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Arunachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2022
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Arunachal Pradesh Current Affairs 2022
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Current Affairs / General Knowledge Yearbook 2022 have become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2022, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge.
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Arunachal Pradesh At a Glance
When the sun first strikes India, it shines upon Arunachal’s wild jungles and tribal communities. Arunachal, the name means “land of rising sun”. Arunachal Pradesh is a sprawling mountainous territory, a land of mighty rocks and luxuriant forests, gentle streams and ragging torrents, presents a breath-taking spectacle of nature in all her glory, raw and unspoilt and untamed in wild profusion of flora and fauna, customs, language and dress.
It is said that one picture is equivalent to thousand words. This photo gallery presents a glimpse of Arunachal Pradesh and will surely create a bond of love with the visitors.
Arunachal has become full-fledged State on February 20, 1987. Till 1972, it was known as the North- East Frontier Agency (NEFA) . It gained the Union Territory status on January 20, 1972 and renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.On August 15, 1975 an elected Legislative Assembly was constituted and the first council of Ministers assumed office.
The first general election to the Assembly was held in February 1978.Administratively, the State is divided into sixteen districts. Capital of the State is Itanagar in Papumpare district. Itanagar is named after Ita fort meaning fort of bricks, build in the 14th century AD.
Arunachal Pradesh find mentioned in the literature of Kalika Purana and Mahabharta. This place is the Prabhu Mountains of Puranas. It was here the sage Parashuram atoned of his sin, sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhismaka founded his kingdom and Lord Krishna married his Consort Rukmini.
The widely scattered archeological remains at different places in Arunachal Pradesh bear testimony to its rich culture and heritage.
Arunachal Pradesh – a profile
Arunachal Pradesh, situated in the north eastern part of India is nearly 84,000 sq km in area and has a long international border with Bhutan to the west (160km), China to the north and north-east (1,080 km) and Myanmar to the east (440km). It stretches from snow-capped mountains in the north to the plains of Brahmaputra valley in the south. Arunachal is the largest state area wise in the north-eastern region, even larger than Assam which is the most populous.
It is a land of lush green forests, deep river valleys and beautiful plateaus. The land is mostly mountainous with Himalayan ranges along the northern borders criss-crossed with mountain ranges running north-south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these rivers are fed by snows from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets except Tirap which is fed by Patkai Range.The mightiest of these river is Siang, called Tsangpo in Tibet, which becomes Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam.
High mountains and dense forests have prevented intercommunication between tribes living in different river valleys. The geographical isolation thus imposed has led different tribes to evolve their own dialects and grow with their distinct identities. Nature has endowed the Arunachal people with a deep sense of beauty which finds delightful expression in their songs, dances and crafts.
The climates varies from hot and humid in the Shivalik range with heavy rainfall. It becomes Progressively Cold as one moves northwards to higher altitudes.Trees of great size, plentiful climbers and abundance of cane and bamboo make Arunachal evergreen. Tropical rain forests are to be found in the foothills and hills in the east on the border with Myanmar. Northern most border is covered with Alpine forests. Amidst the highly rugged terrain, there are green forests and plateaus.
The state has humid hot and subtropical climate in the foot hills, windy cool and pleasant climate at the lower altitude and cold climate at the higher snow mountains. The rainfall is heavy during monsoon causing flood and landslides. The evergreen Lohit and the Tirap. Arunachal Pradesh is the largest in area among North – Eastern states and is the second largest forest covered state next to Madhya Pradesh in the country.
Referred to as Prabhu mountains in the literature of the Kalika Purana and Mahabharata, Arunachal Pradesh is blessed with breathtakingly beautiful hilly forest ranges from Alpine to tropical rainforest silvery fir tree, plentiful climbers and grass.
Itanagar- State Capital
ITANAGAR, located at an altitude of 530 meters above sea level between 93 east longitude and 27 north latitude. It was built more then three decades ago.The population of Arunachal is 13,82,611 according to 2011 census and is scattered over 26 towns and 3863 villages.
Most of the tribes inhibiting the land are ethnically similar, having derived from original common stock but their geographical isolation from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress and customs.
Government: The Past & Present
On 15th August 1947 when India became an independent nation, North East Frontier Agency commonly known as NEFA became an integral part of the Union of India. It was administrated by the Ministry of External Affairs with the Governor of Assam acting as agent to the President of India. The administrative head was the Advisor to the Governor.
In 1972, the NEFA became a Union Territory. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi has acquired the name of Arunachal Pradesh. After 3 years, in 1975, it acquired a legislature. Finally on 20th February 1987, Statehood was conferred on Arunachal Pradesh, when Rajiv Gandhi was the Prime Minister and it became the 25th State of the Union of India.
Area-wise, Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state of the NE region of India. It forms a complex hill system of Shivalik and Himalayan origin and is criss-crossed by numerous rivers and streams. The state shares a total of 1630 kms of international boundary with neighboring countries; 1030 kms with China, 160 kms with Bhutan and 440 kms with Myammar.
The McMohan line defines the international boundary between India and China. Administratively, the State is divided into Seventeen districts. Capital of the State is Itanagar in Papum Pare district. Itanagar is named after Ita Fort meaning fort of bricks, built in 14th century AD.
Arunachal Pradesh is not a linguistic state. It is an ethnic state inhabited by colourful tribal people of diverse culture and lifestyle. All of them have their own unique culture and traditions. They also have customary laws and a time tested dispute resolution mechanism. The disputes in tribal societies are resolved by a system of administration of justice founded on customs and customary laws of each tribe by the Village Council.
It is most gratifying to remember that the inhabitants of this tribal state have the spirit of democracy inherent in their traditional laws, which further strengthen by the five fundamental principles for administration of tribal areas.
There were unwritten rules for administration of tribal villages. However, the customs and traditions were almost compatible with the modern concepts of jurisprudence. The tribal councils in NEFA were functioning on the lines of the system evolved for parliamentary democracy, which is in vogue now a days. This is well illustrated in the utterances of the leaders of the councils Kebang/ Buliang/ Mela/ Abela of different communities in their traditional speeches, which they recite at the beginning of their meeting.
“Villagers and brethren, let us strengthen our custom and our council, let us improve our relations, let us make the laws straight and equal for all, let our laws be uniform, let our customs be the same for all, let us be guided by the reason and see that justice is done and the compromise reached that is acceptable to both parties. We have come together for a council meeting and let us speak in one voice and decide our verdict…” The council derived their authority from the expression of the will and power of the people. They had the support of both social and supernatural. Thus, the concept of parliamentary democracy is not new to the tribal society.
The history of the growth of political process in Arunachal Pradesh dates back to 1875 when the British-India Government started to define the administrative jurisdiction by drawing an Inner Line in relation to the frontier tribes inhabiting the North Frontier Tract, the area was kept outside the purview of regular laws of the country.
Thereafter, the British followed the policy of gradual penetration to bring more areas under normal administration. By the year 1946, the North East Frontier Tracts were reorganized into four Frontier Tracts namely Sadiya, Lakhimpur, Tirap and Sela Sub Agency and Subansiri area and administrated by the Governor of Assam in his discretion.
By virtue of the Indian Independence Act 1947, the Government of Assam assumed administrative jurisdiction over North East Frontier Tracts and the Governor of Assam was divested of his discretionary powers. The Government of Assam administered the North East Frontier Tracts during the period 15th August 1947 to 26th January 1950.
After independence, a sub-committee headed by Gopinath Bordoloi was appointed by the Constituent Assembly of India to recommend the future pattern of administration of the North Eastern Frontier Areas. The Bordoloi Committee recommended that since the administration has been satisfactorily established over a sufficiently wide area, the Government of Assam should take over that area by the strength of a notification.
However, for various considerations, particularly problem of communication and defiance, Government of India decided to administer North East Frontier Tracts as “Excluded Area” through Governor of Assam as an agent to the President of India. In the year 1950, the plain portions of these tracts namely, Balipara Frontier Tract, Tirap Frontier Tract, Abor Hill District and Mishimi Hills Districts were transferred to the Government of Assam.
In 1951, the units of the tracts were reconstituted again and Tuensang Frontier Division was created which later merged with Nagaland. The remaining portion of the Tracts after the introduction of the North East Frontier (Administration) Regulation, 1954 was designated as the North East Frontier Agency, the NEFA.
Thereafter, the administration was brought under the Ministry of External Affairs and in August 1965, it was brought under the supervision and control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. It remained so, until the attainment of Union Territory status by Arunachal Pradesh in 1972.
It was only in 1975 that the virtue of the enactment of 37th Constitutional Amendment Act 1975 that the Pradesh Council was constituted as a separate Legislative Assembly and Lt. Governor was appointed as the head of the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh. The Pradesh Council became provisional Legislative Assembly having 23 members during 1975 to 1978.
The first elected Legislative Assembly consisting of 33 members (30 elected members and 3 nominated members) was formed on 4th March 1978, which lasted only for about 20 months. In November 1979, the Assembly was dissolved and President’s Rule was imposed which continued till January 1980.
The Second General Election was held in January, 1980. The Third General Election for Legislative Assembly was held simultaneously with the General Election for the Eighth Lok Sabha in December, 1984 and the Assembly was constituted in January, 1986.
There are one MP in the Rajya Sabha and two MPs in the Lok Sabha represent at the Union Government by people of Arunachal Pradesh.
Arunachal Pradesh became full-fledged State with effect from 20th February, 1987. On the persistent demand of the people of the State, the total membership in the Legislative Assembly was raised to sixty during the General Election in 1990, and the First Legislative assembly of the State was constituted.
The population of Arunachal is 10,97,968 as per census figure of 2001 and is scattered over 16 districts and 3649 villages. The state is inhabited by the world’s largest variety of ethnic tribal groups and subgroups numbering over a hundred and each tribe speaking their own-language and dialect.
Their diverse and unique rich culture and traditional heritage constitute arts and crafts, fares and festivals, social structure, folklores in the form of songs and dances that still remain fresh and well-preserved in this state. To maintain their livelihood people in rural areas chiefly practice diverse trade and profession including Jhum and Wet rice cultivation, horticulture, fish farming, carpet making, wood curving, breeding of Mithun, Yak, Sheep and other livestock.
The people in urban places comprise of educated and semi educated Arunachalees, most of them in government employment, social workers, contractors, town dwellers and traders. The blend of diverse culture and religion give ample scope for the people of Arunachal Pradesh to flourish in many respect. The State of Arunachal Pradesh represents a true mini India.
Arunachal finds mention in the literature of Kalika Purana and Mahabharata. This place is supposed to be the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas. It was here that sage Parashuram washed away his sin, sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini.
The Land of Rising Sun – Arunachal Pradesh
The widely scattered archaeological remains at different places in Arunachal bears testimony to its rich cultural heritage. Arunachal Pradesh, a serene land tucked into the North Eastern tip of India, invites you to relax in its picturesque hills and valleys, enjoy its salubrious climate and meet its simple and hospitable people, with their glorious heritage of arts and crafts and colorful festivals that reflect their ancient faith in the inexorable power of nature.
The visitor has a wide variety of options to pick from. There are places of worship and pilgrimage such as Parasuramkund and 400 years old Tawang Monastery, or the sites of archaeological excavations like Malinithan and Itanagar, the serene beauty of lakes such as Ganga lake or Sela lake or the numerous variations of scenic beauty of the snow clad silver mountain peaks and lush green meadows where thousands of species of flora and fauna prosper.
In addition, the state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Besides, there are a number of wild life sanctuaries and national parks where rare animals, birds and plants will fascinate the visitor.
Nature has provided the people with a deep sense of beauty which finds delightful expression in their songs, dances and crafts. The climate varies from hot and humid to heavy rainfall in the Shivalik range. It becomes progressively cold as one moves northwards to higher altitudes. Trees of great size, plentiful climbers and abundance of cane and bamboo make Arunachal evergreen.
Arunachal Pradesh is considered to be the nature’s treasure trove and home to orchids, known for their exquisitely beautiful blooms, from one of the dominant taxa with more than six hundred species, occurring in varying elevations and climatic conditions throughout the state.
Arunachal Pradesh is situated between 26o28′ and 29o30′ North latitudes and 97o30′ and 97o30′ East Longitudes covering an area of 83743 sq. km. Bio-geographically it is situated fin the Eastern Himalayan province, the richest biogeographical province of the Himalayan zone.
The entire territory forms a complex hill system with varying elevations ranging from 50m in the foot-hills and gradually ascending to about 7000m, traversed throughout by a number of rivers and rivulets. Sub Tropical Forest of Arunachal Pradesh. Rainfall varies from 1000mm in higher reaches to 5750mm in the foot-hill areas, spread over 8-9 months excepting the drier days in winter.
This diversity of topographical and climatic conditions has favoured the growth of luxuriant forests which are home to myriad plant and animal forms adding beauty to the landscape. Living in this incredible cradle of nature are the colorful and vibrant tribes of Arunachal Pradesh for whom the forests and the wildlife are of special significance.
Nature has been exceedingly kind and has endowed this beautiful State of Arunachal Pradesh with diverse forests and magnificent wildlife. The richness of life forms i.e. the flora & fauna that occur in these forests presents a panorama of biological diversity with over 5000 plants, about 85 terrestrial mammals, over 500 birds and a large number of butterflies, insects and reptiles.
Such an unparalleled occurrence of life forms can be attributed to the peculiar location of the State which is at the junction of the Paleoarctic, indo-Chinese, and Indo-Malayan bio-geographic regions , Biotic elements from all these regions occur in this state making it very rich in floral & faunal resources.
The vegetation of Arunachal Pradesh falls under four broad climatic categories and can be classified in five broad forest types with a sixth type of secondary forests. These are tropical forests, sub tropical forests, pine forests, temperate forests and alpine forests. In the degraded forests bamboos and other grasses are of common occurrence.
State Animal – Mithun (Bos Frontails)
State Bird – Hornbill
State Orchid – Rynchostylis Retusa
National Park – Two
Wildlife Sanctuaries – Eight
Orchid Sanctuary – One
Biosphere Reserve – One (Dehang Dibang Biosphere Reserve)