(RAS) Ancient History of India

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The Pre-historic period can be classified as:

  • Paleolithic Age – Old Stone Age (BC 1 0000 years ago)
  • Neolithic Age- New Stone Age (BC 10000 -BC 4000)
  • Chalcolithic Age- Copper Stone Age (BC 3000-BC 1 500)
  • Iron Age – Iron Age (BC 1500-BC600)

The era of some important events

  • The beginning of the Earth -4.6 Billion years ago
  • The appearance of man – 4000 years ago (Homosepians)
  • The beginning of the city’s -4700 years ago

Old Stone Age: (Paleolithic Age)

  • They were nomad
  • They discovered fire by using the flint stone.

New Stone Age: (Neolithic Age)

  • The first animal they tamed was a dog
  • They used polished, carved, sharp stone weapons.
  • The wheel was invented.
  • Copper was the first metal used by them.

Places in India where the Old Stone Age tools were found:

  • Pimpet Ca, Mageshwa
  • Rajasthan – Luni Valley
  • Karnataka – Pagalkha
  • Andhrapradesh – Kurnool caves
  • Tamilnadu – Vadamadurai, Athirambakkam, Pallavaram, Kanchipuram, Vellur, Thiruvallur

Copper Age: (Chalcolithic Age)

  • They made tools out of copper as well as small stones.
  • They drew colorful pictures with geometrical patterns
  • The Harappan culture belonged to this age

Iron Age

  • The period, when the tools were made up of iron, was called Iron Age

Indus Valley Civilization

In 1 921, archaeologists found out that it was the ancient city of India.

Harappa in Sindhi means ‘Buried City’.

This civilization flourished in India about 4700 years ago.

The Great Bath:

  • The most important structure found in the citadel was the Great Bath.
  • There were steps on both the sides of the pool
  • There were rooms on all the sides of the pool for changing clothes.
  • Fed by water from a well and the dirty water was emptied by a huge drain.



  • Houses were built in grid system
  • Houses which had two rooms
  • Multi-strayed houses, public hall, granary and public buildings built out of bricks.
  • No windows in the houses.
  • They had a well and a bathroom.
  • There were dustbins in front of the houses

Town Planning:

The northern part of the town was narrow and elevated.

The excavators considered that those were constructed on the security basis.

The eastern side was broad and lowered

Applied Science

  • The science and technology such as construction
  • Selections of lands
  • Measurement of plots
  • Foundation, selection of quality building materials & Geometrical figures were in use

Drainage system:

  • The drains from the houses were covered.
  • They ran along the sides of the streets which were connected to the street drains.
  • They had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning



  • The public drainage system
  • The Great Bath
  • The public hall
  • The street lights
  • The provisions of dustbins show that the administrative system was well organized.



  • There would have been workers like
  • Document writers,
  • Seal maker
  • Carpenters

  Doll makers

  • Masons and other artisans
  • Dolls made out of terracotta
  • They used copper and bronze to make weapons
  • Weights were made out of a kind of stone.

Terracotta seals:

  • Hundreds of rectangular seals were discovered here
  • Pictographic writings were written on them
  • The script had not been deciphered yet.
  • Bulls, cart, dove, boats and a figure of a human meditating are seen


  • Terracotta planks discovered here were engraved with letters
  • They were pictographic writing.
  • These writings are related to the ancient Tamil writings.


  • Agriculturists
  • Artisans
  • Traders
  • Traders
  • Potters
  • Blacksmiths

Agriculture was their main occupation, they cultivated wheat and barley, stored the surplus grains in the granary


  • People wore cotton and woolen dresses
  • Men wore a garment similar to the ‘dhoti
  • Shawl as upper garment


To make ornaments they used

  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Ivory
  • Precious stones


  • Experts in making pots out of terracotta
  • The figures of birds, animals, images of male and female
  • The figures of birds, animals, images of male and female
  • Pots and bowls were discovered


  • The statue of a dancing girl made out of bronze found in Mohenjo-Daro
  • Statue of a man with beard made out of limestone are examples of the excellent sculptures


  • The articles excavated in Mohenjo-Daro tell us about their religious Practices
  • They worshipped Lord Shiva represented as Pashupati
  • Mother Goddess, Lingam, Trident and trees.

Causes for the decline of the towns:

  • Wooden articles would have got destroyed by fire
  • Rivalry because of the civil war
  • Natural calamities and the change in the course of River Indus would have buried things.
  • The Aryans would have destroyed these towns in order to succeed
  • The heap of bones discovered in Mohenjo-Daro is evidence of the invasion of the foreigners

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