ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Industry 4.0, also known as the intelligent industry, is considered to be the fourth industrial revolution, a term coined by Professor Schwa band seeks to transform a company into an intelligent organization to achieve the best business results. To some, it will seem too soon to talk about the next industrial revolution, i.e., the fourth industrial revolution, but the adoption of Artificial Intelligence has reached a point where we are ready for another radical change, the digital transformation of the industry or what we call industry 4.0. The change is based on the adoption of Artificial Intelligence for the progressive automation of the production process.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • AI is the science of building computers that can solve problems the way humans do. With intelligent machines enabling high­ level cognitive processes like thinking, perceiving, learning, problem solving and decision making, coupled with advances in data collection and aggregation, analytics and computer processing power, AI presents opportunities to complement and supplement human intelligence and enrich the way people live and work.
  • The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • It encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics.
  • Recently it has become widely popular and gained prominence due to its multifaceted application ranging from healthcare to military devices.
  • AI is a constellation of technologies that enable machines to act with higher levels of intelligence and emulate the human capabilities of sense, comprehend and act.
  • The natural language processing and inference engines can enable AI systems to analyse and understand the information collected.
  • An AI system can also take action through technologies such as expert systems and inference engines or undertake actions in the physical world.

 Machine Learning  Deep Learning
 This term was coined by Artur Samuel in 1959, meant “the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.”  It is a technique for implementing Machine Learning. It was inspired by the structure and function of the brain, specifically the interconnecting of many neurons.
 It involves the use of algorithms to parse data and learn from it, and making a prediction as a result.  Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are algorithms that are based on the biological structure of the brain.
 The machine gets “trained” using large amounts of data and algorithms, and in turn gains the capability to perform specific tasks.  In ANNs, there are ‘neurons’ which have discrete layers and connections to other “neurons”. Each layer picks out a specific feature to learn. It’s this layering that gives deep learning its name.

What is the philosophy and ethics of Artificial Intelligence?

  • The R&D of AI started with the intention of creating intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Self-driving Cars: Advances in artificial intelligence have brought us very close to making the decades-long dream of autonomous driving a reality. AI algorithms are one of the main components that enable self-driving cars to make sense of their surroundings, taking in feeds from cameras installed around the vehicle and detecting objects such as roads, traffic signs, other cars, and people.
  • Digital assistants and smart speakers: Siri, Alexa, Cortana, and Google Assistant use artificial intelligence to transform spoken words to text and map the text to specific commands. AI helps digital assistants make sense of different nuances in spoken language and synthesize human-like voices.
  • Translation : For many decades, translating text between different languages was a pain point for computers. But deep learning has helped create a revolution in services such as Google Translate. To be clear, AI still has a long way to go before it masters human language, but so far, advances are spectacular.
  • Facial recognition: Facial recognition is one of the most popular applications of artificial intelligence. It has many uses, including unlocking your phone, paying with your face, and detecting intruders in your home. But the increasing availability of facial-recognition technology has also given rise to concerns regarding privacy, security, and civil liberties.
  • Medicine: From detecting skin cancer and analyzing X-rays and MRI scans to providing personalized health tips and managing entire healthcare systems, artificial intelligence is becoming a key enabler in healthcare and medicine. AI won’t replace your doctor, but it could help to bring about better health services, especially in underprivileged areas, where AI-powered health assistants can take some of the load off the shoulders of the few general practitioners who have to serve large populations.
  • Agriculture Sector : AI can be used to predict advisories for sowing, pest control, input control can help in ensuring increased income and providing stability for the agricultural community. Image classification tools combined with remote and local sensed data can bring a revolutionary change in utilisation and efficiency of farm machinery, in areas of weed removal, early disease identification, produce harvesting and grading.
  • Business Sector: To take care of highly repetitive tasks Robotic process automation is applied which perform faster and effortlessly than humans. Further, Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to provide better customer service. Chat bots being used into the websites to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies such as Gartner and Forrester.
  • Education Sector: AI can make some of the educational processes automated such as grading, rewarding marks etc. therefore giving educators more time. Further, it can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI may change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
  • Financial Sector: It can be applied to the personal finance applications and could collect personal data and provide financial advice. In fact, today software trades more than humans on the Wall Street.
  • Legal Sector: Automation can lead to faster resolution of already pending cases by reducing the time taken while analyzing cases thus better use of time and more efficient processes.
  • Manufacturing sector: Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now, however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.
  • Intelligent Robots: Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Further, they are capable of learning from their errors and therefore can adapt to the new environment.
  • Gaming : AI has a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
  • Cyber Security: In the 20th conference on e-governance in India it was discussed that AI can provide more teeth to cyber security and must be explored.
  • Smart Cities and Infrastructure: Use of AI to monitor patronage and accordingly control associated systems such as pavement lighting, park maintenance and other operational conditions could lead to cost savings while also improving safety and accessibility.

Global Developments

  • China and U.K. estimate that 26% and 10% of their GDPs respectively in 2030 will be sourced from Air elated activities and businesses.
  • There has been tremendous activity concerning AI policy positions and the development of an AI ecosystem in different countries over the last 18 to 24 months.
  • Infrastructural supply side interventions have been planned by various countries for creating a larger ecosystem of AI development.
  • Not just national governments, but even local city governments have become increasingly aware about the importance and potential of AI and have committed public investments.
  • For building the future workforce for AI, countries are also significantly increasing the allocation of resources for Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) talent development through investment in universities, mandating new courses (e.g., AI and law), and offering schemes to retrain people.
  • AI technology development and applications are evolving rapidly with major implications for economies and societies. A study by EY and NASCCOM found that by 2022, around 46% of the workforce will be engaged in entirely new jobs.


                   Advantages of AI                        Disadvantages of AI
No leisure time requiredLower error rate compared to humans. Better precision and accuracy. Eg: Robotic radio surgeryBetter speedNot affected by surrounding environmentReplace humans in repetitive, tedious tasksBetter user experience through predictive technology e.g. Help in predicting what a user will type, ask, search, and do. Can easily act as assistants and recommend actions.Interact with humans for entertainment or a task. E.g. Sophia robotLogical – devoid of emotions. Can make rational decisions with less or no mistakes. The decrease in demand for human labour due to machines and intelligent robots taking over the jobs in the manufacturing and the services sectors. For Example: In China some customs officers are now robots, In Japan robots as housemaid is emerging trend.Existential risks: Stephen Hawkins has once said “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded”.AI technologies falling into terrorist hands may unleash modern terror network including machine and therefore vulnerability of humans may magnify.It may lead to moral degradation in society due to decreased human to human interactions.

Possible areas for AI applications in Indian conditions

  • India has the potential to position itself among leaders on the global AI map – with a unique brand of #AIforAll.
  • It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data analysis which is not possible without using AI.
  • Targeted delivery of services, schemes, and subsidy can be further fine-tuned.
  • Smart border surveillance and monitoring to enhance security infrastructure.
  • Weather forecasting models may become proactive and therefore preplanning for any future mishaps such as floods, droughts and therefore addressing the farming crisis, farmer’s suicide, crop losses etc.
  • By analyzing big data of road safety data and NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) data for crimes, new policies can be formulated.
  • Disaster management can be faster and more accessible with the help of robots and intelligent machines.
  • In the counterinsurgency and patrolling operations, we often hear the loss of CRPF jawans which can be minimized by using the robotic army and lesser human personnel.
  • AI can be used to automate government processes, therefore, minimizing human interactions and maximizing transparency and accountability.
  • It can be applied to study ancient literature upon medicines and therefore help in modernizing the health care with the juxtaposition of modern machines and ancient techniques.
  • In the remotest areas where the last leg of governance is almost broken, AI can do the job. For Example: in the tribal areas and the hilly areas of the northeast.

Nodal organization of the government for the research work on AI

  • Centre for artificial intelligence and robotics (CAIR), is the primary laboratory of DRDO for research and development in different areas of defense, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and is located in Bangalore. It is involved in the Research & Development of high-quality Secure Communication, Command, and Control, and Intelligent Systems.
  • Projects: NETRA- software to intercept online communication, SECOS- Secure operating system.

Challenges India’s Artificial Intelligence Development is facing

  • Lack of enabling data ecosystems
  • Low intensity of AI research
  • Inadequate availability of AI expertise, manpower and skilling opportunities
  • High resource cost and low awareness for adopting AI in business processes
  • Unclear privacy, security and ethical regulations
  • Unattractive Intellectual Property regime to incentivise research and adoption of AI.

Way Forward

  • Incentivising creation of jobs that could constitute the new service industry
  • Recognition and standardisation of informal training institutions
  • Creation of open platforms for learning and financial incentives for reskilling of employees
  • Lack of qualified faculty that poses a serious problem in the present scenario can be addressed through innovative initiatives like credit­bearing MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses).
  • Acceptability and adoption of these decentralised teaching mechanisms can be ensured through prescribed certification in collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions.
  • Additional investment and collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions in order to meet the market demand.
  • To encourage the development of sustainable AI solutions at an appropriate price point for sectors such as health, education, and agriculture, it is necessary that a level playing field be ensured and a supportive environment be created for all players in the value chain.
  • AI is a highly collaborative domain, and any framework aimed at promoting AI needs to be aligned accordingly. A multi­pronged approach, involving various stakeholders and promoting a collaborative approach is required for promoting development of AI tools as well as adoption of AI in different fields of activity.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

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