Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD
The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles), taken place in 738 A.D., somewhere on borders on modern Sind-Rajasthan. In this battle, the Gurjar-Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India.
The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were:
- Gurjara-Pratihara King Nagabhatt I
- Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire
- Bappa Rawal of Hindu Kingdom of Mewar
By the end of 7th century A.D Islam had become a powerful religion and Arabs a power force. Muhammad Ibn Qasim captured Iran & Afghanistan. . His successor, Junayd Ibn Abd al- Rahman al-Murri, led a large army into the Hindustan region in early 730 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat.
Realizing the power of Arab forces, Pratihara king, Nagabhatta appealed for showing a united front with Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire. Jaysimha acknowledged and sent his son Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin to support Nagabhatta. The two forces, united with the already fighting Rajput forces under Bappa Rawal, at the border of Rajasthan.
The final battle of Rajasthan & Result: The battle was fought between 5,000-6,000 Rajput-Gurjar Infantry and cavalry facing more than 30,000 Arabs. The Rajputs under Bappa Rawal managed to kill the Arab leader Emir Junaid during the war. In the words of the Arab chronicler Suleiman, “a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found.”
The Arabs took a long time to recover from their defeat. Junayd’s successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi organized fresh campaigns against Rajasthan but failed to get hold of any territories. Thus, the triple alliance of Indian Kingdoms saved Hindustan from Arab invaders, at-least for next 200 years.
- Khumar (753 – 773 )
- Mattat (773 – 793 )
- Bhratrabhat (773 – 813 )
- Sinha (813 – 828)
- Khuman II (828 – 853)
- Repelled up to 24 Muslim attacks.
- Ruled a Golden Age in Mewar.
- Mahayak (853 – 878)
- Khuman III (878 – 942)
- Bhratrabhat II (942 – 943)
- Allat (943 – 953)
Possibly near start of his reign, Allat is driven from Chittor by the Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja, who then rules Chittor and is succeeded by his nephew, Raja Bhoj. Allat establishes a new capital at ancient Ahar.
- (953 – 971)
The death of Allat leaves a gap in the succession, and there is no Guhilot leader at all for a total of eight years while the Paramara attack Ahar. The Paramara king, Vakpati Raj of Malwa, rules Chittor. It takes until 971 for a new Guhilot king to reign.
- Naravan / Narvahan (971 – 973)
- Shalivahan (973 – 977)
- Shakti kumar (977 – 993 )
- Amba Prasad (993 – 1007)
- Fought against Mahmud Ghazni (Yamin-ud-Dawlah Mahmud).
- Suchivarma (1007 – 1021)
- Narvarma (1021 – 1035)
- Kirtivarma (1035 – 1051)
- Yograj (1051 – 1068)
- Bairat / Vairat(1068 – 1088)
- Hans pal (1088 – 1103)
- Vairi Singh (1103 – 1107)
- Vijay Singh (1107 – 1127)
- Ari Singh I (1127 – 1138)
- Chittor is again captured by Malwa.
- Chaur Singh (1138 – 1148)
- The Western Chalukyas attack the Parmaras who hold Chittor.
- Vikram Singh / Vikramaditya I (1148 – 1158)
- Karan Singh (1158 – 1168)
- The royal family divides, possibly near the end of Karan Singh’s reign. His son Rahap establishes the Sisodia branch of the family while another son, Mahap, establishes the Dungarpur kingdom.
- Kshem Singh (1168 – 1172)
- Samant Singh (1172 – 1179)
- Samant Singh occupies Bagar (in the Dungarpur area) during his reign. After seven years on the throne he is slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadole in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
- Kumar Singh(1179 – 1191)
- Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at end of his reign.
- Mathan Singh (1191 – 1211)
- 1191 – 1192 – Mathan Singh fights in the Battles of Tarain, in which the Chauhan ruler, Prithviraj III, and the Rajput confederation which includes Mewar (the Hindu League) are defeated by the Ghurid Sultan Mohammed Ghuri.
- 1207 – Chittor is taken and ruled by the Western Chalukyas just as they are facing their own terminal decline.
- Padam Singh (1211 – 1213)
- Jait Singh / Jaitra Singh (1213 – 1253)
- During his reign, Jait Singh defeats the Malwa Rajputs who rule Chittor, reinstating its fort as the capital of Mewar. This probably occurs shortly after Sultan Iltumish of Delhi has destroyed Nagda.
- 1234 – Sultan Iltumish of Delhi is defeated by Mewar when he invades the region.
- 1253 – 1261
- There is an apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, although the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. The relation of the next known ruler of Mewar to his predecessor is also unknown.
- Tej Singh (1261 – 1267)
- 1267 – 1273
- There is a second apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, and the fate of Tej Singh is unknown, as are the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. It takes six years for Tej Singh’s son to ascend the throne.
- Samar Singh (1273 – 1302)
- Samar Singh builds wall around Mahasati in Chittor. His son, Kumbh Karan, migrates to Nepal (where his descendants become the Nepalese royal family).
- Ratan Singh (1302 – 1303)
- Last Guhilot king to rule.
- 1303 – 1st Jauhar of Chittor
- Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her.
- After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre).
- Administration of the captured state is handed to the ruler of the Neighboring state of Jalore, Maldeo.
List of battles of Rajasthan
Several significant battles are recorded to have taken place in what is now known as Rajasthan.
- Battle of Rajasthan (738) – Triple alliance of Nagabhata I, Jaysimha Varman and Bappa Rawal defeated Arabs on modern Rajasthan-Sind Border.
- The First Battle of Tarain (1191) – Prithviraj Chauhan of Ajmer defeated Mohammad Gori.
- Second Battle of Tarain (1192) – Muhammad Gori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
- Battle of Ranthambore (1299) – Hammir deo defeated a Khilji army under Nusrat Khan.
- Siege of Ranthombore (1301) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Hammir deo.
- Siege of Chittor (1303) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Rawal Ratan Singh (Rani Padmini and other ladies committed Jauhar)
- Battle of Jalore (1310–14) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Kanhad deo after a long and bloody war.
- Battle of Siwana (1308) – Malik Kamaluddin a general of Alauddin Khilji defeated Sheetal deo.
- Battle of Mandalgarh and Banas (1442-1446) – A series of battles that took place between Mahmud Khilji of Malwa and Rana Kumbha of Mewar. Bloodied by these engagements the Sultan did not attack Mewar for another ten years.
- Battle of Nagaur (1456) – Rana Kumbha defeated the combined armies of Shams Khan (sultan of Nagaur) and Qutbuddin (Sultan of Gujarat) and captured Nagaur, Kasili, Khandela and shakambhari.
- Battle of Khatoli (1517) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
- Battle of Dholpur (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
- Battle of Gagron (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Mahmud Khilji of Malwa.
- Invasion of Mewar (1520) – Sultan Muzaffar Shah II sent an army under Malik Ayaz but failed and retreated to Gujarat.
- Battle of Khanwa (1527) – Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
- Battle of Sammel (1544) – Sher Shah Suri’s Pyrrhic victory against the army of Jaita and Kumpa.
- Siege of Ranthambore (1558) – Mughal Emperor Akbar besieged Ranthambore Fort but failed due to Rajput rebellions in Gwalior.
- Battle of Merta (1562) – Akbar with the help of princes from Bikaner and Amer defeated Rao Chandra Sen and advanced towards Jodhpur.
- First Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1562-1583) – Akbar invaded Marwar and occupied Jodhpur. The ruler Rao Chandra Sen continued his struggle until his death in 1581 after which Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583.
- Siege of Chittorgarh (1567) – Emperor Akbar defeated Rao Jaimal and Patta (Udai Singh II escaped with his family to Udaipur)
- Siege of Ranthambore (1568) – A successful siege by Mughal Emperor Akbar causes the Rajput leader Rao Surjan Hada to surrender Ranthambore Fort.
- Battle of Haldighati (1576) – Man Singh (the commander of Akbar) defeated Maharana Pratap.
- Battle of Dewair (1582) – Maharana Pratap attacked a Mughal stronghold this resulted in the flight of the Mughal soldiers and the closing of all the 36 Mughal posts in Mewar.
- Second Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1679-1707) – Aurangzeb took Marwar under his direct control after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. The Rathore army under Durgadas Rathore carried out a relentless struggle against the occupying forces. In 1707 after the death of Aurangzeb Durgadas defeated the local Mughal force and reoccupied Jodhpur and their lost territories.
- Battle of Aravalli hills (1680) – Three separate armies, under Aurangzeb’s sons Akbar, Azam and Muazzam, penetrated the Aravalli hills from different directions but Akbar defected to the Rajputs resulting in the defeat of the Mughals by the armies of Rana Raj Singh I and Durgadas Rathore.
- Battle of Maonda and Mandholi (1767) – Jaipur forces defeat the forces of Bharatpur.
- Battle of Tunga or Battle of Lalsot (1787) – Combined forces of Jaipur and Jodhpur result in a stalemate with the Maratha forces of Mahadaji Shinde.
- Battle of Malpura (1800) – Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh defeated Daulat Rao Sindhia