youngsters by 2019-20 in order to create more jobs.

  1. Scheme will be implemented by Director General of Training (DGT)
  2. Union Government will directly share 25% of the total stipend payable to an apprentice with employers
  3. Union Government will bear the 50% of the total expenditure incurred on providing basic training to an apprentice.
  4. The NAPS has been framed to meet objective of National Policy of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015 which focuses on apprenticeship as one of the key components for creating skilled manpower in India.

Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Govt Schemes

Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses. PMBJP stores have been set up to provide generic drugs, which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs. It was launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals in November 2008 under the name Jan Aushadhi Campaign. Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) is the implementation agency for PMBJP.

Vision: To bring down the healthcare budget of every citizen of India through providing Quality generic Medicines at Affordable Prices.

  1. Create awareness among the public regarding generic medicines.
  2. Create demand for generic medicines through medical practitioners.
  3. Create awareness through education and awareness program that high price need not be synonymous with high quality.
  4. Provide all the commonly used generic medicines covering all the therapeutic groups.
  5. Provide all the related health care products too under the scheme.
  6. Objective

Making quality medicines available at affordable prices for all, particularly the poor and disadvantaged, through exclusive outlets Jan Aushadhi Medical Store” so as to reduce out of pocket expenses in healthcare

Prime Minister Rojgar Protsahan Yojana

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Govt Schemes

The scheme is implemented by Ministry of Labour and Employment with an objective to promote employment generation

Central Government will be paying the 8.33% EPS contribution of the employer for the new employment.

New Changes:

  1. The Central Government will now contribute Employers full admissible contribution for first 3 years from date of registration of new employee for all sectors including existing beneficiaries for their remaining period of 3 years.
  2. All Industries registered with Employees‟ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) can apply for availing benefits under the scheme.
  3. It is for new employees (joined on or after 1st April 2016) having new Universal Account Number (UAN).
  4. It is targeted for employees earning wages less than Rs. 15,000/- per month.
  5. The scheme will be in operation for a period of 3 years and GOI will continue to pay and all new eligible employees will be covered till 2019-20.

Saubhagya – Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Govt Schemes

It was launched in September 2017 with the objective to provide access to electricity to all the remaining households in the country. The scheme primarily benefits rural areas, which have vast majority of households without power connections.

It is being funded to extent of 60% by central grants, 30% by bank loans and 10% by states. Under it, free electricity connections are provided to below poverty line (BPL) households, while other households have to pay 500 rupees for the connection.

  1. To identify beneficiaries for free electricity connections, the government will use Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data.
  2. The beneficiary household will get five LED lights, one DC fan, one DC power plug. It also includes the Repair and Maintenance (R&M) for 5 years.
  3. To ensure on-the-spot registration, mobile applications will be used.
  4. Gram Panchayat and public institutions in rural areas will be authorised to carry out billing and collection tasks.
  5. There will be no subsidy component for monthly electricity consumption.

8 States have achieved 100% household electrification under Saubhagya namely Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Bihar, J&K, Mizoram, Sikkim, Telangana and West Bengal. Total 15 States now have 100 % household electrification.

Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-I Study Notes

It was launched in 2015 by Ministry of Power with an objective to augment power supply to the rural areas and to strengthen sub-transmission and distribution systems

  1. It focuses on feeder separation (rural households & agricultural) and strengthening of sub- transmission & distribution infrastructure including metering at all levels in rural areas
  2. This will help in providing round the clock power to rural households and adequate power to agricultural consumers
  3. The earlier scheme for rural electrification viz. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) has been subsumed in the new scheme as its rural electrification component.

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IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

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RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-3

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Daily Current Affairs 11-12 April 2019

Current Affairs/General Awareness Practice Question-Answer for Competitive Exams

1. With reference to the first ever census of otters, name the state which has undertaken in the country?

a) Madhya Pradesh

b) Andhra Pradesh

c) Uttar Pradesh

d) Kerala

Answer: c only

Explanation: For the first time, Uttar Pradesh is taking a census of otters in its protected areas. The census exercise was started from Pilibhit.

2. With reference to the Representation of the People Act of 1951, name the section which concerned with the registration of political parties?

a) Section 21A

b) Section 29A

c) Section 42A

d) Section 28B

Answer: b only

Explanation: Registration of political parties under section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

3. With reference to Nice Agreement which is sometimes seen in news, choose the sector related to it?

a) Intellectual Property

b) Economics

c) Science and Technology

d) Arts and Culture

Answer: A

Explanation: Nice Agreement establishes a classification of goods and services for the purposes of Registering trademarks and service marks.

4. With reference to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which of the following are correct?

a) It is responsible for collecting and analysing crime data.

b) These laws are defined by the Indian Penal Code and Special and Local Laws.

c) National repository of fingerprints of all criminals.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL).

5. With reference to development of ‘Combat drugs’ to reduce casualties in Pulwama type attacks, name the organisation which developed such drugs?




d) IIT Delhi

Answer: d only

Explanation: DRDOs medical laboratory has come up with a range of combat casualty drugs that can extend the golden hour till the trooper is shifted to hospital.

6. Indian Navy’s Information Fusion Centre which was recently inaugurated is located in which city?

a) Pune

b) Gurugram

c) New Delhi

d) Mumbai

Answer: b only

Explanation: Information Fusion Centre (IFC) has been established at the Navy Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) in Gurugram.

7. With the reference to Mahila Police Volunteers Scheme (MPVS), which of the statements are correct?

a) MPVS envisages creation of a link between the police authorities and the local communities in villages through police volunteers.

b) The gap between Police and Civil society will be bridged by Mahila Police Volunteers initiative.

c) A Mahila Police Volunteer must be from the same geographical area and conversant with the local dialects.

d) A Mahila Police Volunteer should not be a member of any political party.

Answer: Above all

Explanation: The Mahila Police Volunteer was initiated by the Ministry of Women and Child Development in collaboration with the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Mahila Police Volunteers scheme is one such initiative. It envisages creation of a link between the police authorities and the local communities in villages through police volunteers who will be women specially trained for this purpose.

8. Name the state government which announced the development of Spiritual department?

a) Rajasthan

b) Madhya Pradesh

c) Andhra Pradesh

d) Karnataka

Answer: b only

Explanation: Madhya Pradesh Government said on Saturday that it is going to create an Adhyatmik Vibhag (spiritual department) by merging several existing departments.

9. Name the country which recently operated the world’s first Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP)?

a) China

b) US

c) Russia

d) India

Answer: c only

Explanation: The world’s first floating nuclear power plant is currently being built at the Baltiysky Zavod shipyard in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

10. Name the government body associated with the Operation Olivia, which aims to save Olive Ridley Turtles?

a) Indian Navy

b) Indian Coast Guard

c) Indian Army

d) Indian Airforce

Answer: b only

Explanation: The Indian Coast Guard has recently launched ‘Operation Oliva’. It has been launched as the part of its annual mission to ensure the safety of Olive Ridley Turtles.

11. With reference to shipbuilding, name the organisation which became first Indian Shipyard deliver 100 warships?

a) Mazagon Dock


c) Goa Shipyard

d) Cochin Shipyard

Right Answer: b only

Explanation: Garden Reach Ship Builders and Engineers Ltd (GRSE) on Saturday became the first Indian shipyard to build and deliver 100 warships.

12. Hump backed Mahseer which is currently in news, is found in which river?

a) Ravi

b) Narmada

c) Cauvery

d) Godavari

Right Answer: c only

Explanation: The hump-backed mahseer, found in the waters of the Cauvery, has been added to the Red List as Critically Endangered.

13. Grand Order of the King of Tomislav which is currently in news, is the honour given by which country?

a) Bulgaria

b) Croatia

c) Malaysia

d) Russia

Right Answer: b only

Explanation: President Ram Nath Kovind was conferred the Grand Order of the King of Tomislav, the highest award of the Republic of Croatia.

14. Name the country where the largest salt cave in the world is located?

a) Iran

b) India

c) Israel

d) Iraq

Right Answer: c only

Explanation: Cave explorers in Israel believe they have discovered the world’s longest salt cave, larger than the previous record-holding cave in Iran.

15. Name the regulatory authority, which is associated with the creation of sandbox for Fintech Start-Ups?

a) Department of Income Tax


c) RBI


Right Answer: c only

Explanation: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is looking to issue guidelines for setting up a regulatory sandbox or innovation hub for the fintech startups.

16. The term ‘National Health Agency (NHA)’ seen in the news refers to

a) Agency responsible for fixing the ceiling of premium amounts, and developing mechanisms for strategic purchase of healthcare from the private sector.

b) It tasked with building a health information technology platform, and working with the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority.

Right Answer: both a and b

Explanation: NHA will be responsible for its operational guidelines, fixing the ceiling of premium amounts, and developing mechanisms for strategic purchase of healthcare from the private sector. It is also tasked with building a health information technology platform, and working with the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority.

Q17. Consider the following statements regarding “Black holes” in the universe:

1) The “black hole” refers to a point in space where matter is so compressed as to create a gravity field from which even light cannot escape.

2) The more mass the smaller will be the black hole due to high compression.

3) The super massive black holes which lurk in the centres of galaxies could be the most luminous objects in the universe, claim scientists.

Which of the above statements are true?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1& 3 only

d) all of the above

Q18. The controversial finance bill 2017 had provisions to amend which of the following tribunals in India?

1) National Highway tribunal

2) National Company Law Appellate Tribunal

3) EPF appellate tribunal

4) Central administrative tribunal

5) Cyber appellate tribunal

a) 1, 2 & 4 only

b) 1, 3 & 5 only

c) 3, 4 & 5 only

d) all of the above

Q19. India has built a 25-bed maternity hospital in Nepal. The hospital has been built under the Government of India’s Small Development Projects Scheme. Which of the following statements regarding the scheme are true?

1) Nepal’s Finance Ministry would vet projects listed by provincial and local governments and then forward them to India for potential funding. After India approves the selected projects, it must sign financing agreements with the Finance Ministry to fund them.

2) The Indian grant will not be part of budget for the fiscal year 2019-20since these-grants are based on mutual goodwill gestures and to expand mutual cooperation.

3) Currently the Indian Embassy gives grants to various projects at the local level including schools, colleges and hospitals under the SDP.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1& 3 only

d) all of the above

Q20. Which of the following statements regarding the Payment and settlement scheme in India are true?

1) The PSS Act, 2007 provides for the regulation and supervision of payment systems in India and designates the central government as the authority for that purpose and all related matters.

2)Under the act a “Payment obligation” is defined as what is owed by one participant in a payment system to another such participant which results from clearing or settlement or payment instructions relating to funds, securities or foreign exchange or derivatives or other transactions.

3) As per RBI’s latest circular all system providers in a settlement shall ensure that the entire data relating to payment systems operated by them are stored within India.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1& 3 only

d) all of the above

Q21. April 13th 2019 marks the 100th anniversary of which of the following historical events in British India?

a) Formation of INA

b) Quit India Movement

c) Shifting of capital to Delhi

d) Jallianwallahbagh massacre


17(c), 18(b), 19(c), 20(b), 21(d)

Source: Civilservicesindia+ PIB+ The Hindu