Current Affairs Quarterly (June-August) 2019 Study Magazine in Hindi

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam-2020 Test Series-Join Here

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(Free) Current Affairs July-2019 Study Notes in Hindi

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam-2020 Test Series-Join Here

  • प्रधानमंत्री अखिल भारतीय बाघ आकलन- 2018 के चौथे चक्र का परिणाम जारी
  • मैरीकॉम ने स्वर्ण जीता, ऑस्ट्रेलियाई मुक्केबाज को 5-0 से हराया
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  • कार्टून कैरेक्टर मिनी माउस को आवाज देने वाली रूसी टेलर का 75 साल की उम्र में निधन
  • DRC ने इबोला से निपटने के लिए निगरानी, टीकाकरण प्रशिक्षण की योजना बनाई है
  • बांग्लादेश में डेंगू 18 साल के उच्चतम स्तर पर
  • बिहार के राजगीर में आयोजित 5 वां धर्म-धम्म सम्मेलन
  • कुंबले की अध्यक्षता में बाउंड्री नियम की समीक्षा होगी
  • खेलो इंडिया यूथ गेम्स 2020 का आयोजन गुवाहाटी में होगा
  • प्रति कृषि घर की औसत मासिक आय 6,500 रुपये से कम : सरकार
  • किरेन रिजिजू समिति: 2020, 2024 ओलंपिक के लिए रणनीतिक तैयारी
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  • एनसीआर में बनेगी इलेक्ट्रॉनिक सिटी
  • सभी विद्युत चालित वाहनों पर जीएसटी दर 12 प्रतिशत से घटाकर 5 प्रतिशत की गई
  • देश में प्रधानमंत्री सुरक्षा बीमा योजना के कार्यान्वयन में उत्तर प्रदेश नंबर 1 बना
  • भारत पहुंचा अपाचे गार्डियन हेलिकॉप्टर का पहला बैच
  • नीति आयोग और व्हाट्सएप ने महिला उद्यमियों को बढ़ावा देने के लिए साझेदारी की
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  • लेफ्टिनेंट जनरल परमजीत सिंह होंगे सेना के नए डीजीएमओ
  • सीआरपीएफ ने 81वां संस्थापना दिवस मनाया
  • अरुणाचल प्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री पेमा खांडू ने राज्यव्यापी वृक्षारोपण कार्यक्रम शुरू किया
  • सीएम नवीन पटनायक ने ओडिशा पर्यटन की संशोधित वेबसाइट लॉन्च की
  • हरियाणा ने गीता जयंती महोत्सव में साझेदार बनने के लिए नेपाल को आमंत्रित किया
  • ग्रामीण विकास मंत्रालय ने दीनदयाल अंत्योदय योजना को लागू किया
  • पुनर्वास करने वालोँ के लिए सबसे सस्ते शहरों में दिल्ली भी शामिल: मूविंग प्राइस इंडेक्स 2019
  • मोहम्मद आमिर ने टेस्ट क्रिकेट से संन्यास की घोषणा की  
  • लसिथ मलिंगा ने एकदिवसीय क्रिकेट से संन्यास लिया
  • श्रीलंका के पेसर नुवान कुलसेकरा ने अंतरराष्ट्रीय क्रिकेट से संन्यास लिया
  • फीफा रैंकिंग में भारत दो स्थान गिरकर 103 पर पहुंचा
  • पूर्व केंद्रीय मंत्री जयपाल रेड्डी का 77 साल की उम्र में निधन
  • दुनिया के सबसे तेज सुपरकम्प्यूटर्स में अमेरिका का 42% हिस्सा है, भारत का सिर्फ 2%
  • ऑस्ट्रेलिया की लेनिंग ने महिला टी-20 का हाईएस्ट स्कोर बनाया
  • बीसीसीआई ने चंडीगढ़ क्रिकेट एसोसिएशन को मान्यता दी
  • 118 बच्चों को गोद लेने वाली ‘लव मदर’ को धोखाधड़ी के लिए 20 साल की जेल
  • कर्नाटक :येदियुरप्पा ने चौथी बार मुख्यमंत्री पद की शपथ ली
  • गहरे समुद्र में खनन के कारण स्कैलफुट घोंघा लुप्तप्राय होने वाली पहली प्रजाति बन गई
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  • ओडिशा ने घड़ियाल-मगरमच्छ प्रजातियों को पुनर्जीवित करने के प्रयासों को नवीनीकृत किया
  • डॉ.यू वी सिंह द्वारा लिखित ‘इंडो-पाक रिलेशन्स: बियॉन्ड पुलवामा एंड बालाकोट’ पुस्तक जारी की गई
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  • भारत में सोलर रूफटॉप में गुजरात सबसे ऊपर           
  • भारतीय नौसेना का जहाज आईएनएस तरकश रूस के सेंट पीटर्सबर्ग पहुंचा
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  • 7वीं आर्थिक गणना के क्षेत्र कार्य की त्रिपुरा से शुरूआत
  • श्री सुभाष चन्द्रव गर्ग ने विद्युत मंत्रालय में सचिव पद का कार्यभार संभाला
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  • बीसीसीआई ने भारतीय क्रिकेटर्स एसोसिएशन को दी मंजूरी
  • राजस्थान रॉयल्स ने स्टालेकर को बनाया सलाहकार
  • ICMR ने भारत में हेल्थ डेटा गुणवत्ता को बढ़ावा देने के लिए मंच लॉन्च किया
  • सुनील कुमार ने एमटीएनएल प्रमुख के रूप में प्रभार ग्रहण किया
  • ट्यूनीशिया के पहले लोकतांत्रिक रूप से निर्वाचित राष्ट्रपति एस्सेबी का निधन
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  • सीआईएसएफ ने कर्मियों के लिए एक वीडियो हब, विश्वकोश लॉन्च किया
  • औद्योगिक प्रदूषण में दिल्ली नंबर दो पर
  • अमेरिका में दो दशक बाद मौत की सजा बहाल
  • चीन ने उपग्रहों को ले जाने में सक्षम पहले निजी रॉकेट को लॉन्च किया
  • पाकिस्तान 2022 में अपने पहले अंतरिक्षयात्री को अंतरिक्ष में भेजगा
  • एरीज ने खोजे चमक बदलने वाले 28 तारे
  • पीयूष गोयल ने दुबई वर्ल्ड एक्सपो 2020 में भारत की भागीदारी की तैयारी की समीक्षा की
  • पेपाल ने हैदराबाद में तीसरा ग्लोबल टेक्नोलॉजी सेंटर खोला
  • ऑनलाइन भुगतान समाधान प्रदाता पेपाल होल्डिंग्स इंक ने बेंगलुरु और चेन्नई के बाद हैदराबाद के कोंडापुर में वेस्टर्न एक्वा में एक तीसरा ग्लोबल टेक्नोलॉजी सेंटर खोला है।
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  • बंधन बैंक ने सभी डिवीजनों के लिए संजीव नारायणी को व्यापार प्रमुख नियुक्त किया
  • टेस्ला के सह-संस्थापक और सीटीओ, जे.बी.स्ट्रैबेल इस्तीफा देंगे
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  • जॉनसन कैबिनेट में 3 भारतवंशी: प्रीति पटेल गृह मंत्री
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  • वन्दे भारत एक्सप्रेस ने नई दिल्ली से कटरा के बीच ट्रायल रन पूरा किया
  • IIT मद्रास ने “अग्रीकॉप्टर” का विकास किया
  • IIT खड़गपुर ने वृद्ध लोगों के लिए CARE4U नामक AI एप्प लांच की
  • शिमला, हिमाचल प्रदेश में बंदरों को ‘वर्मिन’ घोषित किया गया
  • श्री प्रकाश जावडेकर ने दूरदर्शन केंद्र, दिल्ली के आठ स्टूडियो में वीडियो वॉल और अर्थ स्टेशन का उद्घाटन किया
  • लेफ्टिनेंट जनरल रणबीर सिंह ने फायर एंड फ्यूरी वारियर्स पर एक पुस्तक का विमोचन किया
  • केंद्रीय स्वीकृति तथा निगरानी समिति की 45वीं बैठक में प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना (शहरी) के अंतर्गत 1,40,134 मकानों की मंजूरी
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Economy Current Affair Yearbook-2019 Free PDF

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Current Affairs

Economy of India – Current Affairs Yearbook 2019

INDEX

1.         GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT           

1.1        IMF’s Projection on India

1.2       Back Series GDP Data       

1.3       Understanding Back Series GDP Data   

1.4       Understanding 8.2% GDP Growth         

1.5       Revised estimates of GDP 

2.         PUBLIC FINANCE  

2.1       Assessing the GST Regime           

2.2       CBDT’s Decision on Tax Appeals 

2.3       CBDT Time Series Data    

2.4       Interim Budget 2019         

2.5       Relaxation in LTCG           

2.6       Easing of Conditions for Angel tax         

2.7       RBI’s Interim Dividend to the Government     

3.         INFLATION 

3.1       Repo Rate Hike       

3.2       Four-Year High Wholesale Price Inflation       

4.         BANKING    

4.1       Securing Fugitive Offenders        

4.2       Inter-Creditor Agreement

4.3       Mehta Panel Report on NPAs      

4.4       Estimates committee’s Report on NPAs

4.5       Bank of Baroda, Dena Bank & Vijaya Bank Consolidation    

4.6       RBI Surplus Transfers to Government  

4.7       India Post Payments Bank           

4.8      Section 7 of the RBI Act    

4.9       Significance of Prompt Corrective Action         

4.10     Removal of Banks from PCA framework           

4.11     RBI’s Stance on Bank Capital Norms     

4.12     Financial Stability Report – RBI  

4.13     Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill           

4.14     Withdrawal of FRDI Bill   

4.15     SC’s Stay on RBI’s Circular           

4.16     Independent Payments Regulatory Board        

5.         MONEY MARKET  

5.1       P-Notes and Money Laundering 

5.2       TK Viswanathan Committee        

5.3       Stock Market Volatility     

5.4       Downgrading IL&FS          

5.5       Changes in Mutual Fund Regulations   

5.6       SEBI Panel’s suggestion on FPI Norms 

5.7       New Guidelines for Credit Rating Agencies      

5.8       Expansion of Commodity Derivatives Trading 

5.9       Share Swap  

6.1       Weakening Rupee  

6.2       Foreign Investments Slows          

6.3       Fall of Rupee & Turkey’s Currency Crisis          

6.4       Dealing with Fuel Price Rise        

6.5       Challenges in Current Account Deficit  

6.6       Indo-Japan Currency Swap Arrangement         

6.7       Concerns on Anti-dumping duty

6.8      FDI in e-commerce

6.9       Significance of a Competitive Exchange Rate   

7.1       Draft “New e-Commerce Policy” 

7.2       Pension Fund Regulatory Development Authority    

7.3       Pradhan Mantri Shram-Yogi Maandhan           

7.4       Improvising the 59-minute Loan Scheme        

7.5       New Procurement Policy  

7.6       Dispute Settlement in WTO         

7.7       Ease of Doing Business Index      

7.8       Insights from NABARD’s Survey Findings       

7.9       2018 Nobel Prize in Economics   

7.10     RBI’s Stance on Data Localisation Rules           

7.11      Global Hunger Index         

7.12     India and Human Capital Index  

7.13     Addressing Rising Oil Prices        

7.14     Pricing mechanism behind Petroleum  

7.15     Trust model in state sponsored insurance        

7.16     RBI notification on MSME loans

8.         INFRASTRUCTURE           

8.1       Concerns in Achieving Renewable Energy Targets     

8.2      Recent Developments in HFA Project   

8.3      Strategic Petroleum Reserves      

8.4      Status of “Real Estate Regulatory Act”  

8.5       MSME Bill 2018     

8.6      India’s CSR Landscape       

8.7       Kaleshwaram Irrigation Project  

8.8      Resolving Power Sector NPAs     

8.9      Dams and Flood Control  

8.10    Collapse of Flyover and Bridge    

8.11     Promoting Waterways      

8.12     Boosting Electronics sector          

8.13     National Small Savings Fund for Air India       

8.15     Relook at the BharatNet Project 

8.16     Rat-Hole Mining in Meghalaya   

8.17     Significance of Bogibeel Bridge in Assam         

8.18    Concerns with Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant  

9.         AGRICULTURE      

9.1       Rise of “Farmer Producer Organisations”        

9.2       Dealing with Agrarian Surpluses

9.3       Zero Budget Natural Farming     

9.4       Taking Forward Contract Farming         

9.5       Assessing Agri-Pricing Policies   

9.7       GM Regulations in India  

9.8      Storing Food grains in the Open 

9.9       Significance of Bamboo Cultivation       

9.10     Issues with Cotton Production    

9.11     Mitigating Farmers’ Distress       

9.12     Reforming Agri-Credit System    

9.13     Ending the APMC Monopoly – Maharashtra Ordinance        

9.14     MSP for Minor Forest Produce   

9.15     Addressing Tenant Farming        

9.16     Inter-State Agri Trading via e-NAM       

9.17     Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi  

9.18     Comparing MGNREGA and PM-KISAN

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Weekly Current Affair MCQ 22-28 July 2019

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Current Affairs Question Bank-Weekly for All Competitive Exams

1. When was the 20th anniversary of Kargil Vijay Diwas observed?

a) 25th July

b) 26th July

c) 27th July

d) 28th July

2. Who has been appointed as UK’s first Indian-origin Home Secretary?

a) Priti Patel

b) Rishi Sunak

c) Alok Sharma

d) Nisha Kulhari

3. Who has been chosen as the next Prime Minister of United Kingdom?

a) Adward Luke

b) Jeremy Hunt

c) Boris Johnson

d) Karl Parkinson

4. Chandrayaan-2 took off from which of the following places?

a) Sriharikota

b) Porbandar

c) Chandipur

d) Pokhran

5. MS Dhoni will be deployed with the Territorial Army Battalion in which state?

a) Himachal Pradesh

b) Arunachal Pardesh

c) Sikkim

d) Jammu and Kashmir

6. The Supreme Court has extended the deadline for Final NRC publication till which date?

a) August 31st

b) July 31st

c) August 1st

d) August 15th

7. Who among the following won her fifth gold medal in the last 19 days?

a) Dipa Karmakar

b) Dutee Chand

c) Hima Das

d) Vinesh Phogat

8. India’s campaign in the World Test Championship will begin with which nation’s tour?

a) Sri Lanka

b) West Indies

c) England

d) Bangladesh

9. Biswa Bhusan Harichandan has taken charge as the Governor of which among the following states?

a) Maharashtra

b) Gujarat

c) Andhra Pradesh

d) Himachal Pradesh

10. India has rejected which among the following leader’s claim that PM Modi asked him to be the mediator in Kashmir issue?

a) Kim Jong Un

b) Donald Trump

c) Xi Jinping

d) Vladimir Putin

11. Which of the following statements regarding the Central Sector Scheme “Silk Samagra” are true ?

1) The main aim of “Silk Samagra” Scheme is to empower downtrodden, poor & backward tribal families through various activities of sericulture in the country including women.

2) Under the scheme, race improvement through development of improved host plant varieties and improved disease resistant Silkworm breeds through collaborative research with reputed National Research organizations will be carried out as well.

3) The scheme also comprises of various beneficiary oriented components to support Mulberry, Vanya and Post Cocoon Sectors.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

12. Consider the following pairs of military operations undertaken by the Indian military with their corresponding names :

1) Operation Vijay : Annexation of Goa

2) Operation steeplechase : Combined operation against naxalites

3) Operation all out :Indian operation to push back the infiltrators from the Kargil Sector

4) Operation Surya hope :for saving people trapped in the 2013 North India floods.

5) Operation trident :a relief operation to evacuate Indian, Sri Lankan and Nepalese nationals from Lebanon

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched ?

a) 1,2 & 3 only

b) 1,2 & 4 only

c) 2,4 & 5 only

d) all of the above

13. Consider the following statements :

1) Red Mud is a solid waste generated during the aluminium production process. This is an environmental concern due to presence of impurities such as caustic soda and others minerals.

2) Global generation of red mud is more than 150 million tons and there exists a global inventory of more than 3 billion tons.

3) Red mud generation increased upto 15million tons last year thereby leading to its prohibition by the National green tribunal.

Which of the above statements are true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

14. Which of the following statements regarding the recently passed The Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019 stands true ?

1)It amends the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956. The Act provides for the adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers and river valleys.

2) Under the Act, central government may request a state government to refer an inter-state river dispute to a Tribunal for adjudication.

3) Under the Bill, when a state puts in a request regarding any water dispute, the central government will set up a Disputes Resolution Committee (DRC), to resolve the dispute amicably.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

15. The flagship Motihari-Amlekhgunj petroleum pipeline project, recently seen in news has been successfully completed between India and which of the following countries?

a) Bangladesh

b) Afghanistan

c) Nepal

d) Iran

16. World temperatures rose faster in the late 20th century than at any other time in the last 2,000 years, according to a study released recently. Which of the following statements regarding the same stands true?

1) While average global temperatures are currently around 1°C hotter than pre-industrial times, there have been a number of periods of cooling and warming over the centuries.

2) Researchers used data compiled from nearly 700 temperature indicators — tree rings, sediment cores, coral reefs and modern thermometer readings to provide a comprehensive timeline of the planet’s recent climate history.

3) The study found that pre-industrial temperature fluctuations were largely driven by meteoritic activity.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

17. Consider the following pairs of nomadic groups across the world and their respective countries/continents of existence:

1) Kanjar : India

2)Manush : Europe

3) Gawandi : Turkey

4) Lori : Iraq

5) Chalu : Afghanistan

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched ?

a) 1,2 & 3 only

b) 3,4& 5 only

c) 2,3 & 5 only

d) all of the above

18. Consider the following statements regarding India’s position in global innovation scenario:

1) India is consistently among the top in the world in innovation drivers such as ICT services exports, graduates in science and engineering, the quality of universities, gross capital formation, a measure of economy-wide investments and creative goods export.

2) India’s hope of increasing the size of the economy to $5 trillion cannot happen without significant innovation.

3)India’s rise in theinnovation rankings has been a consistent trend over the last few years and India has jumped five places to rank 52 in the Global Innovation Index 2019, up from the 57 it had in last year’s rankings.

Which of the above statements are true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

19. Which of the following statements regarding the newly passed Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019 are true ?

1) The Bill makes only declaration of talaq in written or electronic form to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal.

2) The Bill makes declaration of talaq a cognizable offence, attracting up to three years’ imprisonment with a fine.

3) A Muslim woman against whom talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

20. The global multidimensional poverty index (MPI)2019 has been released by which of the following global institutions recently ?

a) World Bank

b) UNDP

c) World Health Organisation

d) FAO

21. Which of the following statements regarding the newly passed Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019 stands true ?

1) The object of the proposed amendments is to facilitate speedy investigation and prosecution of terror offences and designating an individual as terrorist in line with the international practices.

2) Currently as per section 25 of the UAPA, forfeiture of property representing proceeds of terrorism can only be made with prior approval in writing by the DGPs of the state wherein such property is located.

3) The International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005) has been removed from the Second Schedule through this Amendment.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

22. Which of the following are the indigenous cow breeds in India ?

1) Sanga

2) Surti

3) Tuli

4) Rathi

5) Bhadawari

a) 1,2 & 3 only

b) 1,3 & 4 only

c) 3,4 & 5 only

d) 2 & 4 only

23. With respect to the newly formed New Space India Limited (NSIL) in the ISRO, which of the following statements stands true ?

1) NSIL was set up to meet the ever-increasing demands of Indian space programme and to commercially exploit the emerging global space market.

2) The emergence of NSIL would spur the growth of Indian industries in the space sector and enable Indian industries to scale up manufacturing and production base.

3) It will also be responsible for production and manufacturing of commercially successful Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) and Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle spacecraft launchers via technology transfer mechanisms.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

24. Consider the following statements regarding milk production in India:

1) About 80 million rural household are engaged in milk production with very high proportion being landless, small & marginal farmers.

2) Even though India is the largest producer of milk in the world, India exports only 10% of the world dairy export market.

3) To ensure quality of milk and milk products, Government of India is implementing various dairy development schemes that provide for strengthening of quality milk infrastructure from farm level like dairy cooperative societies to processing plants at District/State level.

Which of the above statements are true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

25. Which of the following south Asian countries have recently developed a technology to convert jute fibre into low cost bio degradable cellulose sheets named “Sonali bag” ?

a) India

b) Sri lanka

c) Bangladesh

d) Myanmar

26. Consider the following statements :

1) India is witnessing a significant change in the nature of cybercrimes; it is now extremely organised and collaborative. The cost of data breach continues to grow year after year.

2) Data breaches have cost Indian enterprises Rs. 12.8 crore on an average during the first half of calendar 2019, a 7.29% increase compared with a year ago.

3) Firms with more than 500 employees suffered losses of more than $2.5 million on an average.

Which of the above statements are true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

27. Narmada rises from Amarkantak Plateau near Anuppur district. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km (815.2 mi) before draining through the Gulf of Khambhat into the Arabian Sea.

The river flows through which of the following states of central India?

1) Rajasthan

2) Gujarat

3) Madhya Pradesh

4) Maharashtra

5) Chattisgarh

a) 1,2& 3 only

b) 2,3 & 4 only

c) 1,3 & 5 only

d) all of the above

28. Which of the following statements regarding the SAT (Securities Appellate Tribunal) stands true ?

1) The first SAT was formed in 1995, through a notification issued by the Central Government and therefore, is a statutory body established under the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

2) The Securities Appellate Tribunal has only one bench that sits at Mumbai and has jurisdiction over all of India.

3) Every proceeding before the Securities Appellate Tribunal is deemed to be a judicial proceeding and the tribunal has all the powers of a Civil Court.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

29. After Chandrayaan-2, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has planned to launch its solar mission, Aditya-L1, during the first half of 2020.

Which of the following statements regarding the same are true ?

1) The Aditya – L1 is set to launch during 2019-2020 timeframe by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

2) The Aditya – L1 will be inserted in a halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1), which is 1.5 million km from the Earth.

3) Aditya-L1, with additional experiments, can provide observations of the Sun’s photosphere, chromosphere and corona.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

30. Which of the following is the highest mountain in Myanmar forming the tri-point boundary between India, China &Myanmar ?

a) Mount Wutai

b) Mount Saramati

c) Hkakabo Razi

d) Mount Popa

31) ‘Krishna Raja Sagara’ is built on which of the following rivers?

a) Cauvery

b) Krishna

c) Mahanadi

d) Tapi

32) Consider the following statements with respect to ‘National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)’

1. It is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory/coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

2. It is set up under the Chairmanship of the Minister for Environment and Forests

Select the correct statements

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

33) Which of the following committees is under the ‘Standing Committees’?

1. Railway Convention Committee

2. Public Accounts Committee

3. Committee on Public Undertakings

Select the correct statements

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

34) Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to ‘BlockChain’?

1. It allows designing a secure way to record transactions and circulate it among signatories, or any kind of target group with an Internet connection.

2. Every block in a block chain provides an unalterable document of the history of every transaction.

Select the correct statements

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

35) ‘KAGRA’, is a Gravitational Wave Detector located in

a) India

b) Japan

c) China

d) South Africa

36) Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Colistin’

1. It is an antibiotic for therapeutic purpose in veterinary.

2. One of the reasons for antibiotic resistance in India is due to unwanted use of Colistin in poultry industry.

Select the correct statements

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

37) Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to ‘Chandipura Virus?’

1. It was first reported from a forest in Karnataka

2. It is associated with an encephalitic illness in humans

Select the correct statements

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

38) Consider the following statements with respect to ‘PENCIL Portal’

1. It ensures smooth implementation of the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme

2. It aims at involving Centre, State, District, civil society and the general public in achieving the target of child labour free society.

Select the correct statements

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

39) Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Interferometer’

1. It is one leading method for the direct detection of gravitational waves.

2. It works by merging two or more sources of light to create an interference pattern, which can be measured and analysed.

Select the correct statements

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

40) Service voter is a voter having service qualification. According to the provisions of

Representation of People Act, 1950, service qualification means –

1. Being a member of the armed Forces of the Union

2. Being a member of an Armed Police Force of a State, and serving outside that state

3. Being a person who is employed under the Government of India, in a post outside India

Select the correct statements

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

Answer

1. (b) 26th July

20th Anniversary of Kargil Vijay Diwas was celebrated on July 26, 2019 to commemorate the Operation Vijay of 1999, when India regained the control of Kargil from Pakistan.

2. (a) Priti Patel

Priti Patel has been appointed as UK’s first Indian-origin home secretary. Patel was appointed by Britain’s new Prime Minister Boris Johnson. She succeeds Pakistani-origin Sajid Javid, who has been appointed as the first ethnic minority Chancellor of the Exchequer.

3. (c) Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson blustering Brexit campaigner was chosen as the U.K.’s next prime minister recently, with a resounding mandate from the Conservative Party but conflicting demands from a politically divided country.

4. (a) Sriharikota

Chandrayaan-2 was launched on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 pm IST from Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota. Chandrayaan-2 consists of an orbiter that will observe the surface of the Moon and become a source of communication between Earth and the Moon mission.

5. (d) Jammu and Kashmir

MS Dhoni has begun his training with Indian Army’s Territorial Army Battalion. Dhoni will be deployed in Kashmir Valley for 15 days. He will be on patrol and guard duties.

6. (a) August 31st

The Supreme Court on July 23, 2019 extended the deadline for publication of the final National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam from July 31 to August 31, 2019. The court also rejected the pleas seeking permission for 20 per cent sample re-verification.

7. (c) Hima Das

Hima Das, the Indian sprinter is on a gold run as she won her fifth gold medal in the last 19 days on July 20 in the Czech Republic. Hima Das finished at the top with a season-best time of 52.09 seconds in 400m at the Nove Mestonad Metuji Grand Prix.

8. (b) West Indies

The inaugural ICC World Test Championship will begin with the first Ashes test between Australia and England at Birmingham on August 1, 2019. India will begin its World Test Championship campaign with its two-match Test series against the West Indies in August 2019.

9. (c) Andhra Pradesh

Biswa Bhusan Harichandan has taken charge as the new Governor of Andhra Pradesh in Rajbhavan in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. His oath was administered by the AP High Court Acting Chief Justice C. Praveen Kumar.

10. (b) Donald Trump

India has sharply rejected US President Donald Trump’s claim stating that PM Modi asked for US mediation in Kashmir issue. India lodged a protest regarding the controversial claim with the US State Department.

11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (c) 16. (a) 17. (c) 18. (d) 19. (b) 20. (b)

21(a), 22(b), 23(d), 24(c), 25(c) 26 (a) 27 (b) 28 (d) 29 (d) 30 (c) 31 (a)

32 (c) 33 (b) 34 (c) 35(b) 36(c) 37(b) 38(c) 39(c) 40(d)

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Current Affairs 2019 Yearbook Special Issue-Polity and Governance

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

We are presenting here the current events and news in the area of Indian Polity and Governance is very important for the General studies paper in the UPSC Preliminary and Main exam. Useful for UPSC IAS IES State PSC and all other exams-2019.In recent times’ questions are set on only those topics that have made news. Regular study of Indian Polity and Governance from NCERT books or otherwise is no longer required. The idea is to follow the current affairs news related to Indian Polity and Governance and understand the logic/concept behind those issues. This issue will definitely improve your basic and current knowledge of subject.

INDEX

Indian Polity and Governance

POLITY       

1.         SUPREME COURT JUDGMENTS           

1.1        Section 377  

1.2       Aadhaar        

1.3       Promotions in SC/ST        

1.4       SC/ST Reservation – Home State

1.5       Delhi CM vs LG       

1.6       Delhi – UT vs Centre           9

1.7       Criminalisation of Politics           

1.8       Puri Jagannath Temple

1.9       Rohingyas Deportation     

1.10     Striking Down of Beggary Act      

2.         LEGISLATIONS      

2.1       Reservation for the ‘Poor Forward’        

2.2       Restoration of SC/ST (PoA) Act Provisions      

2.3       Amendments to RTE Act  

2.4       Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018 – Leprosy      

2.5       Assessing Defamation Law           

2.6       Impact Assessments of Legislations       

2.7       Unconstitutional laws in India    

3.         THE UNION

3.1       Code of Conduct for Members of Legislature   

3.2       Sale of Enemy Property     

3.3       Usage of Private Member Bill      

4.         THE STATES           

4.1       Removal of J&K DGP         

4.2       Dissolution of J&K Assembly      

4.3       Second Chamber in States

4.4       Verdict on TN MLAs Disqualification    

4.5       Jammu & Kashmir Resettlement Law   

5.         JUDICIARY  

5.1       Decision on Appointment of SC Judge   

5.2       Post-retirement Appointment of Judges           

5.3       Issues with Judges’ Recusal         

5.4       Concerns with Collegium system           

5.5       Misuse of Section 124        

6.         ISSUES IN FEDERALISM 

6.1       All India Judicial Service  

6.2       Significance of Art 35A and Art 370      

7.         ELECTIONS 

7.1       Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill, 2017 – Proxy Voting       

7.2       Usage of Preferential voting system       

7.3       Appointment of Election Commissioners         

7.4       Finance Commission Formula for NE States   

7.5       Re-election on Maximum NOTA Votes 

7.6       Usage of VVPATs in Elections     

8.         LAW COMMISSION          

8.1       Law Commission on Legalizing Gambling       

8.2      Law Commission on Personal Laws       

9.         RIGHTS ISSUES     

9.1       Women’s Entry into Sabarimala Temple          

9.2       Clause 6 of the Assam Accord      

9.3       Protests in Mizoram – Citizenship (Amendment) Bill and the Chakmas   

10.       OTHER ISSUES      

10.1     Maratha Reservation Demand    

10.2     Doctors with Disabilities  

10.3     Report on Death Penalty in India           

10.4     Abolishing Capital Punishment in India           

10.5     Shifting to Register-Based Census          

10.6     Scrapping Educational Qualification      

10.7     Issues with Teachers’ quota in Universities     

10.8    NSA for Cattle Offences     

GOVERNANCE

11.1      Threat to RTI          

11.2     Reinstating CBI Director  

11.3     CBI vs States – Withdrawal of general consent           

11.4     CBI – Kolkata Police Stand-Off    

11.5      Civil Service Lateral Entry

11.6     Reforming the Bureaucracy         

11.7      Regulating Lobbying         

11.8     Understanding Corporate Governance  

11.9     Need for Anti-Surveillance Laws

11.10   Statutory Recognition of Trade Unions 

11.11    Pitfalls in Navodya Vidyalaya Model      

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We have covered Geography and Environment topics related to current issues from September -2018 to August- 2019, which is useful for UPSC IAS, IES, State Public Service Commission Prelims and Mains Exam 2019-20.

We are presenting here the current events and news in the area of Geography and Environment is very important for the general studies paper in the UPSC Preliminary and Main exam. In recent times questions are set on only those topics that have made news. Regular study of Geography and Environment from NCERT books or otherwise is no longer required. The idea is to follow the current affairs news related to Geography and Environment and understand the logic/concept behind those issues. This issue will definitely improve your basic and current knowledge of subject.

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Havelis & Sculptures of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Havelis & Sculptures of Rajasthan

Rampuria Group of Havelis, Bikaner

Bikaner has several havelis (aristocratic homes), the most famous cluster being the Rampuria Group of Havelis. The havelis are built of dulmera (red) stone, include – jharaokha (casements), entrances, latticed windows, divankhanas, gumaharias or basements. These massive havelis are decorated with golden work of the highest quality and Jharokhas are decorated with designs of flowers & leaves. There is Victorian influence in the design and also include exquisite wood carvings.

Kothari and Surana Haveli, Churu

Oswal Jain merchant families constructed these beautiful painted havelis. Malji’s Haveli made by Malaji Kothari is the most popular haveli. Another famous haveli is the Surana Double Haveli.

Patwon Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer

One of the most exquisite buildings in the walled city, which truly exemplifies the architectural style typical of erstwhile Rajputana. It is five storeys high and the extensive corridors and chambers are supported by intricately carved pillars.While the haveli has lost some of its early glory, a few paintings and mirror work art can still be seen on the inside walls.

Nathmal ki Haveli, Jaisalmer

Carved by Lalu and Hathi, two brothers for the Prime Minister of State, Nathmalji in 19th century. The most interesting fact is that the brothers worked separately, one on the right side and other on the left side, the result is a absolute symphony epitomizing the side by side symmetry during construction. The haveli is richly carved and the inner chambers are decorated with miniature paintings.

Salim Singh ki Haveli, Jaisalmer

This haveli was built in the first half of the 18th century by Salim Singh, a powerful Chief Minister of Jaisalmer and a part of it is still occupied by descendants of the original residents. The high arched roof is supported by carved brackets designed in the shape of peacocks.The five stroryed structure dominates the skyline of the walled city due to its form. The haveli begins with a narrow dimension below with an elaborate projecting balcony on the top storey. It is distinguished by the blue cupola roof.

Haveli’s of Laxmangarh, Sikar

There are numerous havelis in the town, namely the Sawant Ram Chokhani Haveli, Bansidhar Rathi Haveli, Sanganeria Haveli, Mirijamal Kyala Haveli, Char Chowk Haveli and Kedia Haveli, adorned with fresco paintings in the Shekhawati style.

  • The Radhi Murlimanohar temple, constructed in 1845, is popular for the beautiful sculptures of deities on the wall.

Haveli’s & Bawdi’s of Fatehpur, Sikar

Fatehpur is a town in the Sikar which is part of the Shekhawati region. Located on midway between Jaipur and Bikaner (NH-11), Fatehpur is famous for grand havelis with frescos and a number of bawdis.

Main attraction of Fatehpur is:-

  1. Sitaram Kedia Ki Haveli
  2. Jagannath Singhania Haveli
  3. Saraf Haveli
  4. The Nadine Le Prince Cultural Centre
  5. The Dwarkadheesh Temple
  6. Qureshi Farms

Rani ji Baori, Bundi

Bundi has more than 50 stepwell and rightly known as city of stepwalls. Raniji ki Baori, also known as ‘Queen’s Stepwell’, is a famous stepwell built in 1699 by Rani Nathavati Ji, the younger queen of the ruling king Rao Raja Anirudh Singh of Bundi. This multi-storied stepwell displays excellent carvings of Gajraj with his trunk turned inwards, giving the impression of having drunk from the baori on its pillars. Its high arched gate gives it an inviting appearance.

Abhaneri, Dausa

Abhaneri is famous for its Post-gupta or early medieval monuments. The Chand Baori (Step Well) and Harshat Mata Temple are prominent monuments. The temple is an excellent example of intricate carving on stone whereas the Baori has stairs with unparallel artistic and architectural beauty. It is situated at about 33 Kms from the district headquarter towards Bandikui.

Alanpur Baori, Sawai Madhopur

A four line Persian inscription on a rectangular stone slab, fixed in the Ghori Baori in Alanpur village, belongs to Alauddin Fidan Shah, son of Mahmud Shah Khalji I, Sultan of Malwa. It is dated A.H. 874 (A.D. 1469-70) and records construction of the step-well by Khwaja Jahan son of Bir Ali Turk Khurasani. The slab now broken into four pieces has been taken to the Ranthambhore Fort collection of antiquities.

Hadi Rani Baori, Todrai Singh, Tonk

The step-tank is rectangular on plan with double-storeyed corridors on the western side, each having arched doorway. Below the lower storey, there are images of Brahma, Ganesa and Mahishasuramardini which are enshrined in niches. On all the three sides, steps are arranged in sets of thirteen each at higher level and five each at lower level, going up to the water level. It is datable to circa twelfth-thirteenth century A.D.

Vijaya Stambh, Chittorgarh

Vijaya Stambh is a huge nine storey tower which was built by Maharana Kumbha to commemorate his victory over the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat in 1440, the tower signifies the victorious spirit of the Rajput Kingdom after securing a victory over the intruder Mohammed Khilji. The towers stands at a height of 37 meters and compromises of 9 floors offer a great view of the city of Chittorgarh and the Chittorgarh Fort.

Kirti Stambh, Chittorgarh

Kirti Stambh or the tower of fame is part of the two popular stumbhs or pillars inside the Chittorgarh Palace. Kriti Stambh is a 12th-century tower situated at Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan, India. Dedicated to the first Jain teethankar Adinath, the stambh is a 22 meter high seven storied tower having a sculpture of Adinath in the second floor.Kirti Stambh is older than another tower in the same fort, known as the Vijaya Stambh (Tower of Victory). The topmost floor of the pillar offers a panoramic view of the whole Chittorgarh city and attracts a large number of travelers, historians and photography enthusiasts.

Famous Stambhas of Rajasthan

Vijay Stambh Chittorgarh
Kirti Stambh Chittorgarh
Minar of Nehar Khan Kota
Gooler ka Ludan Jodhpur
Gamtaji Jodhpur
Safdarjung Alwar
Sargasooli(Isarlaat) Jaipur

Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

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Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

Adhai din ka Jhopra, Ajmer

Adhai din ka Jhopra is actually a Masjid built by Qutub-ud-Din-Aibak, first Sultan of Delhi, in AD 1199. Sultan Iltutmish had subsequently beautified it in AD 1213 with a screen pierced by corbelled engrailed arches which appears in this country for the first time. However, a large number of architectural members and sculptures of temples are lying inside the verandah of the complex for safety and security purposes by the department which shows the existence of a Hindu temple in its vicinity during circa 11th-12th Century AD. This mosque, built from the dismantled remains of temples, is known as Adhai-din-ka-Jhopra possibly from the fact that a fair used to be held here for two and a half days.

The Ajmer Sharif Dargah

Ajmer Sharif, situated at the foot of the Taragarh hill, is the shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. It contains the domed tomb of the saint and several white marble buildings arranged around two courtyards, including a massive gate donated by the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Akbari Mosque, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

Akbar used to come here by foot on pilgrimage from Agra every year in observance of a vow when he prayed for a son. The large pillars called “Kose (‘Mile’) Minar”, erected at intervals of two miles (3 km) along the entire way between Agra and Ajmer mark the places where the royal pilgrims halted every day.

Soni ji ki Nasiyan, Ajmer

Soniji ki Nasiyan is a Jain Temple located in Ajmer and is a wonderful example of ornate architecture, dedicated to Rishabhadev or Adinath. Its entrance is made of red stone and the marble staircase inside is engraved with images of the holy Tirthankars – omniscient teachers of Jain faith who taught righteousness. The temple was constructed in the late 19th century. Its main chamber, Swarna Nagari (City of Gold), is aptly named so because of the several gold-plated wooden figures it houses within its walls. This famous architectural marvel is also mentioned in Kurt Titze’s book, ‘Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence.’

Tijara Jain Temple, Alwar

About 60 kilometres from the Alwar-Delhi route lies this important centre of Jain pilgrimage. The exquisitely decorated ancient temple was built to commemorate the eighth Tirthankar, Shri Chandra Prabha Bhagwan. The son of King Mahasen and Queen Sulakshana, he ruled his kingdom for several years before receiving Diksha and being initiated. After serving mankind for several years, he meditated for a month and attained Nirvana.

Bhand Devara, Baran

Ramgarh-Bhand Devra temples are situated about 40 km. from Baran. The Shiv Mandir of Ramgarh was built in 10th century on the Khajuraho style. Due to the Maithun Statues, the place is named as Bhand Devra. This temple is situated on the bank of pond and is now under the Archaeological department. This temple is known as Rajasthan’s mini Khajuraho.

Kiradu Temple, Barmer

Kiradu Temple might have been constructed before the 6th century at the time of “Parmar” Dynasty. There are five temples in all and most remarkable of them is

Someshvara Temple .These temples feature impressive sculpture and a Solanki style of architecture. There are 4-5 Big Temple structure of Golden colour and a Sun Temple. The temple is well entitled as “Khajuraho of Rajasthan”. The design of the temple is identical to the Khajurao Temple and Sun Temple at Orrisa. The temple is ruin and with lack of images of God and Goddess. The Kiradu was earlier Headquarter of Barmer and it was attacked by Mohammad Gauri in 1140AD who had destroyed the temple structure and its images.

Vankal Mata Temple, Barmer

Vankal Mata Temple is situated at the west end of the city on a 675 feet high hill, the ancient citadel of the 16th century ( fortress ), which was called Barmer citadel , whose remains still exist.

Shri Parshwanath Jain Temple, Barmer

Shri Parshwanath Jain temple was originally a temple of Mahavira. This temple was renovated in the fifteenth century. 120 idols were brought here from Kalidrah and this beautiful and miraculous idol was installed here as Mulnayaka (main idol of the temple) in the year 1429 of the Vikram era (1373 AD). It is among the hills in the distant forest at a distance of 13 kilometers from Balotra.

Jain Temple Bhandasar, Bikaner

Jain Temple was commissioned by Bhandasa Oswal in the year 1468 and completed in the year 1514. The structure is influenced by Rajputana architecture and includes unique and intricately sculpted pillars, frescos and the gold leaf work, with a blend of red sandstone and white marble used in the construction. The mirror work in the temple is unique as well.

Meera bai Temple, Chittorgarh

Meera bai, an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna’s, worshipped him at this temple. The structure is designed in the classic North Indian style of temples. It rises from a raised plinth and its conical roof can be seen from far. The temple houses a beautiful shrine surrounded by an open porch with four small pavilions in four corners.

Deo Somnath, Dungarpur

On the banks of Som River, there is an old and beautiful Shiva temple called Deo Somnath built in the 12th century. Built of white stone, the temple has imposing turrets. One can see the sky from within the temple. Though there is a perfect adaptation of parts in the masonry, yet it gives the impression that individual stones are crumbling. The temple has 3 exits, one each in the east, the north and the south. The entrance gates are two storied The Garbha Grah has a high dome. In front of it is the Sabha Mandap – built on 8 majestic pillars. There are Twenty Toranas of which four still exist. Others were destroyed by the flood waters of the Som. The idol of the deity is in a chamber, eight steps below and the entrance is from the Sabha Mandap. There are several inscriptions by pilgrims and the oldest belongs to 1493 A.D. Several warriors were cremated near the temple and memorials have been raised in their honour.

Nagfanji, Dungarpur

Nagfanji is renowned for its Jain shrines and not only does it attract devotees from Dungarpur but also tourists who travel from far to see the temple. The temple houses statues of Devi Padmawati, Nagfanji Parshwanath and Dharnendra. The Nagfanji Shivalaya, which is located close to this temple, is also a tourist attraction.

Shrinathji Temple, Dungarpur

Maharawal Punjraj built this temple in the year 1623. The idols of Shri Radhika ji and Govardhan Nathji are the main attractions. The complex also houses several shrines dedicated to Shri BankeBihariji and Shri Ramchandraji.

Surpur Temple, Dungarpur

This ancient shrine is located on the banks of the Gangdi River about 3 kilometres from Dungarpur. The area around the temple also houses other attractions such as Bhulbhulaiya, Madhavrai Temple, Hathiyon Ki Agad and several inscriptions.

Mandore, Jodhpur

Towards the north of Jodhpur is the ancient capital of Marwar, Mandore. This area is of major historical importance and you will find the dewals or cenotaphs of Jodhpur’s former rulers. Unlike the original Chhatri-shaped cenotaphs that are typical patterns of Rajasthan architecture, these are built along the lines of Hindu temples.

Osian:

65 Kms from Jodhpur, lies ruins of an ancient city called Ossian. This city is famous for Brahmanical and Jain temples, which belong to 8th and 11th century. The shikhar of Sachiya temple is clustered by two rows of turrets, an ambulatory and a large assembly hall with an elaborate ceiling. This town which was once a great trading centre is an oasis and houses an abundance of peacocks. The largest of the 16 Jain and Brahmanical temples is dedicated to Mahavira.

Bhanwar Mata Temple, Pratapgarh

Bhanwar Mata temple was built by King Gori of “Manvaiyani genus” in year 491 AD. Temple is also known as “Bhanwar Mata Shakti Peeth”. It is located in Chhoti Sadri Teshsil of Pratapgarh district.

Ghumeshwar Temple, Sawai Madhopur

Enshrined in the Puranas, the Ghushmeshwar Temple is believed to be 12th or the last of the Jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva. Situated at the Siwar village in Sawai Madhopur, this temple has many mythological stories weaved around it.

Alanpur Jain Temple, Sawai Madhopur

The early medieval Jaina temple, known as Chamatkarji, is situated outside the city and dedicated to lord Adinatha. The temple compound is enclosed by a modern high parapet wall with small cells all round and is entered from the west. The main shrine is situated in the centre of the courtyard and is enclosed by high wall with entrance in the north. The garbhagriha facing east, is pancharatha on plan with circumambulatory passage around. The sikhara is curvilinear.

Harshnath Temple, Sikar

The 10th century, Harshnath temple, belonging is located on the Aravalli Hills near Sikar. It is an ancient site containing remnants of old Shiva Temple of 10th Century. Another Shiva temple, constructed in the 18th century by Shiv Singh of Sikar, is situated near the Harshnath temple.

Jagdish Temple, Udaipur

An example of the Indo-Aryan style of architecture, Jagdish Temple was built in 1651 and continues to be one of the most famous temples in Udaipur. Dedicated to Lord Vishnu, the structure is an architectural marvel with carved pillars, graceful ceilings and painted walls. This three-storied temple was built by Maharana Jagat Singh.

Cenotaph & Tombs in Rajasthan

Maqbara Shaikh Husain, Ajmer

It houses the tomb of Khwaja Husain Chishty Rehamatullah Alaih (Shaikh Husain Ajmeri) who was the Peer of Ajmer Sharif Dargah in Emperor Akbar’s Time, He was the great grandson of Khwaja Moinuddin Hasan Chishty Rehmatullah Alaih, his tomb was built in 1637–1638 by Khwaja Alauddin Chishty and Sajjadanashin Hazrat Khwaja Moinuddin.

Moosi Maharani ki Chhatri, Alwar

This cenotaph, built in the memory of Maharaja Bakhtawar Singh and his queen, Rani Moosi, reflects the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. The upper portion comprising columned pavilions and domed arches is made of marble while the lower section consists of pillars in red sandstone. The memorial is rated as one of the finest of its type.

Fateh Jung Gombad, Alwar

This spectacular tomb, which is a combination of domes and minarets is an artistic marvel. Constructed from high quality sandstone, its massive dome can be seen from afar and is a blend of Hindu and Muslim architecture. It is dedicated to Fateh Jung who was a kind-hearted minister of the Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan.

Battis Khambon ki Chhatri, Bhilwara

This place is situated in Mandal 16 km from Bhilwara city. It has Chhatri made of sandstone with 32 pillars.

84 Pillared Cenotaphs, Bundi

As the name suggests, the 84 Pillared Cenotaph is a structure supported by 84 columns. Commissioned by Rao Anirudh, the Maharaja of Bundi, this cenotaph is a tribute to his beloved wet nurse, Deva, who he loved dearly. A popular tourist attraction, this impressive structure is decorated with carvings of deer, elephants and apsaras.

Galiyakote, Dungarpur

At a distance of 58 kilometres from Dungarpur, located on the banks of River Mahi, is a hamlet called Galiyakote. The place is known for Syed Fakhruddin shrine. He was a renowned saint who was buried in the hamlet after his death. The shrine is made from white marble and has his teachings engraved on it walls. The inner portion of the dome is decorated by beautiful foliage while teachings of the Quran are engraved in golden letters on the tomb.

BaraBagh, Jaisalmer

Literally the meaning is Big Garden. This garden complex houses chhatris or royal cenotaphs of the Maharajas of Jaisalmer state, including that of Jai Singh II.

Dargah Huzoor Najam Sirkar, Sikar

The holy shrine of Hazrat Khwajah Haji Muhammad Najmuddin Sulaimani Chishti, famous as Huzoor Najam Sirkar, is is located at Fatehpur Shekhawati District Sikar 165 km away from Jaipur and 55 km from Sikar on N.H. 12.

He belongs to the great silsilah-e-Chishtiah and in the 13th century Hijri he played a prominent role in spreading the Silsilah in the all parts of the country.

Laila Majnu Tomb, Sri Ganganagar

The tomb (mazar) of Laila-Majnu at Binjaur village is situated near Anupgarh city 11 km away from Anupgarh on the western side. Many people associate this Mazar (mausoleum) with fictional and legendary lovers Laila and Majnu. According to the traditional belief Laila-Majnun were from Sindh and came to this place escaping from the clutches of Laila’s parents and her brother who were against the love of Laila-Majnun. Laila and Majnu died here and were buried together at this place. Thus this place became a symbol of love and people come here to seek blessings from Laila and Majnu. A fair is held here in June which is attended by hundreds of newlyweds and lovers.

Fort and Palaces of Rajasthan

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Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan

The extensive and majestic hill forts of Rajasthan together reflect the elaborate, fortified seats of power of Princely States that flourished between the 8th and 18th centuries and their relative political independence. Scattered all around in the state, these forts have a uniqueness of their own, with each one of them narrating a story about its kings, kingdom and colourful culture. Their beautiful structures, enchanting edifices and stunning architecture are beyond any comparison. Recognizing their value, six of these Hill Forts of Rajasthan have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites. They are, Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Gagron Fort, Amber Fort and Jaisalmer Fort.

Forts of Rajasthan

  1. Amber Fort, Jaipur
  2. Bala Qila, Alwar
  3. Barmer Fort, Barmer
  4. Chittorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh
  5. Gagron Fort, Jhalawar
  6. Gugor Fort, Baran
  7. Jaigarh Fort, Jaipur
  8. Jaisalmer Fort, Jaisalmer
  9. Jalore Fort, Jalore,
  10. Jhalawar Fort, Jhalawar
  11. Juna Fort and Temple, Barmer
  12. Junagarh Fort, Bikaner
  13. Khandhar Fort, Sawai Madhopur
  14. Khejarala Fort, Jodhpur
  15. Khimsar Fort, Nagaur
  16. Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajsamand
  17. Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur
  18. Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur
  19. Nagaur Fort, Nagaur
  20. Nahargarh Fort, Jaipur
  21. Nahargarh Fort, Baran
  22. Neemrana Fort Palace, Alwar
  23. Ranthambore Fort, Sawai Madhopur
  24. Taragarh Fort, Bundi
  25. Shergarh Fort, Baran
  26. Surajgarh Fort, Surajgarh

Palaces of Rajasthan

  1. Alwar City Palace, Alwar
  2. Amber Palace, Jaipur
  3. Badal Mahal, Dungarpur
  4. Dholpur Palace, Bharatpur
  5. Fateh Prakash Palace, Chittorgarh
  6. Gajner Palace and Lake, Bikaner
  7. Jag Mandir, Udaipur
  8. Jagmandir Palace, Kota
  9. Jaipur City Palace, Jaipur
  10. Jal Mahal, Jaipur
  11. Juna Mahal, Dungarpur
  12. Lake Palace, Udaipur
  13. Lalgarh Palace and Museum, Bikaner
  14. Laxmi Niwas Palace, Bikaner
  15. Man Mahal, Pushkar
  16. Mandir Palace, Jaisalmer
  17. Monsoon Palace, Udaipur
  18. Moti Doongri, Alwar
  19. Moti Doongri, Jaipur
  20. Moti Mahal, Jodhpur
  21. Nathmal Ji Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  22. Patwon Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  23. Phool Maha, Jodhpur
  24. Raj Mandir, Banswara
  25. Rampuria Haveli, Bikaner
  26. Rana Kumbha Palace, Chittorgarh
  27. Rani Padmini’s Palace, Chittorgarh
  28. Ranisar Padamsar, Jodhpur
  29. Ratan Singh Palace, Chittorgarh
  30. Salim Singh Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  31. Sardar Samand Lake and Palace, Jodhpur
  32. Sheesha Mahal, Jodhpur
  33. Sisodia Rani Palace and Garden, Jaipur
  34. Sukh Mahal, Bundi
  35. Soonhari Kothi, Sawaimadhopur
  36. Udai Bilas Palace, Dungarpur
  37. Udaipur City Palace, Udaipur
  38. Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur

Taragarh Fort, Ajmer

Taragarh fort was first built by Chauhan king Ajaipal on Taragarh Hill. It is also said that Rana Sanga’s Brother Prthvi Raj made a portion of for his wife Tara and named it Taragarh.  The fort guarding Ajmer was the seat of the Chauhan rulers and was again believed to be built by Mughal ruler Akbar.

Taragarh is reputed to be one of the oldest hill forts in India and the world. The battlements run along the top of the hill. The walls are two miles (3 km) in circumference and the fort can only be approached by way of a very steep slope. When it fell to the British Raj, the fort was dismantled on the orders of Lord William Bentinck and was converted into a sanatorium for the British troops.

Akbari Fort & Museum, Ajmer

This fort was constructed in 1570 by Akbar and is also called as Daulat-khanna or Magazine. Plans for battle of Haldighati were finalized in this fort in 1576 and Jehangir camped in the fort for 3 years to bring mewar under Mughal control.

This fort is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture and it is the location from where

Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir read out the Farman permitting the

British East India Company to trade with India.

In 1801, control of fort passed to British who converted it into magazine (armory).

Currently, the fort is converted into a state

museum and houses a collection of Mughal,

Rajput armor and sculpture. The fort also has beautiful paintings and Janana portion has excellent Picchikari works.

Kesroli Hill Fort, Alwar

This 14th century fort is best known for its turrets, ramparts and arched verandas. The Yaduvanshi Rajputs, who are said to be descendants of Lord Krishna, built it. Today, the fort has been

converted into a heritage hotel.

Bala Quila, Alwar

The Bala Qila (meaning young fort) was built on the foundations of a 10th century mud fort and is a towering structure set atop a hill. Strong fortifications, graceful marble columns and delicate latticed balconies make up the fort. Bala Qila can be entered through six gates, namely Jai Pol, Suraj Pol, Laxman Pol, Chand Pol, Krishan Pol and Andheri Gate.

Alwar City Palace

Raja Bakhtawar Singh built the city palace in 1793 AD. The palace is an amazing mélange of the Rajputana and Islami styles of architecture. The highlight of this palace is graceful marble pavilions set on lotus flower bases in the central courtyard. The palace that once belonged to the Maharaja has been converted into the District Collectorate. Its grand halls and chambers now house government offices.

Neemrana Fort, Alwar

History says that Neemrana Fort was built by the Yaduvanshi, believed to be the descendants of Lord Krishna. Its story is rife with conquests and defeats and it has passed from the Rajputs to the Mughals and the Jats, before finally coming back to the Rajputs in 1775. Today, it is being run as a famous heritage hotel.

Shahbad Fort, Baran

Shahabad fort is one of the strongest forts in Hadoti area. It is located at about 80 km. from Baran. The Chauhan Vanshi Dhandhel Rajput Mukutmani Dev constructed Shahbad fort in the 1521 A.D. (Samvat 1577). This is situated in the dense forest area on the high mountain ranges and is surrounded by Kundakoh valley, waterfalls and a lake. The Topkhana (artillery) has Nawalbaan tope (cannon), Barudkhana and some temples in the forts are still secure.

Shergarh Fort, Baran

Shergarh fort is situated in Atru tehsil, about 65 km. from Baran district headquarters. The fort is located atop a hillock on the bank of Parban River. SherShah named the fort as Koshvardhan. A stone edict of 790 AD proves the antiquity of the place.

Nahar Garh Fort, Baran

The fort is about 73 km. from Baran in Kishanganj tehsil. Fort is an impressive structure in red stone and a fine example of the Mughal architecture.

Siwana Fort, Barmer

Siwana Fort was constructed in 10th century by Narayan Panwar. In local language its name is Gadh Siwana and after the battle of Giri Summel Rao Maldeo took refuge in this fort from

Sher Shah. During 1308-09 under reign of

Sataldev, the fort was attacked by Allauddin

Khilji which resulted in first Jauhar/Saka. In 1597, Akbar with Motaraja Udai Singh attacked

Siwana fort at the time of Kalyanmal which resulted in 2nd Jauhar.

Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur

Lohagarh fort was built by Jat Raja Surajmal in 1733. True to its name, Lohagarh Fort has withstood many attacks by the British, but was ultimately captured by Arthur Wellesley.  The famous door of Lohagarh fort was brought by Maharaja Jawahar Singh from Delhi in 1765. Lohagarh Fort differs from others by its aura of rugged strength. The fort is surrounded by a moat which used to be filled with water to keep enemies out. Interesting monuments inside the fort are Kothi Khas, Mahal Khas, Moti Mahal and Kishori Mahal. Raja Suraj Mal built Jawahar Bhurj and Fateh Bhurj to commemorate victories over the Mughals and the British.

Bharatpur Palace and Museum

Located within the premises of the Bharatpur Palace is Kamra Khas, a museum that contains a vast number of antiques, over 581 stone sculptures, 861 local art and craft wares and ancient scriptures that depict the art and culture typical of Bharatpur. The palace itself was built in stages by various Maharajas and is a fine fusion of Mughal and Rajput architecture. The various apartments in the palace have a variety of richly patterned floor tiles decorated with exquisite designs.

Mandalgarh Fort, Bhilwara

Mandalgarh Fort Bhilwara is believed to have been built by Rana Kumbha and is the 3rd fort of Mewar region, the other two being Chittorgarh and Kumbhalgarh. However, According to Veer Vinod, the fort had been constructed by Mandiya Bhil and Chanana Gurjar. The fort is located on a part of Aravali hill range along confluence of Banas, Berach & Menali.

Badnore Fort, Bhilwara

Badnore Fort is situated at Asind road and distance is 70 km from Bhilwara.

Junagarh Fort, Bikaner

Junagarh Fort was constructed in the year 1588 A.D by Raja Rai Singh, one of Emperor Akbar’s most distinguished generals.. It is believed that crocodiles were bred in the water moat surrounding the formidable fort. The construction is a fine blend of Mughal, Gujarati and Rajput style of architecture. The picturesque courtyards beautify the fort.  The fort complex houses some magnificent palaces constructed in red sandstone and marble like Anup Mahal, Chandra Mahal, Hawa Mahal, Dungar Mahal, Diwan-e-Khas and Ganga Mahal.

The fort also houses a Prachina Museum which contains royal costumes, textiles and accessories of Rajasthani royalty.

Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner

Lalgarh Palace was built by Maharaja Ganga Singh in the year 1902 in memory of his father Maharaja Lal Singh Ji. The red sandstone construction is a fine blend of Mughal, Rajput and European architectures styles. The design was conceptualised by Sir Swinton Jacob.

The first floor of the Palace houses Sadul Singh Museum. The lives and the passions of the three successive kings of Bikaner are reflected in the art museum. The rare artifacts, Georgian paintings, and the photographs seen here stand proof of the interests and the heroics of the three kings namely Maharaja Ganga Singh, Sadul Singh and Karni Singh.

Gajner Palace, Bikaner

The Gajner Palace was founded by Maharaja Gaj Singh ji of Bikaner in the year 1784, and then completed by the great Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner on the banks of the lake. The palace

served as retreat after hunting for the royal family. The red sandstone construction is a glowing example of stunning architecture. The palace is situated in the thick of forest and you could view migratory birds flock in great numbers.

Taragarh Fort, Bundi

Taragarh Fort was constructed by Rao raja Bair Singh in 1354 on a hilltop 1426 feet high. In the centre of the fort is located Bhim Bhurj on which was once mounted a particularly large cannon called Garbh Gunjam, or ‘Thunder from the Womb’. With its curved roofs topping pavilions, excess of temple columns and elephant and lotus motifs, the palace is a tribute to Rajput style. The fort includes Hazari Darwaza, Haathi Pol, Nau Dhaan, Ratan Daulat-khanna, Darikhana, Ratan Niawas, Chatra Mahal and Badal Mahal & Moti Mahal.

Sukh Mahal, Bundi

Sukh Mahal, a small, two-storied palace was a summer retreat of past rulers.  Located on banks

of Jait Sagar Lake, the palace was constructed by Rao raja Vishnu Singh in 1773 A.D. Today, it is quite famous for being the place where Kipling wrote ‘Kim’. Many credit the palace as a having played muse to the renowned novel. In fact, part of a movie based on the novel was even shot here.

Chittorgarh Fort

Chittorgarh Fort is the largest fort in Asia. The Fort of Chittorgarh is strategically located on the top of a high hilly outcrop of the Aravallis about 180 m above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River.  The fort also contains Gaumukh Reservoir, which a deep tank is fed by a spring. The spring emerges from a rock formation resembling a Gaumukh or ‘cow’s mouth’. The tank is considered sacred by the locals.

Padmini’s Palace, Chittorgarh

The Padmini palace is Amazing place to visit in Chittorgarh. It was the residence of Rani Padmini who was known for her gorgeous beauty. The palace is a popular tourist attraction because of its rich architecture and association with the Rajput heritage and history. There is a lotus pond near this palace.Ala-ud-din saw the reflection of Queen Padmini in this pool. He was so captivated and entranced by her that he fought a furious battle with Maharana Ratan Singh (husband of Maharani Padmini). This battle changed the history of Chittorgarh.

Rana Kumbha Palace, Chittorgarh

Rana Kumbha palace is 15th century palace where Rana Kumbha lived and spent his royal life. This historic monument is very popular among tourists due to its charming and artistic architecture. The founder of Udaipur, Maharana Udai Singh was born in this same palace. Rana Kumbha palace has the cellar where brave Rani Padmini performed an act of Jauhar along with other women during an attack of Khilji.

Bhainsrorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh

Bhainsrorgarh is an impregnable fort, inhabited from at least the 2nd century BC. It is dramatically positioned between two rivers, the Chambal and Bamani. It had passed through the hands of several clans before becoming the seat of a premier noble of Mewar, the large region around Udaipur and Princely State of the Sisodia clan. It contains five tanks, temples to Devi Bhim Chauri, Shiva, and Ganesh. The present fort is around 260 years old and was built in the 1740s.

Churu Fort

Churu Fort was constructed by Thakur Kushal Singh in 1649 A.D.  In 1814, Surat Singh of Bikaner attacked this fort and after ammunition was exhausted, Thakur Shiv Singh fired Cannon balls made of silver in defense of fort. Shiv Singh also constructed Gopinath temple inside the fort.

Dausa Fort

Dausa Fort was constructed on Devgiri Hill, probably first by Bargujars and subsequently by Kachhawaha when they made Dausa as their first capital.

Madhorajpura Fort, Dausa

Sawai Madho Singh-I after defeating Marathas, established the township of Madhorajpura and constructed the fort. According to historians, this fort was used as the headquarters by the Swathi, during the fight between Marathas and Swathi Pratap Singh.

Khawaraoji, Dausa

Khawaraoji is famous for residence of the then ruler Raoji and natural beauty. It is situated at about 25 Kms from the district headquarter towards Sikrai. Though, it has typical way to reach this place, the fort like residence is converted into the Khawaraoji Heritage Hotel. Surrounded by hills at the three sides, and having Amol Ghati nearby with natural beauty, this place has worth to visit by tourists.

Shergarh Fort, Dholpur

Located on Banks of river Chambal, Shergarh fort is, said to be first constructed by Raja Maldev during Kushan Period. In 1540, Shershah reconstructed the fort and named it Shergarh.

Juna Mahal, Dungarpur

Juna Mahal (Old Palace) is a 13th century, seven-storeyed edifice. It is built on a high platform constructed from Pareva stone and its rugged exterior gives it a resemblance of a citadel. It has been elaborately planned with fortified walls, watchtowers, narrow doorways and corridors to delay the enemy for as long as possible. What lies inside is a complete contrast to the exterior. Visitors will be spellbound by the beautiful murals, miniature paintings and delicate glass and mirror work that adorn the interiors.

Udai Bilas Palace, Dungarpur

The Udai Bilas Palace has been named after Maharawal Udai Singh II. Its striking design follows classic Rajput architectural style and boasts of detailed designs in its balconies, arches and windows. A beautiful wing built of the local bluish grey stone called Pareva overlooks the lake. The palace is segregated into Raniwas, Udai Bilas and Krishna Prakash, also known as Ek Thambiya Mahal. The Ek Thambiya Mahal is a veritable marvel of Rajput architecture featuring intricate sculptured pillars and panels, ornate balconies, balustrades, bracketed windows, arches and frieze of marble carvings. Today, Udai Bilas Palace functions as a heritage hotel.

Badal Mahal, Dungarpur

The Badal Mahal, built using Pareva stone, is another splendid palace of

Dungarpur. Located on the banks of Gaib Sagar Lake, it is renowned for its

Elaborate design and a fusion of the architectural styles of the Rajputs and

The Mughals, The monument comprises two stages, three domes and a

Veranda and Each dome sports a carved half ripe lotus while the largest dome sports three.

Bhatner Fort, Hanumangarh

The Bhatner Fort, otherwise known as the Hanumangarh Fort, is located on somewhat elevated land with gigantic barricades along the banks of the River Ghaggar in the centre of Hanumangarh. In 295 AD, Bhupat, son of Jailsamer’s King Bhatti built this strong fort. Since then, rulers like Timur, Ghaznavid, Prithviraj Chauhan, Akbar, Qutub-ud-din-Aibak and Rathores had captured this fort. The strength of this fort has been mentioned in the autobiography written by Timur called “Tuzuk- e- Timuri.” Even Mughal Emperor Akbar described this fortification in his book “Ain- I- Akbari”.

It has many towering gates surrounding the fort and many big rounded bastions that stand at intervals. There are three statues, which bear inscriptions, and an ancient building called “Jain Pasara” is situated inside the fort. There is also a tomb inside this fort, where Sher Khan is kept. Sher Khan was the nephew of Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din-Balban (1266 – 1290) as well as the Governor of the Fort.

Amber Fort, Jaipur

Amer Fort is the complex of palaces, halls, pavilions, gardens and temples, which were built by Raja Man Singh, Mirza Raja Jai Singh and Sawai Jai Singh over a period of about two centuries. It is made of red sandstone and white marble and incorporates both Rajput and Mughal architecture.

The palace complex rises from the placid waters of the Mootha lake, which contains Mohan Bari or Kesar Kyari in the center.

Jaipur City Palace, Jaipur

Jaipur City Palace was built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur. The palace is a beautiful blend of Mughal and Rajput styles of architecture. The previous royal family continues to reside in one section of the palace. Located within the walls of the City Palace, Chandra Mahal is a seven-storeyed tower. However, the ground and first floors have now been given over for the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum.

Hawa Mahal, Jaipur

The Palace of Wind or Hawa Mahal was constructed in 1799 by the poet-king Sawai Pratap Singh. The five-storied structure is made of pink sandstone and has 356 intricately carved jharaokha (windows). It was designed for the women of the royal family to sit in privacy while observing life on the street.

Nahargarh Fort, Jaipur

The northern frontier of Jaipur is fortified by Nahargarh Fort. Situated on a rough crest of the Aravalli range, the fort, which literally means ‘abode of the tigers’, was built in 1734 by Jai Singh to further defend Amber. Later, in 1868, the fort was extended to its present size. Much of the original structures are now in ruins, but the lovely building added by sawai Ram Singh II and Sawai Madho Singh II still survive.

Jaigarh Fort, Jaipur

It is one of the few military structures of the medieval India preserved almost intact containing palaces, gardens, open and covered reservoirs, a granary, an armoury, a well-planned cannon foundry, several temples, a tall tower and a giant mounted cannon-the Jai Ban – the largest in the country. Jaigarh Fort was built by Sawai Jai Singh II sometime in the early 18th century amidst the arid, rocky and thorn-scrub covered hills.

Jal Mahal, Jaipur

Jal Mahal is a tiny palace located in the middle of small Man Sagar Lake.

Jaisalmer Fort

Also called as Golden Fort or “Sonar Kila”, it is a world heritage site. It was built in 1156 AD by Rawal Jaisal and stands on Trikuta Hill (the triple peaked hill) among an undulating sea of sand. The fort is built in Sandstone, protected by high walls, approachable through four successive gates, the Akhaiy Pol, the Ganesh Pol, the Suraj Pol and the Hawa Pol.

Jalore Fort

Jalore Fort is one of the nine castles of the Maru’, under the Paramaras in the 10th century, It has been known through history as the Sonagiri or the ‘golden mount’. The precise year of its construction is not known however it is believed to be built between the 8th and 10th centuries. Jalore fort is located atop a steep and perpendicular hill 336m high, fortified with a wall and bastions with cannon mounted upon them. The fort has four gigantic gates and is approachable only from one side, after a two-mile long serpentine ascent.

Gagron Fort, Jhalawar

Gagron Fort is an example of ‘Jal Durg’, or Water Fort surrounded by waters of Ahu, Kali and Sindh rivers on three sides. It is included in the list of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The foundation of this impregnable, magnificent fort was laid in the 7th century. Outside the fort is a Dargah of Sufi Saint Mitheshah, where a fair is held every year during the Islamic month of Moharram. Nearby is a monastery of Saint Pipa, a contemporary of Saint Kabir.

Jhalawar Fort

Situated in the centre of the town, the Jhalawar fort or Garh Palace was built by Maharaj Rana Madan Singh and his successors added beautiful paintings inside the rooms. The Zenana Khas or the ‘Women’s Palace’ has some excellent frescoes on both, walls and mirrors and they are prime examples of the Hadoti school of art.

Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur

Situated on a steep hill, Mehrangarh fort is one of the largest forts in India. The beauty and the grandeur of numerous palaces in the fort narrate a saga of hard sandstones yielding to the chisels of skilled Jodhpuri sculptures. The fort is known for its exquisite latticed windows, carved panels, intricately decorated windows and walls of Moti Mahal, Phool Mahal and Sheesha Mahal.

Moti Mahal, Jodhpur

Moti Mahal, as the name suggests, is the Pearl Hall where the royal families held their audience. The hall is known to have glass windows and five nooks that enabled the queens to listen to the proceedings taking place in the Srinagar Chowki, The Royal Throne of Jodhpur.

Phool Mahal, Jodhpur

Going by the name, the Phool Mahal or Flower Hall is the most exorbitant of all the halls in the palace. This beautiful chamber is said to be the pleasure dome for the Maharajas. The gold used for constructing the Mahal came from Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Khejarala Fort, Jodhpur

Located 85 kilometres from the main city, the 400-year old Khejarala Fort is situated in a rural setting. The stunning red sandstone monument, now a hotel, is an example of Rajput architecture. Visitors will be mesmerized by the fort’s picturesque settings, latticework friezes and intricate Jharoka.

Ummaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur

Umaid Bhawan Palace was built by Maharaja Umaid Singh in 1929 to counter a famine which had hit the state at the time. It was also known as the Chittar Palace while being constructed thanks to the use of stones drawn from the Chittar hill. The palace was designed by HV Lanchester, a renowned British architect, and was completed in 16 years. Built with sandstone and marble, the architecture of the palace is described as a blend of lndo-Saracenic, Classical Revival and Western Art Deco styles. It is recognised as one of the largest private homes in the world and also one of the more spectacular buildings. It is the only palace built in the 20th century.

Sardar Samand Palace, Jodhpur

Built on the banks of the Sardar Samand Lake by Maharaja Umaid Singh in 1933, the Sardar Samand Lake Palace is a spectacular hunting lodge. It remains the royal family’s favorites retreat and houses a vast collection of African trophies and original water colour paintings.

Fort of Timangarh, Karauli

Timangarh fort is situated in Masalpur village. According to prevailing believes in Samvat (Hindu calendar) 1244 Yaduvanshi ruler Timanpal constructed this Fort. On all four side of this fort, there exists unique sample of 5 feet wide and 30 feet high battledore architecture. It seems as a complete city is enclosed within fort. Market inside fort wall, flooring, garden, temples and remains of well are still available.

Unt Giri Fort, Karauli

This fort was established during 15th Century in Kalyanpura village on a tunnel shaped high mountain range. The fort is spread over 4 Km of area, and has a 100 feet high waterfall which directly drop water over a Shivalinga. Till last Mughal Empire, this fort remained in ownership of Yaduvanshi.

Dev Giri Fort, Karauli

The Fort is located on east of Unt Giri on bank of Chambal River. In year 1506-07 attack of Sikander Lodhi caused major damage to this fort. In present it has one Bavdi, ransacked stone scriptures and few remains of palace are available.

Mandrayal Fort, Karauli

In south of Karauli, on the bank of Chambal River and between the mountain ranges, Mandrayal fort made of red stone is situated on a small hill. Due to its location near Gwalior, from the view of a monument it is considered important. The Surya Pol of Fort receives direct sunlight starting from sunrise to sunset. In year 1327 Maharaja Arjun Dev had acquired this fort, which remained under custodianship of Karauli.

Bahadurpur Quila (fort), Karauli

This fort is located on Mundrayal Route, near forest of Sasand Village and deserted environment. ‘Bahadur pura Ka Quila’ stands like an insuppressible warrior is an actual example of inseparable Mughal art. Double storied Narp Gopal Bhawan, Saheliyon Ki Bavdi, Artistic Jharokha, 18 feet long girder of common and VIP courts, 5 warriors, Magadh Rai Ki Chatri are worth watching. The fort was constructed by Nagaraj was son of Yaduvanshi King Timanpal, expansion of this fort was done throughout 1566 to 1644. Ruler of Jaipur Sawai Jaising also resided in this fort.

Ramthera Fort, Karauli

The Ramthera fort is situated in Sapotra Subdivision of Karauli district between Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary and Bharatpur Bird Reserve; it is just 15 kilometers away from Kailadevi Sanctuary.

Rawal Palace, Karauli

Established during 13 century Palace (Rawal Palace) made out of Red and White Stone is an example of stone craft. Artistic pictures and carving on huge gate, reticulated vents, artillery, Nahar Kathara, Suri Gurj, Gopal singh Akhada, Bhanwar Bank, Nazar Bagichi, Manik Mahal, Fountain Pond, Gopal Temple, Deewan-e-Aam, Fauj Kachari, Kirkiri Khana, Giyan Bangla, Sheesha Mahal, Moti Mahal, Harvilas, Ranglal, Teda Kuwa, Jannani Dayothi and others along with effective establishment are also part of its culture and traditions.

Jagmandir Palace, Kota

The Jagmandir Palace was built by one of the queens of Kota between 1743 and 1745, and is situated in the middle of the Kishore Sagar Lake. Built in red sandstone, it is a monument of exquisite beauty. The palace is open to tourists who can enjoy boat rides in the Kishore Sagar Lake and the panoramic view of the palace from the lake. The Keshar Bagh, situated near the Jagmandir Palace is well known for its royal cenotaphs.

Garh Palace, Kota

This large complex, also known as the City Palace, is built in a predominantly Rajput style of architecture. The palace is a sprawling complex of suites and apartments built by different rulers of the Rajput dynasty at different times in history.

Situated within the walls of the Garh palace is Maharao Madho Singh Museum which houses a splendid collection of Rajput miniature paintings of the Kota school. The exquisite sculptures, frescoes and murals present a breathtaking view.

Nagaur Fort

It is said that Nagaur fort was initially built by ruler of Nag dynasty in 2nd century and was then rebuilt in the early 12th century. This fort has witnessed several battles and has also been altered multiple times. Being one of the first Mughal strongholds in North-India it is an outstanding example of Rajput-Mughal architecture.

Khimsar Fort, Nagaur

It is said that the Nagaur fort was initially built by the ruler of the Nag dynasty in 2nd century, and this 500 year old fort, located on the eastern edge of the Thar Desert was built in about 1523. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb used to stay at this fort. Black deer roam in herds around this fort.

Kuchaman Fort, Nagaur

Kuchaman Fort is the oldest & most inaccessible forts of Rajasthan. Situated on top of a straight hill, it possesses unique water harvesting system, a beautiful palace and stunning wall paintings. The rulers of Jodhpur used to mint their gold and silver currency here.

Devgarh, Pratapgarh

Devgarh is located in Pratapgarh sub-division on a small hill. It is also known as “Devliya”. This palace is surrounded by small hills and situated at average elevation of 1809 feet from sea level. Rajmahal, old Bawadia, Jain temples are located in Devgarh. A famous temple of “Beej mata” is also situated here, where a fair takes place every year.

A temple of lord Raghunath is placed in Rajmahal itself, where a solar clock is placed on the top of it. The clock tells time according to the light of sun. The Palace and its vicinity also contain some ponds including Tej sagar and Sonela.

Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajsamand

The Kumbhalgarh Fort was built by Rana Kumbha between A.D. 1443 and 1458 on the site of a still older castle which tradition ascribes to Samprati, a Jaina prince of the second century B.C. It is the second most important fort of Mewar after Chittaurgarh. It is defended by a series of walls with battlements and bastions built on the slope of the

hill which is reached through seven great gateways viz. Aret Pol, Halla Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ram Pol, Nimboo Pol, Bhairon Pol. Among important temples are those of Mahadeva, Pitaliya Dev, Neelkantha, etc. Bawan Devri and Golerao temples (nine in numbers) are Jaina temples. The most important building, though of later period, is the Badal Mahal or Cloud Palace.

Ranthambore Fort, Sawai Madhopur

Ranthambore Fort was built by the Chauhan rulers in the 10th century. It has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the group Hill Forts of Rajasthan. The fort is characterized by temples, tanks, massive gates and huge walls. The fort is well protected by a massive fortification wall provided with stepped and Z-shaped gateway with two strong and massive doors. An architectural marvel, the fort includes the Hammir Badi Kachahari, Chhoti Kachahari, Battis Khambha Chhatri, Hamir Palace, Rani Palace, Toran Dwar, Mahadeo Chhatri and Sametonki Haveli within its premises. Among temples, the Ganesa temple is important besides a few Jain temples.

Khandhar Fort, Sawai Madhopur

The imposing Khandar Fort is a place worth visiting and is situated just 45 kms from Sawai Madhopur. Located on top of a strategic vertical hill, could never come under an easy attack and thus was truly regarded as invincible. This magnificent fortification was long ruled by the Sisodia Kings of Mewar after which it was taken over by the Mughals.

Laxmangarh Fort, Sikar

Laxmangarh town is a popular tourist place that is known for the Laxmangarh Fort. The fort was built on the hill in 1862 by Laxman Singh, Rao Raja of Sikar. It is believed that the foundation of the Laxmangarh town was based on the planning system of the capital city Jaipur.

Anupgarh Fort, Sri Ganganagar

Anupgarh Fort is a ruin in the city of Anupgarh. It was built by Anoop Singh Rathore.

Udaipur City Palace

City Palace, Udaipur, was built over a period of nearly 400 years, withcontributions from several rulers of the Mewar dynasty. Construction began in 1553, started by Maharana Udai Singh II of the Sisodia Rajput family as he shifted his capital from the erstwhile Chittor to the new found city of Udaipur.

Lake Palace, Udaipur

Now a hotel, The Lake Palace was originally called Jag Niwas Palace and served as a summer palace. Built between 1743 and 1746 on the island near Jagmandir Palace in Lake Pichhola, the palace, which faces east, is a wondrous sight to behold. The walls made of black and white marbles are adorned by semi-precious stones and ornamented niches. Gardens, fountains, pillared terraces and columns line its courtyards.

Jag Mandir, Udaipur

Jag Mandir is a palace built on an island on the Lake Pichhola. Also called the ‘Lake Garden Palace’, the construction for this began in 1551 and was completed around 1652. The royal family used the palace as its summer resort and for hosting parties. Interestingly, Prince Kurram – later Emperor Shah Jahan – was given shelter here when he rebelled against his father Emperor Jahangir. The palace had such an impact on Emperor Shah Jahan that it went on to become the inspiration for one of the most magnificent Wonders of the World, the Taj Mahal.

Monsoon Palace (Sajjangarh), Udaipur

This 19th century palace is built by Maharana Sajjan Singh on top of Bansdara Mountain. Built with white marble, the palace offers a panoramic view of the city’s lakes, palaces and surrounding countryside.

Lok Devta & Devis of Rajasthan

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Lok Devta & Devis of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has a strong tradition of venerating righteous warriors as deities. Legends and anecdotes relate folk deities with supernatural power impressing & evoking faith and beliefs of people in these local deities. This post is an attempt to consolidate information of such folk deities (Lok Devtas and Devis) into single piece.

Panchpir: Of the numerous lok devtas and devis, the five greatest are worshipped throughout theRajasthan, these are – Goga Ji, Ramdevji, Pabuji, Mehaji and Harbuji. (Note: Vir Tejaji is not part of this).

Goga Ji

Birth 1003 A.D. at Dadrewa in the Churu district of Rajasthan
Legend Protects from Snakes bites (Jaharpeer) Saint Gogaji fought with Mahmood Gajnavi for protection Of cows.
Died (Samadhi) Gogamedi in Hanumangarh District
Worship Main Temple: Gogamedi, built by King Ganga Singh. The villages in Rajasthan has a Than dedicated to him, Than is always under Khejri tree.
Fairs Organised every year at Gogamedi from 9th day of dark-half (Krishna Paksh) of Bhadra month to eleventh of the month.
Phad Musical Instruments – Damru & Madal Farmers tie 9 Knot – Goga Rakhadi – to their plough for good harvest.
 
Other Facts
Goga Ji identification – Blue Horse, Spear and Snake

Teja Ji

Birth 1074 A.D. at Khadnaal in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
Day was Magh Shukla Chaturdashi
Legend Also Known as Snake Diety. Tejaji sacrificed life while recovering cows of Lachha Gujri from cluthes of meenas. Kala & Bala – benefactor in agricultural activities.
Worship Tejaji’s major Than are located at Sursura, Beawar, Saindaria & Bhanwata in Ajmer district. Saindaria – Main place – as this is supposed to be place he was bitten by snake.
Fairs Parbatsar, Nagaur cattle fair is organized from Bhadra Shukla Dashmi to Poornima.
Other Facts Tejaji Ji identifications – Horse-back, with Sword and Snake

Pabu Ji

Birth 1239 A.D. at Kolu Village, Phalodi in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend Associated with Rathore family of Marwar. Snake Diety. Tejaji sacrificed life while recovering cows of Lachha Gujri from cluthes of meenas. Kala & Bala – benefactor in agricultural activities.
Worship Tejaji’s major than are located at Sursura, Beawar, Saindaria & Bhanwata in Ajmer district. Saindaria – Main place – as this is supposed to be place he was bitten by snake.
Fairs Parbatsar, Nagaur cattle fair is organized from Bhadra Shukla Dashmi to Poornima.
Other Facts Tejaji Ji identifications – Horse-back, with Sword and Snake

Ramdev Ji

Birth Undookasmer Village, Shiv Tehsil in the Barmer district of Rajasthan.
Legend After giving away Pokhran in dowry for his niece Ramdev Ji made Runicha (Ramdevra) his new residence.
Died (Samadhi) Runicha, Jaisalmer
Worship Temples located at Runicha (Jaisalmer), Barathia (Ajmer) and Suratkheda (Chittorgarh). Ramdevji started Kamadia Panth. As symbol, his pagaliya (Foot prints) are worshipped.
Fairs Runicha (Jaisalmer) – Bhadrapada Shukla Dwitya to Ekadashi.
Other Facts Terah Taali dance is presented by kamadias. Ramdev ji composed – Chaubis Vaniya.

Dev Narayan Ji

Birth 1233 A.D. at Kolu Village, Phalodi in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend The brave warrior and his Sadhak are considered incarnation of lord Vishnu.
Worship Devmali near Asind (Bhilwara), Devdham Jodhpuria (Tonk).
Leaves of Neem are essential for worship.
Fairs Fairs are held at Ajmer, Bhilwara and Tonk & Chittaurgarh on Bhadrapad Shukla Shasthi & Saptami.
Other Facts Leeelagar is name of his horse.

Veer Kalla Ji

Birth Vikram Samvat 1601, Merta in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend Kallaji is famous as “Lok Devta with four hands”
Worship Ranela is sacred peeth. Temples are located at Bhauraigarh, Mahiyadham varda, Salumbar, Samalia, Gatroad.

Baba Tallinath

Birth Shergarh, Jodhpur
Legend Also known as Nature loving Lok Devta, Held at high esteem in Jalore district. When a person is bitten by poisonous creature, taken to baba’s place & thread is tied.
Worship Panchmukhi hill of Panchota Village (Nagaur District)

Hadbu Ji Sankhla (Harbunji)

Birth Bhudole in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan. (Contemporary of Rao Jodha)
Legend One of Panch Peers (Goga ji, Ramdevi ji, Pabu ji, Hadbu Ji, Manglia Meha ji) of Marwar. Well versed in Shakun Shastra. He was the Cousin of Baba Ramdev.
Worship Main Temple: Baingti Village, Phalodi, Jodhpur In the temple, Sankhla Rajput act as priests and worship Harbhuji ki gaadi.
Fairs Parbatsar, Nagaur cattle fair is organized from Bhadra Shukla Dashmi to Poornima.
Other Facts Tejaji Ji identifications – Horse-back, with Sword and Snake

Meha Ji Manglia

Birth Bapni Village, Jodhpur
Legend Manglias are main worshippers.
Worship Main Temple: Bapni Village, Jodhpur
Fairs Bapni village – Bhadrapada Krishna Ashtami

Mallinath Ji

Birth 1358 A.D. at Kolu Village, Phalodi in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend Defeated army of Subedar Nizamuddin of Malwa in 1378 AD.
Worship Main Temple Located in Tilwara, Barmer
Fairs Tilwara, Barmer – Chaitra Krishna Ekadashi to Chaitra Shukla Ekadashi. Tharparkar Cow is traded most in his fair.
Other Facts Malani pargani in Barmer is named after him.

Other Lok Devta’s of Rajasthan

Bhomiaji Worshipped in villages as a protector of land.
Mamadev Lok Devta of rain
Eloji Lok Devta of Love (Cupid).
Fatta ji Waged war with robbers in Santhu village in Jalore District. Fair – every year on Bhadon Sudi Navami.
Dev Baba Protector & savior of Gurjars. Temple: Nagla Jahag village of Bharatpur District.
Panraj Ji Born – Naga Village, Jaisalmer Two fairs every year at panrajsar, Jaisalmer.

Lok Devis of Rajasthan (Folk Godesses)

Like Lok Devta, Lok Devis are also worshipped in Rajasthan with equal devotion. In Rajasthan, several communities like Rajputs worship their particular goddess as kuldevi, some communities worship tree as kuldevi.

Kaila Devi Tutelary (Kuldevi) of Karauli’s royal family, worshipped as form of durga. Lakkhi fair – Chaitra Shukla Ashtami – on Trikut hill at Kaila Devi.
Shila Devi After victory over East Bengal, Maharaja Man Singh of Amer installed Shila Devi in Amer in 16th Century.
Karni Mata Temple: Deshnok, Bikaner Goddess of Rats, white rats in temple are called as kaba. Kuldevi of Rathore Clan Charan community also considers her as their Kuldevi.
Jeen Mata Temple: Rewasa Village, Sikar According to inscription found in Harsh Mountain – Temple of Jeen Mata was built during period of Prthviraj Chouchan I. Jeen Mata is considered Kuldevi of Chouchans.
Sakrai Mata Main Temple – udaipurwati, Jhunjhunu. Kuldevi of Khandelwals. She is also called as Shakambhari Devi & temple of Shakambhari devi is located at Sambhar & Saharanpur of UP.
Jal Devi Temple: Bavadi, Tonk District.
Rani Sati Marble temple in Jhunjhunu.
Sheetla Mata She protects children from Chicken Pox. Donkey is her vehicle & Kumhar (Potter) is her Pujari. Main Temple: Sheel ki Dungari, Chaksu, Jaipur Also known as Sedhal mata.
Mahamaya (mahamai) Worshipped as protector of children. Pregnant women worship Mahamaya of Mavli (Udaipur) for safe delivery & well being of their children.
Aai Mata Sirvi Community of Kshatriyas considers her as their Kuldevi. Temple: Bilada
Narayani Mata Temple: Barva Doongri, Rajgarh, Alwar Barbers consider Narayani Mata as their kuldevi.
Ashapura Mata Considered incarnation of Hinglaj mata Kuldevi of Chauhan dynasty. Shakambhari in Sambhar, Chamunda in Ajaymeru Merwara, Asapura in Nadole are famous temples

Bhakti saint of Rajasthan

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Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

Bhakti movement in Rajasthan: Bhakti movement in Medieval India is responsible for the many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of Indian subcontinent. Main Bhakti movement originated in ancient Tamilnadu in 12th Century, Nayanmars and Alvars played major role in Bhakti movement. It began to spread to the north during the late medieval ages when north India was under Islamic rule. The main period of Bhakti Movement in Rajasthan is early 16th Century to late 18th Century.  The Islamic rulers were pressing public to convert religion from Hindu to Islam. The Bhakti movement was counter to the prevalent caste ideology which was dividing Hinduism. So, the Bhakti movement has its own importance to save Hinduism. The movement was spontaneous and the mystics had their own versions of devotional expression which play a major role in Rajasthan.

Main Characteristics of Bhakti Movement: One chief characteristic of the Bhakti movement can be mentioned as belief in one God. A devotee could worship God by love and devotion. The second characteristic of the Bhakti movement was that there was no need to worship idols or to perform elaborate rituals for seeking his grace. The third feature on which the Bhakti saints laid stress was the equality of all castes. There was no distinction of high or low as far as the devotion to God was concerned. The fourth feature was the emphasis, which these saints laid on Hindu-Muslim unity. According to these saints all men irrespective of their religion are equal in the eyes of God. The saints preached in the language of the common people like Rajasthani, Khadi and other local language. They did not use Sanskrit, which was the language of the cultured few. These saints laid stress on purity of heart and practice of virtues like truth, honesty, kindness, and charity. Some saints regarded God as formless or Nirguna while others consider him as having different forms or Saguna. Most of Bhakti Movement saint in Rajasthan are of Saguna Bhakta.

The main period of Bhakti Movement in Rajasthan is early 16th Century to late 18th Century.

Important Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan:

  1. Dadu Dayal
  2. Sundar das
  3. Meera Bai
  4. Bhakhan
  5. Wajind
  6. Raghavdas
  7. Lal Das
  8. Charan Das
  9. Mavaji
  10. Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti

1. Dadu Dayal

Dadu Dayal (1544—1603) was a poet-saint from Gujarat, a religious reformator which have said against formalism and priest craft. “Dadu” means brother and “Dayal” means “the compassionate one”.

He was reputedly found by an affluent business man floating on the river Sabarmati. He later moved to Naraina, near Jaipur Rajasthan, where he gathered around himself a group of followers, forming a sect that became known as the Dadupanth.

This organization has continued in Rajasthan to the present-day and has been a major source of early manuscripts containing songs by Dadu and other North Indian saints. Dadu’s compositions in Braj language were recorded by his disciple Rajjab and are known as the Dadu Anubhav Vani, a compilation of 5,000 verses. Another disciple, Janagopal wrote the earliest biography of Dadu.

Dadu alludes to spontaneous (sahaja) bliss in his songs. Much of the imagery used is similar to that used by Kabir, and to that used by earlier Sahajiya Buddhists and Nath yogis. Dadu believed that devotion to God should transcend religious or sectarian affiliation, and that devotees should become non-sectarian or “Nipakh”.

Key Points:

  • Believed to be born in 1544 in Samvat near Ahmedabad, Gujarat
  • In 1568, came to Sambhar & began to give sermons and “Dhunia”
  • Followers of Dadu Dayal made – Dadu Panth.
  • Naraina is the principal seat of Dadu Panthis and here clothes & pothis of Dadu ji are kept.
  • His teachings have been consolidated by his disciples – Dadudayal Ki vani & Dadudayal-Ra-Duha.
  • Contemporary of Rana Pratap & Akbar. In 1575, met Akber and influenced him by his views.
  • Dadu Dayal stressed on faith in God and Guru, knowledge of self, love, morality, futility of casteism, truth and simple life.
  • Community of nomad disciples of Dadu.
  • Cave on Bhairana hill in Naraina, where Dadu Dayal enetered into Samadhi.

Followers of Dadu Dayal can be classified into five types:

1.         Khalsa

2.         Virakta

3.         Sthandhari

4.         Uttaradev

5.         Khaki

2. Sunder Das: Sunderdas (1596–1689) was a noted saint, poet, philosopher and social reformer of medieval India. He was a disciple of Dadu Dayal. Sunderdas was born in 1596 in Dausa in Rajasthan state in India. Sant Sunderdas composed about 48 books. He is revered as the Shankaracharya of Hindi literature, and is popularly known as Sant Kavi Sunderdas.

Key Point:

  • Sunderdas ji established Naga sect.
  • Wrote: Sunder vilas, Sunder Granthavali, Gyan Samudra and Sundersar.
  • He is also known as Shankaracharya of Rajasthan.
  • Died in: 1707 (or in 1689) in Sangner, Jaipur.

Meera Bai: Born in Samvat 1573 at Kudki, Nagaur and was married to Bhojraj, eldest son of Rana Sanga.Her compositions include Teeka Raag Govind, Rukmani mangal, Teeka on Geet-Govind, and Narsi Mehta Ni Mund.Meera Bai established Pasi sect in Brindhavan (UP).Meera was devotee of Krishna and treated him as her husband.

Lal Das: Born in 1540 at Dholidoov village of Mewat on Shravana Krishna Panchami.Opposed superstitions prevailing in society & stressed on devotion & purity.Sermons are available in Laldas ji ki chetavaniyan.Died: At Nagla village of Bharatpur. His Samadhi is at sherpur of Alwar.Major sites are in Alwar, Sherpur & Nagla.

Charan Das

  • He was born in Derha near Alwar in Rajasthan.
  • He was the Author of around twenty works.
  • Many of these are in verse and deal with aspects of devotion, particularly relating to the worship of Krishna.
  • He Wrote commentaries on various Upanishads, particularly the Katha Upanishad, and on specific yoga practices, especially Pranayama, control of the breath.
  • He Belived in harmony between Hinduism & Islam.

Mavaji: He considered incarnation of Vishnu and two disciples of Mavaji, Aji & Vaje built Laxmi Narayn temple at confluence of Som & Mahi Rivers.

Rajjab Ji: He was the disciple of Dadu Dayal ji. He had born in Pathan Patwar, Sanganerand Ancient seat in Sanganer known as Rajjab Dwar. He Authored Rajjab vani, Sarvangi.

Bhakhan: He was born in Narena, Low caste Muslim singer; entertain Dadu with his fascinating songs.

Wajind: Initially, He was a Pathan hunter.When heCame under influence of Dadu and became follower and also known for Created literature for Dadu Panth.

Raghavdas: He was a Dadu Panthi scholarandin 1660 A.D. wrote Bhaktamal.

Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti: He was born in: 1143 in Sanjar, Iran

He became disciple of Khwaja Usman Harooni of Chistiya Order (Silsila). Came to India during reign of Iltutmish and settled in Ajmer in 1233 A.D. His shrine is open to all irrespective of religion, caste or creed and especially for poor and needy; hence he is popularly known as Garib Nawaz. Died in Ajmer, his tomb is popularly known as The Dargah Sharif.

Folk musical instruments of Rajasthan

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Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan

The vast array of Rajasthani folk instruments are made ingeniously from a variety of materials available in Rajasthan that give them peculiar sound. Both percussion instruments and stringed instruments have been used in Rajasthani folk songs. Shells of dried gourds of all shapes and sizes are used for gorse stems or bamboos segments for flutes and baked clay pots for drums. The folk music instruments are classified into following major types:

1. String Music Instruments: Sarangi, Ravanhathha, Kamayacha, Ektara, Morchang.

2. Wind Instruments: Pungi, Satara, Algoza, Murla, Nad and Shehnai

3. Auto phonic Instruments: Ghanti, Ghungroo, Manjeera, Khartal & Jhalar

4. Percussion Instruments: Dhol, Chang, Moisang and Nagara

Tatya Vadya – String Music Instruments of Rajasthan

  • Instruments having strings fall under this category.
  • Sound is produced by the vibration of a string or chord.
  • Vibrations are caused by plucking or by bowing on the string which has been pulled taut.
  • Length of string/wire, degree to which it has been tightened, determines the pitch of the note and also to some extent the duration of the sound.

Sarangi

  • Most well-known string instrument of Rajasthan.
  • Multi-stringed instrument that is played by using a bow drawn across the strings and running of fingers on the strings.
  • Langas of Jaisalmer, Barmer and Jogis of Marwar use Sarangi.

Jantar

  • Jantar resembles Veena in form and has two tumbas.
  • Its Dand is made up of Bamboo with 5-6 wires.
  • This instrument is used by Bhopas of Gurhars when singing story of Bagadawats.

Ravanhathha

  • Ravanhatta is also a kind of sarangi.
  • The Instrument is made from a belly of half coconut shell and has a body of bamboo.
  • It has two main strings(horse hairs) and a variable number of supporting strings
  • The Ravanhathha of the Thori or Nayak Bhopas is probably the earliest instrument played with a bow, and this humble instrument could well be the precursor of the violin.
  • The bow has ghungroos (bells) attached to it.
  • Ravanhathha is main instrument used while reciting Phad of Pabuji.

Kamayacha: Kamachya has three main strings of gut, besides nine supplementary and four sympathetic steel strings all passing through a broad bridge.

The long wooden curved bow of horse-tail hair moving on all the strings is characteristic of this instrument. It is used exclusively by the Manganiyars in the Jaisalmer-Barmer region.

Iktara: Iktara is generally played by Nath, Kalbelia saints and it is a single string instrument, mounted on the belly of a gourd attached to a body made of bamboo.

Versions: The Galaleng Jogis of Dungarpur and Banswara have twin guarded Kendru appears akin to the ancient Kinnari Veena, and it has often been called the Keengri in Rajasthan literature. The Chautara, also called the Tandoora or Nissan, is also a popular five stringed drones and beat instrument used as an accompaniment to devotional music and for the Terahtali dance.

Rawaj: This instrument is similar to Sarangi and it is played by using nails and had 12 strings.It is usually played by Raos and Bhats of Mewar

Bhapang: Bhapang is a single stringed instrument & is also known as ‘talking drum’.

  • Bhapang is mainly played by Jogis of Alwar region.
  • The instrument is made up of tumbas made out of long gourd. The lower part of tumbas is covered by animal skin while upper part is empty.

SUSHIRA VADYA – Wind Music Instruments of Rajasthan

  • Instruments where the air is blown by mouth for music. Sound is produced by blowing air into a hollow column. Pitch of the note is determined by controlling the air passage and the melody is played by using the fingers to open and close the in the instrument.
  • The simplest of these instruments is the flute. Generally flutes are made of bamboo or wood and the Indian musician prefers these due to the tonal and musical attributes of these materials.
  • Excavations of the Indus civilizations have shown bird whistles of clay, and seals which show wind and percussion instruments.

There is reference in the Vedas to an instrument-the Venu which was used as an accompaniment to chanting and recitation. There is also mention of a kind of a flute called the Nadi.

Pungi: Pungi or Poongi is made of gourd or Tumba and Pungi is generally played by Snake charmers (Kalbelia & Jogis.)

Algoza: Algoza is a flute made of Bamboo tube and Algoza are favourite instrument of Bheels & Kalbelia

Satara: Satara is an integrated form of Algoza, Flute and Shehnai and It has two long tubes and has six holes like shehnai.

Shehnai: Shehnai is made out of wood, with a double reed at one end and a metal or wooden flared bell at the other end.It usually has between six and nine holes.By controlling the breath, various tunes can be played on it.

GHANA VADYA – Auto phonic Music Instruments of Rajasthan

Earliest instruments invented by man are said to be the Ghana Vadya. Once constructed, this variety of instrument does not need special tuning prior to playing.

These are principally rhythmic in function and are best suited as accompaniment to folk and tribal music and dance. Instruments made of metal.

Manjeera: It is round in shape and made of brass & bronze mixed together.The shape of hemispherical metal cups struck against each other. They have different kinds likejhanit and the taala.Manjeera is the main instrument in Terahtali dance.

Khartal: Khartal is made of small cymbals incrustated into wood blocks.

Jhalar: Jhalar is another variety of musical instrument, which is formed by a single metal plate, the Thali.This is struck in various ways producing different kind’s tones and rhythms.

Ghungroo: Ghungroo is one of many small metallic bells strung together to form ghungroos.

AVANADDHA VADYA – Percussion Music Instrument of Rajasthan

A percussion instrument produces a sound by being hit with an object. Sound is produced by striking the animal skin which has been stretched across an earthern or metal pot or a wooden barrel or frame.

The earliest references to such instruments have been found in the Vedas where there is mention of Bhumi Dundhubhi; this was a hollow pit dug in the ground and covered with the hide of a buffalo or ox which was stretched across the pit.

Nagara: The Nagara is a folk drum played with the Surnai and Nafeeri (the two sticks).During ancient times, they were usually played during important ceremonies.The Tasha and Shehnai usually accompany this instrument.

Matkas: The Matkas of Pabuji and the Ghada is a pair of huge earthenware pots, their mouths covered with membrane.One player plays each Matka, and the Bhopas use it to accompany their singing. The whole effect is heightened by the graceful dance of the player.

Folk dramas of Rajasthan

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Folk Dramas of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is a hub of folk art, theatre, music, dance and craft. The tribal culture of Rajasthan has done much to preserve and nurture the folk theatre tradition of Rajasthan. Khayal is the most prominent form of folk theatrical form of Rajasthan. Other important folk theatre includes Swang, Phad, Rammat, Nautanki, Bhawai, Gavari etc.

Khayal

Khayal theatre emerged near about 18th century and remained same in coming 200 years and the subject of Khayal is usually mythological story or an ancient episode. Due to the diversity of culture in Rajasthan, Khayal theatre has different forms in the name of the city, acting style, the community or the author’s name such as:

  • Kuchamani Khayal
  • Shekhawati khayal
  • Jaipuri Khayal
  • Ali Bakshi khayal
  • Turra Kalangi Khayal
  • Kishangarhi Khayal
  • Hathrasi Khayal
  • Nautanki Khayal

Tamasha

  • Tamasha a folk-drama began in Jaipur state during the times of Maharaja Pratap Singh for the first time.
  • The Bhatt family of Jaipur included Jaipuri Khayal and Dhrupad Gayaki (style of singing) in Tamasha Theatre.
  • The dialogues of Tamasha are poetic in nature and predominantly include music dance and singing
  • Tamasha is performed in an open stage called as Akhada.

Rammat

  • This drama originated about 140 years ago in Bikaner region through a folk-poetry competition.
  • The characters playing this musical drama are known as Khelar.
  • A devotional song in praise of Ramdev ji is usually sung before starting Rammat.
  • The main instruments of Ramat are Nagada and Dholak.
  • The songs of this drama are mainly connected with Chaumasa, rainy season, Lavani and Ganapati Vandana.
  • Mani Ram Vyas, Tulsi Ram, Phagh Maharaj, Sua Maharaj etc. were main Rammat – Writers
  • This type of drama is mostly performed in Bikaner, Jaisalmer & Phalodi regions.

Phad

  • Phad is a life-sketch of Some Lok Devta depicted on a cloth.
  • While reciting Phad, Bhopa plays Jantar or Ravanhathha musical instrument.

Swang

  • Swang theatre is considered its origin near about the 15th century A.D
  • The performer of Swang is called Behrupiya.

Gavari

  • Gavari is played as part of festival that continues for 40 days during months of July-August. The hero of Gavari dance is an old man who is supposed to be incarnation of Shiva. Major themes of Gavari are – Devi Ambad, Badshah Ki Sawari and Banjara, Khadaliya Bhoot and fight lion & pig.

Nautanki

Nautanki is performed in the region of Bharatpur, Karauli, Dholpur, Alwar and Gangapur city.

The story plot of the Nautanki is generally based on mythology, historical narrations, folklores, romances and contemporary Socio-Political issues.

Bhawai (Bhavai)

  • Bhavai folk theatre of Rajasthan is very similar to ‘Swang’ folk theatre and considered its origin near about 13-14th century in Apabhramsa Jain religious verses.
  • ‘Abul Fazal’ also mentioned in his book ‘Ain-e-Akbari’ regarding the Bhavai
  • Bagha ji was the father of modern Bhawai in Rajasthan.
  • Bhawai Natak is presented by Bhopa & Bhopi in the form of Saga Ji and Sagi in the areas of Rajasthan adjacent to Gujrat
  • A major play written in Bhawai style is Shanta Gandhi’s – Jasma Oden.

Gandharva: Gandharva are resident of Marwar. Their themes are based on Jain Sect and Anjan Sundari & Maina Sundari is two dramas performed in this style.

Raas Leela: Raas Leela is staged based on stories of Puranas. Leela’s or acts of Krishna are performed and the main character is called Raasdhar.

Folk dances of Rajasthan

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Folk Dances of Rajasthan

Folk dances of Rajasthan trace their origin to rural customs and traditions. These dances form an integral part of people’s lives and are performed on important occasions and festivals. The rise of princely states during medieval times, also added to growth of folk dances, as the rulers gave patronage to art & crafts. Jaipur Gharana is supposedly the first gharana of Kathak dance. Its pioneer was Bhanu ji.

1. Bhavai Folk Dance: Bhavai is one of the traditional folk dances of Rajasthan. This is a very difficult form of dance and can only be performed by skilled artists. This dance basically involves women dancers balancing 8 to 9 pitchers on their heads and dancing simultaneously. This nail biting , suspenseful dance, the well skilled dancers balance a number of earthen pots or brass pitchers and then sway with the soles of their feet perched on the top of a glass and also sometime on the edge of a naked sword or on the rimos a brass Thali (plate) during the performance.

This artistic form of dance is believed to be originated in the neighboring state Gujarat and was soon picked up and adapted by the local tribal men and women and gave it a distinctive Rajasthani essence. This traditional folk dance, performed by the womens of the Jat, Bhil, Raigar, Meena, Kumhar, and Kalbelia communities of Rajasthan evolved from the extraordinary quality and capacity of the these communities to carry a number of pots of water on head over a long distance in the desert.

  • Location: Mostly famous in Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Banswara and Dungarpur
  • Performed By: Skilled male or female dancers
  • Performance during the Occasion of Marriages

Features: Bhavai dance basically involves women dancers balancing 8 to 9 earthen-pots (matki’s) on their heads and dancing simultaneously.

Additionally, dancers also put their feet on the top of a glass pieces or on the

Edge of a naked sword or on the rimos a brass Thali (plate) during the performance.

Famous Persons associated with dance form: Mrs. Krishna Vyas Chhangani, from Jodhpur (Rajasthan).

Chari Folk Dance: Chari Dance is a folk dance in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Chari dance is a female group dance. It is related to Ajmer and Kishangarh. Chari dance is prominent in Gujjar and Saini community of Kishangarh, Ajmer and known all over Rajasthan. The Chari dance is performed at marriage celebrations, on the birth of a male child and at celebrations and festivals of goodness.

  • Location: Most famous in Kishangarh and Ajmer.
  • Performed By: Women from Gujjar Community
  • Performance Occasions: Marriage occasions, on the birth of a male child or any big festival celebration.

Features: This dance describes the art of collecting water in a Chari or pot by the Rajasthani women in their day to day life. These ladies carry brass pots on their heads balancing it to perfection. These pots are kept ignited with the cotton seeds dipped in oil. These lit pots display beautiful effect in the dark night.

Famous Persons associated with this dance form: Falku Bai

Chakri Folk Dance: Chakri dance is believed as same as the Raai dance of ‘Beriyas’ tribe of Madhya Pradesh. Devi Lal Sagar made this dance popular.

  • Location: Hadoti region of Bundi, Kota & Baran District.
  • Performed By: Women of Kanjar tribe
  • Performance Occasions: Marriages & Festivals of Hadoti Region.

Features: As the name suggests, Chakri dance involves a series of fast and vigorous spinning movements with the beats of the Dholak. Famous Persons associated with dance form: Shanti Devi, Phulwa Filma

Drum Folk Dance: Drum dance is very famous dance in Rajasthan. Dancers dress traditional Rajasthani colourful dresses during this dance. Drum dance is a unique dance. Drum dance, which is very well-known dance of Rajasthan, is a professional dance-form of Jhalore region of Rajasthan, where only the men participants can perform. In this dance, five men hit huge drums that are attached around their necks.

A dancer holding a huge drumming instruments in their hands, also go together with the drummers. Some other member holds weapon which is not covered in their mouth to give an additional effect to the performance. The dancer is given a weapon, which he puts in his mouth and three other uncovered weapons are given to handle with his hands while avoiding causing an injury to himself. Drum dance is a very beautiful dance of rajasthan, the men musicians can play big drums and brass plates or Thalis, Women and others can dance in group. The Drum dance becomes very exciting when its Tempo increases and the dancers speed up their movements and their Dance steps.

The Drum dance can be performed mostly at the time of any big festival or any marriages in Rajasthan. There is no restriction for the performance of drum dance but it is generally performed in big occasions like festivals, marriage etc. The Credit for bringing this dance to limelight goes to Jay Narayan Vyas.

  • Most Famous Location is Jalore district in Rajasthan.
  • Performed By: Only Men
  • Performance Occasions: Marriages

Features: In this dance, five men beat huge drums that are tied around their necks and one dancer holding huge cymbals in their hands also accompany the drummers and one dancer holds a naked sword on his mouth and juggle with other three dancers.

Fire Folk Dance: Fire dance, Folk dance of Rajasthan fire dance is one of the unique dances performed in the desert region of Rajasthan. This dance is the marvelous example of the Jasnathis

 of Bikaner and Churu’s lifestyle who are well known for their tantric powers throughout Rajasthan. Fire dance is very tricky and difficult

to enact and is mainly performed by the Banjara community

who are well versed with the art. Some of the

 dance steps involve awe-inspiring fire stunts wherein the performers dance by holding fire

 rods in their hands and filling up their mouths with kerosene.

The performance of fire dance requires dedication and immense practice. The dance takes place on a large ground, which is spread with live wood and charcoal. On this ground, the Jasnathi men and boys jump on to the fire with the accompaniment

of drum beats. These drumbeats give a tempo for the performance. This music gradually rises and sets a dance in a fast tempo. At a certain point, it reaches at a crescendo, where the dancers seem to be in a trance like state. The dancers perform their actions as if they are blessed with a divine protection. The performance on a large bed of flaming coals is considered as a specialty of this region.

Some of the traditional folk dance of Rajasthan by the Banjara Community is also called the same. But this dance is completely different from the above-mentioned performance. Here, the dance is performed around the Fire. The person dancing usually takes two flamed sticks in his hands and fills up his mouth with kerosene oil. With the accompaniment of some dancing steps, he throws the oil over the lamps.

Location & Performed By: Jasnathis of Bikaner and Churu districts of Rajasthan.

Performance Occasions: On the festive occasions like Holi, Janmashtami etc.

Features: Jasnathi men and boys jump on to the fire with the accompaniment of drum beats. The dance involves breathtaking fire stunts wherein the dancers perform by holding fire rods in their hands and filling up their mouths with kerosene. The fire rods are also moved on their heads and legs by the dancers and the dancers move on top of flaming bed of charcoal.

Gair Folk Dance: Gair dance is one of the popular folk dances practiced in the Rajasthan state. It is one of the many dance forms of the Bhil community of state. It is mainly performed by the community at the festival of Holi. Colourful costumes, traditional instruments and captivating dance steps are the highlight of this dance. This folk dance is performed by both male and female. However, several differences can be observed in the performance of men and women in this dance. Usually, the dancers dance in a big circle with wood stick in their hands. The dancers move in and out a big circle and beat their sticks to create the rhythm when they turn. They move first in clockwise then in anti-clockwise direction. According to rhythm, they perform various steps and take turns in-between.

Sometimes, it is performed exclusively by men folk. At that time, a series of half-swirls make up a simpler version of the dance. Depending on the dancer’s ability and proficiency, it is danced with a series of intricate pattern steps. The striking of the sticks gives the dance a vigorous character and a consistent tempo.

The musical instruments that accompany this folk dance comprise of dhol, nagada, and dholak. The melodious song and enchanting background music encourages one to dance with the beat.

Location: Performed in Mewar region.

However, its variations like the Dandi Gair is found in the Marwar region and Geendad is

 found in the Sehkhawati region

Performed By: Both men and women dance together of Bhil tribe

Performance during the Occasion of: Holi

Features: The Gair dance is performed by both

Men and Womenfolk holding wooden sticks. It is group dance consisting of two circles where

groups of dancers moving in and out a big circle. According to rhythm, they perform various steps, striking their sticks & take turns in-between.

Gawri Folk Dance: Gawari dance of Rajasthan

 is a tribal dance of the famous Bhil tribe. They move from places to places to perform this dance which is a type of a dramatically dance. Among

the main characters of Gawari dance are Rai

Buriya Shiva, his two ‘Rais’, and ‘Katkuriya’,

 the comic handyman. Between the enactments

of various episodes, the entire troupe dances around a central spot consecrated to a deity.

Location: Udaipur, Rajsamand and Chittorgarh districts of Rajasthan

Performed By: Gawri is a dance drama of Bhil Tribe

Performance Occasions: After the monsoons,

 in the months of September and October

Features: This tribal dance has a troupe which travels through village to village with their dance for a month. Gawari expresses the devotion and faith to Lord Shiva and his wife Parvati through Folk Dance, Music and Folklores. It also

Symbolizes human love for forests, animals and people. Women do not take part in Gavri and all the female roles are played by men.

Ghoomar Folk Dance: Often performed exclusively for ladies gathering, Ghoomar is particularly a women’s dance. It was initially developed by the Bhil tribal community of Rajasthan but later adopted by various others as well. Known for its enthusiastic and traditional touch; Ghoomar has not only build its name in India but also has gained international recognition and applaud.

This spectacular folk dance has derived its name from ‘ghoomna’ which means circling. Fascination starts when colors of the flowing ‘Ghaghara’ (the long skirts) of the women dancers start to flow. Filled with oodles of grace, the skirt flair sways while the women twirl in circles, their faces covered with a veil.

Location: Across Rajasthan

Performed By: Originally by Bhil Community, adopted by different communities including Rajputs (Women)

Performance Occasions: Rajput Marriages

Features: Ghoomar is a very simple dance where the dancers move gently and gracefully in circles. Dancing includes pirouetting, which displays the spectacular colors of the flowing ‘Ghaghara’, the long skirt of the Rajasthani women.

Kachi Ghodi Folk Dance: The centuries of history that is behind Rajasthan has resulted, among other things, in the gathering of a very rich folk culture. The Kachhi Ghodi dance is one of the most popular Folk Dances in Rajasthan.

The Kachhi Ghodi Dance in Rajasthan India is performed on dummy horses. This dance is always performed by men. Men in elaborate costumes- red turbans and dhotis and kurtas ride the well decorated dummy horses. With uncovered weapons in their hands, these dancers move musically to the beating of drums and fifes while a singer narrates the exploits of the Bavaria bandits of Shekhawati.

The dance begins from the bandit regions of Shekhawati, and this dance is performed for the leisure of the bridegroom’s party. Dancers elaborate costumes that look like them riding on dummy horse. It’s a kind of dynamic dance; it uses mock fights and the show of swords, nimble sidestepping and pirouetting to the music of fifes and drums. A narrative singer usually sings the achievements of the bandit Robin protectors of Rajasthan.

The performing arts of Rajasthan generally hail from the tribes of Rajasthan and show the socio historical scenario that was strange to the time or race they represent. Horses have always been a very vital part of war and transportation in Rajasthan. The legend (story of past) of the Brave Rana Pratap Singh goes untold without the mention of his loyal vehicle- Chetek. Horses, as much as they were the symbol of royal power, were also used by the bandits and highwaymen who found it easy to stop people traveling on elephants of bullock carts with their horses.

Kacchi Ghodi dance of Rajasthan is performed on the bridegroom’s party. On the narrative song, the dancers riding on fake horses uses mock fight to perform the scenes of the achievements of the bandit. Display of weapons and pirouetting to the beats of drums attracts the audience very much. Kacchi Ghodi of Rajasthan is a well-known folk dance full of enthusiasm and colors.

Kacchi Ghodi of Rajasthan is performed by men on dummy horses. Men wear elaborative costumes embroidered with amazing mirror-work and ride the dummy horses. The dummy horses are used as support and are equally decorated with meticulous embroidery and mirrored-work. The dancers ride the dummy horses with weapons in their hands. These dancers with weapons move to the beats of drums and fifes. In Kacchi Ghodi dance of Rajasthan, a singer describes the tales of Bavaria bandits of Shekhawati region.

The bandits of the Shekhawati region were especially popular, mostly due to the high concentration of businessmen and traders in that part of Rajasthan. And traders meant money; and traders meant long overnight journeys on caravans that are full with expensive goods. The Kachhi Ghodi Dance Rajasthan represents the conflict of the bandits of the Bavaria clan of tribes with the passing masses.

Kalbelia Folk Dance: The Kalbelia or Kalbeliya, as it is sometimes spelled is a dance form that is associated with a Rajasthani tribe of the same name. The dance form consists of swirling; graceful movements that make this dance a treat to behold. The movements associated with the Kalbelia also make it one of the most sensuous forms of folk dance in India. The Kalbelia dance is generally performed for any joyous celebration and is considered to be an integral part of the Kalbelia culture. Another unique aspect of the Kalbelia dance is that it is only performed by women while the men play the instruments and provide the music.

Kalbelia dance is included in UNESCO’s list of the Cultural Heritage of Humanity from the year 2010.

Location: Pali district, Ajmer, Chittorgarh and Udaipur district.

Performed By: Women from Kalbelia community

Performance Occasions: Kalbelia songs are based on stories taken from folklore and mythology and special dances are performed during Holi.

Features: The dancers are women in flowing black skirts who dance and swirl, replicating the movements of a serpent. The cloths are mixed in red and black hues and embroidered in unique patterns. Kalbelia dance has a traditional musical instruments which is Poongi also called been. Other traditional musical instruments used by Kalbelia tribe in Kalbelia dance are Dufli, Morchang, Dholak, Khanjari and Khuralio.

Kathputli Folk Dance: Kathputlis are a type of puppets. Rajasthan is famous for its puppet-playing tradition. String puppets or Kathputli dance in Rajasthan is an old tradition. In this dance the puppeteer uses ballads to narrate the stories. These storied or tales of romance and chivalry are told with movements of string puppets. In olden days, puppeteers used to travel from place to place through various villages to entertain people. Through puppets, the puppeteer tells the stories of legendary heroes or historic events are narrated through it.

Different types of puppets or Kathputlis are used for popular puppet shows that include Glove Puppets, String Puppets, Rod Puppets and Shadow Puppets. Puppetry or Kathputli in Rajasthan holds an important place in traditional entertainment of people. Stories from mythology and legends are told through puppets in Rajasthan. So, with entertainment they spread awareness among the citizens.

Kathputli Dance means the dances of puppets. It is a traditional dance of Indian state of Rajasthan. Kathputli is a join of two rajasthani language words Kath meaning wood and Putli meaning a doll which has no life, hence Kathputli means a doll made of wood. Kathputli are usually made of mango wood and stuffed with cotton. These puppets are generally one and half feet in height and aremade in Sawai-Madhopur, Bari, and Udaipur.

Famous Persons associated with dance form:

Organisations: Rupayan Sansthan in Jodhpur founded by Vijaydan Detha and Komal Kothari in 1960 and Bharatiya Lok Kala Mandal, Udaipur, founded by Devilal Samar in 1952, are working in the field preserving and promoting the art of Kathputli. New Delhi also has an area known as ‘Kathputli Colony’, in Shadipur Depot, where puppeteers have lived long.

Terah Taali Folk Dance: Performed by the members of the Kamada tribe, Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan is one of the ancient performing arts of Rajasthan. Performed with Manjeeras and other metallic instruments, Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan is one of the most entertaining dance forms of Rajasthan and attracts tourists from all over.

The Terah Taal Dance in Rajasthan however is also an important ritual in the Baba Ramdev temple at Runicha. During the Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan the music of the Ektara accompanies the dance performance. Manjeeras are tied to thirteen different parts of the parts of the body. The sounds of these Manjeeras produce the Terah Taal or the thirteen beats. Often during the Terah Taal the dances with swords are also performed. The

Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan requires accuracy and precision which can only be done by the professional dancers who participate in this beautiful dance performance. Terah thirteen cymbals are used to give rhythm to the intricate movements of the performer and to provide a synchronous pulse to the accompanying musical instruments as well as the devotional singing is a bewitching performance. Nine cymbals are fastened on the right leg, seven between the knee and the ankle, one on the instep, one on the big toe, and each on both the arms, while the performer or sometimes two, sit in front the heroon housing the image of the legendary Ramdeoji along with the accompanists playing on chutara and khartla, singing songs in adoration of the saint.

Location: Ramdevra, Didwana, Dungarpur, Udaipur

Performed By: Woman from Kamad tribe while sitting on the floor before Baba Ramdeo’s image

Performance Occasions: In honor the folk hero, Baba Ramdeo

Features: The women have 13 ‘manjeeras’ (little brass discs) tied to the various parts of their body, which they strike with the ones they hold in their hand.

Often a sword is also used by the professional Terah Taali dancer and also a pot on her to make the dance more attractive. Male artists sing local Rajasthani folk songs as background music and play different instruments like pakhwaja, dholak jhanjhar, sarangi, harmonium etc.

Famous Persons associated with dance form: Mangi Bai, Mohini Narayani, laxman das Kamad.

Walar Folk Dance:

Location: Udaipur, Pindwara (Sirohi) and Abu Road

Performed By: Women from Garasia community

Performance Occasions: On occasion of Gangaur & Teej festivals.

Features: Involves simple circular movements of dancers on beats, generally accompanied by the beats of the mandal, chang and a variety of other musical instruments.

Folk Arts of Rajasthan

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Folk Arts of Rajasthan

Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring trades’ people. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian and decorative rather than purely aesthetic. Folk Art is characterized by a naïve style, in which traditional rules of proportion and perspective are not employed.

As a phenomenon that can chronicle a move towards civilization yet rapidly diminish with modernity, industrialization, or outside influence, the nature of folk art is specific to its particular culture. The varied geographical and temporal prevalence and diversity of folk art make it difficult to describe as a whole, though some patterns have been demonstrated.

Characteristics-Characteristically folk art is not influenced by movements in academic or fine art circles, and, in many cases, folk art excludes works executed by professional artists and sold as “high art” or “fine art” to the society’s art patrons. On the other hand, many 18th- and 19th-century American folk art painters made their living by their work, including itinerant portrait painters, some of whom produced large bodies of work.

Terms that might overlap with folk art are naïve art, tribal art, primitive art, popular art, outsider art, traditional art, tramp art and working-class art/blue-collar art. As one might expect, these terms can have multiple and even controversial connotations but are often used interchangeably with the term “folk art”.

Folk art expresses cultural identity by conveying shared community values and aesthetics. It encompasses a range of utilitarian and decorative media, including cloth, wood, paper, clay, metal and more. If traditional materials are inaccessible, new materials are often substituted, resulting in contemporary expressions of traditional folk art forms. Folk art reflects traditional art forms of diverse community groups — ethnic, tribal, religious, occupational, geographical, age- or gender-based — who identify with each other and society at large. Folk artists traditionally learn skills and techniques through apprenticeships in informal community settings, though they may also be formally educated. Folk arts are simple, direct, and mostly always colorful.

Antique Folk Art-Antique folk art is distinguished from traditional art in that, while collected today based mostly on its artistic merit, it was never intended to be ‘art for art’s sake’ at the time of its creation. Examples include: weathervanes, old store signs and carved figures, itinerant portraits, carousel horses, fire buckets, painted game boards, cast iron doorstops and many other similar lines of highly collectible “whimsical” antiques.

Contemporary Folk Art-Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, and decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms constantly emerge. Contemporary folk artists are frequently self-taught as their work is often developed in isolation or in small communities across the country.

Rajasthani folk art has been divided into following types:

Wall & ground paintings: Devra, Pathwari, Sanjhi, Mandav etc.

Cloth Paintings: Pat, Pichhwai, Phad etc.

Painting on Paper: Paane

Painting made on Wood: Kavad

Painting on Human body: Mehandi, Godana

Thape: Thape is a form of drawings on walls.In Rajasthan it is made up turmeric, geru, henna and kumkum and the Pictures are drawn on the both side of the door, to invoke deities, Prevalent in Rajasthan

Badaley: In Jodhpur, metal utensils used for drinking water have a layer of cloth or leather wrapped around them. They are provided with beautiful designs & colors.

Thewa Art: Thewa is a special art of jewelry making which involves embossing of intricately worked-out sheet gold on molten glass. It evolved in Pratapgarh district, Rajasthan India. Its origin dates back to the Mughal age.

Thewa is a traditional art of fusing 23K Gold with multicolored glass. The glass is treated by a special process to have glittering effects, which in turn highlights the intricate gold work. The whole Thewa piece is hand crafted over a period of one month by skilled artisans. Thewa, an art that pulsates with life, caught seemingly in movement, in motifs used on jewellery, which shows the culture, heritage and tales of romance and valour of Rajasthan with nature and happiness depicting the art of the fine craftsmanship. The process of making Thewa work is detailed; time consuming and intricate, taking up to a month to complete each piece. It starts with broken pieces of terracotta, finely ground, mixed with chemicals and oil to produce a thick paste. The paste spread on a wooden base has a 23carat gold sheet of 40gauge thickness set onto the mixture and the free hand design etched on it. Black paint spread over the gold sheet that highlights the design so it becomes clearly visible for further detailed work with fine tools. The craftsman removes the excess gold creating a design often based on the Hindu mythology or Mughal court scenes, historical events or with flora and fauna motifs.

Origin-Nathu ji Soni invented the process; the secrets of the craft that passed directly from father to son over the generations’ remains it in the family only, who call themselves ‘Raj-Sonis’. Many of the members from this family have been awarded by UNESCO, National & State Government. Some of the finest examples of this unique form of decorative art are in local museum collections in India as well as abroad including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Victoria & Albert.

Other Origin: THEWA is a word from the local Rajasthani language which literally means “SETTING”. Thewa is an art of fusing 23ct gold with multicolored glass. It is a very detailed and intricate process. A 23ct gold piece is first beaten into a very thin sheet. Intricate designs are inscribed onto these gold sheets using very fine chisel. This gold sheet, called as “Thewa Ki Patti” is fixed to a lac-resin compound spread on a board by slightly warming the lac and then pressing the gold sheet onto it. An open work pattern is pierced thru these gold sheets placed on the lac-resin covered board by knocking off the portions which ultimately creates the intricate design. The gold sheet is gently peeled off by heating it. Like the rest of Rajasthan handicrafts, the glass works of Pratapgarh are unique in both design and usage. Besides beautiful and traditional items such as handicraft items, glass photo frames, trays, glass art ware, glass jewelry boxes, lamp shades, flower vases, crystal wine glasses, flasks, glass pots, antique crystal chandeliers, glass coasters, glass lamp shades and glass paintings, Pratapgarh is renowned for its Thewa work. Colored glass base, embossed with golden miniature artwork is the special attraction of the Thewa work. Floral patterns are etched on gold foil and superimposed on glass moulds and the glassware is cast in such moulds. Thewa pendants are famous pieces of jewelry and their blazing hues and exquisite patterns attract women across the world. Like many others of the local craftsmen, Jagdish Lal Raj Soni and Beni Ram Soni craft persons from Pratapgarh in Rajasthan state in India were also awarded Shilp Guru Award for Thewa art.

Recently one craftsman Mahesh Raj Soni of the traditional artisan family has won another national award and Padma Shree 2015 for his excellent Thewa handicraft and with this his family has been featured in the LIMCA yearbook 2011 as “Eight national awards in one family”  Hitesh Rajsoni has been awarded by ” UNESCO Seal of Excellence Award” in 2004. He is the youngest personality in Rajsoni Family who got this Award.

There are some who need a tree to meditate. And some who need music. But then there are those, who fend for gold. Because the fine nuances of creating intricate patterns in gold require such keen patience and concentration, that the art indeed becomes a true meditative bliss to the senses. And the gratification of coming the closest, that any mortal’s tactile memory can ever get, to touch a piece of art as overwhelming and magnificent, as the idea of god himself.

  • When the hunting tigers and Stags from the wild imagination of Nathu ji Soni descended onto the canvas of gold, Thewa was born about 500 years ago.
  • It is believed that this magnificent art wrapped around a big box impressed Raja Savant Singh of Pratapgarh so much that he bestowed immense wealth upon the Soni (goldsmith) and rewarded him with the title of ‘Rajsoni’- The chief jeweler of the court.
  • Both the title and the craft are being passed on through generations. Mutual learning amongst family and friends has made it into a small cluster of craftsmen who perform this craft rather secretively.

Thewa comes from two words of the local dialect, ‘Tharna’ – meaning to hammer(to get thin foils of gold from very small quantity of the metal) and ‘Vada’ – meaning silver wire (which in the loop form makes the resting foundation for the main piece), both being the most important aspects of the art. While the forefathers of this art only made chests and boxes, today the masters of this skill have extend their expertise to photo frames, mirrors, cufflinks, brooches, trays, plates and personal accessories like rings and necklaces which are adorned by men and women alike. The inspiration for this art comes from the Mogul miniature paintings involving traditional design subjects ranging from mythological genres to the more secular themes. Today the art has acquired a more unique stance than ever because the conventional style has been blended with a variety of techniques like Meenakari, diamond setting etc and a new palette of materials, which includes – beads, threads and others lending a contemporary idiom to the time honored practice.

Thirty two year old Giresh Raj Soni is a descendent of Nathu ji Soni and continues to dwell in the competence of this art. Besides being conferred with State and National Awards, Giresh ji and his wife Usha Soni have been recognized by UNESCO as well. The Government of India has even issued a stamp featuring an awe-inspiring piece of Thewa on a plate in 2002. But no material honor can compete with what the Rajsoni has accomplished for himself by ritualistically engaging himself in this art of controlled precision – a calm and collected temperament that leaves him happy to confess – ”I’ve lost the ability to ever get angry”.

The craft requires a working plane made locally using ‘chapadi’ (purified lac) to create a hard bed. Pure 23-carat gold, silver strips, Belgian glass and strings of beads and stones are amongst the other raw materials involved.

It becomes essential to constantly check on the lac bed for air bubbles else it may cause an avoidable denting of the fragile gold foil. Master craftsmen however do not sketch; instead they directly puncture the blueprint with fine chisels and sharp tools. But such is the single minded attention required, that any error or deviation in the process of splitting the pattern can result in the entire piece of foil being wasted. All such discarded pattern sheets and cut outs from the jail are melted again and prepared for the fresh work.

The entire jali is then laid out in a frame of silver wire called “vaada” to lessen the risk of damage. The silver wire frame used in this task is pre-assembled on brass dies and soldered to precision. The entire framed composition is then set out on a mica sheet using forceps with extremely controlled and steady hands. Once pinned together over the mica, the two metals can be easily soldered and the mica is then removed. The delicate entity so obtained is then placed on a piece of colored Belgian glass using am bonding technique that remains to be a unique secret within the family. A solid silver casing called ‘chandi ki dibiya’ is then used to enclose the entire composition including the Belgian glass.

The art has remained a guarded secret…. even the daughters of the family are kept ignorant about the master stroke technique, considering that they will eventually settle out of the clan. The boys of the house on the other hand are trained in sketching patterns from the age of ten, so that when they finally start to practice the art, the language and expression of these jaali scenes unconsciously and effortlessly flows out of their hands, directly into the foil.

The ever-increasing prices of gold have rendered this practice as a good deal for those who subscribe to more value for less money.

  • Thewa art is minute painting on glass using gold.
  • Glass used is colored Belgium glass.
  • Different colors are used to make it attractive
  • The art is limited to Pratapgarh

Mandana Art

  • Mandana is an art of the tribal wall and floor paintings found in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
  • It is derived from the word ‘Mandan‘ referring to decoration and beautification and comprises simple geometric forms like triangles, squares and circles to decorate houses.
  • In tribal ideology they are famed for warding off evil and acting as a good luck charm.
  • It uses white khariya or chalk solution and geru or red ochre.
  • The design may show Ganesha, peacocks, women at work, tigers, floral motifs, etc.

Phad

Phad painting or Phad is a style religious scroll painting and folk painting, practiced in Rajasthan state of India.This style of painting is traditionally done on a long piece of cloth or canvas, known as Phad. The narratives of the folk deities of Rajasthan, mostly of Pabuji and Devnarayana are depicted on the Phads. The Bhopas, the priest-singers traditionally carry the painted Phads along with them and use these as the mobile temples of the folk deities. The Phads of Pabuji are normally about 15 feet in length, while the Phads of Devnarayana are normally about 30 feet long. Traditionally the Phads are painted with vegetable colors.

The Joshi families of Bhilwara, Shahpura in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan are widely known as the traditional artists of this folk art-form for the last two centuries. Presently, Shree Lal Joshi, Nand Kishor Joshi, Prakash Joshi and Shanti Lal Joshi are the most noted artists of the Phad painting, who are known for their innovations and creativity. Noted examples of this art are Devnarayana Ki Phad and Pabuji Ki Phad.

  • Phad is a painted scroll, which depicts stories of epic dimensions about local deities and legendary heroes.
  • Bhopas (local priests) carry these scrolls on their shoulders from village to village for a performance Represents the moving shrine of the deity and is an object of worship.
  • Most popular & largest Phad – local deities Devnarayanji and Pabuji.
  • Shahpura, Tehsil in Bhilwara is famous for Phad.
  • 2006, Shri laal Joshi – was awarded Padamshri for contribution to Phad.

Handicrafts of Rajasthan

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Handicraft of Rajasthan

Sculpture Art in Rajasthan:   Sculpture Art in Rajasthan started from Maurya Period. Different areas in Rajasthan are famous for Different Color Stones. A state that has so many varieties of stones is bound to have progressive sculpture art.

Different Stones:

  • Dungarpur – Green Black
  • Bharatpur – Pink
  • Makrana – White
  • Jodhpur – Badami/Brown/Buff
  • Dholpur – Red
  • Rajsamand – White with tint of Black
  • Jalore – Granite
  • Kota – Slate
  • Sculpture art of Sangmarmar Stone – Jaipur
  • Meenakari on Sangmarmar stone – Jaipur
  • Picchikari on Sangmarmar stone- Bhilwara
  • Sangmarmar mines – Makrana
  • : Som pura Caste people of Dungarpur & Talwara(In Banswara)

Terracotta: Terracotta is clay-like earthenware ceramic that can be either glazed or unglazed. In addition to being used for flower pots, terracotta is also often used for water and sewage pipes, bricks, and sculptures. The word “terracotta” comes from the Italian words for “baked earth.”

Molela near Nathdwara is especially famous for its Terracotta toys. Harji Village in Jalore famous for Terracotta Horses in Nagaur district Banuravta Village

Blue Pottery:

Blue Pottery is widely recognized as a traditional craft of Jaipur, though it is Turko-Persian in origin. The name ‘blue pottery’ comes from the eye-catching blue dye used to color the pottery.

Jaipur blue pottery, made out of a similar frit material to Egyptian faience, is glazed and low-fired. No clay is used: the ‘dough’ for the pottery is prepared by mixing quartz stone powder, powdered glass, Multani Mitti (Fuller’s Earth), borax, gum and water. Another source cites Katira Gond powder (a gum) and saaji (soda bicarbonate) as ingredients. Some of this pottery is semi-transparent and mostly decorated with animal and bird motifs. Being fired at very low temperature makes them fragile. The range of items is primarily decorative, such as ashtrays, vases, coasters, small bowls and boxes for trinkets. The colour palette is restricted to blue derived from the cobalt oxide, green from the copper oxide and white, though other non-conventional colours, such as yellow and brown are sometimes included.

The use of blue glaze on pottery is an imported technique, first developed by Mongol artisans who combined Chinese glazing technology with Persian decorative arts. This technique travelled east to India with early Turkic conquests in the 14th century. During its infancy, it was used to make tiles to decorate mosques, tombs and palaces in Central Asia. Later, following their conquests and arrival in India, the Mughals began using them in India. Gradually the blue glaze technique grew beyond an architectural accessory to Indian potters. From there, the technique travelled to the plains of Delhi and in the 17th century went to Jaipur.

Other accounts of the craft state that blue pottery came to Jaipur in the early 19th century under the ruler Sawai Ram Singh II (1835 – 1880).The Jaipur king had sent local artisans to Delhi to be trained in the craft. Some specimens of older ceramic work can be seen in the Rambagh Palace, where the fountains are lined with blue tiles. However, by the 1950s, blue pottery had all but vanished from Jaipur, when it was re-introduced through the efforts of the muralist and painter Kripal Singh Shekhawat, with the support of patrons such as Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay and Rajmata Gayatri Devi.

Today, blue pottery is an industry that provides livelihood to many people in Jaipur. The traditional designs have been adapted, and now, apart from the usual urns, jars, pots and vases, you can find tea sets, cups and saucers, plates and glasses, jugs, ashtrays and napkin rings.

Key Points:

  • Origin – First developed by Mongol artisans who combined Chinese glazing technology with Persian decorative arts and with Turks & Mughals conquests came to India, Rajasthan – Jaipur is famous for these arts.
  • It is started in Rajasthan during the reign of Raja Man Singh-I but the main credit for development goes to – Sawai Ram Singh II (1835-80).
  • However by 1950, Blue Pottery vanished. Post Independence redeveloped through efforts of Kripal Singh Shekhawat. His efforts were recognized by GOI, received Padamshri (1974).

Ivory Works (Haathi dant): it is a hard smooth ivory colored dentine that makes up most of the tusks of elephants and walruses Items include: Jewellery, Powder boxes, jewellery boxes, cufflinks, lamps and artistic decorations, idols of gods and goddess, brooches. Udaipur district in Rajasthan is most famous for ivory works. Jodhpur is famous for Black, green & Red strips bangles.

Meenakari: Enameling is the art of colorings or decorating a metal surface by attaching or fusing pieces of different mineral substances, over it. Enameling is considered the most alluring and technical of all metal decorations. In the past enameling was only done on gold, but presently it is done other metals like silver, copper etc.

The art of decorating metal with enameling or Meenakari was alien to India and was introduced by the Mughals. Raja Man Singh of Amber brought Meenakari to Rajasthan at the turn of the 16th century. Man Singh brought skillful minakars from the Mughal palace at Lahore and established them in Jaipur, which became the center of Meenakari.

The technique of Meenakari requires a high degree of skill and application. The piece of metal on which meenakari is to be done is fixed on a lac stick. Delicate designs of flowers, birds, fish etc are etched or engraved on it. This leads to the creation of walls or grooves, to hold color. Enamel dust of required color is then poured into the grooves and each color is fired individually. The heat of the furnace melts the color and the colored liquid gets spread equally into the groove. This process is repeated with each color. As each color is individually fired, colors, which are most heat resistant, are applied first, as they are re-fired with each additional color. As a rule, white is the first color applied and red the last. After the last color has been fired, the object is cooled and burnished or polished with agate. The depth of the grooves filled with different colors determines the play of light. Both Silver and Gold can be used as a base for meenakari.

  • A limited number of colors, like gold, blue, green and yellow, stick to silver, whereas all available colors can be applied to gold, making it the preferred medium of enamellers.
  • The meenakari often works with a team of craftsmen. As meenakari is generally done on the reverse side of Kundan jewellery, the meenakari has to work with the goldsmith, the engraver or ghaaria, the designer or chitteria and jadiya who applies the gems on the Kundan or gold.
  • The finished produced is a marvel of the expertise of these different craftsmen and their techniques.

Jaipur is the main center of meenakari. Traditional Mughal colours like red, green and white, dominate the art of enameling from Jaipur. The rich, ruby red color used here is highly sought after.

Nathdwara, Bikaner and Udaipur are also famous for their silver meenakari. Pratapgarh is known for glass enameling. Delhi and Banaras are also important centers for meenakari.

  • Jaipur is worldwide famous for Meenakari on Jewellary.
  • Meenakari Art was imported from Lahore for first time under the reign of Man Singh-I (1589-1614)
  • Nathdwara is also famous for meenakari and the Raitwali area of Kota is known for Meenakari work is done on glasses. Bikaner & Pratapgarh also has significant skills in meenakari work.

Usta Art: The unique form of paintings on camel hide Usta Art came from Iran and flourished in the Mughal durbars and inter-mingled with the Indian culture, Raja Rai Singh, the then king of Bikaner, brought nawab Usta artists to his kingdom and the Usta artisans of Bikaner developed a new stream of Usta art. Their descendents manifested its beauty in the form of Bikaner’s fabulous Junagarh Fort’s Anoop palace, Chandra palace, karan palace and Phool Mahal. The art is still thriving and to this day, Usta craftsmen can be seen practicing the art, handed down by their ancestors. Mohammad Haneef Usta Mr. Ayub Usta, Mr. Iqbal, Mr. Altaf, Mr. Javed Hasan, All have carved a niche in Usta art. . In 1989 Mo.Haneef was honored with state award for his excellence in Manowati Gold embossing. He is being awarded National award for his excellence in Manowati Gold Nakkashi. At present you can find Usta work at Rampuria havelis, Ajmer Dargah, Delhi Nizamuddin Oliya and Mazaar of Amir Khusro the Junagarh fort. During the British rule, leather goods came in use for embossing. After the emboding, it is painted and gold is applied where ever required. Then the ink is used with a brush made of squirrel hair to fill the design with different colours. The Usta art of Bikaner is world famous for its multidimensional forms like meenakari on camel hide, golden meenakari and paintings in palaces and havelis of Bikaner. Mohd. Hanif Usta is a leading Usta artisan of the state. He has inherited this art form from his forefathers and has created excellent pieces of art displayed on camel hide, stone and metal.

Apart from Usta art, there are varied forms of miniature paintings that are quite popular. This art came in India with Usta artists from Iran brought by the emperors and flourished in the Mughal period in courts and palaces. A group of seven Usta artists paintings can be seen even today in the rooms of the Junagarh fort. During the British rule, leather goods came in use for embossing. After the emboding, if is painted and gold is applied where ever required. Then the ink is used with a brush made of squirrel hai to fill the design with different colours. The Usta art of Bikaner is world famous for its multidimensional forms like meenakari on camel hide, golden meenakari and painting in Usta is a leading Usta artisan of the state. He has inherited this art form from his forefathers and has created excellent pieces of art displayed on camel hide, stone and metal. Apart from Usta art, there are varied forms of miniature paintings that are quite popular with contributions from eminent artists like shree Mahaveer Swai Ram & Narayan Swami.

  1. Golden Meenakari work on Camel leather is known as Usta Art.
  • The art was developed by Padam Shri Hissayamuddin Usta from Bikaner.
  • Camel hide training Center in Bikaner is an institution for Usta Art.

Lac Works

LAC, A Resinous substance produced by the female lac insect found in abundance in the forests of Rajasthan, is formed into a variety of jewellery items, chief among them the chudi or bangle. Although all lac jewellery is regarded as propitious and is worn especially on auspicious occasions, lac bangles are also worn to signify that the wearer is married. The bangles are available in a stunning array of colours and are also frequently studded (naqqashi worked) with glass pieces, bright stones, and beads. The traditional bangles are plain and ornamented with Lehriya, wave-like patterns of diagonal lines. Motifs such as the patta (straight lines) or phooldar (floral) are etched onto the surface of multiple layers of many hued lac coats, thus revealing the colour embedded in the initial layers.

  • Sawai madhopur, Laxmangarh (Sikar), Indragarh (Bundi) – Lac work on wooden toys.
  • Jaipur, Hindon, Karauli – Lac bangles.

Mat & Carpet Works: A Carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool but, since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester  are often used, as these fibers are less expensive than wool. The pile usually consists of twisted tufts which are typically heat-treated to maintain their structure. The term “carpet” is often used interchangeably with the term “rug”, although the term “carpet” can be applied to a floor covering that covers an entire house, whereas a “rug” is generally no bigger than a single room, and traditionally does not even span from one wall to another, and is typically not even attached as part of the floor.

Carpets are used for a variety of purposes, including insulating a person’s feet from a cold tile or concrete floor, making a room more comfortable as a place to sit on the floor (e.g., when playing with children or as a prayer rug), reducing sound from walking (particularly in apartment buildings) and adding decoration or colour to a room. Carpets can be made in any colour by using differently dyed fibers. Carpets can have many different types of patterns and motifs used to decorate the surface. In the 2000s, carpets are used in industrial and commercial establishments such as retail stores and hotels and in private homes. In the 2010s, a huge range of carpets and rugs are available at many price and quality levels, ranging from inexpensive, synthetic carpets that are mass produced in factories and used in commercial buildings to costly hand-knotted wool rugs which are used in private homes of wealthy families.

Carpets can be produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric, made using needle felts, knotted by hand (in oriental rugs), made with their pile injected into a backing material (called tufting), flat woven, made by hooking wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric or embroidered. Wall-to-wall carpet is distinguished from rugs or mats, which are loose-laid floor coverings, as wall-to-wall carpet is fixed to the floor and covers a much larger area. Child labour has often been used in Asia for hand knotting rugs. The Good Weave labelling scheme used throughout Europe and North America assures that child labour has not been used: importers pay for the labels, and the revenue collected is used to monitor centres of production and educate previously exploited children.

The term “carpet” is often used interchangeably with the term “rug”. Some sources define a carpet as stretching from wall to wall. Another definition treats rugs as of lower quality or of smaller size, with carpets quite often having finished ends. A third common definition is that a carpet is permanently fixed in place while a rug is simply laid out on the floor. Historically, the term “carpet” was also applied to table and wall coverings, as carpets were not commonly used on the floor in European interiors until the 15th century.

Woven-The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric. The pile can be plush or Berber. Plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting. Normally many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs (although some limitations apply to certain weaving methods with regard to accuracy of pattern within the carpet). These carpets are usually the most expensive due to the relatively slow speed of the manufacturing process. These are very famous in India, Pakistan and Arabia.

Special Circular Design-These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts are produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles forming an extremely durable carpet. These carpets are normally found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic, Knotte A traditional carpet/rug design in preparation on a carpet loom. On a knotted pile carpet (formally, a “supplementary weft cut-loop pile” carpet), the structural weft threads alternate with a supplementary weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave. This supplementary weft is attached to the warp by one of three knot types (see below), such as shag carpet which was popular in the 1970s, to form the pile or nap of the carpet. Knotting by hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Pile carpets, like flat carpets, can be woven on a loom.

The warp threads are set up on the frame of the loom before weaving begins. A number of weavers may work together on the same carpet. A row of knots is completed and cut. The knots are secured with (usually one to four) rows of weft. The warp in woven carpet is usually cotton and the weft is jute.

Antique Rug-Carpet weaving may have been introduced into the area as far back as the eleventh century with the coming of the first Muslim conquerors, the Ghaznavid and the Gauri, from the West. It can with more certainty be traced to the beginning of the Mughal Dynasty in the early sixteenth century, when the last successor of Timur, Babar, extended his rule from Kabul to India to found the Mughal Empire. Under the patronage of the Mughals, Indian craftsmen adopted Persian techniques and designs. Carpets woven in the Punjab made use of motifs and decorative styles found in Mughal architecture.

Akbar, a Mogul emperor, is accredited to introducing the art of carpet weaving to India during his reign. The Mughal emperors patronized Persian carpets for their royal courts and palaces. During this period, he brought Persian craftsmen from their homeland and established them in India. Initially, the carpets woven showed the classic Persian style of fine knotting. Gradually it blended with Indian art. Thus the carpets produced became typical of the Indian origin and gradually the industry began to diversify and spread all over the subcontinent. During the Mughal period, the carpets made on the Indian subcontinent became so famous that demand for them spread abroad. These carpets had distinctive designs and boasted a high density of knots. Carpets made for the Mughal emperors, including Jahangir and Shah Jahan, were of the finest quality. Under Shah Jahan’s reign, Mughal carpet weaving took on a new aesthetic and entered its classical phase. Indian carpets are well known for their designs with attention to detail and presentation of realistic attributes. The carpet industry in India flourished more in its northern part with major centres found in

Kashmir, Jaipur, Agra and Bhadohi

Indian carpets are known for their high density of knotting. Hand-knotted carpets are a speciality

and widely in demand in the West. The carpet industry in India has been successful in establishing social business models that help underprivileged sections of the society. Notable examples of social entrepreneurship ventures are Jaipur rugs, Fab India.

Carpet binding” is a term used for any material being applied to the edge of a carpet to make a

 rug. Carpet binding is usually cotton or nylon,

 but also comes in many other materials such as leather. Non-synthetic binding is frequently

used with bamboo, grass and wool rugs, but is often used with carpet made from other materials.

Key Points:

  • Cotton & Wool are used for making fabric
  • For better quality and strong mattress the thread & knots used for making fabric should be very fine (thin).
  • Carpets are also manufactured in Jaipur & Bikaner jails.
  • Salawas Village of Jodhpur is famous for carpets
  • While carpet manufacturing is enthusiastically followed in Jodhpur, Nagaur, Tonk, Barmer, Bhilwara, Shahpura, Kekri & Malpura.

Textile Art of Rajasthan:

Gota Work: Jaipur & Khandela in Sikar district are famous for Gota work.

Zari Work: Jaipur is very well known for Zari work.

Kota Doria: Kota Doria is a fabric with unique blend of cotton and silk in a square check pattern and the checked pattern is termed as ‘khat’. The silk provides the shine while the cotton provides strength to the fabric and the craft originated in Mysore and then shifted to Kaithun Village near Kota. Hence, the Saris came to be known as Kota-Mansuria.

Jaipuri Quilt (Rajai): Jaipur is very known for it as name mention and the specialty of Jaipuri quilt is that it is very low weight but high insulating (very warm).

Applique Work: In this art different pieces of cloth are fixed together. The interesting colour, shape and pattern combinations against contrasting background catch the eye.

Hand-block prints: Bagru Print, Jaipur is famous for Hand block prints and this print is similar to Sanganeri print but while Sanganeri print has white field, Bagru prints have green fields. The main speciality is that only natural colors are used in Bagru Prints. Alijarin (Ajrak) Print of Barmer; Mostly red and blue colors are used for printing.

Tie and dye:

  • Bandani, Batik, Mothra, Ekdali, Shikari, Cheent.
  • Bandhej, Jaipur Cloth is tied and then colored and when the knot is opened different designs appear on cloth.
  • Jhajam (Carpets): Printed in Chittor are famous.
  • Lehriya – Jaipur
  • Chunri – Jodhpur

Dabu Print: Akola Village in Chittorgarh is famous for Dabu Prints. In Dabu, particular portion of cloth where color is not required, that portion is pressed with Loi or Lugadi. This same material lui or lugadi is called as Dabu as it is pressed on part of cloth where is not required. Apart from skills, Akola also has suitable conditions including water, Soil, natural vegetation that favors printing

Dabu Prints from Akola include Bed sheets, Cloth, Chundari, and Fantiyan. In different areas of Rajasthan, different materials are used as Dabu

  • Sawai madhopur – Wax is used as Dabu
  • Baltora – Soil/Mud is used as Dabu
  • Bagru & Sanganer – Bighan made from wheet is used as Dabu

Sanganeri Print – Sanganer

  • Done on Lattha or Malmal clothes.
  • Post printing, clothes are washed in river
  • Aminshah Nalla has been traditionally associated with this print and use of only Red and black color is seen.
  • Munna Lal Goyal made Sanganeri prints famous worldwide.


Painting Arts of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Art and Culture- Painting Arts of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is literally the land of kings. Various parts of the region have been ruled by various Rajput clans for centuries. They were known not only for their fighting skills and valour but also for their patronage of arts and culture. Their prowess in architecture is well known considering the massive forts, palaces and temples that attract thousands of tourists every year But Rajasthan also infinite riches in terms of paintings. While it is a vast field and cannot be explored completely even in one life time, let us try to have a brief introduction of historical Rajasthani paintings.

Painting is mentioned as 1 of 64 Kalas (arts) in ancient Indian texts. Historical art of Paintings in India can be classified into two different segments:

1. Murals or Wall Paintings

2. Miniature Paintings.

  • Mural Painting: A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall; ceiling or other large permanent surfaceArchitectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.

Method of Paintings

1. True Fresco Method: The paintings are done when the surface wall is still wet so that the pigments go deep inside the wall surface. The Technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid or wet lime plaster, water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster and the painting becomes an integral part of the wall.

2. Tempora or Fresco-Secco: The Method of painting on the lime plastered surface which has been allowed to dry first and then drenched with fresh lime water.

Shekhawati Paintings:

  • It is covered by the two modern districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar
  • Geometric and floral designs.
  • The interior work is usually painted Secco, using tempera, onto dry plaster.

B. Miniature Paintings of Rajasthan:

The art of Miniature painting was introduced to the land of India by the Mughals, who brought the much-revealed art form from Persia. In the sixteenth century, the Mughal ruler Humayun brought artists from Persia, who specialized in miniature painting. The succeeding Mughal Emperor, Akbar built an atelier for them to promote the rich art form. These artists, on their part, trained Indian artists who produced paintings in a new distinctive style, inspired by the royal and romantic lives of the Mughals. The particular miniature produced by Indian artists in their own style is known as Rajput or Rajasthani miniature. During this time, several schools of painting evolved, such as Mewar (Udaipur), Bundi, Kotah, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Jaipur, and Kishangarh.

  • Besligre has supported the name of “Rajput School of Painting” for Rajasthani Painting.
  • Rajasthani Painting Themes – events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna’s life, beautiful landscapes, and humans
  • Precious stones, Gold and silver were used and Mughal Influence was also there.
  • Dominance of Chaurapanchasika group style in Indian Rajasthani Paintings.

These paintings are done with utmost care and in minute details, with strong lines and bold colours set in harmonious patterns. The miniature artists use paper, ivory panels, wooden tablets, leather, marble, cloth and walls for their paintings. Indian artists employed multiple perspectives unlike their European counterparts in their paintings. The colours are made from minerals and vegetables, precious stones, as well as pure silver and gold. The preparing and mixing of colour is an elaborate process. It takes weeks, sometimes months, to get the desired results. The brushes are required to be very fine, and to get high-quality results, brushes even to this very day are made from hair of squirrels. Traditionally, the paintings are aristocratic, individualistic and strong in portraiture, where the plush court scenes and hunting expedition of royalty are depicted. Flowers and animals are also the recurrent images in the paintings.

The Kishangarh province in Rajasthan is known for its Bani Thani paintings. It is a totally different style with highly exaggerated features like long necks, large, almond shaped eyes, and long fingers. This style of painting essentially depicts Radha and Krishna as divine lovers, and beautifully portrays their mystical love.

Kishangarh miniature painting reached a peak in the eighteenth century, during the rule of Raja Sawant Singh, who fell in love with a slave girl, Bani Thani and commanded his artists to portray himself and her as Krishna and Radha. Other themes of Bani Thani paintings include portraits, court scenes, dancing, hunting, music parties, nauka vihar (lovers travelling in a boat), Krishna Lila, Bhagavata Purana and various other festivals like Holi, Diwali, Durga puja, and Dussehra.

Today, many artists continue to make miniature paintings on silk, ivory, cotton, and paper. However, with the passage of time, the natural colours have been replaced by poster colours. The schools of miniature have also been commercialized, and the artists mostly replicate the work produced by the old painters.

Styles of Rajasthani Painting:

Starting from the 16th century, when the Rajasthani Painting originated, the main schools emerged, including:

Mewar School: Chavand, Nathdwara, Devgarh, Udaipur and Sawar

Marwar School: Jodhpur, Kishangarh, Bikaner, Nagaur, Pali and Ghanerao styles

Hadoti School: Kota, Bundi and Jhalawar styles

Dhundar School: Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati and Uniara styles

Mewar Style

The Mewar School comprises of Nathdwara, Chavand, Udaipur, Sawar and Devgarh styles of painting.

Mewar School of painting is one of the most significant schools of Indian painting of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was developed in Hindu principality of Mewar. The works of the Mewar School are distinguished by simple vivid colour and straight poignant appeal. The relatively hefty number of paintings to which places of derivation can be attributed make probable a more inclusive picture of the expansion of painting in Mewar than any other Rājasthanī painting school. The primitive examples derive from Ragamala, a musical mode series highlighted in the year 1605 at Chawand. This communicative and energetic approach continued with some discrepancies through 1680, after which Mughal sway became more noticeable.

One of the dazzling painters of the untimely phase was that of the artist Sahibdin.

  • Considered to be place of origin of Rajasthani art of Painting.
  • Drawing is bold and the colours are bright and contrasting.
  • Text of the painting is written in black on the top against the yellow ground.
  • Maharana Kumbha contributed a lot to its development. After this Mewar style developed during Maharana Amar Singh-I (1572-1620), Karna Singh & Jagat Singh I (1628-52).

Shravak Pratikramansutra Chumi (1260):

It is the oldest painted volume of this style.

Chitron Ki Ovari (Tasviron ka Karkhana):

It was established during reign if Jagat Singh I.

  • – painted Kaliya Damana (most famous painting) during the reign of MaharanaSangram Singh II (1710-34).
  • – Nuruddin, Manohar, Sahibdin, Kriparam, Jivaram etc.

Famous Painters – Nuruddin, Manohar, Sahibdin, Kriparam, Jivaram etc

            Features:

  1. Appearance of men & women in healthy & attractive height.
  • Pointed nose, round face, large eyes, small neck and open lips.
  • Imposing moustache, decorative figures of women with tender body.
  • Elegant display of Nature.

Nathdwara Style

Nathdwara Painting refers to a painting tradition and school of artists that emerged in Nathdwara, a town in Rajsamand district in the Western state of Rajasthan in India. Nathdwara paintings are of different sub-styles of which Pichhwai paintings are the most popular. The word Pichhwai derives from the Sanskrit words pich meaning back and wais meaning hanging. These paintings are cloth paintings hung behind the image of the Hindu god Shrinathji.

The Nathdwara School is a subset of the Mewar School of painting and is seen as an important school in the 17th and 18th century miniature paintings. The sub-styles of Mewar painting include Udaigarh, Devgarh and Nathdwara as important centers of miniature production. The temple of Shrinathji is believed to have provided a boost to the art activities in the town. It is recorded that to avoid the oppression of the iconoclast Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the image of Shrinathji, a child manifestation of Krishna was installed in Nathdwara in 1670 by Goswami priests from Mathura. After this, many artists, including the famous Acharya Gopinathji, motivated by religious fervor came and created paintings of Shrinathji.

Pichhwai are intricate paintings which portray Lord Krishna. They exist in the holy town of Nathdwara in the Rajasthan state.

Krishna is shown in different moods, body postures, and attire more commonly found on a cloth or paper. It is a very ancient form of art passed on from generation to generation and it has a very devotional theme towards Lord Krishna.

The purpose of Pichhwai, other than its artistic appeal, is to narrate tales of Krishna to the illiterate. They have become the main export of Nathdwara and are in much demand among foreign visitors in the area.

These artists mostly live in Chitron ki gali (Street of paintings) and Chitrakaron ka mohalla (colony of painters) and make a close community with constant interaction. It is no wonder that many times a Pichhwai painting is a group effort, where several skillful painters work together under the supervision of a master artist.

  • Nathdwara style is a sub-style of Mewar School of painting, but as such it is a peculiar mixture of Mewar & Kishangarh styles.
  • Rana-Raj Singh-I brought idol of Srinath ji from Mathura during Aurangzeb reign, hence, artist from Mathura followed and gave birth to new style called as Nathdwara sub-style.
  • Depiction of natural scenery is a distinct feature of the Nathdwara style.
  • Nathdwara is famous for the Pichhwai paintings in Rajasthan. Pichhwai
  • Paintings are painted in permanent natural colors that do not lighten for years.
  • Famous painters included Ilaechii & kalma among women and Ghasiram,
  • Chaturbhunj, Udairaj & Champa lal among men.

Most works produced in this style revolve around the figure of Shrinathji as a manifestation of Krishna and refer to the incident of him holding the Govardhan hill on his last finger. Each Pichhwai painting is considered a seva or an offering to the deity and hence personifies Shrinathji as a prince with jewels and luxuries, surrounded by the milkmaids, gopis. These seva themes are based on different seasons and paintings are made to depict different moods of the season. There are also paintings that show the Lord in different costumes celebrating different festivals. Other themes like Mata Yoshoda, Nandlal and Bal-Gopal figures are also painted in this style.

Bundi Style

Bundi is one of the few places in India, which can lay its claim to an authentic School of Painting. “The Bundi School” is an important school of the Rajasthani style of Indian miniature painting that lasted from the 17th to the end of the 19th century in this princely state.

One of the earliest examples of the Bundi Paintings is the Chunar Ragamala painted in 1561. Bundi paintings emphasized on hunting, court scenes, festivals, processions, life of nobles, lovers, animals, birds and scenes from Lord Krishna’s life.

The Bundi School had a close association with the Mughal style yet it was never fundamental to the evolution and growth of Bundi paintings, however the delicacy of the Mughal style was also not abandoned.

The Chitrashaala, which is also known as the Ummed Mahal, is a part of the Garh Palace. It was built in the 18th Century, and forms a set of rooms on an elevated podium above the garden courtyard. The famous Chitra Shala in Bundi provides a colourful glimpse of history. The walls, ceiling of this palace are completely covered with paintings of the Bundi School which are still in very good condition. These splendid paintings in the Chitrashaala are par excellence and can be compared with probably the best anywhere in the world.

  1. Very close to the Mewar style of Paintings
  2. Rich and glowing colours, the rising sun in golden colour, crimson-red horizon, overlapping and semi-naturalistic trees.
  3. Mughal influence is visible in the refined drawing of the faces.
  4. Style flourished mostly during reign of Rao Surjan Singh.
  5. Chitrashaala (colored paintings) – made during reign of Maharao Ummed Singh depict this style clearly.

Main Features:

  • Pointed nose, receding foreheads, full cheeks, small stature
  • Use of red-yellow colors
  • Use of fine clothes.
  • Domes in background architecture, indicate Mughal influence.
  • In female figures in Bundi style, the upper & lower lines of eyes meet in parallel.
  • Lush landscapes painted in vibrant colors and massed with a variety of forms of trees and floral creepers, water ponds with lotus flowers in the foreground, fish and birds.

Kota / Kotah Style

The Kota style is considered another style of painting from the many among the Hadoti School of Art. The Kota style paintings, some of which are drawn on the walls of Palaces in Kota depict Mother Nature in all her glory. The Kota artists used attractive elements from hunting scenes and beautiful women. These paintings look very natural in their appearance and are mesmerizing.

  1. Though a distinctive Kota Style evolved in mid 17th century, similarities between Bundi and Kota painting continued in many respects. Later, visible variations appeared in details, costumes and methods of shading the faces.
  • Themes of tiger and deer hunt were very popular at Kotah.
  • During the period of Shatrusaal, a concise volume of Bhagwat was painted in Kota Style.
  • Credit for establishment of this style goes to Maharawal Ram Singh.

The Kota school of painting is a fine example of Rajput style of painting. Belonging to the erstwhile Kota kingdom of Rajasthan, it is renowned for the portrayal of battles, hunting expeditions, marriages and other major political events. It was a blend of Muslim and Hindu style of painting. Opaque water colors were usually employed and the themes are usually related to religion, politics and literature.

One of the preferred topics in these paintings was the favorite royal sport, tiger hunting. They portrayed the king, mounted on elephant during the hunt, and his followers amidst thick vegetation. The artists often accompanied the expeditions to record the events. They captured the movements of the animals, most prominent among them being the elephant. Stress was given on the energy and magnificence of the elephant rather than its adornment. Artists belonging to the Kota school were considered the best in depicting the elephant.

Features: Animals painted in this style include deer, tiger, lion and pig and Stout bodies, shining faces and bulging eyes.

Jaipur Style

The rulers of the state were closely allied to the Mughal dynasty, but paintings of the late 16th and early 17th centuries possessed all of the elements of the Rajasthani style. Little is known about the school until the opening years of the 18th century, when stiff, formal examples appear in the reign of Sawai Jai Singh. The finest works, dating from the reign of Pratap Singh, are sumptuous in effect and include some splendid portraits and some large paintings of the sports of Krishna. Although the entire 19th century was extremely productive, the work was rather undistinguished and increasingly affected by Western influences. Of the Rajasthani styles of this period, the Jaipur School was the most popular, examples having been found all over northern India.

  • This school of painting originated at Amber but later shifted to Jaipur, the new capital.
  • Because of close proximity to Mughals, the Jaipur style is strongly influence by Mughal School.
  • The style got patronage under reign of Sawai Jai Singh I (1622-88). Under Jai Singh II (1693-1743), Ishwari Singh (1743-1750) and Madho Singh I (1750-1767), a new style was adopted for the female face. Under Pratap Singh (1779-1803), there was a complete transformation of painting in Jaipur. The Mughal influence was eliminated and a genuine Jaipur- Rajpur style emerged.
  • There are a fairly large number of portraits of the Jaipur rulers.
  • Dominant themes of painting included Mahabharat, Ramayan, Krishna Leela and Geet Govinda & Kama Sutra.

Features: Large size canvas, ornate backgrounds and bright gorgeous borders and Female figures are depicted with large eyes, bunch of long hair, stout physique and pleasant mood.

Jodhpur Style

Jodhpur Shaili Miniature- Jodhpur inherited the art tradition of prior Marwar, which Pali, its sub-centre, revived in early 17th century in its Ragamala paintings. The initial idiom of Marwar art style defines these Pali paintings. This Pali idiom was replaced by Mughal elements in subsequent Jodhpur Ragamala paintings. Jodhpur excelled in the depiction of Baramasa, Ramayana, votive images of gods and the scenes of harem life.

  1. An independent Jodhpur style came into existence during reign of Rao Maldev. Paintings on Uttaradhyayan Sutra were made during his reign.
  2. Executed in a primitive and vigorous folk style Paintings in Mughal style developed under the patronage of Jaswant Singh (1638-1681), who served as the Viceroy of the Mughals for Malwa, Gujarat and the Deccan.
  3. Paintings of the legendary lovers like Dhola-Maru on camelback, hunting scenes are famous.
  4. Ajit Singh (1707-1724) & Abhay Singh (1724-1750) continued the patronage of painting.

The late Jodhpur style, characterized by the lavish use of yellow, blue and green colors, spiral clouds on the horizon, reached its climax in the reign of Man Singh (1823-1843). Beautiful and attractive paintings were painted in the palace of Nagaur during the reign of Bhakhat Singh.

Features: Despite being influenced by the Mewar School, the Jodhpur style has its own striking features and Males are stoutly built and tall, with curved mustaches, touching their throats.

Bikaner Style

Bikaner Shaili Miniature- Uniara, a sub-school of Kotah, is excellent in clubbing various festivals with conventional themes like Baramasa and in the depiction of Ragas and various myths. Indergarh, another Kotah sub-school, preferred portraits. Bikaner style is predominated by Mughal elements. It is partly because most of its master artists, Ali Raza, Ustad Sahibdin, Ruknuddin, Nuruddin and Murad, had come from the Mughal world and were adept in the Mughal style. But despite, in its themes Bikaner always inclined to Hindu myths and legends like Krishna-Lila, Ramayana, Bhagavata, Devi-Mahatmya and Ragamala Depictions of village life, Baramasa, festivals, processions, hunting and the like also have an indigenous touch. Perfect technical execution, maturity of form, elegance and soft colour effects, the widely known ‘neem-kalam’, is in contrast to Rajasthan’s bright deep tones, characterised Bikaner miniatures.

  • Some of the Mughal artists were given patronage by the Bikaner court. So, Bikaner style has more Mughal elements than other schools of Rajasthani paintings.
  • Apart from Mughal, there is considerable influence of Deccani style.
  • Bhagwad Purana painted during period of Rai Singh is considered to be an early painting of this style.
  • Developed peaked during reign of Maharaja Anoop Singh.
  • Most of the paintings are made on the Ramayana, on the Mahabharata, lord Krishna legends, Ragmala and love scenes of Radha and Krishna.

Features:

  • Slim and attractive females with eyes resembling those of deer.
  • Frequent application of blue, green and red colors.
  • Turbans of the style of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb along with the high turbans of Marwari fashion.

Marwar School of Painting

The Marwar School comprises of Kishangarh, Bikaner and Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur and Ghanerao styles.

Marwar developed a suave and dissimilar School of Paintings. The Marwar School imitated the Mughal sway and nobles on durbar and horses scenes were well-known in Mewar School of paintings. Amid 1760 and 1780, the Mughal control departed and the Rajput elements became famous in Jodhpur, which are exemplified by linear pace and shimmering colors. In Marwar festivals, paintings, elephant fights, hunting expeditions and ceremonies are normally depicted. The themes also incorporate scenes collected from the life of Lord Krishna. Other admired themes were ‘Gita Govinda’ and ‘Raagmala

Kishangarh Style

Kishangarh Shaili Miniature- Kishangarh excelled in the sensuous rendering of mystic feminine beauty; an ideal realised in Bani-Thani. Its artists Bhawani Das, Surat Ram, Nihal Chand gave to the art world some of its timeless masterpieces. The Krishna-cult dominated the Kishangarh art scenario, but Ramayana episodes, hunting scenes and portraits were also rendered. Raja Sawant Singh, a great art patron, was often painted as Krishna.

Miniature art at Jaipur began during the reign of Sawai Jai Singh. Muhammad Shah and Sahib Ram were the principal painters of the Jaipur style. Jaipur excelled in life-size portraits, depiction of myths, ragas, astrological principles and different amusing and erotic themes. Jaipur generally used a large size canvas, ornate backgrounds and bright gorgeous borders. After the Govardhan Puja Krishna going to the jungle with gopas and cows

  • Developed under the patronage of Raja Sawant Singh (1748-1757 A.D.), who wrote devotional poetry in praise of Krishna.
  • Most common theme of this style consisted of the depiction of the love between lord Krishna and Radha.
  • Master painter Nihal Chand who, in his works, has been able to create visual images of his master’s lyrical compositions.
  • He is also credited with making Bani-Thani during Sawant Singh’s reign.

Best Wishes!!

Fairs and Festivals of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Fairs & Festivals of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is a land of fairs & festivals, but before we can understand of these it is essential to learn the names of Indian Seasons & months, as the India festivals & fairs are organized based on Hindi calendar, which is LUNAR.

The rich cultural heritage of Rajasthan beautifully reflects in its numerous fairs and festivals, which are as colourful as the rainbow. The rich traditions of Rajasthan have given birth to a wide variety of fairs and festivals, which occupy an important place in the life of the people. Be it harvest season or the birth of a child, Rajasthani people love to celebrate. Some of the fairs and festivals such as the Elephant festival and Pushkar Fair are quite unique and attract visitors from across the world. Enjoy the cultural panorama of Rajasthan by participating in its wonderful fairs and festivals.

In Hindu calendar, year begins with 1- Chaitra:

            First day after new moon (Amavsya)

            New Year of Vikram Samvat (2073 in 2016)

            New Year of Saka Samvat (Official Government calendar)

            1 Chaitra = 22 march (Normal year) & 21 March (Leap year)

            Chaitra = 30 days (normal year) & 31 days (Leap year).

The festival according to the months:

Festivals and Fairs of Rajasthan in Chaitra:

  1. Festivals

Gangaur

They worship lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati and offer prayers for a long and happy life of their husbands. And the unmarried girls pray to be blest with a husband like lord Shiva. The festival is celebrated in the month of March/April.

The term “Shakti” has always held a special status in the Hindu religion. Shakti refers to an exclusively feminine principle and is perceived in all phenomena of life. The originator of life on Earth, it is responsible for the movement of all things, be it the cosmic objects or the various forces of nature. Deprived of Shakti, all creation on the planet will be rendered inept. Numerous ancient Indian texts, like the Vedas, Puranas and Epics bear citation of this cosmic power, recognizing its godly form as Parvati the wife of Hindu God Shiva. Over the ages, Shakti has been synonymous to a myriad of forms and identified under many names one of which is Gauri and as is suggestive by the name, the notable Gangaur festival is observed in honor of this very manifestation of Shakti (Gauri). The term “Gangaur” is comprised of “Gan” and “Gaur” where the prior refers to Shiva and the latter to Gauri. The Gangaur festival marks the worship and propitiation of Gauri by the womenfolk, in various parts of Central and Western India, majorly Rajasthan.

The womenfolk celebrate the festival of Gangaur with great zeal and devotion, praying to Goddess Parvati/Gauri to bless them with a bountiful spring that’s full of harvest, and also marital harmony. They also urge the goddess to bless their husbands with good health and long life. Although this festival holds special significance for the married women, unmarried girls are also seen partaking in it in hopes of being blessed with a good husband. The story of Gangaur revolves around Parvati being escorted by Lord Shiva from her parental home, following a grand farewell. As per ancient texts, Parvati had performed severe penance for days to persuade Lord Shiva to have her as his wife. Her perseverance and devotion did indeed move him.

The Gangaur festival starts on the first day of the month of Chaitra (as per Hindu calendar) which is on the following day of Holi, and is consummated on the third day of Shukla Paksha of the same month. This festival is usually an 18-day affair, during which all women are expected to observe a fast restricting them to only one meal a day. Clay idols of Shiva-Gauri perfected by the local craftsmen are decorated and worshipped during the full course of the festival. Certain Rajput families worship traditional wooden figurines of the divine couple, which are repainted every year by Matheran (local painters) before the festival commences. These figures are then placed within baskets along with wheat grass and flowers; wheat plays an important role in the rituals as it signifies harvest. People also buy earthen pots known locally as Kunda and decorate them in a traditional Rajasthani painting style called maandna. It is customary for married women to receive gift hampers from their parents known as Sinjara, which comprises of clothes, jewellery items, makeup and sweets. These gift hampers are generally sent on the second last day of the festival which the women utilize to get ready on the final or main celebration day. Decorating hands and feet with beautiful designs made out of Mehndi (myrtle paste) is another popular practice that’s widespread during the Gangaur festival.

The traditional procession is carried out with great pomp and pageantry in Jaipur, starting from the Zanani-Deodhi in City Palace and covering Tripolia Bazaar, Chhoti Chaupar, Gangauri Bazaar, Chaugan Stadium and Talkatora along the way. The royal procession of goddess Gangaur comprises of camels, chariots, bullock carts and dancing folk artists.

  • Worship of Eser ji & Gauri ji made of clay.
  • 16 days festival
  • Main Celebration: Jodhpur, Jaipur, Udaipur, Kota
  • Colonel Tod described Gangor of Udaipur.

Teej festival

Teej festival is held every year during the Hindu month of Shravan and marks the advent of the monsoon. The onset of monsoon is a time to celebrate as the rain brings water to the parent land.

Teej refers to all the monsoon festivals observed particularly in the western and northern states of India. The festivals celebrate the bounty of nature, arrival of the monsoon, greenery and birds with social activities, rituals & customs. The festival is mainly for women and includes dancing, singing, getting together with friends and narrating stories, applying henna on hands and feet, wearing brightly coloured Lahariya saris, sharing festive foods and playing under trees on swings on Hariyali Teej. The festivals are dedicated, in many parts of India, to Goddess Parvati, also known as Teej Mata. Women pray to the goddess seeking the wellness of their husband. On this occassion, a royal procession of Goddess Teej comprising of camels, dancing folk artists, royal palanquins, chariots and bullock carts, starts from the City Palace, winding its way through Tripolia Bazaar and Chhoti Chaupar on both days. The traditional sweet Ghewar is closely associated with the festival and enjoyed heartily over its duration.

The Teej Festival is dedicated to Goddess Parvati and commemorates the day when she was united with Lord Shiva. Young girls, newlywed women and elderly women can be seen attired in traditional costumes or in special multicolored striped pattern Lahariya Sari and ornaments. They can be seen applying henna to decorate their hands and singing songs of love and enjoying flower bedecked swings, which are hung on trees.

Kajli Teej

The festival of Kajli Teej is unique to the city of Bundi. A dazzlingly theatrical and lively event, it is held every year in the month of Bhadra (July-August). This week-long celebration filled with gaiety and fanfare pays homage to Goddess Uma by the seekers of marital bliss and love. Women wear colourful traditional costumes, new sets of bangles and decorate their hands with beautiful henna designs. A local fair is held nearby which is extremely popular with the rural folk around Bundi. Handicrafts such as traditional kataar, paintings, bangles, rural handicrafts and fancy eatables attract many people from Rajasthan, other parts of India and foreign shores.

Abhaneri festival

Abhaneri festival’ is named after the village Abhaneri in the Dausa district which is around 90 km from Jaipur on the Agra road. This two-day festival has gained immense popularity amongst the tourists around the globe. This year, it will commence from 11th to 12th October with various Rajasthani & local folk performances like Kachhi Ghori, Kalbelia, Ghoomar, and Bhawai. Festival was initiated by Rajasthan Tourism in 2008; it is of great significance for Rajasthan. The village of Abhaneri was originally named Abha Nagri, meaning “city of brightness”. The place is popular for the Chand Baori-step well, one of the largest step wells built over a thousand years ago. Be a part of the celebrations at Abhaneri and dip into the rustic charm of traditional Rajasthani music.

Rajasthan Kabir Yatra

The Rajasthan Kabir Yatra is a travelling music festival which will journey over Rajasthan, creating a space where musicians, artists, scholars, students and seekers can immerse themselves in the voices of Bhakti and Sufi saint-poets such as Kabir, Mira, Bulleh Shah, questioning and dissolving boundaries of caste, class, religion and identity.

Dussehra

Dussehra is a Hindu festival celebrated all over the country. As the name suggests, it is the ‘Tenth Day’ of the fierce battle fought; when Lord Rama killed King Ravana. This holy day marks the victory of good over evil. The Dussehra Festival of Kota is quite a unique experience for both the residents and tourists. Villagers dress themselves in colourful traditional wear and join long processions to offer their prayers to Lord Rama. Cultural programmes are organised and include scintillating performances by well-known artists. However, the highlight of the festivities is the theatrical representation of the encounter popularly known as ‘Ramleela’. The drama is so highly anticipated among the locals that spectators start chanting the name of Lord Rama during the show. The climax of the show holds most appeal as it ends with setting alight gigantic effigies of the 10-headed Ravana along with his brother Kumbh karana and his son Meghnath. These 75-feet tall statues are stuffed with crackers and once set on fire, they burst to create an extravagant show.

Marwar Festival

The most popular festival in Jodhpur is the Marwar Festival. The two-day festival is held every year in the month of Ashwin (between September and October) in memory of the heroes of Rajasthan. It was originally known as the Maand Festival. The main attraction of this festival is the folk music centering on the romantic lifestyle of Rajasthan’s rulers. The music and dance of the Marwar region is the main theme of this festival. The folk dancers and singers assemble at the festival and provide lively entertainment. These folk artists give you a peek into the days of yore, of battles and of heroes who live on through their songs. Among other attractions at the festival is the Camel Tattoo Show and various competitions like Moustache, Turban Tying, Tug of War, Matka Race, Traditional Dress Competition and many more. The venues of this festival include the famous Clock Tower & Osian’s sand dunes.

The Pushkar Fair

The Pushkar Fair (Pushkar Camel Fair) or Pushkar Mela, as it is locally known as, is an annual weeklong camel and livestock fair held in the town of Pushkar between the months of October and November. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs. Apart from the buying and selling of livestock, it has become an important tourist attraction. Competitions such as the ‘Matka phod’, ‘longest moustache’ and ‘bridal competition’ are the main draws for this fair which attracts thousands of tourists. In recent years, the fair has also included an exhibition cricket match between the local Pushkar Club and a team of foreign tourists.

Kolayat Fair

The Kolayat Fair of Bikaner holds great importance for the locals who eagerly await it. Tourists also experience a great time as the fair is celebrated on an expansive scale. Also known as ‘Kapil Muni Fair’, it is held in the month of November. The pomp and show of the fair is not its only attraction as it also possesses great religious significance. A large number of devotees visit the fair to take a holy dip in the Kolayat Lake. It is believed that a holy dip can absolve them of all their sins.

Chandrabhaga Fair

Every year, the Chandrabhaga Fair in Rajasthan welcomes thousands of visitors and participants from all over the nation. It is held at Jhalrapatan, situated at a distance of about six kilometres from Jhalawar, in the month of Kartik (October and November). This fair attracts travellers, pilgrims and explorers alike with rituals and traditions practiced in this region. A lot of pilgrims assemble on the banks of river Chandrabhaga during the fair and participate in this gala event. The festival, named after the river Chandrabhaga, is considered very sacred by the people of Rajasthan. People travel from far just for a dip in the river as they believe this will purify their souls. A huge cattle fair is also organised here, where livestock such as cows, horses, buffaloes, camels and bullocks are purchased from various parts for resale. The fair includes several spiritual and traditional activities. During the fair, the Department of Tourism organises activities over a course of 3 days like traditional Deepdan, Shobha Yatra and various competitions as well as cultural evenings.

Bundi Festival

The Bundi Festival is celebrated in the month of Kartik (October-November) and includes several spiritual and traditional activities. It is a remarkable cluster of traditional art, culture and craftsmanship and visitors are left charmed by its magnificence. The program includes a colourful Shobha Yatra, arts & crafts fair, ethnic sports, cultural exhibition, classical music & dance program, turban competitions, bridal clothing, musical band competitions, and a sparkling fireworks display. Early in the morning, after the full moon night of Kartik Purnima, women and men clad in attractive colourful costumes light Diyas or lamps on the banks of River Chambal and seek blessings.

Matsya festival

The Matsya festival of Alwar held in November over two days is the foremost of all fairs and festivals of Rajasthan. It is celebrated to glorify the prosperity, traditional values and colourful customs of the region. This festival is renowned for its colourful processions, cultural performances, an array of sporting events and impressive artistic exhibitions. The magnificence of Alwar’s numerous palaces and forts, lakes, hunting lodges, archaeological sites and thick forests, make it a delightful setting for a flamboyant celebration.

Kumbhalgarh festival

The Kumbhalgarh fort, cradled in the Aravali Ranges, north of Udaipur, hosts the vibrant and colourful Kumbhalgarh Festival. This three-day festival is an incredible effort by the Department Of Tourism of the state to promote the culture and heritage of Rajasthan. The event is divided into two parts- day and night. In the daytime there is the folk performance by traditional artistes and competitions like turban tying and henna applying. On the other hand, the night is filled with impressive explosions of lights, sound, colours and dance. The Kumbhalgarh Festival is a must visit for ardent patrons of art, music and dance.

Ranakpur Festival

It is Located in district Pali is the city of Ranakpur that becomes the delightful setting for one of the most popular festivals of Rajasthan. Organized by the Department of Tourism, this festival offers a unique insight into the local culture and heritage. With fun activities like yoga, nature walks at the foothills in forests of Aravallis, visits to the Ranakpur Jain temple, hot air ballooning, interesting activities like: tug of war, beautiful decorations, cultural programmes, the open air amphitheater at Sun Temple showcases attractive folk and classical performances every evening and much more, the Ranakpur Festival is something you simply cannot miss. This festival is usually held on the 21st and 22nd of December every year, playing host to tourists from all corners of the globe, to immerse them in a colorful affair of cultural festivity.

Winter Festival – Mt. Abu

The annual Winter Festival held at Mount Abu in December pays homage to the rich culture and tradition of Rajasthan. The much-talked about event is a rare combination of cultural vibrancy, stunning handicrafts and delicious food, set against a scenic backdrop. This two day extravaganza brings together craftsmen and performers from every corner of the state. It is also known for its sporting and entertainment events, such as kite flying, rowing competitions and poetry reading sessions. Also, it is the only festival in Rajasthan where cricket has been introduced as a part of the celebration. A Grand procession marks the beginning of the festival. It culminates at the Nakki Lake with the ‘Deepdan’ ceremony in the evening, where hundreds of Diyas (earthen lamps) are set afloat in the water as a form of respect. A stunning display of fireworks ends the festival on a spectacular note.

Camel Festival, Bikaner

The camels of Bikaner region are renowned for their strength, endurance and beauty. The camel has always been an integral part of Bikaner, and this can gauged by the fact that the Bikaner army had a Camel Corp called “Ganga Risala” which took part in both the World Wars and as well as in conflicts in Somaliland, Egypt and China. “Ganga Risala” was the predecessor of Indian Army’s camel unit “Ganga Jaisalmer Risala” which saw action in Indo-Pakistan War of 1965, and was later disbanded in the year 1975. The camel is still utilized by the Border Security Force’s Bikaner Camel Corp for patrolling the long international border which Rajasthan shares with Pakistan, and remains a star attraction at Republic Day Parade.

The Festival is a two-day affair the dates for Bikaner Camel Festival this year were the 12th and 13th January. This festival which fervently celebrates the “ship of the desert” is cheered on by thousands of locals and tourists, as it brings to the fore not only the special relation people of this region have with this sturdy animal, but also promotes camel breeding and the age old tradition of camel taming and training.

The festival starts with a procession of camels adorned beautifully in traditional necklaces and anklets, and vibrantly colored bridles. This colorful parade starts from the magnificent Junagarh Fort and ends at the Dr. Karni Singh Stadium. It is upon reaching the open ground that the Camel Festival begins in earnest. The camel pageant is held, with camel owners showing off their majestic camels decked up to the brim. There are also competitions for camel milking and the best fur cutting design. But it is the dancing competition that is the most eagerly awaited. The audience is left spellbound by the jingling of anklets to rhythm of music, as the day ends with cultural performance by the local artists.

There are also number of competitions for both the tourists and the locals. These competitions include tug of war for both males and females and the water pot race for women. There is also the Turban tying competition for tourists from other countries not forget the villagers wrestling competition and a Kabbadi display match. Like the previous day, this is followed by an evening of cultural programs where the audiences are bewitched by the colorful swirling skirts and the music. A dazzling display of fireworks brings the Bikaner Camel Festival to a close.

The Jaipur Kite Festival

Rajasthan has long since been considered as one of the most colorful and culturally rich states in the country. It is well known across the world as the land of festivals, and with good reason. The fervor and zest that is displayed at each and every celebration is just another colorful feather in the beautiful plumage of Rajasthan. One of the first major celebrations of every New Year is Makar Sankranti, a festival that follows the solar cycle rather than the lunar cycle, like most festivals in India. Over the years, Makar Sankranti has come to be celebrated as one of the most colorful and vibrant festivals of the country, and where there is pomp to be displayed, Rajasthan is always at the forefront, displaying their fun and frolic with full gusto. As several feasts and rituals showcasing the beauty of Rajasthani culture dot the entire state, any mention of Makar Sankranti would be incomplete without a mention of the Jaipur Kite Festival. The kite flyers and visitors, throng to Jaipur in multitudes to experience and partake in the merrymaking.

The kite festivals observed on Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan which marks the transition of the sun to Makara Rashi (Capricorn) from the Dhanu Rashi (Sagittarius). It is said that the northward journey of the sun (Uttarayan) begins on this day, making the celebrations quite auspicious in nature. In Jaipur, Makar Sankranti is a government holiday where all shops, banks, and offices are closed, adding to the merriment of celebration, as people indulge in fun-loving rivalry, and try to outdo each other in the numerous kites flying activity held across the city.

The beginning of this festival finds its roots in the belief that winters were over and spending prolonged hours in the sunlight are supposed to be good for everyone. Makar Sankranti marks the beginning of summer which is greeted by the population spending the day on their roofs, flying kites, and trying to cut each other’s strings. Steadily, the Kite Festival in Jaipur was born, and today, people fly kites throughout the day as the startling blue of the sky gets dotted with a million colors, transforming it into a sight to behold.

Jaipur Literature Fest

Expanding the horizons of literature, the Jaipur Literature Festival taking place every year at the Diggi Palace, Jaipur invites some of the finest writers rather, the crème de la crème of the literary landscape under one roof. It is described as the ‘greatest literary show on Earth’; this festival celebrates writers from all across the world. The Jaipur Literature Festival marks that period in the month of January when readers flock to satiate their voracious appetite for deep thoughts and being an inch closer to their favourite writers.

Nagaur Fair

The Nagaur Fair is the second biggest fair in India. Held every year between the months of January and February, it is popularly known as the Cattle Fair of Nagaur as this is where owners gather to trade animals. Approximately 70,000 bullocks, camels and horses are traded every year at this fair. The animals are lavishly decorated and even their owners dress up with colourful turbans and long moustaches. Besides cattle, sheep, horses and even spices are traded. Other attractions include the Mirchi Bazaar (largest red chilli market of India), sale of wooden items, iron-crafts and camel leather accessories. Several sports are also held during the fair. These include tug-of-war, camel races and bullock races. Nagaur fair is also famous for its jugglers, puppeteers, storytellers, etc.

Baneshwar Fair

Baneshwar Fair is a popular tribal festival held in the Baneshwar Temple of Dungarpur. This festival held on the full moon day of February or Magh Shukla Purnima attracts a large number of tourists. On this pious occasion, Bhils travel all the way from Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh to take a dip at the confluence of the rivers, Mahi and Som. In addition to this fair, the Vagad Festival is also one of the popular celebrations of Dungarpur. This festival showcases dance forms and music from the region. Holi, the popular Hindu festival, is celebrated here with tribal dances.

Desert Festival

Once a year, the empty sands around Jaisalmer come alive with a mesmerizing performance on the sand dunes in the form of the Desert Festival. The festival, organised by the Department of Tourism around January-February, goes on for three whole days and lets you enjoy the rich and colourful Rajasthani folk culture. Rajasthani men and tall, beautiful women dressed in their best and brightest costumes dance and sing ballads of valour, romance and tragedy, while traditional musicians attempt to outdo each other to showcase their musical superiority.

The high points of the festival are puppeteers, acrobats, camel tattoo shows, camel races, camel polo, traditional processions, camel mounted bands, folk dances, etc.

Udaipur World Music Festival

The City of Lakes sings a different tune come February. Udaipur plays host to the fourth edition of the Udaipur World Music Festival. Organized by SEHER, this festival brings together global artists and ensembles from over 20 countries including Iran, Spain, Brazil, Senegal, France, Portugal, Italy and India, amongst other nations. The event is designed to cater to the music sensibilities of people across different ages and from all walks of life. An absolute once-in-a-lifetime experience, this one is a sheer treat for lovers of good music.

Braj Holi

The Braj festival in Rajasthan is held every year for two days in the Shukla Paksha of the Phalguna month, a few days prior to Holi. This festival is dedicated to Lord Krishna who is believed to have spent a considerable amount of time in a region called Braj in Rajasthan. This festival not only replicates the spirit of Holi but also impersonates the timeless love of Radha and Krishna. The highlight of this festival is the Raslila dance performed with great zest and unity. The entire town is painted and no one is spared from being splashed with colours. The festival is celebrated with great pomp and ceremony in Deeg, Kaman and Bharatpur in the Bharatpur District.

Dhulandi Festival

Dhulandi Festival (Festival of Colours) is celebrated all over India a day after Holika Dahan and marks the beginning of spring. On this day, young and old alike play with colours and water and the celebrations can last for the better part of the day. The festival is celebrated in a very special way all over the state where the Department of Tourism organizes an event meant especially for foreign tourists.

Mewar Festival

The Mewar Festival is celebrated with much gusto and fervor, drawing not just the locals from adjoining villages and towns but also tourists from other countries who are eager to see the glorious traditions of Rajputana bought alive. When you visit Udaipur during the Mewar Festival, experience the color and joy that is associated with it and which is regaled with age old rituals and tradition of the Rajputana. Of the innumerable festivals that mark the advent of spring, none is more colorful than the Mewar festival celebrated in Udaipur. As the date of the Mewar festival in Udaipur etches closer, locals, tourists and performing artists start pouring into the city, creating a spectacular ambience of mesmerizing decorations which is further augmented by the bright colored traditional wear that locals wear.

The Mewar festival, held every year in the month of March-April, can be split into distinct but integral parts i.e. Religious and Cultural.

The festival coincides with Gangaur festival which holds a special significance for womenfolk, the celebrations for which begin at least a fortnight ago. Gangaur begins from the next day of Holi and starts with gathering of ashes from the Holi fire. Barley seeds are buried in the collected ashes and are watered every day until the seeds germinate. Newly married women are required to observe fast for 18 days to ensure a happy married life. Many unmarried girls also observe fast for 18 days, eating just one meal a day. While the married women pray for marital bliss and good health of their partner, the single ones pray for a match of their choice. On the day of the Gangaur, women dressed in their finest clothes gather to dress the images of Isar (Lord Shiva) and his consort Gangaur (Goddess Parvati). These idols are then carried in a huge procession which begins from the clock tower and ends at Gangaur Ghat at Lake Pichhola. Here, the idols are transferred onto boats. This makes for a beautiful sight to behold, as hundreds of boats carrying the idols sail gently in the lake.

The procession is followed by a number of cultural events, including presentation of dance forms such as Ghoomar and Kalbelia. The traditional songs sung by the local bards welcome the tourists and continue to enthrall them during the festival. The 3-day long Mewar festival is brought to an end with an impressive display of fireworks.

Rajasthan Festival

Bright, multihued and the ‘Land of Kings’ – Rajasthan celebrates its foundation day (30 March) in a radiant and invigorating event, it is celebrated as Rajasthan Festival will be celebrated in Jaipur and all over the State, reliving its heritage and stories. Organised by Tourism Department of Rajasthan, this long festivity has day packed programmes ranging from morning chants to musical evenings. With something that connects with every age group, Rajasthan Festival will be a testimony of vivacious musical concerts, harmonious religious chants, captivating film festivals, musical night, army pageant, police tattoo show, heritage fashion show, grand closing ceremony and much more.

Summer Festival – Mt. Abu

When the harsh summer beats down on the arid land of Rajasthan, its only hill station – Mount Abu provides more than respite as it comes alive with its unique two-day summer festival. Soulful ballad singing kicks off the summer festival in style and is followed by mesmerizing folk dance styles of Gair, Ghoomar and Daph. The highlight is undoubtedly the Sham-e-Qawwali, which features some of the best folk singers from various parts of India. Along with a colourful showcase of folk culture, the festival also hosts horse racing events, tug of war, skating races, CRPF band show and boat races on the Nakki Lake. The festival concludes with a dazzling display of fireworks and the gorgeous landscape of Mount Abu, with its verdant hills and lakes make it a one-of-its-kind experience.

Festivals & Fairs of Rajasthan in Vaisakha:

Akshay Tritiya: Vaishakha Shukla Tritiya

Fairs: Brithari Mela in Alwarand Mata Kundalini mela is held at Rashmi, Chittorgarh on Vaisakha Poornima.

Shravana

Teej Festival: Shravana Shukla Tritiya – Chotti Teej

Fairs: Kalyan Ji ka Mela at Diggipuri-Malpura- Tonk on Amavsya and Teej ka Mela at Jaipur (Famous), rest rajasthan celebrate on Shukla Tritiya (3rd)

Bhadra:

Teej Festival: Bhadra Shukla Tritiya – Badi Teej

Ganesh Chaturthi: Shukla Chaturthi

Fairs:

  • Baba Ramdev Ji ka Mela at Runicha – Pokaran- Jaisalmer from Shukla Paksh – Dooj (2nd) -11th
  • Gogaji Mela at Nohar, Hanumangarh from Krishna Ashtami to Ekadashi
  • Goga Ji Mela at Dadrewa, Churu from Krishna Navami to Shukla Navami.
  • Brithari Mela (II) in Alwar
  • Karjali Teej mela in Bundi on 3rd
  • Ganesh Mela at Ranthambore, Sawai Madhopur on Ganesh Chaturthi (4th) Charbhuja mela at Charbhuja, Udaipur on Shukla Ekadashi.

Ashwin: Karni Mata Mela – in Nokh, Bikaner from Sukla 1st – 10th and Jambheshwar Mela at Nokha, Bikaner.

Festivals: Deepawali:Kartik Amavsya

Fairs: Kapil Muni Mela in Kolayat Bikaner on Kartik Purnima, Puskar Mela in Pushkar, Ajmer from Kartik Shukla Ekadashi to Purnima and Neelapani mela at Hathod village, Dungarpur on kartika Poornima.

Magha: Beneshwar Mela in Beneshwar, Dungarpur from Shukla Ekadashi to Purnima (Shivaratri). This fair is called kumbha of tribals.

Phalguna (Falgun)

Holi: Falgun Poornima

Fairs: Khatu Shyam ji Mela – in Sikar – from Shukla 10th -12th and Jambheshwar Mela at Nokha, Bikaner

Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan

The rock inscriptions of Rajasthan serve as a very authentic evidence for the reconstruction of the history and culture of Rajasthan. They offer reliable pieces of information that has helped in building up the chronology and political history of Rajasthan.

Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan

S.No Year Inscription Facts to Remember
1 443 BC Barli, Ajmer Brahmi Script Reveals that Jaina cult was prevalent in Madhyamika.
2 1St – BC Ghosundi, Chittor Mentions Asvamedha Yajna by King Sarvatata. Mentions about Krishna & Sankarshana (Balram)
3 225 AD Nandsa Yupe Stambha, Bhilwara Nandsa (Bhilwara) Language Sanskrit
4 227 AD Barnala Yupe Stambha, Jaipur Language Sanskrit Presently preserved at Amer museum Mentions establishment of 7 Pathshala
5 238-239 AD Badwa Stambha, Baran Language Sanskrit Describes triratra yajna performed by three brothers.
6 274 AD Bichpuria, Tonk Language Sanskrit Mentions performance of Yajna – without any name Dharak described as Agnihotri
7 278 AD Vijayagarh Language Sanskrit Describes Pundareek yajna performed by Yashovardhana
8 423 AD Gungdhar, Jhalawar Language Sanskrit Mentions construction of Vishnu temple by Mayuraksha minister of Vishwakarma
9 424 AD Nagari Language Sanskrit Presently preserved at Ajmer museum Evidence about Vishnu worship.
10 490 AD Bharamar Mata, Chittor Language Sanskrit Mentions punyashobha, Rajyavardhana & Yashogupta of Gaur dynasty.
11 6th AD Khand, Chittor Language Sanskrit Two parts: one is 3-line & other is 8-line First part mentions Vishnudatta Second part mentions Manohar Swamy: Vishnu mandir
12 625 AD Basantgarh, Sirohi Language Sanskrit Raujil, son of Vajra Bhatt has been mentioned ruler of Arbuda region.
13 646 AD Shamboli, Mewar Information on Guhil Dynasty of mewar
14 661 AD Nadi Village, Mewar Language Sanskrit in Kutil Script Bravely of Guhil ruler Aparajit has been described
15 685 AD Mandore, Jodhpur Language Sanskrit Engraved on rock in Bawadi
16 713 AD Shakner-Ghatta, Chittor Language Sanskrit Mentions Raja Manbhanga or Manmori
17 738 AD Kanaswan, Kota Language Sanskrit Informs regarding Maurya ruler Dhawal
18 861 AD Ghatiyala, Jodhpur Language Sanskrit Information related to political, social & religious policies of Pratihara dynasty.
19 861 AD Ghatiyala, Jodhpur Language Marathi Verses with meaning in Sanskrit About Harishchandra, a Brahmin – supposed to be father of Pratihara dynasty.
20 865 AD Osian, Jodhpur Language Sanskrit Vatsraj given title of Ripudaman Varna System described
21 946 AD Pratapgarh Language Sanskrit
22 971 AD Chittor Language Sanskrit Presently preserved at Bhartiya Mandir, Ahmedabad. Describes prosperity of Chittor & achievements of Parmar rulers.
23 977 AD Aahar (Ahad) Language Sanskrit Description of 3 Kings- Allat, Narwahan & Shakti kumar Also gives information regarding military system of Mewar. Col Tod took the inscription to England
24 1086 AD Jhalrapatan Placed at Sarvasukhia Kothi Engraved by Pandit Harsukh in Sanskrit

Art and Culture: Rajasthani Folk Literature

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Rajasthani Folk Literature

Faad Literature

  • Shahpura in Bhilwara is famous for this folk literature.
  • It is happening from life of Lok Devta like Pabuji, Dev Narayan ji, Ramdev ji etc are depicted in Faad.
  • Padam Shri Lal Joshi ji from Bhilwara – gave international recognition to Faad literature.
Author Work
Asig Jiyadarya Raas
Atyudhan Mahariya Veer Satsai
Badar Dhaadhi Veer Bhayan
Bankidas Ashiya Bankidas Ri Khyaat
Baraith Isardas Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya
Bhandari Vyas Hammirayan
Bithu Meha Pabuji Ra Chand, Gogaji Rasavla
Chand Bardai Prthviraj Raso
Chandra Singh Kah-Mukrani
Dalpat Vijay Khuman Raso
Dayal (Dayaram) Rana raso
Dayaldas Sidayach Dayaldas Ri Khyaat
Dungar See Shatrusaal Raso
Gardan Shivdas Achaldas Keechi Ri Vachanika
Hari Bhadra Suri Samaraichcha Katha
Hemachandra Suri Deshinaammala, Shabnushasana
Hemraj Stulibhadra Phag
Hemratna Suri Gora Badal ri Chaupayi
Hrishivardhan Suri Nal Damyanti Raas
Jagjivan Bhatt Ajitoday
Jai Singh Suri Hammir Mad-mardana
Jaisom Karmachand Vanshokeertana kam Kavyam
Jaswant Singh Bhasha Bushan
Jayanak Prthviraj Vijayam
Jinprabha Suri Padmavati Chaupai
Jodharaj Sarangdeva Hammir Raso, Hammir Kavya
Kanhaiyalal Sethia Leeltans, Patal aur Peethal, Dharti Dhora Ri
Karanidaan Suraj Prakash
Kesari Singh Barhat Roothi Rani
Kripa Ram Barath Rajia Ka Doha
Madhodas Ram Raso
Magha Shishupal Vadh
Maharana Khumbha Sangeet Raj
Mahesdas Binhai Raso
Malik Mohammad Jaisi Padmavat
Mandan Raj Vallabh
Meera Padavali
Muhnot Nainsi Muhnot Nainsi Ri Khyat , Marwar Ra Pargana Ri Vigat
Muraridan Dingle Kosh
Murlidhar Vyas Rajasthani kahawatein
Nagaridaas Varagya Sagar
Nall Singh Vijaypal Raso
Narpati Nalha Bisaldev Raso
Nayan Chand Suri Hammir Mahakavya
Padmanabh Kanhad-de-Prabandh
Prithvi Raj Rathore Ganga Lahari
Pt. Ramana Asopa Marwari Grammar, Nainsi ki Khyati
Pundareek Vitthal Raag Manjari, Ragmala
Rajshekhar Prabandh Kosh
Ramnath Kaviya Draupadi Vinaya, Pabuji ra Soratha
Rana Kumbha Sangitraj, Ekling Mahamtyq, Nritya Ratnakosh
Ranachorr Bhatt Amarkavya Vanshavali
Sadashiv Raj Vinod
Sanwar Daiya Ek Duniya Mahari
Sawai Singh Dhamora Peru Prakash, Gandi Katha
Shailendra Suri Panch Pandav Charit Rasu
Shalibhadra Suri Bharateshwar Bahubali raas
Shreedhar Pashavnath Charitra
Shridhan Ranmall Chanda
Siddha Rishi Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
Sitaram Lalas Rajasthani Shabdakosh
Somdeva Lahit Vigrah Raj
Sudan Sujan Charitra
Suja ji Rao Jaitasi Ro Chand
Suryamal Mishran Vansh Bhaskar, Sati Raso, Veer Satsai
Swarup Das Pandava Yashendu Chandrika
Udhyotan Suri Kuvlyayamala
Udhyotan Suri Kuvalaya Mala
Vajrasen Suri Bharteshwar Bahubali Ghor
Veerbhan Raj Rupak
Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV Harkaili
Vijay Sen Suri Revantgiri Raas
Vijaydan Detha Batan Ri Phulwari
Vijhana Gyan Manjari
Vitthaldas Rukmani Haran

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Current Affairs of Rajasthan from September-2018 to August-2019 for RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims & Mains, RSMSSB and Other Competitive Examinations conducted by government and Public sector undertakings.

The Importance of Current Affairs in competitive examinations is immense. This is the most critical part of Prelims as well as Mains or we can say objective or descriptive Exam. Aspirants should study in depth to understand the significance of current affairs for UPSC/PSC. In fact, all the questions in exams are drafted around current affairs.

UPSC/PSC usually does not ask direct and static questions from current affairs in Mains. Questions are written by combining current affairs with conventional knowledge. One interesting reason behind this type of strategy is to check the ability of correlation a candidate has.

The best part with current affairs questions asked in UPSC/PSC exams is that they can be solved without wasting time. One can score maximum marks in less time in this section of exam. Current affairs preparation for IAS/RAS keeps the aspirant updated and helps in having a balanced view about different issues.

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Rank of India in different index-2019

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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

India Rank in different Index Reports-2019

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

•        India was ranked 19th out of 28 countries in the Index.

•        Index is released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).

•        Top 3 countries are Australia (1st), Netherlands (2nd) and Germany (3rd).

•        Bottom three are Saudi Arabia (28th), Romania (27th) and Egypt (26th).

Global Startup Ecosystem – India was ranked 17th position among 100 countries

•        It was released by Startup Blink.

•        The report ranks countries based on the strength of its startup ecosystem.

•        China was ranked 27th.

•        Bangalore, New Delhi, and Mumbai were the top cities in the Indian startup ecosystem.

•        Top three countries are: United States, United Kingdom and Canada.

India Ranks 140th in World Press Freedom Index –

•        India ranked 140th out of 180 countries in the World Press Freedom Index 2019.

•        Index is released by Reporters without Borders.

•        The index is topped by Norway followed by Finland and Sweden.

WEF Global Energy Transition Index – India rank 76th on a global energy transition index

•        The report stated that India is amongst the countries with high pollution levels and has a relatively high CO2 intensity in its energy system.

•        Sweden remains on the top and is followed by Switzerland and Norway in the top three.

•        The index is compiled by Geneva-based World Economic Forum (WEF).

World Happiness Report 2019 – India is ranked 140th out of 156 nations

•        The World Happiness Report was released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network for the United Nations.

•        For the second consecutive year, Finland topped the list.

•        Denmark ranked second followed by Norway.

•        Pakistan ranked 67th, Bhutan 95th, China 93rd, Bangladesh 125th, and Sri Lanka 130th while South Sudan ranked last in the World Happiness Report.

India Ranks 11th in Gold Holding: WGC Report – The World Gold Council its latest report highlights the quantum of gold holding by the different countries.

•        India has the 11th largest gold reserve and the current holding pegged at 607 tonnes.

•        The top spot is occupied by US gold reserves of 8,133.5 tonnes, followed by Germany with 3,369.7 tonnes.

•        International Monetary Fund (IMF) ranks third on the list with total gold reserves of 2,814 tonnes.

•        The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry and it aims to stimulate and sustain demand for gold, provide industry leadership, and be the global authority on the gold market.

•        The members of the World Gold Council include gold mining companies

India ranks 16th in terms of Highest Number of impacted Species in Hotspots – A recent study published in PLOS Biology found that human impacts on species occur across 84% of the earth’s surface and India ranks 16th in such impacts, with 35 species impacted on an average.

•        Malaysia ranks 1st among the countries with the highest number of impacted species (125).

•        Southeast Asian tropical forests, including those in India’s Western Ghats, Himalaya, and north-east, are among the ‘hotspots’ of threatened species.

•        However, these very areas are also ‘cool-spots’ (the world’s last refuges where high numbers of threatened species still persist).

Inclusive Internet Index 2019 – India has been ranked 47th.

•        Sweden has topped the rankings followed by Singapore and the US.

•        The Inclusive Internet Index 2019 was prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) for Facebook.

•        The ‘Inclusive Internet’ score was based on the scores of availability, affordability, relevance and readiness categories.

International IP index 2019

•        India has jumped eight places to 36th position on the International Intellectual Property (IP) Index

•        The US, the UK, Sweden, France and Germany remained the top five economies on the intellectual property index in 2019

•        In 2018, India was ranked at 44th position.

Corruption Perception Index 2018

•        India has improved its ranking by 3 points by moving onto 78th position in the Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 published by Transparency International.

•        China and Pakistan, in a list of 180 countries, lagged far behind than India at 87th and 117th position respectively.

•        Somalia has been ranked last with a score of 10 behind South Sudan and Syria.

India ranks 54th in ‘Bloomberg Innovation Index’ of 60 economies

•        For the first time ever, India has been ranked in Bloomberg’s 2019 list of most innovative countries in the world countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index with a score of 47.93 out of 100.

•        South Korea has topped the Bloomberg Innovation Index for the sixth time in a row with a total score of 87.38.

•        Germany ranked second, Finland stood on the third spot.

Global Talent Competitive Index 2019

•        India ranked at 80th positions on the Global Talent Competitive Index (GTCI) 2019.

•        The index is released by INSEAD business school in partnership with Tata Communications and Adecco Group.

•        Switzerland topped the index which is followed by Singapore and the US.

•        Last year in 2018, India was ranked at 81st position.

Democracy Index 2019: The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) has released the Democracy Index which ranks 167 countries by 60 indicators across five broad categories.

•        Top 3 countries in the list are – Norway, Iceland and Sweden.

•        Australia and New Zealand are the only “full democracies” in the entire Asia-Pacific region

•        India was at the 41st place with a score of 7.23/10 and was placed in the flawed democracies category.

India Ranks 79th, Japan Tops List of Most Powerful Passports – According to the Henley Passport Index, India jumped two positions from 81st in 2018 to 79th in 2019. Japan retained its top spot as the world’s most travel-friendly passport.

India 6th in GDPR Readiness Index: CISCO – Nearly 65% of Indian organizations are better prepared for the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), making the country the sixth leading nation globally in the GDPR readiness index, global networking leader, according to CISCO.

World Bank’s ease-of-doing-business 2019: India ranked at 77

•        India’s jumped 23 places to 77 among 190 countries in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business 2019 index.

•        The World Bank on October 31, 2018 released the Doing Business Report 2019 titled as ‘Doing Business 2019: Training for Reform’, assessing doing business in the year 2018.

•        In its annual ‘Doing Business’ 2019 report, the World Bank said India has improved on six of the 10 parameters on starting and doing business in a country.

•        The biggest improvements have been in the indicators related “construction permits” and “trading across borders.

•        Last year, India ranked at 100th position.

Climate Change Performance Index 2019

•        India ranked at 11th position.

•        As per the Index, Sweden has topped the list while India was on 11th position.

•        Saudi Arabia came last, in 60th place, partly due to its obstructive role during international climate negotiations.

WEF Gender Gap Index 2018

•        India has been ranked 108th in World Economic Forum (WEF) gender gap index 2018 business rankings are New Zealand, Singapore, and Denmark.

IMD World Talent Ranking: India Ranks 53rd

•        Switzerland has topped the list of the IMD World Talent Ranking 2018 for the fifth year in a row.

•        Among the BRICS countries, South Africa remains in the middle position (50th) performing better than India (53rd) and Brazil (58th) but lagging behind China (39th) and Russia (46th).

The Top 3 countries in the list are:

•        Switzerland, Denmark, Norway

•        As per the WEF’s Global Gender Gap Report 2018, Iceland topped the list having closed more than 85.8% of its overall gender gap.

•        The Report was published for total 149 countries.

•        Norway and Sweden were on 2nd and 3rd position, respectively.

World Press Freedom Index

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

India Ranks 140th in World Press Freedom Index

  • India ranked 140th out of 180 countries in the World Press Freedom Index 2019.
  • Index is released by Reporters without Borders.
  • The index is topped by Norway followed by Finland and Sweden.

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

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Current Affairs

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

  • India was ranked 19th out of 28 countries in the Index.
  • Index is released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
  • Top 3 countries are Australia (1st), Netherlands (2nd) and Germany (3rd).
  • Bottom three are Saudi Arabia (28th), Romania (27th) and Egypt (26th)

Current Affairs Question Bank March-July 2019 PDF download

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Current affairs questions are based on Government announcements, schemes, PIB, The Hindu news articles and editorials.

This current affairs question bank PDF will help in facing General Studies Paper – 1 of UPSC civil services preliminary exam, State PSC, SSC, LIC, Railways, Banking exams. Questions will be both conceptual and factual. Current affairs form the bulk of most of the exam preparation. Solving questions based on current affairs will help you both understand issues and remember facts and you can improve your score in exam by practice these questions.

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Demo Questions:

1. Which high court recently upheld the constitutional validity of death penalty for repeat rape offenders?

a) Bombay High Court

b) Madras High Court

c) Kerala High Court

d) Rajasthan High Court

2. The Modi 2.0 Government created which new Ministry while allocating portfolios to new Council of Ministers on May 31?

a) Ministry of Nari Shakti

b) Ministry of Jal Shakti

c) Ministry of Space exploration

d) Ministry of Earth Sciences

3. Odisha CM Naveen Patnaik recently resigned from which constituency?

a) Hinjili

b) Jashipur

c) Bijepur

d) Titilagarh

4. Which airlines resumed its flights to Pakistan after over 10 years of suspension?

a) Emirates

b) Lion Air

c) Etihad

d) British Airways

5. Which state celebrated its Formation Day on June 2?

a) Telangana

b) West Bengal

c) Bihar

d) Sikkim

6. Which state’s Chief Minister has announced the proposal of a free ride scheme for women in public transport?

a) Uttar Pradesh

b) Delhi

c) Maharashtra

d) Karnataka

7. As per a new study, MRI could be used to detect which chronic disease?

a) Cancer

b) Heart Disease

c) Diabetes

d) Thyroid

8. Which public sector company has become India’s most profitable public sector company in the latest fiscal?

a) NTPC

b) Bharat Petroleum

c) IOC

d) ONGC

9. Pinaki Misra has been appointed as the Parliamentary party leader of which party?

a) BJP

b) LJP

c) BJD

d) Shiv Sena

10. In one of the major upsets in ICC world cup 2019, Bangladesh defeated which cricket team in Match 5?

a) New Zealand

b) Sri Lanka

c) Australia

d) South Africa

Part – 2

1) Consider the following statements with respect to Neglected Diseases

1. Neglected diseases are mostly tropical infectious diseases.

2. Malaria and Tuberculosis are one among those neglected diseases.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.         1 only

b.         2 only

c.         Both 1 and 2

d.         Neither 1 nor 2

2) Consider the following statements with respect to Orangutans

  1. There are three species of orangutans — Bornean, Indian and Sumatran Orangutan.
  2.   All three kinds of orangutans are listed as critically endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.         1 only

b.         2 only

c.         Both 1 and 2

d.         Neither 1 nor 2

3) Nanda Kannan Zoo sometimes seen in the news recently is located in which of the following states?

a.         Madhya Pradesh

b.         Odisha

c.         Telangana

d.         Tamilnadu

4) Statement I: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution embodies the basic values of Political, moral and religious on which the Constitution is based.

Statement II: The Preamble is source power to the Legislatures in India and its provisions are enforceable in courts of law.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

Codes:

a. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is the correct explanation of Statement I

b. Both the statements are individually true but Statement II is not the correct explanation of statement I

c. Statement I is true but Statement II is false

d. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

5) Consider the following statements with regards to the ― Inflation in an economy

1. During high Inflationary times the Repo rate will be increased by the Reserve Bank of India to increase the money supply and to tame the inflation

2. Sale of Government securities is carried out in the open market by the Central Bank to control the Inflation

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

6) The primary objective of ―Public Finance Management System‖, which was in News recently, is

a. To monitor the Central Government Schemes

b. To manage the Internal Debt of the Country

c. To take actions on the Non Performing Assets of the Public Sector Banks

d. To revive the loss making Public Sector Undertakings

7) with reference   to    the    National    Green Tribunal (NGT) ‘, consider the following statements

1. The Tribunal is bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure as well as the Principles of Natural Justice.

2. The Chairman of the tribunal is required to be a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India.

3. The tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a.         1 only

b.         1 and 2 only

c.         2 and 3 only

d.         1, 2 and 3

8) With    reference    to    the    Public    Accounts Committee‘, consider the following statements

1. It is constituted by the Parliament of India every year for the auditing of the Public revenue and expenditure.

2. The Chairman of the committee is appointed by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

3. The Union Finance Minister is also eligible to be elected as a member of this Committee.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a.         1 only

b.         1 and 2 only

c.         2 and 3 only

d.         1, 2 and 3

9) Which of the following are the cold ocean currents?

1. Labrador current

2. Kuroshio current

3. Benguela current

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

a.         1 and 2 only

b.         1 and 3 only

c.         2 and 3 only

d.         1, 2 and 3

10) Recently there were severe militant activities surrounding the Black Sea. In this context consider the following countries

1.         Russia

2.         Armenia

3.         Ukraine

4.         Turkey

Which of the given above countries border the Black Sea?

a.         1 and 4 only

b.         1, 3 and 4 only

c.         1, 2 and 4 only

d.         1, 2, 3 and 4

11) Which one of the following is not headed by the Prime Minister of India?

a.         Interstate council

b.         Nuclear Command Authority

c.         National Ganga River Basin Authority

d.         Zonal council

Current Affairs Study Magazine January-August 2019

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

We have covered current affairs from January to August 2019 for competitive exams:

The Current affair of the following topics:

  1. ART AND CULTURE
  2. SOCIAL ISSUES
    a) Education
    b) Health and Sanitation
    c) Women and Child
    d) Vulnerable Groups
  3. POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
  4. ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    a) Indian Economy
    b) Banking and Finance
    c) Agriculture
    d) Industry
    e) Infrastructure
    f) Human Resource Development
  5. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND BILATERAL ISSUES
  6. DEFENCE AND SECURITY
  7. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
  8. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    a) Space
    b) Biotechnology
    c) Meets and programs
    d) IT and ICT
    e) Health, Medicine and Diseases
  9. MISCELLANEOUS
  10. General Budget 2019-20

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Introduction: Art and Culture of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

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Introduction

It is a land of art, crafts and festivals which will fascinate peoples from India and foreigners also. Every fair and festival is a reflection of its rich art and craft in terms of bazaars, music, dance, cuisine, sport events which provides an opportunity to gain an insight view of the life & culture of Rajasthan. Its art can be seen in terms of handicraft items made of stone, clay, leather, wood, ivory, glass, silver, gold, brass and textiles.

Rajasthan is renowned the world over for its hand-printed textiles, jewellery, painting, furniture, leatherwork, pottery and metal craft, The use of exuberant colours and ornate, designs are some unique features of the artwork of the state. Extensive areas of Rajasthan are monotone, beige –brown desert but the dramatic spectacle and visual variety that pervade it make it one of the most vibrantly colourful of Indian states. These paradoxes are seen again and again- a recurring motif reflected in its decorative arts and crafts. Though time and again, it has been ravaged by invaders from all across the world, Rajasthan still houses the most opulent and rich treasures. Its history is a long saga of blood feuds and violent battles, but the forbidding stone battlements of its forts shield mirrored rooms and marble carvings of delicacy and grace.

The high-balconies that sometimes were a deterrent to the freedom of women were also marvels of exquisite ornamentation. The jeweled belts and anklets that adorned them were not just ornaments but also rich symbols of love and pride. Needless to say, as an intimate part of everyday life, Rajasthani art and culture has withstood the vicissitudes of industrialism and tourism.  Rajasthan and its crafts are a source of endless fascination-whether one approaches them for purely visual, aesthetic pleasure or pauses to savoir the underlying history, culture and symbolism. Not all Rajasthani crafts however, have originated locally. Rajasthan was on the ancient trade route, which exposed its people to different cultures and traditions. Traces of these can be still seen in the various art forms. Sculptures that date back to 10th century has been found along with cave paintings, terracotta works in Baroli and Hadoti regions are live testimonials of Rajasthan’s allegory of love.

History reveals that kings and their kinsmen were patrons of arts and crafts and they encouraged their craftsmen in activities ranging from wood and marble carving to weaving, pottery and painting.

The constant battles amongst the Rajputs and other invaders were not only a time for change for the people but also art and culture. When a kingdom fell and a new ruler took over, it was time for change paintings depicting the new ruler’s victory, scenes from the battle and processions of the victorious march were faithfully reproduced on the walls and handmade paper. Rajputs, who sacrificed wealth, power, territory and life itself, to withstand the Mughals were also impressed by their art and aesthetics, taking styles, symbols and techniques, often stealing artisans and incorporating them into their own eclectic, rich tradition.

Clothes-their colour, design and cut-may tell people which village and caste someone comes from, but it is the jewellery in which people’s wealth is invested. In most Rajasthani villages, it is silver. Huge and heavy chunks of it are worn around ankles, waist, neck and wrists, dangling in rings from ears, nose and hair, in chains of buttons down the kurta or choli fronts. The beautiful, ornate designs of Adivasi jewellery have now become fashionable among the urban elite and can be bought everywhere. The aristocracy and the well-to-do did not wear silver. Kundan and enamel jewellery inlaid with precious stones was a speciality of Rajasthan, particularly of Jaipur. Rajasthan has abundant deposits of semi precious and precious stones that are much in demand these days.

 Ivory: The ivory bangles that most Rajasthani women wear are considered auspicious. Ivory is also inlaid and shaped into intricate items of great beauty. Miniature paintings were also painted on ivory.

 Lac and Glass: Lac bangles are made in bright colours and sometimes inlaid with glass. Other decorative and functional items are also available.

 Sandalwood and Wood: Carved wood is presented in a wide range of objects and is simple and inexpensive.

Crafts: Stone statues on religious themes can be seen all over the state. In fact in some cities, there are still entire lanes where the stone carvers can be seen giving final touches to statues or even pillars. Other crafts like blue pottery, hand block printing, tie and dye, terracotta sculptures, painting on camel hide, embroidery, cloth painting, carpets, durries, inlay work on brass and wood are to be found all over Rajasthan.

The rich heritage of Rajasthan manifests itself in its unique art and culture. The latticed havelis, ornate palaces and intricately carved temples, the architectural beauty of forts and palaces symbolize the skills of its artists. On the other hand, its colourful fairs & festivals with traditional dance and music represent a unique culture of this vibrant state.

Rajasthan is famous for its forts, intricately carved temples, and decorated havelis, which were built by Rajput kings in pre-Muslim era Rajasthan. Rajasthan’s Jaipur Jantar Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Chittorgarh Fort, Lake Palace, miniature paintings in Bundi, and numerous city palaces and havelis are an important part of the architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the Pink City, is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sand stone dominated by a pink hue. In Bundi, maximum houses are painted blue. At Ajmer, the white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar Lake is exquisite.

Jain Temples of Rajasthan from north to south and east to west, Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu, Ranakpur Temple dedicated to Lord Adinath in Pali District, Jain temples in the fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodurva Jain temples, Mirpur Jain Temples, Sarun Mata Temple Kotputli, Bhandasar and Karni Mata Temple of Bikaner are some of the best examples.

Each region of Rajasthan has a different and diverse form of art, culture and heritage.

Language and Literature: Art -Culture of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

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Language & Literature

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts. –

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

 Rajasthani Literature

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

RAJASTHANI LITERATURE

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts:

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D) Study Notes

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Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D)

  1. Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal
  2. Guhil Dynasty of Mewar
  3. Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
  4. Rathod Dynasty of Marwar
  5. Rathod of Bikaner
  6. Kachwaha of Amber
  7. Chauhan Dynasty
  8. Chauhan of Ranthambore
  9. Chauhan of Jalore
  10. Hada Chauhan of Bundi
  11. Hada Chauhan of Kota
  12. Parmar of Abu

Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  Raja Nagbhatta I

  • Founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihar.
  • Made triple alliance with Bappa Rawal and Jaisimha to defeat Arabs.

 Raja Watsaraj

  • First Pratihar king to occupy Kannauj.
  • He defeated Dharmapala of Gaud Dynasty and defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 Raja Nagbhatta II

  • Occupied Kannauj.
  • Defeated Dharmapala in the battle of Mudgagiri.
  • Defeated by Govinda of Rashtrakuta.

    Raja Mihir Bhoj

  • Defeated Devpala of Bengal.
  • Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court in 851 A.D.

    Raja Yashpal

  • Last ruler of this dynasty.
  • His rule came to an end due to emerging of Gazni power.

Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

    Guhil

  • In 566 A.D. Guhil established this dynasty.
  • He established independent city Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

  • Original Name was Kaalbhoj
  • In 734, he defeated Maan Mori and took Chittorgarh under his control and made Nagada his capital.
  • At first, started gold coin in Rajasthan.
  • He built Eklingji Temple in Udaipur.

    Allat (943 A.D. to 953 A.D.)

  • Original Name is  Alu Rawal
  • Built Varah Temple of Ahar.
  • Married Hun Princess Hariyadevi.
  • Established bureaucracy in Mewar.

    Jaitra Singh (1213-1253 A.D.)

  • Fought battle of Bhutala and defeated the army of Iltutmish.
  • He made Chittor his new capital.
  • His reign is called Golden Age of Medieval Mewar.

    Ratan Singh (1302-1303 A.D.)

  • AllauddinKhilji defeated him and he was killed.
  • After his death, his wife Padmavati committed Jauhar.
  • This was biggest Saka of Chittor and first Saka of Rajasthan.
  • Gora and Badal, two commanders showed courage during the battle.
  • In 1540 A.D. Malik Mohammed Jayasi wrote Padmavat in which he mentioned the beauty of Queen Padmavati.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

Rana Hammir (1326-1364)

Khetri Singh (1364-82)

  • He captured Zafar Khan, Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Son of Hammir

 Rana Lakha (1382-1421)

  • He married Hansa Bai, princess of Marwar.
  • His son Rana Choonda took the oath that not to come on the throne. Thus he is also called Bhishmapitamah of Mewar.

    Rana Mokul Singh (1421-33)

  • He reconstructed Samidheshwar Temple in Chittoor.
  • In 1433, he was murdered in Zilwada.

    Rana Kumha (1433-68)

  • Defeated Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Malwa, in battle of Sarangpur (Mandalgarh).
  • He erected Vijay Stambh (sign of Rajasthan police) after this victory which is 37 meters tall and 10 meter in width having 9 floors.
  • It is compared with Qutub Minar.
  • Rana Kumbha defeated the joint army of Mahmud Khilji and Qutbuddin of Gujarat in 1456.
  • Important fort built by Kumbha- (1) Kumbhalgarh (2) Achalgarh (3) Basantgarh
  • Important books written by Kumbha- (1) Rasik Priya (2) Sudha Prabhandh (3) Sangeet Raj (5 part) (6) Sangeet Sudha (7) Kamaraj Ratisaar
  • He gave patronage to many scholars in his court. Important are- (a) Mandan (b) Kanh Vyas (c) Ramabai (d) Muni Sundar Suri etc.
  • He was a musician as well.
  • He was killed by his son Ooda Singh or Udai Singh.

  Rana Udai Singh (1468-73)

  • He killed his father Rana Kumbha and came to the throne.
  • Ramuel, his brother, defeated him and ascended the throne.

  Rana Sanga (1508-1528)

  • In 1517 and 1519, he fought the battle of Khatoli and Bari respectively with Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in both the battles.
  • In 1519, he defeated MehmudKhilji in the battle of Gagron.
  • In 1527, he was defeated in the battle of Khanwa by Babur.
  • The important king who took part in the battle of Khanwa (Maldev- Marwar, Medini Rai- Chanderi, Mahmood Lodhi (small brother of Ibrahim Lodhi)
  • He died at Kalpi (M.P.)

   Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572)

  • Saved by Panna Dhai in the childhood
  • In 1557, fought the battle of Harmada with Haji Khan Pathan who was governor of Ajmer.
  • In 1559, he founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake.
  • In 1568 Akbar attacked and Jaimal and Fatta was killed

    Maharana Pratap (1572-1597)

  • In 1576, He fought the battle of Haldighati with Akbar and was defeated by Akbar. Akbar deputed Man Singh against Maharana Pratap.
  • Thermopylae of Rajasthan – James Tod
  • Kumbhalgarh war (1577, 1578, 1579) between (Sahbaz v/s Pratap)
  • His horse’s name was Chetak who was injured in this battle and later died. Chetak’s cremation is in Balicha Village.
  • In 1582, he fought Battle of Diver.
  • In 1597. He died in Chawand.

  Karan Singh (1620-1628)

  • He started construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.

 Jagjit Singh I (1628-52)

  • He finished the construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  • He constructed Jagdish Temple of Udaipur.

Raj Singh (1652-80)

  • He protested against Jajiya Tax by Aurangzeb
  • Supported Aurangzeb in the fight of Successor

Jai Singh (1680-98)

  • He built Jaisamand Lake.

Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

    Rao Siyaji

  • He founded this dynasty.
  • In 1273, he died protecting cows in Bithu village.

    Rao Chunda

  • The real founder of Rathod dynasty in Mewar.
  • He was killed in a battle with Salim Shah of Multan.

 Rao Jodha (1438-89)

  • He established city Jodhpur.
  • He constructed Mehrgarh Fort.
  • His 5th son Bika established Bikaner.

    Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)

  • He killed his father and ascended the throne.
  • In 1541, he defeated Jaitasi of Bikaner.
  • In 1543, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in Battle of Sumail.

    Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)

  • He was defeated by the Mughal but still denied to form an alliance with them.
  • He is called Pratap of Marwar.

    Raja Udai Singh (1583-1595)

  • He established a marital relation with Mughals.
  • His daughter Mani Bai was married to Jahangir.

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)

  • He wrote BhasaBhusan, Anand Vilas, Prabodh Chandrodaya and AparokshaSidhanta Saar.

Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)

Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)

Rathod of Bikaner

Rao Bika (1465-1504)

  • In 1465, he established Rathod dynasty in Bikaner region.
  • In 1488, established Bikaner.

   Rao Naroji (1504-05)

   Rao Lunkaran (1505-1526)

    Rao Jait Singh (1526-1542)

    Rao Kalyan Singh (1542-1571)

    Raja Raj Singh I (1571-1611)

Maharaja Rao Anup Singh (1669-1698)

  • He wrote ‘Anup Vivek’, ‘Kaam Prabodh’,’ ShraddhPrayog Chintamani’, ‘Anupodaya.’

    Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh (1698-1700)

    Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh (1943-1950)

  • He was the last ruler of Bikaner and merged in present Rajasthan state and signed the instrument of accession to the dominion of India.

Kachwaha of Amber

    Prithviraj

  • He was feudal of Rana Sanga; therefore, he fought Battle with Babur in the Battle of Khanwa.

Bharamal

  • The accepted sovereignty of Akbar.
  • The first king of Rajasthan to accept sovereignty and establish a marital relation with Mughal.

Bhagwantdas

  • Suppress Mirza revolt in Sarnal Battle. Thus he was given Nagada and Parcham by Akbar as the award.
  • His daughter was married to Jahangir.

    Maan Singh

  • He was made Subedar of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal.
  • Established Maanpur city in Bihar
  • He established Akbarnagar city in Bengal.
  • Began the construction of forts of Amber
  • Constructed Radha Govind Temple in Vrindavan

Mirza Raja Jaisingh

  • Ruled for the maximum period in Jaipur (46 Years)
  • Shah Jahan titled him ‘Mirza Raja’.
  • On 11 June 1665, Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh.
  • He constructed Jaigarh Fort in Jaipur.

    Sawai Jai Singh

  • He saw the reign of seven Mughal Badshah.
  • Changed the name of Amber to Islamabad.
  • His Purohit was ‘PundarikRatnagar’.

    Ishwari Singh

  • In 1747, he defeated Madho Singh in the Battle of Rajmahal on the bank of river Banas.
  • 1748, he was defeated by Madho Singh in the Battle of Bagru.
  • After this defeat, he committed suicide.

Chauhan Dynasty

    Vasudev

  • In 551 A.D. he established Chauhan dynasty.
  • According to Bijoliya inscription, he constructed Sambhar Lake.

    Ajayraj

  • In 1113 he established Ajmer city.
  • He built Ajmer fort.

    Arnoraj

  • He constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Also constructed Varah Temple in Pushkar.

    Vigraharaj IV

  • He took away Delhi from Tomar dynasty.
  • He constructed a school later QutubuddinAibak built Dhai Din Ka Jhopda in place of this school.

    Prithviraj III

  • In 1182, he defeated Chandel ruler Parmarardidev in Battle of Mahoba.
  • 1191, he defeated Mohammad Ghori in First Battle of Panipat.
  • 1192, he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in Second Battle of Panipat.
  • Moinuddin Chisti came to India during his reign.
  • He constructed Pithoragarh near Delhi.
  • Kaimash and Bhuvanmalla were his two ministers.

Chauhan of Ranthambore

  • After the death of Prithviraj III, his son Govindraj established his rule in Ranthambore.

    Hammir Dev

  • In 1299, he defeated the army of Alauddin Khilji led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan.
  • Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle.
  • After that Allauddin Khilji raids the Ranthambore fort with his army and defeats them.
  • 1301, first Siege of Ranthambore took place. This was the first Siege of Rajasthan.
  • He fought 17 battle in his life in which he only lost the last one.

Chauhan of Jalore

  • Founder of this branch of Chauhan was Kirtipal.
  • In inscriptions, Jalore is mentioned as Jabalipur.
  • Allauddin Khilji changed the name of Siwana to Khairabad.

Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • In 1241, Deva Hada defeated Jait Meena and occupied Bundi.
  • 1354, Barsingh constructed Taragarh fort of Bundi.
  • Rao Surjan constructed Ranchhod Temple in Dwarika.
  • Budhhasingh wrote ‘Nehtarang’.
  • Maratha interference took place during the reign of Budhhasingh.

Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • In 1631, Madho Singh founded this state.
  • Mukund Singh constructed AbaliMeeni Palace in Kota.

Battles of Rajasthan

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Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD

The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles), taken place in 738 A.D., somewhere on borders on modern Sind-Rajasthan. In this battle, the Gurjar-Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India.

The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were:

  • Gurjara-Pratihara King Nagabhatt I
  •  Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire
  • Bappa Rawal of Hindu Kingdom of Mewar

Background:

By the end of 7th century A.D Islam had become a powerful religion and Arabs a power force. Muhammad Ibn Qasim captured Iran & Afghanistan. . His successor, Junayd Ibn Abd al- Rahman al-Murri, led a large army into the Hindustan region in early 730 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat.

Realizing the power of Arab forces, Pratihara king, Nagabhatta appealed for showing a united front with Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire. Jaysimha acknowledged and sent his son Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin to support Nagabhatta. The two forces, united with the already fighting Rajput forces under Bappa Rawal, at the border of Rajasthan.

The final battle of Rajasthan & Result: The battle was fought between 5,000-6,000 Rajput-Gurjar Infantry and cavalry facing more than 30,000 Arabs. The Rajputs under Bappa Rawal managed to kill the Arab leader Emir Junaid during the war. In the words of the Arab chronicler Suleiman, “a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found.”

The Arabs took a long time to recover from their defeat. Junayd’s successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi organized fresh campaigns against Rajasthan but failed to get hold of any territories. Thus, the triple alliance of Indian Kingdoms saved Hindustan from Arab invaders, at-least for next 200 years.

  • Khumar (753 – 773 )
  • Mattat (773 – 793 )
  • Bhratrabhat (773 – 813 )
  • Sinha (813 – 828)
  •  Khuman II (828 – 853)
  • Repelled up to 24 Muslim attacks.
  •  Ruled a Golden Age in Mewar.
  • Mahayak (853 – 878)
  •  Khuman III (878 – 942)
  •  Bhratrabhat II (942 – 943)
  • Allat (943 – 953)

 Possibly near start of his reign, Allat is driven from Chittor by the Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja, who then rules Chittor and is succeeded by his nephew, Raja Bhoj. Allat establishes a new capital at ancient Ahar.

  • (953 – 971)

 The death of Allat leaves a gap in the succession, and there is no Guhilot leader at all for a total of eight years while the Paramara attack Ahar. The Paramara king, Vakpati Raj of Malwa, rules Chittor. It takes until 971 for a new Guhilot king to reign.

  • Naravan / Narvahan (971 – 973)
  •  Shalivahan (973 – 977)
  • Shakti kumar (977 – 993 )
  •  Amba Prasad (993 – 1007)
  • Fought against Mahmud Ghazni (Yamin-ud-Dawlah Mahmud).
  • Suchivarma (1007 – 1021)
  • Narvarma (1021 – 1035)
  •  Kirtivarma (1035 – 1051)
  • Yograj (1051 – 1068)
  • Bairat / Vairat(1068 – 1088)
  •  Hans pal (1088 – 1103)
  • Vairi Singh (1103 – 1107)
  • Vijay Singh (1107 – 1127)
  • Ari Singh I (1127 – 1138)
  • Chittor is again captured by Malwa.
  • Chaur Singh (1138 – 1148)
  • The Western Chalukyas attack the Parmaras who hold Chittor.
  • Vikram Singh / Vikramaditya I (1148 – 1158)
  • Karan Singh (1158 – 1168)
  • The royal family divides, possibly near the end of Karan Singh’s reign. His son Rahap establishes the Sisodia branch of the family while another son, Mahap, establishes the Dungarpur kingdom.
  • Kshem Singh (1168 – 1172)
  • Samant Singh (1172 – 1179)
  • Samant Singh occupies Bagar (in the Dungarpur area) during his reign. After seven years on the throne he is slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadole in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
  • Kumar Singh(1179 – 1191)
  • Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at end of his reign.
  • Mathan Singh (1191 – 1211)
  • 1191 – 1192 – Mathan Singh fights in the Battles of Tarain, in which the Chauhan ruler, Prithviraj III, and the Rajput confederation which includes Mewar (the Hindu League) are defeated by the Ghurid Sultan Mohammed Ghuri.
  • 1207 – Chittor is taken and ruled by the Western Chalukyas just as they are facing their own terminal decline.
  • Padam Singh (1211 – 1213)
  • Jait Singh / Jaitra Singh (1213 – 1253)
  • During his reign, Jait Singh defeats the Malwa Rajputs who rule Chittor, reinstating its fort as the capital of Mewar. This probably occurs shortly after Sultan Iltumish of Delhi has destroyed Nagda.
  •  1234 – Sultan Iltumish of Delhi is defeated by Mewar when he invades the region.
  • 1253 – 1261
  • There is an apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, although the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. The relation of the next known ruler of Mewar to his predecessor is also unknown.
  • Tej Singh (1261 – 1267)
  • 1267 – 1273
  • There is a second apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, and the fate of Tej Singh is unknown, as are the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. It takes six years for Tej Singh’s son to ascend the throne.
  • Samar Singh (1273 – 1302)
  • Samar Singh builds wall around Mahasati in Chittor. His son, Kumbh Karan, migrates to Nepal (where his descendants become the Nepalese royal family).
  • Ratan Singh (1302 – 1303)
  • Last Guhilot king to rule.
  • 1303 – 1st Jauhar of Chittor
  • Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her.
  • After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre).
  • Administration of the captured state is handed to the ruler of the Neighboring state of Jalore, Maldeo.

List of battles of Rajasthan

Several significant battles are recorded to have taken place in what is now known as Rajasthan.

  1. Battle of Rajasthan (738) – Triple alliance of Nagabhata I, Jaysimha Varman and Bappa Rawal defeated Arabs on modern Rajasthan-Sind Border.
  2. The First Battle of Tarain (1191) – Prithviraj Chauhan of Ajmer defeated Mohammad Gori.
  3. Second Battle of Tarain (1192) – Muhammad Gori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
  4. Battle of Ranthambore (1299) – Hammir deo defeated a Khilji army under Nusrat Khan.
  5. Siege of Ranthombore (1301) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Hammir deo.
  6. Siege of Chittor (1303) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Rawal Ratan Singh (Rani Padmini and other ladies committed Jauhar)
  7. Battle of Jalore (1310–14) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Kanhad deo after a long and bloody war.
  8. Battle of Siwana (1308) – Malik Kamaluddin a general of Alauddin Khilji defeated Sheetal deo.
  9. Battle of Mandalgarh and Banas (1442-1446) – A series of battles that took place between Mahmud Khilji of Malwa and Rana Kumbha of Mewar. Bloodied by these engagements the Sultan did not attack Mewar for another ten years.
  10. Battle of Nagaur (1456) – Rana Kumbha defeated the combined armies of Shams Khan (sultan of Nagaur) and Qutbuddin (Sultan of Gujarat) and captured Nagaur, Kasili, Khandela and shakambhari.
  11. Battle of Khatoli (1517) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  12. Battle of Dholpur (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  13. Battle of Gagron (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Mahmud Khilji of Malwa.
  14. Invasion of Mewar (1520) – Sultan Muzaffar Shah II sent an army under Malik Ayaz but failed and retreated to Gujarat.
  15. Battle of Khanwa (1527) – Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
  16. Battle of Sammel (1544) – Sher Shah Suri’s Pyrrhic victory against the army of Jaita and Kumpa.
  17. Siege of Ranthambore (1558) – Mughal Emperor Akbar besieged Ranthambore Fort but failed due to Rajput rebellions in Gwalior.
  18. Battle of Merta (1562) – Akbar with the help of princes from Bikaner and Amer defeated Rao Chandra Sen and advanced towards Jodhpur.
  19. First Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1562-1583) – Akbar invaded Marwar and occupied Jodhpur. The ruler Rao Chandra Sen continued his struggle until his death in 1581 after which Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583.
  20. Siege of Chittorgarh (1567) – Emperor Akbar defeated Rao Jaimal and Patta (Udai Singh II escaped with his family to Udaipur)
  21. Siege of Ranthambore (1568) – A successful siege by Mughal Emperor Akbar causes the Rajput leader Rao Surjan Hada to surrender Ranthambore Fort.
  22. Battle of Haldighati (1576) – Man Singh (the commander of Akbar) defeated Maharana Pratap.
  23. Battle of Dewair (1582) – Maharana Pratap attacked a Mughal stronghold this resulted in the flight of the Mughal soldiers and the closing of all the 36 Mughal posts in Mewar.
  24. Second Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1679-1707) – Aurangzeb took Marwar under his direct control after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. The Rathore army under Durgadas Rathore carried out a relentless struggle against the occupying forces. In 1707 after the death of Aurangzeb Durgadas defeated the local Mughal force and reoccupied Jodhpur and their lost territories.
  25. Battle of Aravalli hills (1680) – Three separate armies, under Aurangzeb’s sons Akbar, Azam and Muazzam, penetrated the Aravalli hills from different directions but Akbar defected to the Rajputs resulting in the defeat of the Mughals by the armies of Rana Raj Singh I and Durgadas Rathore.
  26. Battle of Maonda and Mandholi (1767) – Jaipur forces defeat the forces of Bharatpur.
  27. Battle of Tunga or Battle of Lalsot (1787) – Combined forces of Jaipur and Jodhpur result in a stalemate with the Maratha forces of Mahadaji Shinde.
  28. Battle of Malpura (1800) – Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh defeated Daulat Rao Sindhia

Guhils of Chittorgarh: History of Rajasthan

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Guhils of Chittorgarh

Guhil

He is known as the founder of Guhil dynasty.

Originally he was born in Anandnagar, Gujarat but in 565 C.E, he established independent city at Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

Born as Kalbhoj

 Is said to have defeated Maan Mori and laid foundation of Guhilot Dynasty rule in Mewar.

Formed triple alliance with Nagabhatta & Jaysimha to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan.

The Kingdom of Mewar: History of Rajasthan

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 The Kingdom of Mewar

The kingdom of Mewar includes present day districts of Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara. The region was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, the Name Medhpaat became Mewar.

The creators of Mewar’s ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation Stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the Seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.

The Guhilot had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested. The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud. According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

The Chauhan Dynasty: History of Rajasthan

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The Chauhan Dynasty

The Raja Saheb of Mainpuri, Head of all Chauhan clans

1. Songara Chauhan: Kuldevi is Chandi Devi. They are descended from the Rajas of Jalore, and had one branch, viz. Bhadoria

2. Khichi Chauhan: Kuldevi is Bhagwati. They are descended from Raja Bhagwat rai, Raja Gugalsingh and Raja Jaisingh of Khinchipur.

3. Hada Chauhan: Kuldevi is Ashapura. They are descended from Raja Manik Rai of Sambhar, and have the following branches, Udawat, Devra, Devre, Jaitawat and Chandrawat.

4. Bhadauria Chauhan: Their Kingdom was Bhadawar and are said to be a branch of the Songara Chauhan.

5. Bachgoti: Their name is derived from Vatsa Gotri and has two branches viz. Rajkumar and Rajwar.

The word Chauhan is the vernacular form of the Sanskrit term Chahamana. While the earlier versions of Chandbardai work Prithviraj Raso does not mention Chauhan as born from Agnikunda, the later versions do.

The 15th-century Hammira Mahakavya of Nayachandra Suri & Jayanayak’s Prithviraj Vijay considers Chauhans as Suryavanshi. Pandit Gaurishankar Ojha seconds this opinion.

Based on Bijloia Inscription (1170 CE), Dr. Dasrath Sharma considers that early ancestor of Chauhan was born at Ahichchhatrapura in the gotra of sage Vatsa. Ahichchhatrapura can be identified with modern Nagaur.

Chahamanas probably started out as petty rulers of Ahichchhatrapura. As the Chahamana territory expanded, the entire region ruled by them came to be known as Sapadalaksha. In course of time Chauhans formed ruling dynasties at various places.

Major Chauhan dynasties include:

  • Chauhans of Shakambhari
  • Chauhans of Ranthambore
  • Chauhans of Jalore

Apart from these, there are other ruling dynasties that claim Chauhan descent including:

  • Haras of Hadoti

Chauhans of Shakambhari:

Raja Guvaka I, 1st Raja of the Chahamana Dynasty at Harsha from 809 to 836, also known as Govindraj I, his predecessors were rulers at their capital of Purnatallakapura, initially he was the Samanta of Raja Nagabhata II of Kannauj, who had married his sister Kalavati Devi; he took part in a battle against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata II, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa; at some time he probably declared himself independent, and made his capital at Harsha, married and had issue. He lived around 815.

 Vasu-deva (c. 6th century CE)

  • Considered as founder of Shakambhari branch of Chauhans around 551 CE
  •  According to a mythical account in Prithviraja Vijaya, he received the Sambhar Salt Lake as a gift from a vidyadhara (a supernatural being).
  • Samanta-raja (c. 684-709 CE); identified as the legendary Manik Rai by R. B. Singh
  • Nara-deva (c. 709-721 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja I (c. 721-734 CE), alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala
  • Vigraha-raja I (c. 734-759 CE)
  • Chandra-raja I (c. 759-771 CE)
  • Gopendra-raja (c. 771-784 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja I (c. 784-809 CE)
  • Govinda-raja I (c. 809-836 CE), alias Guvaka-I: Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar
  • Chandra-raja II (c. 836-863 CE)
  • Govindaraja II (c. 863-890 CE), alias Guvaka II
  • Chandana-raja (c. 890-917 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja (c. 917-944 CE)
  • Simha-raja (c. 944-971 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja II (c. 971-998 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja II (c. 998-1012 CE)
  •  Govinda-raja III (c. 1012-1026 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja II (c. 1026-1040 CE)
  • Viryarama (c. 1040 CE)
  • Chamunda-raja (c. 1040-1065 CE)
  •  Durlabha-raja III (c. 1065-1070 CE), alias Duśala
  • Vigraha-raja III (c. 1070-1090 CE), alias Visala
  • Prithvi-raja I (c. 1090-1110 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja II (c. 1110-1135 CE): Moved the capital to Ajayameru (Ajmer) and Repulsed a Ghaznavid attack, and also defeated the Paramara king Naravarman.
  • Arno-raja (c. 1135-1150 CE), alias Ana: Defeated Turkish invaders and Constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Jagad-deva (c. 1150 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja IV (c. 1150-1164 CE), alias Visala deva: Expanded the Chauhan territories, and captured Delhi from The Tomaras.
  • Apara-gangeya (c. 1164-1165 CE)
  • Prithvi-raja II (c. 1165-1169 CE)
  •  Someshvara (c. 1169-1178 CE)
  •  Prithvi-raja III (c. 1178-1192 CE): Better known as Prithviraj Chauhan and Defeated Mohd. Ghori in first Battle of Tarain in 1191

Battles of Tarain: 1191 & 1192 :-The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were series of two battles fought in 1191 and 1192 A.D between Prithviraj Chauhan III of Ajmer and Ghurid ruler Mu’izz al-Din Muhammad or Mohammed  Ghori. The battles were fought near the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana.

  1. To extend the boundaries of his empire Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori entered into India in 1175 CE.
  2. He advanced to Gujarat in 1178 CE and advanced further by seizing Peshawar and Lahore and he ended the rule of Ghaznavid in Punjab with the help of the ruler of Jammu.
  3. As a result of successive conquests the boundaries of Ghori’s kingdom extended to the border of Prithviraj’s kingdom. In 1191, Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. Prithviraj’s along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. This is how the First war of Tarain began.
  4. Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.
  5. In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhammad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhammad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him.
  6. Prithviraj Chauhan cease-fired.  Muhammad Ghori deceived Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput arm mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious.
  7. About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi. 

Muhammad Ghori: Muhammad Ghazni established the Ghaznavid Empire with capital at Ghazni. After his death, Ghazni was Oghuz Turks. Ghori defeated the Turks and laid foundation of Ghurid Empire. After having made his position strong and secure at Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori turned his attention to India.

In 1175, Muhammad Ghori captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions. He turned south across the desert towards Anhilwara (modern day Patan, in Gujarat). In 1178, suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). As a result, Ghori retreated back to Multan.

In 1186 he attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions. Ghori returned back to Ghanzi to help his brother, only to return in 1191.

The first Battle of Tarain (1191): In 1191, Ghori proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

This brought him on northwestern frontier of Prithviraj Chauhans kingdom. Realizing their grave situation, the Hindu princes of north India formed a confederacy under the command of Prithiviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj’s army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai marched on to Bathinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori).

Ghori was wounded in personal battle with Govind Tai and so Ghori’s army retreated, giving victory to Prithviraj Chauhan. However, Prithviraj did not pursue Ghori’s army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori’s ambition, instead electing to retake the fortress of Bathinda.

Alternatively it has also been mentioned that, Ghori’s army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner.

Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him. Hence, Prithviraj Chauhan won the First Battle of Tarain, held in 1191.

After the First Battle:

Ghori return to Ghazni, and started preparations to avenge the defeat. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to Prithviraj to demand his submission, but the Chauhan ruler refused to comply.

The Second Battle of Tarain (1192): In 1192, Ghori challenged Prithviraj and a battle ensued at the same place (Tarain). Both Ghori and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. But Ghori changed his tactics as he did not want to engage in melee combat with disciplined Rajput warriors. He divided his huge troop into 5 parts and four units were sent to attack the Rajput flanks and rear. Hoping for Rajput attack, Ghori ordered his fifth unit to fast retreat. As Ghori expected, the Rajput’s charged the fleeing Ghurid unit. The Ghurids then sent a fresh cavalry unit of 12,000 and they managed to throw back the Rajput advance. Muhammad Ghori won the second Battle of Tarain.

Regarding, fate of Prthiviraj after second battle, two stories emerge.

  • The first story says that Prthivraj Chauhan was captured in the battle field and executed.
  • The second story, the more famous one in Rajasthan, is based on poem written by Prithviraj’s court poet Chandbardai. The story says that Mohammad Ghori attacked Prithviraj Chauhan unfairly at night, defeated his armies and captured him. Later Chauhan was taken to Ghor and presented in the court. Ghori ordered Prithvi to lower his eyes to which Prithvi retorted that the eyelids of Rajputs are lowered only on his death. Feeling insulted, Ghori blinded the Rajput prince.
  • Chandbardai entered the court of Mahmud of Ghori in a disguise. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was a very skilled archer, and he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look at his target. Ghori disdained to believe this and asked for the display.

When Prithviraj was given a bow and arrows into his hand and asked to take aim. Sighting opportunity, Chandbardai recited in a poetic stanza the location where Ghori sat. The stanza is: “Char bans, Chaubis Gaj, angul ashta Praman, Ta Upar sultan hai, Chuke mat Chauhan.” (Four measures ahead of you and twenty four yards away as measured with eight finger measurement, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).

  • Getting the direction and location Prithviraj shot his arrow through Ghori and killed him.

Consequences of Second Battle of Tarain on India: The second battle of Tarain was a decisive battle. It was a major disaster for the Rajputs and their political prestige suffered a serious setback. In 1193, Ghori’s general Qutub-Din Aibak took over Ajmer and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. Son of Prithviraj was moved to Ranthambore (laid foundation of Chauhan kingdom there). Further, in 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place, in which Aibak defeated Gahadavala ruler Jayachandra. In conlusion, the Battles of Tarain and Chandwar laid the foundation for establishment of Turkish rule in India.

Bakhtiyar Khilji extended the domain of empire to Bihar destroying Universities of Nalanda & Vikramsila in the process. Later in 1202, his army completed the occupation of Hindustan by taking the province of Bengal.

Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms: The most important cause for the downfall of Hindu Kingdoms was that the lack unity. They were divided by factions and Rajput Kingdoms were engaged in eternal mutual conflicts. It was the result of these conflicts that Jai Chandra did not help, Prithvi Raj Chauhan in putting up a united front against invaders.

Secondly, the military methods of Indian Kingdoms were also out of date and inferior to those of Muslims. Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry. More importantly, Ghori had spent the time carefully planning his campaign and his tactics proved a major winner in war.

1. Govinda-raja IV (c. 1192 CE): Banished by Hari-raja for accepting Muslim suzerainty and established the Chauhan branch of Ranthambore

2. Hari-raja (c. 1193-1194 CE): Hewas a king from the Shakambhari Chahamana dynasty of north-western India. After the Ghurid invaders defeated his brother Prithviraja III in 1192 CE, he dethroned his nephew Govindaraja IV, who had been appointed as a vassal ruler by the Ghurids. He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the Ghurids in 1194 CE.

Hariraja was a son of the Chahamana king Someshvara and Queen Karpura Devi. He and his elder brother Prithviraja III were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chalukya court by his maternal relatives. Prithviraja ascended the Chahamana throne after Someshvara death, but his reign ended in 1192 CE with a Ghurid conquest of the kingdom. The Ghurids appointed Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV as a vassal ruler in return for a heavy tribute.

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chauhan lost Ranthambore as a result of defeat of Prithviraja III in battle of Tarain 1192. By Mahmud of Ghori But, Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV accepted the Ghurid suzerainty, and ruled Ranthambore as his vassal.

  • Govinda-raja
  • Son of Prthvi Raja Chauhan III
  • Balhana-deva or Balhan
  • Prahlada or Prahlad,
  •  Viranarayana or Vir Narayan,
  • Vagabhata, son of Balhana;
  • Known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles
  • Jaitra-simha or Jaitra Singh
  •  Hammira-deva or Hammir Dev

In 1299, he defeated Allauddin Khilji’s army led by Ulugh Khan & Nusrat Khan.

  • In 1301, Allauddin Khilji again invaded his kingdom, which resulted in his defeat and death.

The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Delhi Sultans: After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja Chauhans son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja rule over Ajmer was not favoured by Hariraja, probably due to his acting as a Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by Prithviraj’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-installed on the throne of Ajmer.

  1. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan (Jaitra – perhaps his general) towards Delhi. The second attempt to failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja immolated himself.
  2. By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an independent kingdom.
  3. The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin strategy and farsightedness won the day in battle and the Rajputs forces were completely routed. After the victory, Aibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too was completely sacked. The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms, notably, the Chalukyas, Chandellas and Gahadavalas.
  4. In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to his policy of non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly bring any significant change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.

Chauhans of Jalore: Prathihar king VatsaRaja was the ruler of Jalore during 8th century. Towards the end of 12th Century, Parmars ruled here. Historians believe that the Jalore fort was built by Parmar rulers. It is known from a stone inscription of 1238 A.D. of fort that Parmar King Biral’s-queen Maludevi Powered Gold wins on Sindhu King.

Nadole king, Arhan’s, youngest son Kirtipala started Chouhan tradition in Jalore. The Chauhan lineage of Jalore is as under:

  • Kirtipala (c. 1160-1182 CE)
  • Samara-Simha (c. 1182-1204 CE)
  • Udaya-Simha (c. 1204-1257 CE)
  • Chachiga-deva (c. 1257-1282 CE)
  • Samanta-Simha (c. 1282-1305 CE)
  • Kanhada-deva (c. 1292-1311 CE)
  • Wrote Kanha-Prabhandha: Epic elaborating war between Kanha Dev & Alaudin Khilji.

Subsequent Rulers:

  • Rathore king Rao Maldev ruled the fort of Jalore in 15th Century.
  •  During Akbar’s rule, Abdul Rahim Khan Khana took it infinitely from Gazni Khan.
  • Jahangir built the walls of the fort.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb it permanently became a part of Jodhpur.

The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is credited with having taken possession of several adjoining territories (in possession of the Chalukyas and the Paramaras).

  • The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert capital.
  • According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being hard pressed sued for peace.
  • The terms included the offer of one hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did not yield the desired result, probably because of its geographical position.
  • Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the Guhilot of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an encounter.
  • The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.

Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore): History of Rajasthan

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Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore)

The strongest of the Gurjara-Prathira branch was the one at Bhinmal, under king Vyaghramukh. The Gurjar clan, which ruled at Bhinmal, was known as Chapas (this name is a short version of Chapotkrisht, Sanskrit word which means excelled in archery or strong bowmen). As per the records of Heun Tsang, the famous astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta was in the court of Vyaghramukh.

Kings of Bhinmal branch of Gurjara- Pratihara:

1. Raja Nagabhatt I Pratihara: He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

2. Raja Yashovardhana Pratihara

3. Raja Watsraj Pratihara: He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country but he was defeated in the hands of Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 4. Raja Nagabhatt II Pratihara: He got victory over Kannauj.He was defeated in the hands of Govinda of Rashtrakuta dynasty.He defeated Dharmapala and Chakrayudha in the battle of Mudgagiri.

 5. Raja Mihir Bhoj Pratihara: During the period of Mihir Bhoja Kanauj was restored to its former glory.Mihir Bhoja defeated Devapala of Bengal.Suleiman, Arab traveller visited the court of Mihir Bhoja in 851 A.D.

6. Raja Mahendrapal Pratihara

7. Raja Mahipal Pratihara

8. Raja Vinayakpal Pratihara

9. Raja Mahendrapal II Pratihara

10. Raja Vijay pal Pratihara

 11. Raja Rajyapal Pratihara

 12. Raja Trilochnpal Pratihara

 13. Raja YashPal Pratihara: He was the last ruler of the dynasty. He ruled from 1027 to 1036. Prathihara dynasty came to end with the invasion of Muhammad of Ghazni.

After the downfall of Prathiharas, their capital Kannauj was occupied by Gahadwalas (Rathores). Chandradeva, who belonged to Rathore clan of Rajput warriors, defeated Gopala and established the Gahadavala dynasty.

  • After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad of Ghuri attacked Jaychand. In 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place in which Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaychand. Soon the kingdom of Gahadwalas was destroyed.
  • Rao Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, of Kannauj, came to Marwar during his pilgrimage to Dwarka.
  • His Son, Rao Asthan conquered Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately got killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.
  • Rao Chanda/Chundarji, 10th in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas – and established rule of Rathores in Marwar. Jodhpur was the primary state of Rathores but different states (Bikaner, Kishangarh etc) were also founded by different Rathore rulers.

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs: History of Rajasthan

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The Origin of Rajputs

The term Rajput starts coming in use from the 6th Century AD. The origin of the Rajputs is the subject of debate. There are four main streams of thought on origin of Rajputs:

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs:

This theory says that the Rajputs are descendents of the races like Sakas, Kushanas, and Hunas etc. Dr. VA Smith, Col. James Todd, William Crooks supported this theory. The main argument of James Todd behind the foreign origin of the Rajputs was that these people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas.

Mixed Origin Theory

This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that Rajput is a mixed race. Some of them were descendents of the Aryans while some of them were from the foreign races such as Hunas, Sakas etc.

Kshatriyas theory of origin

This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that the Rajputs are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama. The theory divides the Rajput based on their lineage as Suryavanshi & Chandravanshi, which they trace from Surya and Chandra. They worship fire as the Aryans did and worship of fire was not the tradition of the Foreigners only.

Agnikula Theory

This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, Rajputs were the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu. The four Rajput clans from Agnikunda are Chauhans, Chalukyas, Parmaras and Pratiharas. Muhnot Nainsi & Suryamal Mishran also support this theory

Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

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Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

Because of Alexander’s invasion in 326 BCE tribes of South Punjab especially Malav, Shivi and Arjunayan migrated to Rajasthan. Punjab and Rajasthan became the nucleus of a number of oligarchies, or tribal republics whose local importance rose and fell in inverse proportion to the rise and fall of larger kingdoms. According to coins recovered, the most important politically were the Audambaras, Arjunayanas, Malavas, Kunindas, Trigartas, Abhiras, Yaudheyas and Shibis (Shivi).

Arjunayana

The Arjunayanas flourished in the Agra Jaipur tract from c. 200 BC TO 400 AD. Their coins have been found, which do not bear the name of any king or general, the legend is simply ‘Arjunayanam Jayah’, victory to the Arjunayanas. The coins belong to C 100 BC, but the Arjunayana state must have been much more ancient, for the ruling class believed that it descended from Arjuna, the epic hero. They worked in close cooperation with the Yaudheyas, their northern neighbours, who believed themselves to be the descendants of Dharma, the eldest brother of Arjuna.

  • Arjunayanas had their base in the present-day Bharatpur-Alwar region.
  • They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period (c. 185 – c. 73 BCE).

Rajnaya

  • Different scholars have ascribed different regions to Rajnaya janapadas; based on coins Cunningham suggested their region as near Mathura, Smith suggested former Dholpur state as original home of Rajnaya and Rapson ascribed them in same region as of Arjunayanas & Kings of Mathura.

Shivi

  • Shivi gana covered present districts of Udaipur & Chittorgarh.
  • The Shibis (Shivi) migrated from the Punjab to Rajasthan and settled at Madhyamika (later Nagri), located near Chittorgarh.
  • Nagri was excavated in 1904 A.D by D. R. Bhandarkar Malavas
  • The Malavas are actually mentioned in the Mahabhashya of Patanjali.
  • According to D. R. Bhandarkar, they initially lived in the Punjab; later, they migrated to eastern Rajasthan (Jaipur & Tonk), and finally to region in Madhya Pradesh, which is known as Malwa after them.
  •  Their capital in Rajasthan was Nagar, located in Tonk.

Shalvya: It was situated in Alwar district

Yodheya or Yaudheyas: Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana was an ancient confederation who lived in the area between the Indus River and the Ganges River. Present Ganganagar & Hanumangarh districts formed part of their gana

  • They find mention in Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha.
  • Later, the Junagarh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas.

The name itself is derived from ‘Yodha’ and signifies ‘warrior’. Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing upto the time of Samudragupta. They survived the onslaught of the Mauryan imperialism and closed their ranks in face of the Machiavellian Magadhan statecraft.

They disillusioned the Sunga ambitions and subsequently defied the alien Sakas and Kushans, resisted their advance and were instrumental in bringing about their downfall. Their country is called Bahudhanyaka and their capital is Rohtak in Mahabharata. According to Dr Altekar, we find from the spots where its coins have been discovered, that it extended from Saharanpur in the east to Bahawalpur in the west, from Ludhiana in the North West to Delhi in the south east. It was a confederation of three republics. Rohtak in Punjab was the capital of one of them, the northern Panchala known as Bahudhanyaka country was the centre of power for the second. Northern Rajputana seems to have been the jurisdiction of the third. The powerful Trans Beas state, mentioned by Alexander’s historians, which possessed fertile territory and virile inhabitants, and which was governed by an aristocracy exercising its powers with justice and moderation was the Yaudheya republic.

Vedic Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan during Vedic Period (1500 BC – 500 BC)

The cities of the Harappan Culture had declined by 1500 B.C. Around this period, the speakers of Indo- Aryan language, Sanskrit, entered the north-west India from the Indo-Iranian region. Initially they would have come in small numbers through the passes in the northwestern mountains. Their initial Settlements were in the valleys of the north-west and the plains of the Punjab.

Later, they moved into Indo-Gangetic plains. As they were mainly a cattle-keeping people, they were mainly in search of pastures. By 6th century B.C., they occupied the whole of North India, which was referred to as Aryavrata. The original home of the Aryans is a debatable question and there are several views.

 Period between 1500 B.C and 600 B.C may be divided into:

  • Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 B.C -1000 B.C)
  • The Later Vedic Period (1000B.C – 600 B.C).

Why it is called Vedic Period?

The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the root ‘vid’, which means to know. In other words, the term ‘Veda’ signifies ‘superior knowledge’. The Vedic literature consists of the four Vedas – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva.

  • The Rig Veda is the earliest of the four Vedas and it consists of 1028 hymns.
  •  The Yajur Veda consists of various details of rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice.
  •  The Sama Veda is set to tune for the purpose of chanting during sacrifice. It is called the book of chants and the origins of Indian music are traced in it.
  •  The Atharva Veda contains details of rituals.

Rig Vedic or Early Vedic Period (1500-1000 BC)

During the Rig Vedic period, the Aryans were mostly confined to the Indus region. The Rig Veda refers to Saptasindhu or the land of seven rivers. This includes the five rivers of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej along with the Indus and Saraswati.

Political System:

  • Family was called as kula.
  • Several families joined together on the basis of their kinship to form a village or grama.
  • The leader of grama was known as gramani.
  • A group of villages constituted a larger unit called visu. It was headed by vishayapati.
  • The highest political unit was called Jana or tribe.
  • There were several tribal kingdoms during the Rig Vedic period such as Bharatas, Matsya,Yadus and Purus.
  •  The head of the kingdom was called as rajan or king.

 The Rig Vedic polity was normally monarchical and the succession was hereditary. The king was assisted by Purohitas or priest and senani or commander of the army in his administration.

  • There were two popular bodies called the Sabha and Samiti. The Sabha seems to have been a council of elders and the latter, a general assembly of the entire people.

Social Life:

  • The Rig Vedic society was patriarchal. The basic unit of society was family or graham. The head of the family was known as grahapathi.
  • Monogamy was generally practiced while polygamy was prevalent among the royal and noble families.
  • Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and intellectual development.
  • There were women poets like Apala, Viswavara, Ghosa and Lopamudra during the Rig Vedic period.
  • Women could even attend the popular assemblies. There was no child marriage and the practice of sati was absent.
  • Both men and women wore upper and lower garments made of cotton and wool.
  • Chariot racing, horse racing, dicing, music and dance were the favourite pastimes.
  • The social divisions were not rigid during the Rig Vedic period as it was in the later Vedic Period.

Economic Condition:

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing. Their wealth was estimated in terms of their cattle.
  • When they permanently settled in North India they began to practice agriculture. With the knowledge and use of iron they were able to clean forests and bring more lands under cultivation.
  • Carpentry was another important profession and the availability of wood from the forests cleared made the profession profitable. Carpenters produced chariots and ploughs.
  • Workers in metal made a variety of articles with copper, bronze and iron. Spinning was another important occupation and cotton and woolen fabrics were made. Goldsmiths were active in making ornaments.
  • The potters made various kinds of vessels for domestic use.
  • Trade was another important economic activity and rivers served as important means of transport. Trade was conducted on barter system. In the later times, gold coins called nishka were used as media of exchange in large transactions.

Religion:

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans worshiped the natural forces like earth, fire, wind, rain and thunder.
  • The important Rig Vedic gods were Prithvi (Earth), Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), Varuna (Rain) and Indra (Thunder).
  • There were also female gods like Aditi and Ushas.
  • There were no temples and no idol worship during the early Vedic period.
  • Prayers were offered to the gods in the expectation of rewards. Ghee, milk and grain were given as offerings.

      Later Vedic Period or Iron Age (1000-600 BC)

  • The Aryans further moved towards east in the Later Vedic Period. The Satpatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains.
  •  Kuru and Panchala kingdoms flourished in the beginning. After the fall of Kurus and Panchalas, other kingdoms like Kosala, Kasi and Videha came into prominence.
  • The later Vedic texts also refer to the three divisions of India – Aryavrata (northern India), Madhyadesa (central India) and Dakshinapatha (southern India).

Political System:

  • Larger kingdoms were formed during the later Vedic period. Many Jana or tribes were amalgamated to form janapadas or Rashtras in the later Vedic period.
  • The king performed various rituals and sacrifices to strengthen his position. They include Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race).
  • The kings also assumed titles like Rajavisvajanan, Ahilabhuvanapathi, (lord of all earth), Ekrat and Samrat (sole ruler).
  •  In the later Vedic period, a large number of new officials were involved in the administration in addition to the existing Purohitas, senani and gramani. They include the treasury officer, tax collector and royal messenger.
  • At the lower levels, the village assemblies carried on the administration. The importance of the Samiti and the Sabha had diminished during the later Vedic period.

Social System:

  • The four divisions of society (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras) or the Varna system was thoroughly established during the Later Vedic period.
  • Position of women declined, they were still considered inferior and subordinate to men. Women also lost their political rights of attending assemblies.
  • Child marriages had become common.

Economic Condition:

  • Iron was used extensively in this period and this enabled the people to clear forests and to bring more land under cultivation. Agriculture became the chief occupation. Improved types of implements were used for cultivation. Besides barley, rice and wheat were grown.
  • Metal work, leather work, carpentry and pottery made great progress. In addition to internal trade, foreign trade became extensive. The Later Vedic people were familiar with the sea and they traded with countries like Babylon.
  • Vaishyas also carried on trade and commerce. They organized themselves into guilds known as ganas.
  • Besides nishka of the Rig Vedic period, gold and silver coins like satamana and krishnala were used as media of exchange.

Religion:

  • Gods of the Early Vedic period like Indra and Agni lost their importance.
  • Prajapati (the creator), Vishnu (the protector) and Rudra (the destroyer) became prominent during the Later Vedic period.
  • Sacrifices were still important and the rituals connected with them became more elaborate. The importance of prayers declined and that of sacrifices increased.
  • Priesthood became a profession and a hereditary one. The formulae for sacrifices were invented and elaborated by the priestly class. Therefore, towards the end of this period there was a strong reaction against priestly domination and against sacrifices and rituals. The rise of Buddhism and Jainism was the direct result of these elaborate sacrifices.
  • Also, the authors of the Upanishads, which is the essence of Hindu philosophy, turned away from the useless rituals and insisted on true knowledge (jnana) for peace and salvation.

Vedic Age or Iron Age in Rajasthan

From 1000 BC, Iron was used in Gandhara in Pakistan. Around same time, use of iron appeared in eastern Punjab, Western UP and Rajasthan. The Vedic literature mentions the Matsya and the Salvas as located near the river Saraswati and there is evidence to believe that by the close of the Vedic age Rajasthan had become fully colonized by the Vedic tribes.

The relics of Painted Grey ware culture have been reported from the dried- up beds of Saraswati and Drishadwati rivers. There is also evidence of Painted Grey Ware (PGW) from Noh (Bharatpur), Jodhpura (Jaipur), Viratnagar (Jaipur) and Sunari (Jhunjhunu). These sites represent the growth of Iron Age in Rajasthan.

Rajasthan at a Glance

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River Inter-linking Project in Rajasthan

The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is studying the preliminary level of the feasibility of the three river inter-linking projects in Rajasthan. The proposed links are Parwati – Kalisindh -Chambal Link, Yamuna-Rajasthan Link Project and Rajasthan – Sabarmati Link Project.

There‘s also a plan to divert water of Chambal to Bisalpur dam by linking its tributary, Brahmani river, to Banas river upstream of Bisalpur.

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ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

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Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

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Hydrology-Water Resources of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

The Great Indian Water Divide in Aravalli distributes the river water of this region into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The rivers flowing in the west and south of Aravalli ranges, including Mahi, Som, Jokham and Sabarmati drain the water into the Arabian Sea. On the other hand, rivers flowing to the east, including Chambal and its tributaries, join the Bay of Bengal. There are also inland rivers like Luni and Ghaggar which drain out in the Rann of Kutch and Thar Desert respectively.

Rivers in Rajasthan are mostly seasonal, but this fact explains little because a river is not just the surface flow, evident to a naked eye. All the rivers and their floodplains in this desert state are vast grazing grounds supporting millions of livestock. These unseen rivers also recharge the groundwater making well irrigation possible.

Modern-day development activities, however, are putting an enormous pressure on them. If deforestation has reduced the water flow, rampant sand mining has affected the water retention and seepage into subsurface channels. Aravallis also has large number of marble mines and processing units. While digging operations extensively damage the environment, discharge of a large amount of slurry by processing units also blocks water channels. Industrial and domestic wastewater has further affected the quality and biodiversity of rivers. Reduced water flow is in turn making it easier for the encroachers to infringe upon these riverbeds.

This has also put most dams in the state in critical state as they are not getting water as per their designed depend abilities. This disrupts the water resources planning of the state and execution of contingency plan every year1.

Only two river basins (Chambal and Mahi) are perennial. In the recent past, many perennial rivers in these two basins became seasonal due to over-abstraction of groundwater from the catchment area of the rivers rendering reduced water table leading to reduced or nil base flow.

Rajasthan connects strongly with water through its heritage of lakes, ponds, stepwalls, dug wells and Tankas (underground tanks). Rivers thus have a limited presence in cultural and mythological landscape and are mostly seen as means of irrigation along their stretches. The region around Aravalis comprising south east Rajasthan has a stronger connection with rivers than the drier north-western and central plains. In fact, many of the forts had rivers as their natural defence against enemy attacks.

As per the latest estimates, the total internal surface water resources of Rajasthan are estimated at 25.93 BCM1 (21.71 BCM at 50% dependability and 14.12 BCM at 75% dependability) of which about 16.05 BCM are considered ―economically exploitable at 50% dependability. The state is allocated in addition, some 17.88 BCM in trans-boundary or inter-state river waters. The renewable groundwater resource (fresh, dynamic component) is placed at 10.61 BCM per year (10.79 BCM as of March 2009). The static reserve of fresh and saline groundwater reserves have been reported to be 32.9 BCM and 29.7 BCM respectively.

There are six major river basins in the State. Banas basin which is the largest drains out 45,833 Sq km. Luni basin, which comes next, drains out 37,363 Sq km. Chambal Basin, drains out 31,360 Sq km; Mahi basin drains out 16,985 Sq km, Banganga basin drains out 8,878 Sq km and Sabarmati drains out 4,164 sq km. There are more rivers like Sahibi, Ruparel and Ghaggar which have smaller catchment areas besides several streams which feed the bigger rivers. (Source: Water Resources Department, Rajasthan)

Five of these rivers can be further divided into sub-basins as given below:

  1. Luni Basin –Luni, Sukri, Redeye, Mithari, Bandi, Khari, Jawai, Guhiya and Sagi, and Jojari.
  2. Banas Basin – Banas, Berach, Dain, Gudia, Kalisil, Khari, Kothari, Mashi, Morel, Sudra. Indravati, Sabari, Pranhita, Lower Godavari, and Wainganga sub basin;
  3. Chambal Basin – Banas, Chakan, Chambal Downstream, Chambal Upstream, Kalisindh, Kunnu, Mej and Parwati.
  4. Mahi Basin- Anas, Bhadar, Jakham, Moran, Som and Mahi.
  5. Sabarmati Basin- Sabarmati, Sei, Vatrak and Wakal

Source: Study On Planning Of Water Resources Of Rajasthan

Physiographic features of Rajasthan

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State of Rajasthan is located in the north-western part of the subcontinent. Pakistan lies on its west and northwest, while it is bounded by the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh on the north and northeast. Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh form the east and southeast boundary and Gujarat lies on the southwest side.

The Aravalli range of hills and mountains, from where most rivers originate, divides the state into two major parts, southeast and northwest. The Range does not intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea, as it lies in a direction parallel to that of the coming monsoon winds, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow.

This makes western Rajasthan relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the south-western part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile.

Around two third of the northwest is covered by sand dunes while the floodplains of Mahi, Banas and Chambal river systems form the southeastern part.

Around 67 per cent of the state‘s area is affected due to desertification / and land degradation where the wind erosion (44.2%) is the maximum contributor followed by water (11.2%), vegetal degradation (6.25%) and salinization (1.07%) (ISRO, 2007).

The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. These expand from Western India – Pakistan boundary and steadily combine with the parched deciduous forests of Aravalli hills as well as the South East plateau. These forests are found in the districts of Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer, Jalore, Churu, Bikaner and Nagaur.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are home to the Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia, and other trees. Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur districts, are enclosed with this kind of forests. Intermittent expansion of definite species of parched deciduous forests is found beside the arid river beds of Nagaur, Jalore, Bikaner and Ganganagar districts. The Central Indian sub – tropical hill forests are found in Sirohi, Rajasthan, frequently on the hills near Mount Abu. These forests have some evergreen and partially evergreen species of trees. Mixed Miscellaneous forests are also found in the South-Eastern and Eastern region of Rajasthan including Kota, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara, Jhalawar and Baran districts.

Rajasthan: State Profile

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Rajasthan is the largest state of India by area and forms North West end of the country sharing its border with Pakistan.

  1. Area: The total area of Rajasthan state is 342,239 sq km
  2. Administrative units: The state has been divided into 33 districts.
  3. Population: The total human population of the state is 68.54 million. (Census 2011)
  4. Total forest cover: 32,627 sq km
  5. Climate: The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district.

In the west, Rajasthan is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the south-eastern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile. The climate varies throughout Rajasthan. On average winter temperatures range from 8° to 28° C (46° to 82° F) and summer temperatures range from 25° to 46° C (77° to 115° F). Average rainfall also varies; the western deserts accumulate about 100 mm (about 4 in) annually, while the southeastern part of the state receives 650 mm (26 in) annually, most of which falls from July through September during the monsoon season.

(Source: www.rajasthan.gov.in )

UPSC IAS Mains Previous Year Papers

2. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India.

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Reconstruction of Indian history of the ancient and medieval era is a daunting task owing to lack of chronological records, and subjectivity in the interpretation of archaeological and literary sources.

In this context, accounts of foreign travellers, who were eye witnesses to the events that occurred at that time, become an important source to corroborate other sources of history.

Chinese Accounts

Accounts of Fa-hien, Hsuan Tsang, and I-tsing have proved to be a valuable source of information on the Gupta period and the years following the end of Gupta rule. They provided vital information about:

Socio-economic conditions in India – For example, Fa-hien mentions about the Chandalas (untouchables) living outside the village. This shows that untouchablility was prevalent in the society as early as 5th Century AD.

Existing political conditions – For example, Hsuan Tsang’s account shows that during Harsha’s reign (7th Century AD), Pataliputra was in a state of decline and on the other hand, Prayag and Kannauj in the doab had emerged important.

Nature of Buddhist doctrines, rituals, and monastic institutions in India – For example – Hsuan Tsang and I-tsing provided vivid accounts of Nalanda.

Arab Accounts

Arab travellers such as the merchants – Sulayman, Abu Zaid, etc. provided vivid accounts on Indian culture and science, which are valuable sources for the study of early medieval Indian history.

Abu Zaid noted that most Indian princes while holding court, allowed their women to be seen unveiled – highlighting that there was no system of purdah (veiling) in upper class women in early medieval India.

Arab travellers also provide information about the socio-economic condition through their description of trade contacts and the wealth which was exclusively derived from the trade with India.

Arab travellers of the period like Al-Beruni and Ibn Battuta had direct personal contacts with the people of Indian subcontinent which enabled them to give detailed first hand information in their accounts about the economic, social and other activities of the people.

Though there are issues associated with the reliability of the accounts provided by these travellers owing to their personal biases, still they are key sources for finding out the missing links in the reconstruction of Indian history.

1. Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Discuss

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

India has a vast basket of diverse art and cultural heritage which need institutional support and encouragement to address areas critical for their survival and preservation.

We need to preserve our art heritage because of the following reasons.

  1. Presently, many Indian art forms are on the verge of extinction such as Manjusha painting of Bihar, traditional art of Puppetry, Parsi embroidery, Naga craft, Dhokra handicraft, etc., which need protection and preservation.
  2. India has a unique identity in the world for its art and culture which represents Indian civilization on world platform and if it vanishes the uniqueness of India will get affected.
  3. For many tribal communities, art and craft is the source of income.
  4. This is also the source of attraction for tourism which contributes to economic development of the country.
  5. Art heritage also represents “unity in diversity” of India and builds a bridge between people living abroad to get connected with their native country.
  6. Art and culture is also a part of soft power in world politics.

Government has started many initiatives to preserve the rich art heritage of the country, such as, Scheme for Conservation of Wall Painting (1996-97), Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programe, Tribal haats, GI tag to the local products, e-haat, etc. Apart from strict implementation of such programmes, Government should provide financial assistance to strengthen regional and local museums, preserve art heritage through virtual media, and promote local paintings on products like wallet, mobile cover, pillow cover, etc.

IAS Prelims 2020: GS Paper Test-4

(Join)Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

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Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Test Series, Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

Indian Polity & Constitution

1.       By “Rule of Law”, we mean who among the following are subject to the law of the land?

1.       Every subject of the law of the land only

2.       Every subject of the law of the land including the lawmakers

3.       Every subject of the law of the land, lawmakers, law enforcement officials and judges Choose the correct statements

(a)     1 only

(b)     Both 1 and 2

(c)      2 only

(d)     Both 1 and 2

2. Which of the following could not be construed as apart of concept of “Rule of Law”?

(a) Law must be publicly declared and is established or adopted through popular consent

(b) Prospective application (punishments)

(c) Characteristics of generality equality and protection of individual rights

(d) Requirements with regard to the content of the law

3. Consider the following statements.

1. In the Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narayan case, the Apex Court held that Rule of Law embodied in Article 14 of the Constitution is the “basic feature” of the Indian Constitution.

2. In the Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India case, the Supreme Court held that Indian Constitution is based on the American system of ‘Due Process of Law

Correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements.

1. Constitutionalism can be established in a country even without a written Constitution.

2. Written Constitution in a country would not qualify a country automatically to be a Constitutionalised one

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

5. Consider the following statements.

1. While in case of Written Constitutions there is clear distinction between constitutional laws and other laws (like statutory laws and bylaws), in case of unwritten Constitutions there is no such marked difference as every law

Passed by the parliament becomes constitutional.

2. While in case of Written Constitutions, the structure of government can be federal or unitary, in case of unwritten Constitutions, the structure of government is necessarily unitary because the parliament is considered supreme

The correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

6. Consider the following statements regarding the Parliamentary form of the government and choose the INCORRECT feature.

(a)     Existence of a Titular or Constitutional Ruler

(b)     Absence of clear principle of separation of powers

(c)      Ministry formed from the popular chamber of the legislature

(d)     None of the above

7. Which of the following is NOT considered as an essential nature of Democratic government?

(a)     A belief in the fundamental importance of the individual.

(b)     Equality of All Persons

(c)      Majority Rule but recognition of Minority Rights

(d)     Freedom of the individuals rather than the rights of society

8. Consider the following statements.

1. Fundamental rights acts as a limitation on the authority of the state

2. Directive Principles authorises the state to carry out certain functions The correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

9. Consider the following statements with regard to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

1. Preamble contains the philosophical part of the Constitution, the principles which are essentially uncodified.

2. The principles contained in the Preamble can be altered through an amendment, but without altering the basic features contained in it.

The correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

10. Objective Resolution was silent as to the concept of …..? Which was inserted into the Preamble by the Constituent Assembly?

(a)     Republic

(b)     Sovereignty

(c)      Democratic

(d)     Justice

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Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

1. Electron beam therapy is a kind of radiation therapy to treat?

(a) Enlarged prostate gland

(b) Gall bladder stones

(c) Certain types of cancer

(d) Kidney stones

2. Cobalt (60) isotope is used in the treatment of?

(a) Heart diseases

(b) Skin diseases

(c) Diabetes

(d) Cancer

3. Which of the following is an ant diabetic drug?

(a) Insulin

(b) Penicillin

(c) Chloroquin

(d) Aspirin

4. The organ of the human body directly affected by the disease of hepatitis is

(a) Liver

(b) Lungs

(c) Heart

(d) Brain

5. Which one of the following disease is not caused by virus?

(a) Polio

(b) Rabies

(c) Small pox

(d) Diphtheria

6. Of the following, ELISA test is performed to test

(a) Diabetes

(b) Tuberculosis

(c) AIDS

(d) Syphilis

7. The radio-isotope used to detect blood-clots in the Circulatory system is

(a) Arsenic-74

(b) Cobalt-60

(c) I-131

(d) Sodium-24

8. Keeping pigs away from human settlements helps in the Eradication of

(a) Malaria

(b) Japanese encephalitis

(c) Elephantiasis

(d) Polio

9. Which one of the following human organs is less susceptible to harmful radiations?

(a) Eyes

(b) Heart

(c) Brain

(d) Lungs

10. Artemisinin, a drug to cure malaria is obtained from a

(A) Seed plant

 (b) Fungus

(c) Bacterium

(d) Moss

11. The Minamata disease of Japan in 1953 was caused by eating fish contaminated with

(a) Nickel

(b) Lead

(c) Mercury

(d) Cadmium

12. The disease caused by swelling of the membrane over Spinal cord and brain is

(a) Leukaemia

(b) Paralysis

(c) Sclerosis

(d) Meningitis

13. Emphysema is a disease caused by environmental pollution in which the affected organ of the body is

(a) Liver

(b) Kidney

(c) Lungs

(d) Brain

14. The mad cow disease is caused by

(a) Bacteria

(b) Viruses

(c) Fungus

 (d) Prisons

15. Which of the following decrease in number in the human body due to Dengue fever?

(a) Platelets

(b) Haemoglobin

(c) Sugar

(d) Water

16. What is MRI?

(a) Magnetic Record of Intestines

(b) Magnetic Recording of Investigations

(c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(d) Magnetic Resonance in Intestines

17. Which of the following disease is caused by Vitamin B3?

(a) Beri – beri

(b) Night blindness

(c) Rickets

(d) Pellagra

18. Salk’s vaccine is connected with which one of the following diseases?

(a) Small pox

(b) Tetanus

(c) T.B.

(d) Polio

19. Which of the following is a substance available in small quantity in the sea and administered in a certain deficiency disease?

(a) Iron

(b) Vitamin A

(c) Fluorine

(d) Iodine

20. In countries where polished rice is the main cereal in their diet, people suffer from

(a) Pellagra

(b) Beri-beri

(c) Scurvy

(d) Osteomalacia

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Mahatma Gandhi: Biography and GK Questions PDF download

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Mahatma Gandhi Biography (1869–1948)

Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Until Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, his life and teachings inspired activists including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

Who Was Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi (October 2, 1869 to January 30, 1948) was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule and in South Africa who advocated for the civil rights of Indians. Born in Porbandar, India, Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948. Mahatma Gandhi leading the Salt March in protest against the government monopoly on salt production.

Early Life and Education

Indian nationalist leader Gandhi (born Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, which was then part of the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karmachand Gandhi, served as a chief minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putli bai, was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept with the lights on even as a teenager. In the ensuing years, the teenager rebelled by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household servants.

Although Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father hoped he would also become a government minister and steered him to enter the legal profession. In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The young Indian struggled with the transition to Western culture.

Upon returning to India in 1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just weeks earlier. He struggled to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom case, a nervous Gandhi blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees.

Gandhi’s Religion and Beliefs

Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous ancient Indian religion that espoused non-violence, fasting, meditation and vegetarianism.

During Gandhi’s first stay in London, from 1888 to 1891, he became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of sacred texts to learn more about world religions.

Living in South Africa, Gandhi continued to study world religions. “The religious spirit within me became a living force,” he wrote of his time there. He immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity, austerity, fasting and celibacy that was free of material goods.

Gandhi in South Africa

After struggling to find work as a lawyer in India, Gandhi obtained a one-year contract to perform legal services in South Africa. In April 1893, he sailed for Durban in the South African state of Natal.

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly appalled by the discrimination and racial segregation faced by Indian immigrants at the hands of white British and Boer authorities. Upon his first appearance in a Durban courtroom, Gandhi was asked to remove his turban. He refused and left the court instead. The Natal Advertiser mocked him in print as “an unwelcome visitor.”

Nonviolent Civil Disobedience

A seminal moment occurred on June 7, 1893, during a train trip to Pretoria, South Africa, when a white man objected to Gandhi’s presence in the first-class railway compartment, although he had a ticket. Refusing to move to the back of the train, Gandhi was forcibly removed and thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg.

Gandhi’s act of civil disobedience awoke in him a determination to devote himself to fighting the “deep disease of color prejudice.” He vowed that night to “try, if possible, to root out the disease and suffer hardships in the process.”

From that night forward, the small, unassuming man would grow into a giant force for civil rights. Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight discrimination.

Gandhi prepared to return to India at the end of his year-long contract until he learned, at his farewell party, of a bill before the Natal Legislative Assembly that would deprive Indians of the right to vote. Fellow immigrants convinced Gandhi to stay and lead the fight against the legislation. Although Gandhi could not prevent the law’s passage, he drew international attention to the injustice.

After a brief trip to India in late 1896 and early 1897, Gandhi returned to South Africa with his wife and children. Gandhi ran a thriving legal practice, and at the outbreak of the Boer War, he raised an all-Indian ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers to support the British cause, arguing that if Indians expected to have full rights of citizenship in the British Empire, they also needed to shoulder their responsibilities.

Satyagraha

In 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he called “Satyagraha” (“truth and firmness”), in reaction to the South African Transvaal government’s new restrictions on the rights of Indians, including the refusal to recognize Hindu marriages.

After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in 1913, including Gandhi. Under pressure, the South African government accepted a compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts that included recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of a poll tax for Indians. 

Return to India 

When Gandhi sailed from South Africa in 1914 to return home, Smuts wrote, “The saint has left our shores, I sincerely hope forever.” At the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi spent several months in London.

In 1915 Gandhi founded an ashram in Ahmedabad, India, that was open to all castes. Wearing a simple loincloth and shawl, Gandhi lived an austere life devoted to prayer, fasting and meditation. He became known as “Mahatma,” which means “great soul.”

Opposition to British Rule in India

In 1919, with India still under the firm control of the British, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison people suspected of sedition without trial. In response, Gandhi called for a Satyagraha campaign of peaceful protests and strikes. 

Violence broke out instead, which culminated on April 13, 1919, in the Massacre of Amritsar. Troops led by British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators and killed nearly 400 people.

No longer able to pledge allegiance to the British government, Gandhi returned the medals he earned for his military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians to serve in World War I.

Gandhi became a leading figure in the Indian home-rule movement. Calling for mass boycotts, he urged government officials to stop working for the Crown, students to stop attending government schools, soldiers to leave their posts and citizens to stop paying taxes and purchasing British goods.

Rather than buy British-manufactured clothes, he began to use a portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth. The spinning wheel soon became a symbol of Indian independence and self-reliance.

Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violence and non-cooperation to achieve home rule.

After British authorities arrested Gandhi in 1922, he pleaded guilty to three counts of sedition. Although sentenced to a six-year imprisonment, Gandhi was released in February 1924 after appendicitis surgery.

He discovered upon his release that relations between India’s Hindus and Muslims devolved during his time in jail. When violence between the two religious groups flared again, Gandhi began a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924 to urge unity. He remained away from active politics during much of the latter 1920s.

Gandhi and the Salt March

Gandhi returned to active politics in 1930 to protest Britain’s Salt Acts, which not only prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt—a dietary staple—but imposed a heavy tax that hit the countries poorest particularly hard. Gandhi planned a new Satyagraha campaign, The Salt March that entailed a 390-kilometer/240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where he would collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly.

“My ambition is no less than to convert the British people through non-violence and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India,” he wrote days before the march to the British viceroy, Lord Irwin.

Wearing a homespun white shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, Gandhi set out from his religious retreat in Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with a few dozen followers. By the time he arrived 24 days later in the coastal town of Dandi, the ranks of the marchers swelled, and Gandhi broke the law by making salt from evaporated seawater.

The Salt March sparked similar protests, and mass civil disobedience swept across India. Approximately 60,000 Indians were jailed for breaking the Salt Acts, including Gandhi, who was imprisoned in May 1930.

Still, the protests against the Salt Acts elevated Gandhi into a transcendent figure around the world. He was named Time magazine’s “Man of the Year” for 1930.

Gandhi was released from prison in January 1931, and two months later he made an agreement with Lord Irwin to end the Salt Satyagraha in exchange for concessions that included the release of thousands of political prisoners. The agreement, however, largely kept the Salt Acts intact. But it did give those who lived on the coasts the right to harvest salt from the sea.

Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule, Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference, however, proved fruitless.

Protesting “Untouchables” Segregation

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932 during a crackdown by India’s new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. He embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to segregate the “untouchables,” those on the lowest rung of India’s caste system, by allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the proposal.

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and leadership passed to his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting India’s rural areas.

India’s Independence from Great Britain

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, Gandhi launched the “Quit India” movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day Pune.

“I have not become the King’s First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation of the British Empire,” Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of the crackdown.

With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment in 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchill’s Conservatives in the British general election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent states—predominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus, however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward Muslims.

Gandhi’s Wife and Kids

At the age of 13, Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage. She in Gandhi’s arms in February 1944 at the age of 74

In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby.

In 1888, Gandhi’s wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was born in India 1893. Kasturba gave birth to two more sons while living in South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

On January 30, 1948, 78-year-old Gandhi was shot and killed by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse, who was upset at Gandhi’s tolerance of Muslims.

Weakened from repeated hunger strikes, Gandhi clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living quarters in New Delhi’s Birla House to a late-afternoon prayer meeting. Godse knelt before the Mahatma before pulling out a semiautomatic pistol and shooting him three times at point-blank range. The violent act took the life of a pacifist who spent his life preaching nonviolence.

Godse and a co-conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949. Additional conspirators were sentenced to life in prison.

Legacy

Even after Gandhi’s assassination, his commitment to nonviolence and his belief in simple living — making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest — have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

Questions on Gandhiji mostly asked in competitive exams

Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, politician, social activist, and writer who became the leader of the nationalist movement against the British rule of India. He is also called Bapu and known as the Father of the Nation.

Q.1. Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was born on

 (a) October 5, 1896    (b) October 3, 1840

 (c) October 2, 1869    (d) October 10, 1880

Q.2. At which place was Gandhiji born?

(a) Porbandar  (b) Rajkot

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Delhi

Q.3. what was Gandhiji’s age when he got married to Kasturba?

(a) 19 years      (b) 15 years

(c) 12 years      (d) 13 years

Q.4. Gandhiji confessed his guilt of stealing for the purpose of smoking in a letter, promising never to steal in future and asking for adequate punishment. To whom was this letter addressed?

 (a) Father        (b) Mother

(C) Elder Brother        (d) Friend

Q.5. About how old was Gandhiji when he reached London to become a barrister?

(a) 20 years      (b) 19 years

(c) 21 years      (d) 18 years

Q.6. to become a barrister in England, one had to join one of the Inns of Courts. After obtaining admission, Gandhiji joined the Inner Temple on

(a) October 5, 1870     (b) December 15, 1885

(c) November 6, 1888 (d) January 3, 1880

Q.7. Devadas was Gandhiji’s

(a) Only child  (b) Second child

(c) Eldest child            (d) youngest child

Q.8. Gandhiji, the votary of nonviolence was shot dead on January 30, 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi, shortly after 5 p.m. while going to the prayer meeting. Which was that fateful day of the week?

(a) Saturday    (b) Wednesday

(c) Friday        (d) Monday

Q.9. In which South African unit had most of the India emigrants taken up abode?

(a) Johannesburg         (b) Natal

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.10. While holding a first-class ticket Gandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to the van compartment. On his refusal to comply with the unjust order, a constable was called to push him out with bag and baggage. Identify the railway station where this incident took place.

(a) Natal          (b) Johannesburg

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.11. At which place was Gandhiji arrested for the first time by the British Government for sedition?

(a) Bombay     (b) Pune

(c) Calcutta     (d) Ahmedabad

Q.12. On which day of March 1930 Gandhiji started with a band of chosen volunteers on his famous Dandi March to break the law by manufacturing illegally, but openly, salt from the sea?

(a) Tenth          (b) Thirteenth

(c) Eleventh     (d) Twelfth

Q.13. When was the Gandhi – Irwin Pact signed?

(a) March 1, 1932        (b) March 5, 1931

(c) March 10, 1935      (d) March 7, 1937

Q.14. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected President of the Congress in 1938 with Gandhiji’s goodwill. He wanted a second term, but Gandhiji did not approve of it. Despite the disapproval, Bose fought the election and won it, defeating the official candidate by over 200 votes. Gandhiji took it as a personal defeat. Identify the candidate.

(a) Lala Lajpat rai        (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(C) Pattabhi Sitaramayya        (d) Sarojini Naidu

Q.15. On being arrested for his “Quit India” programme, where was Gandhiji detained?

(A) Yeravada Jail        (b) Byculla Prison

(C) Aga Khan Palace Jail        (d) Ahmedabad Prison

Q.16. Lord Mountbatten arrived in India on 22nd March 1947 as the new Viceroy in the place of Lord Wavell to finalise the process of the transfer of power. His first act was to invite Gandhiji to meet him in that connection. When did Gandhiji meet him for the first time?

 (a) March 29, 1947     (b) March 30, 1947

 (c) March 31, 1947     (d) March 23, 1947

Q.17. The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. Who was its author?

 (A) Ruskin Bond       (b) John Ruskin

 (C) Leo Tolstoy          (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 18. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

 (a) Infinite capacity for suffering      (b) Non-violence

 (c) Truth         (d) All the three

Q. 19. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati.

 (a) Magan lal Gandhi (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Pyarelal ji  (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q. 20. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

 (a) Light of India       (b) Hind Swaraj

 (c) My Experiments with Truth         (d) Both (b) & (c)

Q. 21. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government-run Gandhi museum.

 (a) 1960          (b) 1965

 (c) 1971          (d) 1976

Q. 22. Identify the leader who lass met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

 (A) Vallabhbhai Patel            (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vinoba Bhave

Q. 23. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti-untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

 (a) Bombay    (b) Ahmedabad

 (c) Poona        (d) Nasik

Q. 24. When on August 15, 1947 the transfer of power took place, the Congress President issued a message to the nation and saluted Mahatma Gandhi as “the maker of freedom achieved in a unique way.” He said “never before was so great an event consummated with such little bloodshed and violence.” Who was the Congress President?

 (a) J B Kripalani         (b) Vallabhbhai Patel

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Motilal Nehru

Q. 25. What did Gandhiji mean by ‘Swaraj’?

 (a) Freedom for the country   (b) Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

 (c) Self-Government  (d) complete independence

Q. 26. When did Gandhiji take the vow of brahmacharya or celibacy of life?

 (a) 1911          (b) 1906

 (c) 1900          (d) 1905

Q. 27. When did Gandhiji get his head shaved, discard his clothes and settle for a loin cloth?

 (a) 1930          (b) 1921

 (c) 1925          (d) 1930

Q. 28. Who worked as a Private Secretary to Mahatma Gandhi?

 (a) Pyarelal ji  (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Kishori lal Mashruwala     (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q.29. Who in South Africa gave Gandhiji ‘Unto This Last’ to read which proved to be one of the most decisive books of his life?

 (A) John Holmes Haynes       (b) H S Polak

 (C) Hermann Kallenbach       (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 30. To put the ideas of ‘Unto This Last’ into practice, Gandhiji founded the Phoenix Settlement near Durban which came into being in the middle of the year ________________.

 (a) 1903          (b) 1904

 (c) 1905          (d) 1906

Q.31. Who described Gandhi’s march to Dandi in the following words? “Like the historic march of Ramchandra to Lanka, the march of Gandhi will be memorable”.

 (a) Motilal Nehru       (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vallabhbhai Patel

Q. 32. The historic August session of the All-India Congress Committee, at which the Quit India Resolution was passed, was held at Gowalia Park in __________________.

 (a) Bombay    (b) Calcutta

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Amritsar

Q. 33. Gandhiji accorded very high priority to communal harmony in his programme of actions. At which place did he undertake his last fast for it on January 13, 1948?

 (a) Nasik         (b) Delhi

 (c) Calcutta    (d) Bombay

Q. 34. After the attainment of political independence in 1947, Gandhiji felt that the Congress, as a propaganda vehicle and a parliamentary machine, had outlived its usefulness. So to keep the Congress away from unhealthy competition with political parties and communal bodies, Gandhiji towards the end of January 1948 sketched a draft constitution for the Congress to transform itself into ______________.

 (A) Lok Samiti           (b) Lok Kalyan Sangh

 (C) Lok Sevak Sangh (d) People’s Forum

Q. 35. Which of the following did Gandhiji describes as his two lungs?

 (a) Ahimsa and peace (b) Ahimsa and truth

 (c) Truth and Peace    (d) Brahmacharya and Aparigraha

Q. 36. The differences with Gandhiji led Subhas Chandra Bose to resign the Presidentship of the India National Congress in 1939. Leaving the Congress he formed a new party called __________________.

 (a) Indian National Party       (b) Forward Bloc

 (c) Freedom Party      (d) Freedom Bloc

Q. 37. Identify the Viceroy who wrote home these words after his first meeting with Gandhiji:”Mr Gandhi’s religious and moral views are, I believe, admirable, but I confess that I find it difficult to understand the practice of them in politics.”

 (a) Lord Wavell          (b) Lord Irwin

 (C) Lord Reading      (d) Lord Mountbatten

Q. 38. What was the profession of Gandhiji’s father?

 (a) Farmer       (b) Diwan

 (c) Shop-keeper          (d) Tehsildar

Q. 39. How many children did Putli bai have?

 (a) Two sons and daughters   (b) One daughter and three sons

 (c) Four sons  (d) three sons

Q. 40. What was the name of Gandhi’s domestic help?

 (a) Titli ai        (b) Rambha ai

 (c) Ranabai     (d) Guardia

Q. 41. What was the name of Gandhiji’s sister?

 (a) Gauri         (b) Ralia

 (c) Rambha     (d) Meera

Q. 42. Who inspired Gandhi with ‘ Ram Nam’ in his childhood?

 (a) Kasturba   (b) Putli bai

 (C) Rambha Dai         (d) Lakshmi Das

Q. 43. What was Gandhiji’s nickname in childhood?

 (a) Monu        (b) Manu or Moniya

 (c) Sonu          (d) Mahu

Q. 44. Which spelling did Gandhiji spell wrong as a child when the school inspector gave dictation to the class?

 (a) School       (b) Kettle

 (c) Uniform    (d) Umbrella

Q. 45. Where did Gandhiji receive his primary education?

 (a) Sudamapuri           (b) Bikaner

 (c) Porbandar (d) Rajkot

Q. 46. Which mythological character impressed Gandhiji for life when he saw a play on his life?

 (a) Harishchandra       (b) Ashoka

 (c) Vikramaditya        (d) Krishna

Q. 47. Who asked Gandhiji to eat meat in order to become strong?

 (a) Sheikh Mehtab      (b) Karsan Das

 (c) Lakshmi Das         (d) Uka

Q. 48. How old was Gandhiji when his father died?

 (a) 15 years     (b) 17 years

 (c) 16 years     (d) 18 years

Q. 49. In which year did Gandhiji pass his matriculation in England?

 (a) 1889          (b) 1890

 (c) 1891          (d) 1892

Q. 50. What were the vows taken up by Gandhiji before he left for England?

 (a) Not to take alcohol           (b) Not to eat meat

 (c) Not to eye other women   (d) All the above

Q. 51. Which institution did Gandhiji join as a member during his stay in England?

 (a) Vegetarian Society           (b) Cricket Club

 (c) Church of England           (d) Film Institution

Q. 52. Which book influenced Gandhiji greatly, which he read in England?

 (a) Be Vegetarian       (b) Vegetables are good for health

 (c) Plea for Vegetarianism     (d) Use of Vegetables

Answer Key:

1. (c) 1869                  

2. (a) Porbandar                                 

3. (d) 13 years

4. (a) Father    

5. (b) 19 years            

6. (c) November 6, 1888

7. (d) Youngest Child

8. (c) Friday   

9. (b) Natal

10. (c) Maritz burg     

11.(d) Ahmedabad     

12. (d) Twelfth

13. (b) March5, 1931 

14. (c) Pattabhi Sitaramayya  

15. (c) Agakhan Palace Jail

16. (c) March 31, 1947           

17. (b) John Ruskin    

18. (d) All three

19. (b) Mahadev Desai           

20. (d) both (b) & (c) 

21. (c) 1971

22. (a) Vallabhbhai Patel        

23. (c) Poona  

24. (a) J B Kripalani

25. (b) freedom for the meanest of the countrymen  

26. (b) 1906    

27. (b) 1921

28. (b) Mahadev Desai           

29. (b) H S L Polak    

30. (b) 1904

31. (a) Motilal Nehru 

32. (a) Bombay          

33. (b) Delhi

34.(c) Lok Sevak Sangh         

35. (b) Ahimsa and Truth       

36. (b) Forward Bloc

37. (c) Lord Reading 

38. (b) Diwan 

39. (b) One daughter and three sons

40. (b) Rambha dai    

41. (b) Raliat  

42. (c) Rambha Dai

43. (b) Manu or Moniya         

44. (b) Kettle  

45. (d) Rajkot

46. (a) Harishchandra 

47. (a) Sheikh Mehtab

48. (c) 16years

49. (b) 1890    

50. (d) All the above  

51. (a) Vegetarian Society

52. (c) Plea for Vegetarianism               

Part – II                 

1. Who is the author of ‘Unto This Last’?

A. John Ruskin

B. Ruskin Bond

C. Hermann Kallenbach

D. Louis Fischer

Ans:  A

2. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

A. Infinite capacity for suffering

B. Non violence

C. Truth

D. All the three

Ans: D

3. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati. Who translated it into English?

A. Magan lal Gandhi

B. Mahadev Desai

C. Pyarelal ji

D. Sushila Nayyar

Ans: B

4. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

A. Light of India

B. Hind Swaraj

C. My Experiments with Truth

D. Both B & C

Ans: D

5. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government – run Gandhi museum.

A. 1960

B. 1965

C. 1971

D. 1976

Ans: C

6. Identify the leader who last met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

A. Vallabhbhai Patel

B. Sarojini Naidu

C. Jawaharlal Nehru

D. Vinoba Bhave

Ans: A

7. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti – untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

A. Bombay

B. Ahmedabad

C. Poona

D. Nasik

Ans: C

8. Book ‘The Satyagraha’ was originally written in?

A. English

B. Hindi

C. Gujarati

D. Bengali

Ans: C

9. As per Gandhiji, what is the mean of “Swaraj”?

A. Freedom for the country

B. Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

C. Self Government

D. Complete Independence

Ans: B

10. When had Gandhiji gone to London?

A. 1894

B. 1893

C. 1899

D. 1891

Ans:  D

11. Who said “Live as if you were to die tomorrow? Learn as if you were to live forever.”

A.  Mahatma Gandhi

B.  Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

C.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

D.  Sarojini Naidu

Ans: A

12. When is the International Day of Non-Violence celebrated?

A. 14th August

B. 16th May

C. 8th October

D. 2nd October

Ans: D

13. The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October, the birthday of ____________________.

A.  Jawaharlal Nehru

B.  Mahatma Gandhi

C.  Sarojini Naidu

D.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

Ans: B

14. What was the title given by MK Gandhi to his Gujarati translation of “Unto This Last”?

A.  Manavta

B.  Sadbhavna

C.  Sarvodaya

D.  Ahimsa

Ans: C

15. MK Gandhi was born in which place?

A.  Porbandar

B.  Madhya Pradesh

C.  Karnataka

D.  Andhra Pradesh

Ans: A

16. Which of the following slogans is associated with the name of Gandhiji?

A.  Do or Die

B.  Tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe Azaadi dunga

C.  Swaraj is my birth-right

D.  Jai Hind

Ans: A

17. How many days did Mahatma Gandhi and his volunteers took to cover 24 mile journey from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi?

A. 24

B. 20

C. 21

D. 17

Ans: A

18. Where is Sabarmati Ashram?

A.  Rajkot

B.  Ahmedabad

C.  Pathankot

D.  Baroda

Ans: B

19.  Which book did Mohandas Gandhi write?

A.  India – The National

B.  The Story of My Experiments with Truth

C.  Two States

D.  The Good Earth

Ans: B

20. Which of the following was the first movement of Mahatma Gandhi in India?

A. Champaran Satyagraha

B. Bardoli Satyagraha

C. Dandi March

D. Kheda Satyagraha

Ans: A

Source: mkgandhi.org

Best wishes!!

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