Ancient & Medieval History of India with Practice Questions

Ancient-Medival History of India

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Complete Notes of Ancient and Medieval History of India.

Useful for all competitive exams..

  1. According to the experts the estimated cranial capacity of Hath aura fossil is equal to that of which of these? (a) Homoerectus (b) Ramapithecus (c) Australopithecus (d) None of the above Answer (B)
  2. The raw materials used for making stone tools in lower Paleolithic were of which stone? (a) Quartzite and Chert (b) Quartz (c) Basalt (d) All of the above Answer (D)
  3. Krupuk in Afghanistan suggests that wild precursors of domesticated sheep, goat and cattle were being exploited by man about (a) 5,000 years back (b) 10,000 years back (c) 16,000 years back (d) 26,000 years back Answer (C)
  4. Which of the following settlements would have served as major centres of trade and exchange? (a) Ahar, Gilund and Nagda (b) Navdatoli, Eran and Prabhas (c) Rangpur, Prakash and Daimabad (d) All of the above Answer (D)
  5. The letters of the inscription are the largest example of writing ever discovered from any Harappan city. From which material it was made? (a) Chromium paste inlay (b) Platinum paste inlay (c) Gypsum paste inlay (d) None of the above Answer (C)
  6. Terracotta piece having lingo and yoni in one piece, like the ones in the historical period, show that these were lings and yoni, meant for worship. From where they were found at? (a) Chanhudaro (b) Kalibangan (c) Harappa (d) Alamgirpur Answer (B)
  7. There were rules which governed the debate in Sabha, Which of the following texts mention that erring members were rebuked? (a) Aitreya Brahmana (b) Kathopanisad (c) Vajsaneyi Samhita (d) Maitrayani Samhita Answer (C)
  8. The Rig Veda also mentions of business and mercantile people to whom it calls vanik and panis respectively and refers to the Vedic people such as (a) Bharat and Purus (b) Purus and Shibis (c) Vishanins and Yadus (d) Yadus and Turvasa Answer (D)
  9. According to which of the following systems of philosophy there are four pramanas, namely perception (Pratyaksha), inference (anuman), comparison (upamana) and verbal testimony i.e. words (sabda): (a) Samkhya (b) Nyaya (c) Vedanta (d) Mimamsa Answer (B)
  10. (In yoga) Throughwhich of the following things does the soul get released from the life cycle and joins the exalted soul i.e. the God? (a) Dhyana (b) Dharana (c) Asanas (d) Samadhi Answer (D)

Indus Valley Civilization

  • 2700- BC.1900 ie for 800 years.
  • On the valleys of river Indus.
  • Also known as Harappan Civilization.
  • Beginning of city life.
  • Harappan Sites discovered by – Dayaram Sahni (1921) – Montgomery district, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Mohenjo-Daro discovered by – R. D. Banerjee – Larkana district, Sind, Pakistan.
  • City was divided into Citadel (west) and Lower Town (east).
  • Red pottery painted with designs in black.
  • Stone weights, seals, special beads, copper tools, long stone blades etc.
  • Copper, bronze, silver, gold present.
  • Artificially produced – Faience.
  • Specialists for handicrafts.
  • Import of raw materials.
  • Plough was used.
  • Bodies were buried in wooden coffins, but during the later stages ‘H symmetry culture’ evolved where bodies were buried in painted burial urns.
  • Sugar cane not cultivated, horse, iron not used.

 

                                    Indus Valley Sites and Specialties

Harappa

  • Seals out of stones
  • Citadel outside on banks of river Ravi

Mohenjo-Daro

  • Great Bath, Great Granary, Dancing Girl, Man with Beard, Cotton, Assembly hall
  • Term means” Mount of the dead”
  • On the bank of river Indus
  • Believed to have been destructed by flood or invasion (Destruction was not gradual).

Chanhudaro

  • Bank of Indus River. – discovered by Gopal Majumdar and Mackey (1931)
  • Pre-harappan culture – Jhangar Culture and Jhukar Culture
  • Only cite without citadel.

Kalibangan

  • At Rajasthan on the banks of river Ghaggar, discovered by A.Ghosh (1953)
  • Fire Altars
  • Bones of camel
  • Evidence of furrows
  • Horse remains (even though Indus valley people didn’t use horses).
  • Known as third capital of Indus Empire.

Lothal

  • At Gujarat near Bhogava River, discovered by S.R. Rao (1957)
  • Fire Altars
  • Beside the tributary of Sabarmati
  • Store house
  • Dockyard and earliest port
  • Double burial
  • Rice husk
  • House had front entrance (exception).

Ropar

  • Punjab, on the banks of river Sutlej. Discovered by Y.D Sharma (1955)
  • Dog buried with humans.

Banawali

  • Haryana
  • On banks of lost river Saraswathi
  • Barley Cultivation.

Dholavira

  • Biggest site in India, until the discovery of Rakhigarhi.
  • Located in Khadir Beyt, Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. Discovered by J.P Joshi/Rabindra Singh (1990)
  • 3 parts + large open area for ceremonies
  • Large letters of the Harappan script (sign boards).

Religion of Indus Valley People

  • Pashupati Mahadev (Proto Siva)
  • Mother goddess
  • Nature/ Animal worship
  • Unicorn, Dove, Peepal Tree, Fire
  • Amulets
  • Idol worship was practiced (not a feature of Aryans)
  • Did not construct temples.
  • Similarity to Hindu religious practices. (Hinduism in its present form originated later)
  • No Caste system.

Indus Valley Society and Culture

  • Systematic method of weights and measures (16 and its multiples).
  • Pictographic Script, Boustrophedon script – Deciphering efforts by I. Mahadeva
  • Equal status to men and women
  • Economic Inequality, not an egalitarian society
  • Textiles – Spinning and weaving
  • 3 types – burial, cremation and post cremation were there, though burial was common.
  • Majority of people Proto-Australoid and Mediterranean’s (Dravidians), though Mongoloids, Nordics etc were present in the city culture.

Reasons for Decline of Indus Valley Civilization

Though there are various theories, the exact reason is still unknown. As per a recent study by IIT Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India, a weaker monsoon might have been the cause of decline of Indus Valley Civilization. Environmental changes, coupled with loss of power of rulers (central administration) of Indus valley to sustain the city life might be the cause (Fariservis Theory). There might be resource shortage to sustain the population, and then people moved towards south India. Another theory by Dr Gwen Robbins Schug states that inter-personal violence, infectious diseases and climate change had played a major role in the demise of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Harappa

  • Cemetery H & R37
  • Coffin burial
  • Granary outside the fort
  • Phallus worship
  • Graveyard
  • Mother goddess

Mohenjo-Daro

  • Prepared Garments
  • Temple like Palace
  • Pashupati seal
  • Statue of a dancing girl
  • Ivory weight balance
  • The Great Bath
  • The Great Granary
  • Priest king statue

Kalibangan

  • Lower fortified town
  • Fire Altar
  • Boustrophedon style
  • Wooden drainage
  • Copper ox
  • Evidence of earthquake
  • Wooden plough
  • Camel’s bone

Lothal

  • Port Town
  • Evidence of Rice
  • Fire Altar
  • Graveyard
  • Ivory weight balance
  • Copper dog

Rangpur

  • Evidence of Rice
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