CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Chhattisgarh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for CGPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020 Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Chhattisgarh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like CGSC and Other Chhattisgarh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Chhattisgarh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the Chhattisgarh State. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, CGPSC and Other Chhattisgarh PSC exams across the State. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Chhattisgarh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click here to download

You can buy the book from instamojo : Buy now

CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh is one of the 28 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the ninth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,192 km2. With a 2011 population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced as well as large contributor of coal. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning ten Chhattisgarhi and six Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in the south, and Odisha in the southeast. Currently the state comprises 28 districts. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala), the native place of Bhagwan Rama as his mother name was Kaushalya, daughter of Kaushal Naresh.”Chhattisgarh” was popularised later during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

It is claimed that Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 ancient forts in the area. The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara. However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh meaning Raj or “Empire of the Chedis“. In ancient times, Chhattisgarh region had been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kalinga, in modern Odisha. In the medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern Chhattisgarh was part of the Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. The highest point in the state is the Gaurlata. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild Asian buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division. Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh; CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi River and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The natural environment of Koriya in Chhattisgarh includes forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls.[citation needed] Koriya was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is also known for its mineral deposits. Coal is also found in this part of the country. The dense forests are rich in wildlife. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya’s main attraction, is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdeo River. The fall is situated seven kilometres from Koriya on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall falls from a height of 27 m, and it is approximately 3–4.5 m wide. Chirimiri is one of the more popular places, known for its natural environment and climate, in Chhattisgarh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in Chhattisgarh can reach upto 49 °C (113 °F). The monsoon season is from late June to October and is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to January. Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshina Kosala. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. One of the earliest statues of Vishnu has been excavated from Shunga period site at Malhar. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sharabhpurias, Panduvanshis (of Mekala and Dakshina Kosala), Somavanshi, Kalachuri and Nagavanshi rulers dominated this region. The Bastar region of Chhattisgarh was invaded by Rajendra Chola I and Kulottunga Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Name Area
Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park 1440.71 Km2
Indravati National Park 1258.37 Km2
Kanger Ghati National Park 200 Km2

Chhattisgarh has a heritage of robust culture. The state is the storehouse of Performing arts, Literature and crafts. The culture of Chhattisgarh includes various types of traditional Dances, Music, cuisines, traditional dress etc. which includes a lot in general knowledge of Chhattisgarh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

S.No Description Summary
1. Folk Dance Panthi Rawat Nacha Pandwani Chaitra Kaksar Saila Khamb-swang Bhatra Naat Rabhas Raai Mao-Pata Sow
2. Music Pandavani
3. Major Festival Bastar Dussehra Bastar Lokotsav Madai Festival Bhoramdeo Festival Goncha Festival Teeja Festival Champaran Mela Narayanpur Mela Pola Hareli First fruit Festival
4. Cuisine (Famous Food) Aamat Bafauri Bhajia Chousela Dubkikadhi Farra Khurmi Moong Bara Thethari Muthia
5. Traditional Dress Men: Dhotis and Headgears Women: Lugda (Knee length and full length) Polkha (Blouse)

The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 2000. The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organised movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes. A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organisation for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandu lal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organised under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The government of India subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Divisions of Chhattisgarh

Bastar Durg Raipur Bilaspur Surguja
Bastar (Jagdalpur) Bijapur Sukma Dantewada (Dakshin Bastar) Kondagaon Narayanpur Kanker (Uttar Bastar) Kawardha (Kabir dham) Rajnandgaon Balod Durg Bemetara Dhamtari Gariyaband Raipur Baloda Bazar Mahasamund Bilaspur Mungeli Korba Janjgir-Champa Raigarh Gaurela-Pendra-Marwahi w.e.f. 10th February, 2020 Koriya Surajpur Surguja (Ambikapur) Balrampur-Ramanujganj Jashpur

Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country’s total cement production. It has the highest output of coal in the country with second-highest reserves. It is third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin ore-producing state in India. Other commercially extracted minerals include corundum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Chhattisgarh has a significant role in the life of the Lord Rama. Lord Rama along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had started his Vanvas in the Bastar region (more precisely Dandakaranya region) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 of their 14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of the remarkable places is Shivrinarayan which is nearby Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh. Shivrinarayan was named after an old lady Shabari. When Ram visited Shabari she said “I do not have anything to offer other than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it please you, my Lord.” Saying so, Shabari offered the fruits she had meticulously collected to Rama. When Rama was tasting them, Lakshmana raised the concern that Shabari had already tasted them and therefore unworthy of eating. To this Rama said that of the many types of food he had tasted, “nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with such devotion. You taste them, and then alone will you know. Whosoever offers a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it with great joy.” CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The Odia culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Odisha. Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs. Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware, and tribal jewellery. Chhattisgarh has a rich literary heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Panthi, Raut Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang, Bhatra Naat, Rabhas, Raai, Mao-Pata and Sow are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh. Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, tabla the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogising their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru’s renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion, As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs. Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware, and tribal jewellery. Chhattisgarh has a rich literary heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

S.No Description Answer
1. Founded on 1 November 2000
2. Capital Formation 1 November 2000, Raipur
3. Largest city Raipur
4. Also Known as Rice bowl of India
  5. Ruled By Sharabhpurias Kalachuri Nagavanshi Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur)
        6.        Major Historical Events 10th century- The region was ruled by Rajput family Haihaya dynasty. 1741- Marathas attacked in Chhattisgarh and destroyed the Haihaya power 1818- Chhattisgarh came under British control for the first time 1-11-2000 – Chhattisgarh became a separate state

 Chhattisgarh is the 10th largest state in India. Chhattisgarh covers an area of 1, 35,192 square kilometres with a total population over 2.55 Crores. The average temperature of Chhattisgarh is 40°C in summers and 25°C in winters. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

S.No Description Summary
1. Total Area 135,192 km²
2. Population 2.55 crores
3. The rank of the state Area Rank:-10th Population Rank:- 17th
4. Population Density 190/km2 (490/sq mi)
5. State Bounded By Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand  (North) Odisha (East) Andhra Pradesh (South) Maharastra and Madhya Pradesh (West)
6. Soil Red–Yellow Soil Red Sandy Loam soil Black soil Laterite Soil
7. Minerals Bauxite Dolomite Iron Ore Limestone Garnet Tin
8. Major Crops Grain Wheat Corn Peanut Legume Hazelnut
9. Forest Area 59,772 km²
10. Climate Tropical Monsoon Climate
11. Rivers Arpa Jonk Godavari Gopad Kanhar Savari Sankh Shivnath Mahanadi
12. Major Dam Name: Minimata (Hasdeo) Bango
River: Hasdeo
13. Major Flora Bamboo Coconut Mangoes Cashew Jackfruit Pineapples Blackberries
14. Major Fauna Blue bull Wild boar Chinkara Blackbuck Sambhar Barking Deer Wild dog Wild boar Jackals hyena Crocodiles Tigers
City Name
Korba Power hub of India
Jagdalpur The tourism capital of Chhattisgarh
Bhilai Steel City of India
Kanker Gateway of Bastar
S.No. Name of Wildlife Sanctuary Year of Notification Total Area(km²)
1. Achanakmar  Wildlife Sanctuary 1975 551.55
2. Badalkhol  Wildlife Sanctuary 1975 104.45
3. Barnawapara  Wildlife Sanctuary 1976 244.66
4. Bhairamgarh  Wildlife Sanctuary 1983 138.95
5. Bhoramdev  Wildlife Sanctuary 2001 163.8
6. Sarangarh-Gomardha  Wildlife Sanctuary 1975 277.82
7. Pamed Wild Buffalo  Wildlife Sanctuary 1985 262.12
8. Semarsot  Wildlife Sanctuary 1978 430.36
9. Sitanadi  Wildlife Sanctuary 1974 553.36
10. Tamor Pingla  Wildlife Sanctuary 1978 608.53
11. Udanti Wild Buffalo  Wildlife Sanctuary 1985 247.59

Geographical features

Coordinates: 21.27°N 81.60°E

Established: 01 November 2000

Capital: Raipur

Largest city: Raipur

Districts: 27 (9 dist. new)

Official languages: Chhattisgarhi and Hindi

Major Rivers of Chhattisgarh:

Name of the river:  Kanhar River

Passes through: Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Rihand River

Passes through: Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 

Name of the river: Sankh River

Passes through:  Chattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand

Name of the river: Tandula River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Sondur River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Shivnath River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Sabari River

Passes through: Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Rihand River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Mand River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh, Orissa

Name of the river: Indravati River

Passes through: Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh

Major Waterfalls

Name of the waterfall: Chitrakoot Falls

Location: Jagdalpur, India

Total height: 29 metres

 Watercourse: Indravati River

Name of the waterfall: Tirthgarh Falls

Total height: 91 metres

Watercourse: Kanger River

The history of Chhattisgarh, which was called as South Kosala goes back to the 4th century AD. The mythological history of the state can be traced back to the days of Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Haihaya dynasty ruled Chhattisgarh for six centuries during the 14th century. During the middle ages, Chalukya dynasty established its rule in Bastar. Annmdev was the first Chalukya ruler, who founded the dynasty in Bastar in 1320. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In 1741, the kingdom was seized by the Marathas from the Haihaya dynasty. After conquering the kingdom during 1745 AD, Raghunathsinghji, the last descendant of the Ratanpur house was forced to leave the area. So finally in the year 1758, Chhattisgarh was conquered by Marathas and Bimbaji Bhonsle was appointed as the ruler. After the demise of Bimbaji Bhonsle, suba system was followed by the Marathas. It was an era of unrest and misrule. Maratha army was involved in large-scale loot and ransack. The Maratha officials compromised the interests of the region to the British. The atrocities of the Maratha rule were opposed by the Gonds. The kingdom was attacked by the Pindaris during the early Nineteenth Century. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In the year 1818, Chhattisgarh came under the British rule. After Nagpur was included under the rule of the British government in 1854, Chhattisgarh was created into a deputy commissionership. Its headquarters were located at Raipur. The British government brought about certain reforms in the administrative and revenue systems. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The tribals of Bastar strongly stood firmly against the British, which resulted in the Halba rebellion, which continued for about five years from 1774-1779. Vir Narain Singh’s name is written in golden words in the history of Chhattisgarh, as he was the first martyr from this region in the struggle of independence. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Chhattisgarh is one of the states of India located in the central part of the country. The state is surrounded by Jharkhand state on northwest, Orissa on the east, Andhra Pradesh on the south, and Maharastra on the southwest. It has been formed from the state of Madhya Pradesh. The origin of the name of Chhattisgarh has an interesting and long story.

During the ancient period Chhattisgarh was called Dakshin Kosala. We can get an evidence of it in the inscriptions and literary works of the early writers. During the Mughal reign the region was called Ratanpur territory and not Chhattisgarh. The word Chhattisgarh gained popularity during the rule of the Marathas. It was used for the first time in 1795, in an official document……………………………

BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020 : Latest And Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Bihar Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for BPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Bihar based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Bihar Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like BPSC and Other Bihar State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, BPSC and Other Bihar PSC exams across the State. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Bihar General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

This Ebook have: 1. Introduction of Bihar 2. Current Affairs whole year 3. Practice MCQ

Click here to download

You can also buy the book from instamojo – Buy now

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

BPSC Bihar Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Bihar

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the twelfth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2. The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. From Magadha arose India’s first empire, the Maurya Empire, as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions: Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the freight equalization policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word, meaning “abode”. The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist viharas, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word, later known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.

Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila gained prominence after the establishment of the Videha Kingdom in ancient India. During the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pancalas. The kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by Valmiki. The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.

The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir), the two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India’s first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna), is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy. Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.

This dynasty signifies the establishment of second empire in ancient Indian History. Gupta succeeded in bringing major parts of India under a unified administration to a great extent. The difference between Gupta empire’s and Mauryan empire’s administration was that in the Mauryan administration and power was centralised but the in the Gupta administration, power was more decentralised. Inscriptions state that the Sri Gupta was the first king. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The Gupta Empire is referred to as the Golden Age of India because of the extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that illuminated the elements of Hindu Culture.

The Gupta Empire came into power in around 275 AD. It marked the end of 500 hundred years of domination of the provincial powers and resulting disquiet that began with the fall of the Mauryas. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After the fall of the Pala Empire, the Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from the 12th century to the 16th century until Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oiniwar dynasty and finally Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna. After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the Diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugraha Narayan Sinha.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam after independence. Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cold winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2. the state is located between 24°-20′-10″ N ~ 27°-31′-15″ N latitude and between 83°-19′-50″ E ~ 88°-17′-40″ E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet.

The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar’s landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example, the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Bihar is the fourth-largest producer of vegetables and the eighth-largest producer of fruits in India. Bihar has high agricultural production making it one of the strongest sectors of the state. About 80 percent of the state’s population is employed in agriculture, which is higher as compared to India’s average. The main agricultural products produced in Bihar are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady’s finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat and sugarcane, and sunflower. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions such as good rainfall favour agriculture, it has to encounter flood threat as well, which may drain off the fertile soil, if not conserved properly. The state (mostly southern parts) faces droughts almost every year affecting production of crops such as paddy.

There are several traditional styles of painting practiced in Bihar. One is Mithila painting, a style of Indian painting used in the Mithila region of Bihar. Traditionally, the painting was one of the skills that were passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila region, mainly by women. Painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life cycle, like birth, Upanayanam (the sacred thread ceremony), and marriage.

Mithila painting is also called Madhubani art. It mostly depicts human beings and their association with nature. Common scenes illustrate deities like Krishna, Ram, Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati from ancient epics. Natural objects like the sun, moon, and religious plants like Tulsi are also widely painted, along with scenes from the royal court and social events like weddings. Generally, no space is left empty. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Bihar has produced musicians like Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan and dhrupad singers like the Malliks (Darbhanga Gharana) and the Mishras (Bettiah Gharana) along with poets like Vidyapati Thakur who contributed to Maithili Music. The classical music in Bihar is a form of the Hindustani classical music. Gaya is another centre of excellence in classical music, particularly of the Tappa and Thumri varieties. Pandit Govardhan Mishra – son of the Ram Prasad Mishra, himself an accomplished singer – is perhaps the finest living exponent of Tappa singing in India today, according to Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh, founding secretary of the Sangeet Natak Akademi of Bihar. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes, in his memoir, that Champa nagar, Banaili, was another major centre of classical music. Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha of Champa nagar, Banaili princely state, was a great patron of music and was himself one of the finest exponents of classical vocal music in Bihar in his time.

Hindu Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord Rama is believed to be born in Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day Bihar. Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Mahipala I recouped northern and eastern Bengal inside of three years of ascended the throne in 988 AD. He additionally recouped the Northern part of the present-day Burdwan division. Amid his rule, Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire much of the time attacked Bengal from 1021 to 1023 AD with a specific end goal to get Ganges water and simultaneously, succeeded to humble the rulers, obtaining significant goods. The rulers of Bengal who were defeated by Rajendra Chola were Dharmapala, Ranasur and Govinda chandra, who may have been feudatories under Mahipala I of the Pala Dynasty. Rajendra Chola I defeated Mahipala. Mahipala additionally picked up control of north and south Bihar, presumably supported by the intrusions of Mahmud of Ghazni, which depleted the quality of different rulers of North India. He may have likewise vanquished Varanasi and encompassing zone, as his siblings Sthirapala and Vasantapala embraced development and repairs of a few hallowed structures at Varanasi. Later, the Kalachuri king Gangeyadeva added Varanasi subsequent to defeating the ruler of Anga, which could have been Mahipala I.

In the wake of picking up control of Varendra, Rampala attempted to resuscitate the Pala realm with restricted achievement. He ruled from another capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the administration’s end. He diminished assessment, advanced development and built open utilities. He brought Kamarupa and Rar under his control, and constrained the Varman lord of east Bengal to acknowledge his suzerainty. He likewise battled with the Ganga ruler for control of present-day Orissa; the Gangas figured out how to add the area strictly when his passing. Rampala kept up inviting relations with the Chola lord Kulottunga to secure backing against the common enemies: the Ganas and the Chalukyas. He held the Senas under wraps, however lost Mithila to a Karnataka boss named Nanyuadeva. He likewise kept down the forceful outline of the Gahadavala ruler Govindacharndra through a wedding organization together.

Rampala was the last powerful Pala ruler. After his death, defiance broke out in Assam amid his son Kumarapala’s rule. The rebellion was squashed by Vaidya deva, yet after Kumarapala’s death, Vaidya deva for all intents and purposes made a different kingdom.

Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji was one of the Military Generals of Qutb-ud-din Aibak invaded some parts of eastern India at the end of the 12th Century and at the beginning of the 13th century. During his invasion many of the Viharas and universities were sacked and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred.

The first half of the 16th century AD witnessed the Afghan- Mughal contest for power in the Sub-continent. After defeating Humayun, Sher Shah Suri emerged as a powerful Pashtun Afghan ruler and established the Sur Empire. The Empire’s strength lay in the great administrative capacity and reforms of the ruler, aimed at the benefit of people. The Empire boasts of extremely well thought of governmental systems and policies as well as great architectural marvels. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

After Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur in 1526 AD (first battle of Panipat), the Afghan chiefs who were still powerful, gathered together under the leadership of Sher Shah Suri to mark their discontent against the alien rule, As a result the Sur Empire of Pashtun origin (the tribal house of Sur) came to power and ruled a massive territory of Northern  part  of  South  Asia  from  1540-1556  AD,  with  their  capital  as  Delhi.  The empire’s major strength is in the fact that it disturbed the hold of the Mughal Empire under Humayun.

The Sur Dynasty controlled the major territories of Mughals east to west, from current day’s eastern Afghanistan to Bangladesh. Establishing a strong hold over the throne for nearly 17 years, the Sur Empire also systematized administrative reforms, promoted economic growth and created a trustworthy relationship with the public. However, when their rule ended with the reinstitution of the Mughal Empire, the Surs belonged to the sub-Groups of Ghilzais. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Military Achievements of Sher Shah Suri

  • Encounter on the fort of Chunar and Sher Shah’s diplomatic surrender.
  • Battle of Chausa with Humayun and Sher Shah’s victory.
  • Batttle of Kannauj and Sher Shah’s decisive victory over Humayun. With the victory at Kannauj, Sher Shah became the ruler of Delhi. Agra, Sambhal and Gwalior etc., also came under his sway. This victory ended the rule of the Mughal dynasty for 15 years.
  • Battle at Surajgarh (1533 AD): He defeated the combined forces of the Lohani chiefs of Bihar and Mohamud Shah of Bengal at Surajgarh. With this victory, whole of Bihar came under Sher Shah.
  • Invasion of Bengal: He plundered Bengal several times and by capturing Gaur, the capital of Bengal, forced Mohammad Shah to seek refugee with Humayun.
  • Conquest of Punjab (1540-42 AD): He immediately conquered Punjab from Kamran (Brother of Humayun) after his accession to the throne.
  • Suppression of Khokhars (1542 AD): He suppressed the turbulent Khokhars of the northern region of river Indus and Jhelum.
  • Conquest of Malwa (1542 AD): The ruler of Malwa had not helped Sher Shah in his struggle with Humayun. Therefore he attacked Malwa and annexed it to his empire.
  • Conquest of Raisin: He attacked Raisin – a Rajput principality and besieged it. Rajput ruler Purnamal entered into an agreement with Sher Shah that if he surrendered, his family would not be harmed. However Sher Shah did not honour this agreement.
  • Conquest of Multan and Sind (1543 AD): Sher Shah conquered and annexed these provinces into his empire.
  • Conquest of Marwar (1543-1545 AD): He brought Marwar under his control by forged letters and sowing dissensions in the army of Maldev, the ruler of Mewar.
  • Conquest of Kalanjar (1545 AD) and death of Sher Shah: He launched a fierce attack. He won but lost his life when he was grievously injured by the blast.

Bihar is situated on the one of the fertile regions of the world which is drained by river Ganga. It was famous for its cotton, textile, and saltpetre and indigo. Hence, it was one of the important trading centres of India from Ancient to Medieval India. This makes reason of enticing for European to open trade factories and centre for trade. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Sher Shah Suri is also referred as Sher Khan or the Lion King administrator of medieval India. His administration included a blend of old institutions and new spirit to serve the interest of the people…………………..

APSC Assam Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Assam Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for APSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Assam Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like APSC and Other Assam State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Assam based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, APSC and Other PSC exams and across the State. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Assam General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

This Ebook have: 1. Introduction of Assam 2. Current Affairs whole year 3. Practice MCQ

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You can also buy the book from instamojo – Buy now

APSC Assam Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Assam

Assam is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2. The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia. Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, looks green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.

Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making;

Ambari site in Guwahati has revealed Shunga-Kushana era artefacts including flight of stairs and a water tank which may date from 1st century BC and may be 2,000 years old. Experts speculate that another significant find at Ambari is Roman era Roman roulette pottery from the 2nd century BC. Samudragupta’s 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa (Western Assam) and Davaka (Central Assam) as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire;

The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled Upper Assam, the Shans built their kingdom and consolidated their power in Eastern Assam with the modern town of Sibsagar as their capital. Until the early 1500s, the Ahoms ruled a small kingdom in Sibsagar district and suddenly expanded during King Suhungmung’s rule taking advantage of weakening rule of Chutia and Dimasa kingdoms. By 1681, the whole track down to the border of the modern district of Goalpara came permanently under their sway. Ahoms ruled for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) with major expansions in the early 16th century at the cost of Chutia and Dimasa Kachari kingdoms. Since c. the 13th century AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended to the Karatoya River in the 17th or 18th century. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungphaa or Sworgodeu Rudra Sinha (c. 1696–1714 AD). APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

The Chutiya rulers (1187–1673 AD), a Bodo-Kachari group by origin, held the regions on both the banks of Brahmaputra with its domain in the area eastwards from Vishwanath (north bank) and Buridihing (south bank), in Upper Assam and in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. It was partially annexed in the early 1500s by the Ahoms, finally getting absorbed in 1673 AD. The rivalry between the Chutiyas and Ahoms for the supremacy of eastern Assam led to a series of battles between them from the early 16th century until the start of the 17th century, which saw great loss of men and money.

The Koch, another Bodo-Kachari dynasty, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom in Western Assam and present-day North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Nara Narayan (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 CE, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Later, in 1682, Koch Hajo was entirely annexed by the Ahoms. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month. Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam, is an antecedent river older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain. The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system. In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River.

Urban centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world; Guwahati is the gateway to the North-East India. Silchar, (in the Barak valley) the 2nd most populous city in Assam and an important centre of business, Other large cities include Dibrugarh, an oil and natural gas industry centre,

With the tropical monsoon climate, Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March–April) and autumn (September–October) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam’s agriculture usually depends on the south-west monsoon rains.

Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers such as Barak River etc. deluges places in Assam, The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks, and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the State;

Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems; many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan.

Assam’s economy is based on agriculture and oil. Assam produces more than half of India’s tea. The Assam-Arakan basin holds about a quarter of the country’s oil reserves, and produces about 12% of its total petroleum. According to the recent estimates, Assam’s per capita GDP is ₹6,157 at constant prices (1993–94) and ₹10,198 at current prices; almost 40% lower than that in India. According to the recent estimates, per capita income in Assam has reached ₹6756 (1993–94 constant prices) in 2004–05, which is still much lower than India’s.

There are diversified important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. It is the Assamese New Year celebrated in April of the Gregorian calendar. Christmas is observed with great merriment by Christians of various denominations, including Catholics and Protestants, throughout Assam. Durga Puja, a festival introduced and popularised by Bengalis, is widely celebrated across the state. Muslims celebrate two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam.

Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator’s life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as ‘uruka’. The first day of ‘rongali bihu’ is called ‘Goru bihu’, when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres.

Bwisagu is one of the popular seasonal festivals of the Bodos. Bwisagu start of the New Year or age. Baisagu is a Boro word which originated from the word “Baisa” which means year or age, ang “Agu” that means starting or start.

Beshoma is a festival of Deshi people. It is a celebration of sowing crop. The Beshoma starts on the last day of Chaitra and goes on till the sixth of Baisakh. With varying locations it is also called Bishma or Chait-Boishne.

Bushu Dima or simply Bushu is a major harvest festival of the Dimasa people. This festival is celebrated during the end of January. Officially 27 January has been declared as the day of Bushu Dima festival. The Dimasa people celebrate their festival by playing musical instruments- khram (a type of drum), muri (a kind of huge long flute). The people dances to the different tunes called “murithai” and each dance has got its name, the prominent being the “Baidima” There are three types of Bushu celebrated among the Dimasas Jidap, Surem and Hangsou. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Chavang Kut is a post harvesting festival of the Kuki people. The festival is celebrated on the first day of November every year. Hence, this particular day has been officially declared as a Restricted Holiday by the Assam government. In the past, the celebration was primarily important in the religio-cultural sense. The rhythmic movements of the dances in the festival were inspired by animals, agricultural techniques and showed their relationship with ecology. Today, the celebration witnesses the shifting of stages and is revamped to suit new contexts and interpretations. The traditional dances which form the core of the festival is now performed in out-of-village settings and are staged in a secular public sphere. In Assam, the Kukis mainly reside in the two autonomous districts of Dima Hasao and Karbi Anglong. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook 2020 : Current Affairs

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Useful for APPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for APPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like APPSC and Other Andhra Pradesh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Andhra Pradesh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

This Ebook have: 1. Introduction of Andhra Pradesh 2. Current Affairs whole year 3. Practice MCQ

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, APPSC and Other PSC exams and across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Andhra Pradesh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click here to download

You can also buy the book from instamojo – Buy now

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the south-eastern states of India. A new State Telangana got its existence out of it on 2nd June 2014. In population, Andhra is the 10th biggest state of the country. As per 2011 census, the population of the state is 49,386,799. The capital of the state is Hyderabad. There are many beautiful cities, places in the state namely Vijayawada, Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam Port, Godavari Arch Bridge, Dolphin’s Nose Mountain etc.

The north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state of Telangana on 2 June 2014, and Hyderabad, the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat, with jurisdiction over almost 15,000 km2 of territorial waters. The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lays the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state.

The state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, and Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. The largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal; the second largest city in the state is Vijayawada, located on the banks of the Krishna River. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India.

A group of people named Andhras was mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India from banks of River Yamuna and settled in south India. The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.

Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagara Empire. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: “Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)”. After Potti Sreeramulu’s death, the Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city. On the basis of the gentlemen’s agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed combined Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that supports varied ecosystems, the rich diversity of flora and fauna. There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari that flow through the state. The coast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state’s geography. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

The state has many sanctuaries, national parks and zoological parks, such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park and Indira Gandhi Zoological Park. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attract many migratory birds. The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambhars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of the Godavari and Krishna Rivers support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 40 °C. July to September is the season for tropical rains. About one-third of the total rainfall is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C. Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is the only place in South India which receives snowfall because of its location as at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above the sea level. It is also nicknamed as the “Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh” and the temperature ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C

Mahayana Buddhism: Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was “a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years”. The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta;

The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana Buddhism, along with the Magadha-area in northeastern India. According to Xing, “Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River.

Andhra Pradesh’s economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as “Rice Bowl of India”. The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.

Satish Dhawan Space Centre, also known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), at barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is a satellite launching station operated by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India’s primary orbital launch site. India’s lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre on 22 October 2008. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook