RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Rajasthan GK Complete Study Material in English

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam General Studies Study Material in English. Rajasthan General Knowledge for RPSC RAS and all other competitive exams. we are providing you complete study notes/eBook here.

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You will get set of 6-PDF:

  1. Geography of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  2. History of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  3. Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  4. Rajasthan Polity and Administration with Practice MCQ
  5. Economy of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  6. Rajasthan Current Affairs Year Book 2019

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela

Preface

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the syllabus of RPSC and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the shop in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. Very soon it will be available on Amazon, Flip-kart etc.
General Studies of Rajasthan

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Havelis & Sculptures of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Havelis & Sculptures of Rajasthan

Rampuria Group of Havelis, Bikaner

Bikaner has several havelis (aristocratic homes), the most famous cluster being the Rampuria Group of Havelis. The havelis are built of dulmera (red) stone, include – jharaokha (casements), entrances, latticed windows, divankhanas, gumaharias or basements. These massive havelis are decorated with golden work of the highest quality and Jharokhas are decorated with designs of flowers & leaves. There is Victorian influence in the design and also include exquisite wood carvings.

Kothari and Surana Haveli, Churu

Oswal Jain merchant families constructed these beautiful painted havelis. Malji’s Haveli made by Malaji Kothari is the most popular haveli. Another famous haveli is the Surana Double Haveli.

Patwon Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer

One of the most exquisite buildings in the walled city, which truly exemplifies the architectural style typical of erstwhile Rajputana. It is five storeys high and the extensive corridors and chambers are supported by intricately carved pillars.While the haveli has lost some of its early glory, a few paintings and mirror work art can still be seen on the inside walls.

Nathmal ki Haveli, Jaisalmer

Carved by Lalu and Hathi, two brothers for the Prime Minister of State, Nathmalji in 19th century. The most interesting fact is that the brothers worked separately, one on the right side and other on the left side, the result is a absolute symphony epitomizing the side by side symmetry during construction. The haveli is richly carved and the inner chambers are decorated with miniature paintings.

Salim Singh ki Haveli, Jaisalmer

This haveli was built in the first half of the 18th century by Salim Singh, a powerful Chief Minister of Jaisalmer and a part of it is still occupied by descendants of the original residents. The high arched roof is supported by carved brackets designed in the shape of peacocks.The five stroryed structure dominates the skyline of the walled city due to its form. The haveli begins with a narrow dimension below with an elaborate projecting balcony on the top storey. It is distinguished by the blue cupola roof.

Haveli’s of Laxmangarh, Sikar

There are numerous havelis in the town, namely the Sawant Ram Chokhani Haveli, Bansidhar Rathi Haveli, Sanganeria Haveli, Mirijamal Kyala Haveli, Char Chowk Haveli and Kedia Haveli, adorned with fresco paintings in the Shekhawati style.

  • The Radhi Murlimanohar temple, constructed in 1845, is popular for the beautiful sculptures of deities on the wall.

Haveli’s & Bawdi’s of Fatehpur, Sikar

Fatehpur is a town in the Sikar which is part of the Shekhawati region. Located on midway between Jaipur and Bikaner (NH-11), Fatehpur is famous for grand havelis with frescos and a number of bawdis.

Main attraction of Fatehpur is:-

  1. Sitaram Kedia Ki Haveli
  2. Jagannath Singhania Haveli
  3. Saraf Haveli
  4. The Nadine Le Prince Cultural Centre
  5. The Dwarkadheesh Temple
  6. Qureshi Farms

Rani ji Baori, Bundi

Bundi has more than 50 stepwell and rightly known as city of stepwalls. Raniji ki Baori, also known as ‘Queen’s Stepwell’, is a famous stepwell built in 1699 by Rani Nathavati Ji, the younger queen of the ruling king Rao Raja Anirudh Singh of Bundi. This multi-storied stepwell displays excellent carvings of Gajraj with his trunk turned inwards, giving the impression of having drunk from the baori on its pillars. Its high arched gate gives it an inviting appearance.

Abhaneri, Dausa

Abhaneri is famous for its Post-gupta or early medieval monuments. The Chand Baori (Step Well) and Harshat Mata Temple are prominent monuments. The temple is an excellent example of intricate carving on stone whereas the Baori has stairs with unparallel artistic and architectural beauty. It is situated at about 33 Kms from the district headquarter towards Bandikui.

Alanpur Baori, Sawai Madhopur

A four line Persian inscription on a rectangular stone slab, fixed in the Ghori Baori in Alanpur village, belongs to Alauddin Fidan Shah, son of Mahmud Shah Khalji I, Sultan of Malwa. It is dated A.H. 874 (A.D. 1469-70) and records construction of the step-well by Khwaja Jahan son of Bir Ali Turk Khurasani. The slab now broken into four pieces has been taken to the Ranthambhore Fort collection of antiquities.

Hadi Rani Baori, Todrai Singh, Tonk

The step-tank is rectangular on plan with double-storeyed corridors on the western side, each having arched doorway. Below the lower storey, there are images of Brahma, Ganesa and Mahishasuramardini which are enshrined in niches. On all the three sides, steps are arranged in sets of thirteen each at higher level and five each at lower level, going up to the water level. It is datable to circa twelfth-thirteenth century A.D.

Vijaya Stambh, Chittorgarh

Vijaya Stambh is a huge nine storey tower which was built by Maharana Kumbha to commemorate his victory over the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat in 1440, the tower signifies the victorious spirit of the Rajput Kingdom after securing a victory over the intruder Mohammed Khilji. The towers stands at a height of 37 meters and compromises of 9 floors offer a great view of the city of Chittorgarh and the Chittorgarh Fort.

Kirti Stambh, Chittorgarh

Kirti Stambh or the tower of fame is part of the two popular stumbhs or pillars inside the Chittorgarh Palace. Kriti Stambh is a 12th-century tower situated at Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan, India. Dedicated to the first Jain teethankar Adinath, the stambh is a 22 meter high seven storied tower having a sculpture of Adinath in the second floor.Kirti Stambh is older than another tower in the same fort, known as the Vijaya Stambh (Tower of Victory). The topmost floor of the pillar offers a panoramic view of the whole Chittorgarh city and attracts a large number of travelers, historians and photography enthusiasts.

Famous Stambhas of Rajasthan

Vijay Stambh Chittorgarh
Kirti Stambh Chittorgarh
Minar of Nehar Khan Kota
Gooler ka Ludan Jodhpur
Gamtaji Jodhpur
Safdarjung Alwar
Sargasooli(Isarlaat) Jaipur

Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

Adhai din ka Jhopra, Ajmer

Adhai din ka Jhopra is actually a Masjid built by Qutub-ud-Din-Aibak, first Sultan of Delhi, in AD 1199. Sultan Iltutmish had subsequently beautified it in AD 1213 with a screen pierced by corbelled engrailed arches which appears in this country for the first time. However, a large number of architectural members and sculptures of temples are lying inside the verandah of the complex for safety and security purposes by the department which shows the existence of a Hindu temple in its vicinity during circa 11th-12th Century AD. This mosque, built from the dismantled remains of temples, is known as Adhai-din-ka-Jhopra possibly from the fact that a fair used to be held here for two and a half days.

The Ajmer Sharif Dargah

Ajmer Sharif, situated at the foot of the Taragarh hill, is the shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. It contains the domed tomb of the saint and several white marble buildings arranged around two courtyards, including a massive gate donated by the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Akbari Mosque, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

Akbar used to come here by foot on pilgrimage from Agra every year in observance of a vow when he prayed for a son. The large pillars called “Kose (‘Mile’) Minar”, erected at intervals of two miles (3 km) along the entire way between Agra and Ajmer mark the places where the royal pilgrims halted every day.

Soni ji ki Nasiyan, Ajmer

Soniji ki Nasiyan is a Jain Temple located in Ajmer and is a wonderful example of ornate architecture, dedicated to Rishabhadev or Adinath. Its entrance is made of red stone and the marble staircase inside is engraved with images of the holy Tirthankars – omniscient teachers of Jain faith who taught righteousness. The temple was constructed in the late 19th century. Its main chamber, Swarna Nagari (City of Gold), is aptly named so because of the several gold-plated wooden figures it houses within its walls. This famous architectural marvel is also mentioned in Kurt Titze’s book, ‘Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence.’

Tijara Jain Temple, Alwar

About 60 kilometres from the Alwar-Delhi route lies this important centre of Jain pilgrimage. The exquisitely decorated ancient temple was built to commemorate the eighth Tirthankar, Shri Chandra Prabha Bhagwan. The son of King Mahasen and Queen Sulakshana, he ruled his kingdom for several years before receiving Diksha and being initiated. After serving mankind for several years, he meditated for a month and attained Nirvana.

Bhand Devara, Baran

Ramgarh-Bhand Devra temples are situated about 40 km. from Baran. The Shiv Mandir of Ramgarh was built in 10th century on the Khajuraho style. Due to the Maithun Statues, the place is named as Bhand Devra. This temple is situated on the bank of pond and is now under the Archaeological department. This temple is known as Rajasthan’s mini Khajuraho.

Kiradu Temple, Barmer

Kiradu Temple might have been constructed before the 6th century at the time of “Parmar” Dynasty. There are five temples in all and most remarkable of them is

Someshvara Temple .These temples feature impressive sculpture and a Solanki style of architecture. There are 4-5 Big Temple structure of Golden colour and a Sun Temple. The temple is well entitled as “Khajuraho of Rajasthan”. The design of the temple is identical to the Khajurao Temple and Sun Temple at Orrisa. The temple is ruin and with lack of images of God and Goddess. The Kiradu was earlier Headquarter of Barmer and it was attacked by Mohammad Gauri in 1140AD who had destroyed the temple structure and its images.

Vankal Mata Temple, Barmer

Vankal Mata Temple is situated at the west end of the city on a 675 feet high hill, the ancient citadel of the 16th century ( fortress ), which was called Barmer citadel , whose remains still exist.

Shri Parshwanath Jain Temple, Barmer

Shri Parshwanath Jain temple was originally a temple of Mahavira. This temple was renovated in the fifteenth century. 120 idols were brought here from Kalidrah and this beautiful and miraculous idol was installed here as Mulnayaka (main idol of the temple) in the year 1429 of the Vikram era (1373 AD). It is among the hills in the distant forest at a distance of 13 kilometers from Balotra.

Jain Temple Bhandasar, Bikaner

Jain Temple was commissioned by Bhandasa Oswal in the year 1468 and completed in the year 1514. The structure is influenced by Rajputana architecture and includes unique and intricately sculpted pillars, frescos and the gold leaf work, with a blend of red sandstone and white marble used in the construction. The mirror work in the temple is unique as well.

Meera bai Temple, Chittorgarh

Meera bai, an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna’s, worshipped him at this temple. The structure is designed in the classic North Indian style of temples. It rises from a raised plinth and its conical roof can be seen from far. The temple houses a beautiful shrine surrounded by an open porch with four small pavilions in four corners.

Deo Somnath, Dungarpur

On the banks of Som River, there is an old and beautiful Shiva temple called Deo Somnath built in the 12th century. Built of white stone, the temple has imposing turrets. One can see the sky from within the temple. Though there is a perfect adaptation of parts in the masonry, yet it gives the impression that individual stones are crumbling. The temple has 3 exits, one each in the east, the north and the south. The entrance gates are two storied The Garbha Grah has a high dome. In front of it is the Sabha Mandap – built on 8 majestic pillars. There are Twenty Toranas of which four still exist. Others were destroyed by the flood waters of the Som. The idol of the deity is in a chamber, eight steps below and the entrance is from the Sabha Mandap. There are several inscriptions by pilgrims and the oldest belongs to 1493 A.D. Several warriors were cremated near the temple and memorials have been raised in their honour.

Nagfanji, Dungarpur

Nagfanji is renowned for its Jain shrines and not only does it attract devotees from Dungarpur but also tourists who travel from far to see the temple. The temple houses statues of Devi Padmawati, Nagfanji Parshwanath and Dharnendra. The Nagfanji Shivalaya, which is located close to this temple, is also a tourist attraction.

Shrinathji Temple, Dungarpur

Maharawal Punjraj built this temple in the year 1623. The idols of Shri Radhika ji and Govardhan Nathji are the main attractions. The complex also houses several shrines dedicated to Shri BankeBihariji and Shri Ramchandraji.

Surpur Temple, Dungarpur

This ancient shrine is located on the banks of the Gangdi River about 3 kilometres from Dungarpur. The area around the temple also houses other attractions such as Bhulbhulaiya, Madhavrai Temple, Hathiyon Ki Agad and several inscriptions.

Mandore, Jodhpur

Towards the north of Jodhpur is the ancient capital of Marwar, Mandore. This area is of major historical importance and you will find the dewals or cenotaphs of Jodhpur’s former rulers. Unlike the original Chhatri-shaped cenotaphs that are typical patterns of Rajasthan architecture, these are built along the lines of Hindu temples.

Osian:

65 Kms from Jodhpur, lies ruins of an ancient city called Ossian. This city is famous for Brahmanical and Jain temples, which belong to 8th and 11th century. The shikhar of Sachiya temple is clustered by two rows of turrets, an ambulatory and a large assembly hall with an elaborate ceiling. This town which was once a great trading centre is an oasis and houses an abundance of peacocks. The largest of the 16 Jain and Brahmanical temples is dedicated to Mahavira.

Bhanwar Mata Temple, Pratapgarh

Bhanwar Mata temple was built by King Gori of “Manvaiyani genus” in year 491 AD. Temple is also known as “Bhanwar Mata Shakti Peeth”. It is located in Chhoti Sadri Teshsil of Pratapgarh district.

Ghumeshwar Temple, Sawai Madhopur

Enshrined in the Puranas, the Ghushmeshwar Temple is believed to be 12th or the last of the Jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva. Situated at the Siwar village in Sawai Madhopur, this temple has many mythological stories weaved around it.

Alanpur Jain Temple, Sawai Madhopur

The early medieval Jaina temple, known as Chamatkarji, is situated outside the city and dedicated to lord Adinatha. The temple compound is enclosed by a modern high parapet wall with small cells all round and is entered from the west. The main shrine is situated in the centre of the courtyard and is enclosed by high wall with entrance in the north. The garbhagriha facing east, is pancharatha on plan with circumambulatory passage around. The sikhara is curvilinear.

Harshnath Temple, Sikar

The 10th century, Harshnath temple, belonging is located on the Aravalli Hills near Sikar. It is an ancient site containing remnants of old Shiva Temple of 10th Century. Another Shiva temple, constructed in the 18th century by Shiv Singh of Sikar, is situated near the Harshnath temple.

Jagdish Temple, Udaipur

An example of the Indo-Aryan style of architecture, Jagdish Temple was built in 1651 and continues to be one of the most famous temples in Udaipur. Dedicated to Lord Vishnu, the structure is an architectural marvel with carved pillars, graceful ceilings and painted walls. This three-storied temple was built by Maharana Jagat Singh.

Cenotaph & Tombs in Rajasthan

Maqbara Shaikh Husain, Ajmer

It houses the tomb of Khwaja Husain Chishty Rehamatullah Alaih (Shaikh Husain Ajmeri) who was the Peer of Ajmer Sharif Dargah in Emperor Akbar’s Time, He was the great grandson of Khwaja Moinuddin Hasan Chishty Rehmatullah Alaih, his tomb was built in 1637–1638 by Khwaja Alauddin Chishty and Sajjadanashin Hazrat Khwaja Moinuddin.

Moosi Maharani ki Chhatri, Alwar

This cenotaph, built in the memory of Maharaja Bakhtawar Singh and his queen, Rani Moosi, reflects the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. The upper portion comprising columned pavilions and domed arches is made of marble while the lower section consists of pillars in red sandstone. The memorial is rated as one of the finest of its type.

Fateh Jung Gombad, Alwar

This spectacular tomb, which is a combination of domes and minarets is an artistic marvel. Constructed from high quality sandstone, its massive dome can be seen from afar and is a blend of Hindu and Muslim architecture. It is dedicated to Fateh Jung who was a kind-hearted minister of the Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan.

Battis Khambon ki Chhatri, Bhilwara

This place is situated in Mandal 16 km from Bhilwara city. It has Chhatri made of sandstone with 32 pillars.

84 Pillared Cenotaphs, Bundi

As the name suggests, the 84 Pillared Cenotaph is a structure supported by 84 columns. Commissioned by Rao Anirudh, the Maharaja of Bundi, this cenotaph is a tribute to his beloved wet nurse, Deva, who he loved dearly. A popular tourist attraction, this impressive structure is decorated with carvings of deer, elephants and apsaras.

Galiyakote, Dungarpur

At a distance of 58 kilometres from Dungarpur, located on the banks of River Mahi, is a hamlet called Galiyakote. The place is known for Syed Fakhruddin shrine. He was a renowned saint who was buried in the hamlet after his death. The shrine is made from white marble and has his teachings engraved on it walls. The inner portion of the dome is decorated by beautiful foliage while teachings of the Quran are engraved in golden letters on the tomb.

BaraBagh, Jaisalmer

Literally the meaning is Big Garden. This garden complex houses chhatris or royal cenotaphs of the Maharajas of Jaisalmer state, including that of Jai Singh II.

Dargah Huzoor Najam Sirkar, Sikar

The holy shrine of Hazrat Khwajah Haji Muhammad Najmuddin Sulaimani Chishti, famous as Huzoor Najam Sirkar, is is located at Fatehpur Shekhawati District Sikar 165 km away from Jaipur and 55 km from Sikar on N.H. 12.

He belongs to the great silsilah-e-Chishtiah and in the 13th century Hijri he played a prominent role in spreading the Silsilah in the all parts of the country.

Laila Majnu Tomb, Sri Ganganagar

The tomb (mazar) of Laila-Majnu at Binjaur village is situated near Anupgarh city 11 km away from Anupgarh on the western side. Many people associate this Mazar (mausoleum) with fictional and legendary lovers Laila and Majnu. According to the traditional belief Laila-Majnun were from Sindh and came to this place escaping from the clutches of Laila’s parents and her brother who were against the love of Laila-Majnun. Laila and Majnu died here and were buried together at this place. Thus this place became a symbol of love and people come here to seek blessings from Laila and Majnu. A fair is held here in June which is attended by hundreds of newlyweds and lovers.

Fort and Palaces of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan

The extensive and majestic hill forts of Rajasthan together reflect the elaborate, fortified seats of power of Princely States that flourished between the 8th and 18th centuries and their relative political independence. Scattered all around in the state, these forts have a uniqueness of their own, with each one of them narrating a story about its kings, kingdom and colourful culture. Their beautiful structures, enchanting edifices and stunning architecture are beyond any comparison. Recognizing their value, six of these Hill Forts of Rajasthan have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites. They are, Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Gagron Fort, Amber Fort and Jaisalmer Fort.

Forts of Rajasthan

  1. Amber Fort, Jaipur
  2. Bala Qila, Alwar
  3. Barmer Fort, Barmer
  4. Chittorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh
  5. Gagron Fort, Jhalawar
  6. Gugor Fort, Baran
  7. Jaigarh Fort, Jaipur
  8. Jaisalmer Fort, Jaisalmer
  9. Jalore Fort, Jalore,
  10. Jhalawar Fort, Jhalawar
  11. Juna Fort and Temple, Barmer
  12. Junagarh Fort, Bikaner
  13. Khandhar Fort, Sawai Madhopur
  14. Khejarala Fort, Jodhpur
  15. Khimsar Fort, Nagaur
  16. Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajsamand
  17. Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur
  18. Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur
  19. Nagaur Fort, Nagaur
  20. Nahargarh Fort, Jaipur
  21. Nahargarh Fort, Baran
  22. Neemrana Fort Palace, Alwar
  23. Ranthambore Fort, Sawai Madhopur
  24. Taragarh Fort, Bundi
  25. Shergarh Fort, Baran
  26. Surajgarh Fort, Surajgarh

Palaces of Rajasthan

  1. Alwar City Palace, Alwar
  2. Amber Palace, Jaipur
  3. Badal Mahal, Dungarpur
  4. Dholpur Palace, Bharatpur
  5. Fateh Prakash Palace, Chittorgarh
  6. Gajner Palace and Lake, Bikaner
  7. Jag Mandir, Udaipur
  8. Jagmandir Palace, Kota
  9. Jaipur City Palace, Jaipur
  10. Jal Mahal, Jaipur
  11. Juna Mahal, Dungarpur
  12. Lake Palace, Udaipur
  13. Lalgarh Palace and Museum, Bikaner
  14. Laxmi Niwas Palace, Bikaner
  15. Man Mahal, Pushkar
  16. Mandir Palace, Jaisalmer
  17. Monsoon Palace, Udaipur
  18. Moti Doongri, Alwar
  19. Moti Doongri, Jaipur
  20. Moti Mahal, Jodhpur
  21. Nathmal Ji Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  22. Patwon Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  23. Phool Maha, Jodhpur
  24. Raj Mandir, Banswara
  25. Rampuria Haveli, Bikaner
  26. Rana Kumbha Palace, Chittorgarh
  27. Rani Padmini’s Palace, Chittorgarh
  28. Ranisar Padamsar, Jodhpur
  29. Ratan Singh Palace, Chittorgarh
  30. Salim Singh Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  31. Sardar Samand Lake and Palace, Jodhpur
  32. Sheesha Mahal, Jodhpur
  33. Sisodia Rani Palace and Garden, Jaipur
  34. Sukh Mahal, Bundi
  35. Soonhari Kothi, Sawaimadhopur
  36. Udai Bilas Palace, Dungarpur
  37. Udaipur City Palace, Udaipur
  38. Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur

Taragarh Fort, Ajmer

Taragarh fort was first built by Chauhan king Ajaipal on Taragarh Hill. It is also said that Rana Sanga’s Brother Prthvi Raj made a portion of for his wife Tara and named it Taragarh.  The fort guarding Ajmer was the seat of the Chauhan rulers and was again believed to be built by Mughal ruler Akbar.

Taragarh is reputed to be one of the oldest hill forts in India and the world. The battlements run along the top of the hill. The walls are two miles (3 km) in circumference and the fort can only be approached by way of a very steep slope. When it fell to the British Raj, the fort was dismantled on the orders of Lord William Bentinck and was converted into a sanatorium for the British troops.

Akbari Fort & Museum, Ajmer

This fort was constructed in 1570 by Akbar and is also called as Daulat-khanna or Magazine. Plans for battle of Haldighati were finalized in this fort in 1576 and Jehangir camped in the fort for 3 years to bring mewar under Mughal control.

This fort is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture and it is the location from where

Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir read out the Farman permitting the

British East India Company to trade with India.

In 1801, control of fort passed to British who converted it into magazine (armory).

Currently, the fort is converted into a state

museum and houses a collection of Mughal,

Rajput armor and sculpture. The fort also has beautiful paintings and Janana portion has excellent Picchikari works.

Kesroli Hill Fort, Alwar

This 14th century fort is best known for its turrets, ramparts and arched verandas. The Yaduvanshi Rajputs, who are said to be descendants of Lord Krishna, built it. Today, the fort has been

converted into a heritage hotel.

Bala Quila, Alwar

The Bala Qila (meaning young fort) was built on the foundations of a 10th century mud fort and is a towering structure set atop a hill. Strong fortifications, graceful marble columns and delicate latticed balconies make up the fort. Bala Qila can be entered through six gates, namely Jai Pol, Suraj Pol, Laxman Pol, Chand Pol, Krishan Pol and Andheri Gate.

Alwar City Palace

Raja Bakhtawar Singh built the city palace in 1793 AD. The palace is an amazing mélange of the Rajputana and Islami styles of architecture. The highlight of this palace is graceful marble pavilions set on lotus flower bases in the central courtyard. The palace that once belonged to the Maharaja has been converted into the District Collectorate. Its grand halls and chambers now house government offices.

Neemrana Fort, Alwar

History says that Neemrana Fort was built by the Yaduvanshi, believed to be the descendants of Lord Krishna. Its story is rife with conquests and defeats and it has passed from the Rajputs to the Mughals and the Jats, before finally coming back to the Rajputs in 1775. Today, it is being run as a famous heritage hotel.

Shahbad Fort, Baran

Shahabad fort is one of the strongest forts in Hadoti area. It is located at about 80 km. from Baran. The Chauhan Vanshi Dhandhel Rajput Mukutmani Dev constructed Shahbad fort in the 1521 A.D. (Samvat 1577). This is situated in the dense forest area on the high mountain ranges and is surrounded by Kundakoh valley, waterfalls and a lake. The Topkhana (artillery) has Nawalbaan tope (cannon), Barudkhana and some temples in the forts are still secure.

Shergarh Fort, Baran

Shergarh fort is situated in Atru tehsil, about 65 km. from Baran district headquarters. The fort is located atop a hillock on the bank of Parban River. SherShah named the fort as Koshvardhan. A stone edict of 790 AD proves the antiquity of the place.

Nahar Garh Fort, Baran

The fort is about 73 km. from Baran in Kishanganj tehsil. Fort is an impressive structure in red stone and a fine example of the Mughal architecture.

Siwana Fort, Barmer

Siwana Fort was constructed in 10th century by Narayan Panwar. In local language its name is Gadh Siwana and after the battle of Giri Summel Rao Maldeo took refuge in this fort from

Sher Shah. During 1308-09 under reign of

Sataldev, the fort was attacked by Allauddin

Khilji which resulted in first Jauhar/Saka. In 1597, Akbar with Motaraja Udai Singh attacked

Siwana fort at the time of Kalyanmal which resulted in 2nd Jauhar.

Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur

Lohagarh fort was built by Jat Raja Surajmal in 1733. True to its name, Lohagarh Fort has withstood many attacks by the British, but was ultimately captured by Arthur Wellesley.  The famous door of Lohagarh fort was brought by Maharaja Jawahar Singh from Delhi in 1765. Lohagarh Fort differs from others by its aura of rugged strength. The fort is surrounded by a moat which used to be filled with water to keep enemies out. Interesting monuments inside the fort are Kothi Khas, Mahal Khas, Moti Mahal and Kishori Mahal. Raja Suraj Mal built Jawahar Bhurj and Fateh Bhurj to commemorate victories over the Mughals and the British.

Bharatpur Palace and Museum

Located within the premises of the Bharatpur Palace is Kamra Khas, a museum that contains a vast number of antiques, over 581 stone sculptures, 861 local art and craft wares and ancient scriptures that depict the art and culture typical of Bharatpur. The palace itself was built in stages by various Maharajas and is a fine fusion of Mughal and Rajput architecture. The various apartments in the palace have a variety of richly patterned floor tiles decorated with exquisite designs.

Mandalgarh Fort, Bhilwara

Mandalgarh Fort Bhilwara is believed to have been built by Rana Kumbha and is the 3rd fort of Mewar region, the other two being Chittorgarh and Kumbhalgarh. However, According to Veer Vinod, the fort had been constructed by Mandiya Bhil and Chanana Gurjar. The fort is located on a part of Aravali hill range along confluence of Banas, Berach & Menali.

Badnore Fort, Bhilwara

Badnore Fort is situated at Asind road and distance is 70 km from Bhilwara.

Junagarh Fort, Bikaner

Junagarh Fort was constructed in the year 1588 A.D by Raja Rai Singh, one of Emperor Akbar’s most distinguished generals.. It is believed that crocodiles were bred in the water moat surrounding the formidable fort. The construction is a fine blend of Mughal, Gujarati and Rajput style of architecture. The picturesque courtyards beautify the fort.  The fort complex houses some magnificent palaces constructed in red sandstone and marble like Anup Mahal, Chandra Mahal, Hawa Mahal, Dungar Mahal, Diwan-e-Khas and Ganga Mahal.

The fort also houses a Prachina Museum which contains royal costumes, textiles and accessories of Rajasthani royalty.

Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner

Lalgarh Palace was built by Maharaja Ganga Singh in the year 1902 in memory of his father Maharaja Lal Singh Ji. The red sandstone construction is a fine blend of Mughal, Rajput and European architectures styles. The design was conceptualised by Sir Swinton Jacob.

The first floor of the Palace houses Sadul Singh Museum. The lives and the passions of the three successive kings of Bikaner are reflected in the art museum. The rare artifacts, Georgian paintings, and the photographs seen here stand proof of the interests and the heroics of the three kings namely Maharaja Ganga Singh, Sadul Singh and Karni Singh.

Gajner Palace, Bikaner

The Gajner Palace was founded by Maharaja Gaj Singh ji of Bikaner in the year 1784, and then completed by the great Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner on the banks of the lake. The palace

served as retreat after hunting for the royal family. The red sandstone construction is a glowing example of stunning architecture. The palace is situated in the thick of forest and you could view migratory birds flock in great numbers.

Taragarh Fort, Bundi

Taragarh Fort was constructed by Rao raja Bair Singh in 1354 on a hilltop 1426 feet high. In the centre of the fort is located Bhim Bhurj on which was once mounted a particularly large cannon called Garbh Gunjam, or ‘Thunder from the Womb’. With its curved roofs topping pavilions, excess of temple columns and elephant and lotus motifs, the palace is a tribute to Rajput style. The fort includes Hazari Darwaza, Haathi Pol, Nau Dhaan, Ratan Daulat-khanna, Darikhana, Ratan Niawas, Chatra Mahal and Badal Mahal & Moti Mahal.

Sukh Mahal, Bundi

Sukh Mahal, a small, two-storied palace was a summer retreat of past rulers.  Located on banks

of Jait Sagar Lake, the palace was constructed by Rao raja Vishnu Singh in 1773 A.D. Today, it is quite famous for being the place where Kipling wrote ‘Kim’. Many credit the palace as a having played muse to the renowned novel. In fact, part of a movie based on the novel was even shot here.

Chittorgarh Fort

Chittorgarh Fort is the largest fort in Asia. The Fort of Chittorgarh is strategically located on the top of a high hilly outcrop of the Aravallis about 180 m above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River.  The fort also contains Gaumukh Reservoir, which a deep tank is fed by a spring. The spring emerges from a rock formation resembling a Gaumukh or ‘cow’s mouth’. The tank is considered sacred by the locals.

Padmini’s Palace, Chittorgarh

The Padmini palace is Amazing place to visit in Chittorgarh. It was the residence of Rani Padmini who was known for her gorgeous beauty. The palace is a popular tourist attraction because of its rich architecture and association with the Rajput heritage and history. There is a lotus pond near this palace.Ala-ud-din saw the reflection of Queen Padmini in this pool. He was so captivated and entranced by her that he fought a furious battle with Maharana Ratan Singh (husband of Maharani Padmini). This battle changed the history of Chittorgarh.

Rana Kumbha Palace, Chittorgarh

Rana Kumbha palace is 15th century palace where Rana Kumbha lived and spent his royal life. This historic monument is very popular among tourists due to its charming and artistic architecture. The founder of Udaipur, Maharana Udai Singh was born in this same palace. Rana Kumbha palace has the cellar where brave Rani Padmini performed an act of Jauhar along with other women during an attack of Khilji.

Bhainsrorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh

Bhainsrorgarh is an impregnable fort, inhabited from at least the 2nd century BC. It is dramatically positioned between two rivers, the Chambal and Bamani. It had passed through the hands of several clans before becoming the seat of a premier noble of Mewar, the large region around Udaipur and Princely State of the Sisodia clan. It contains five tanks, temples to Devi Bhim Chauri, Shiva, and Ganesh. The present fort is around 260 years old and was built in the 1740s.

Churu Fort

Churu Fort was constructed by Thakur Kushal Singh in 1649 A.D.  In 1814, Surat Singh of Bikaner attacked this fort and after ammunition was exhausted, Thakur Shiv Singh fired Cannon balls made of silver in defense of fort. Shiv Singh also constructed Gopinath temple inside the fort.

Dausa Fort

Dausa Fort was constructed on Devgiri Hill, probably first by Bargujars and subsequently by Kachhawaha when they made Dausa as their first capital.

Madhorajpura Fort, Dausa

Sawai Madho Singh-I after defeating Marathas, established the township of Madhorajpura and constructed the fort. According to historians, this fort was used as the headquarters by the Swathi, during the fight between Marathas and Swathi Pratap Singh.

Khawaraoji, Dausa

Khawaraoji is famous for residence of the then ruler Raoji and natural beauty. It is situated at about 25 Kms from the district headquarter towards Sikrai. Though, it has typical way to reach this place, the fort like residence is converted into the Khawaraoji Heritage Hotel. Surrounded by hills at the three sides, and having Amol Ghati nearby with natural beauty, this place has worth to visit by tourists.

Shergarh Fort, Dholpur

Located on Banks of river Chambal, Shergarh fort is, said to be first constructed by Raja Maldev during Kushan Period. In 1540, Shershah reconstructed the fort and named it Shergarh.

Juna Mahal, Dungarpur

Juna Mahal (Old Palace) is a 13th century, seven-storeyed edifice. It is built on a high platform constructed from Pareva stone and its rugged exterior gives it a resemblance of a citadel. It has been elaborately planned with fortified walls, watchtowers, narrow doorways and corridors to delay the enemy for as long as possible. What lies inside is a complete contrast to the exterior. Visitors will be spellbound by the beautiful murals, miniature paintings and delicate glass and mirror work that adorn the interiors.

Udai Bilas Palace, Dungarpur

The Udai Bilas Palace has been named after Maharawal Udai Singh II. Its striking design follows classic Rajput architectural style and boasts of detailed designs in its balconies, arches and windows. A beautiful wing built of the local bluish grey stone called Pareva overlooks the lake. The palace is segregated into Raniwas, Udai Bilas and Krishna Prakash, also known as Ek Thambiya Mahal. The Ek Thambiya Mahal is a veritable marvel of Rajput architecture featuring intricate sculptured pillars and panels, ornate balconies, balustrades, bracketed windows, arches and frieze of marble carvings. Today, Udai Bilas Palace functions as a heritage hotel.

Badal Mahal, Dungarpur

The Badal Mahal, built using Pareva stone, is another splendid palace of

Dungarpur. Located on the banks of Gaib Sagar Lake, it is renowned for its

Elaborate design and a fusion of the architectural styles of the Rajputs and

The Mughals, The monument comprises two stages, three domes and a

Veranda and Each dome sports a carved half ripe lotus while the largest dome sports three.

Bhatner Fort, Hanumangarh

The Bhatner Fort, otherwise known as the Hanumangarh Fort, is located on somewhat elevated land with gigantic barricades along the banks of the River Ghaggar in the centre of Hanumangarh. In 295 AD, Bhupat, son of Jailsamer’s King Bhatti built this strong fort. Since then, rulers like Timur, Ghaznavid, Prithviraj Chauhan, Akbar, Qutub-ud-din-Aibak and Rathores had captured this fort. The strength of this fort has been mentioned in the autobiography written by Timur called “Tuzuk- e- Timuri.” Even Mughal Emperor Akbar described this fortification in his book “Ain- I- Akbari”.

It has many towering gates surrounding the fort and many big rounded bastions that stand at intervals. There are three statues, which bear inscriptions, and an ancient building called “Jain Pasara” is situated inside the fort. There is also a tomb inside this fort, where Sher Khan is kept. Sher Khan was the nephew of Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din-Balban (1266 – 1290) as well as the Governor of the Fort.

Amber Fort, Jaipur

Amer Fort is the complex of palaces, halls, pavilions, gardens and temples, which were built by Raja Man Singh, Mirza Raja Jai Singh and Sawai Jai Singh over a period of about two centuries. It is made of red sandstone and white marble and incorporates both Rajput and Mughal architecture.

The palace complex rises from the placid waters of the Mootha lake, which contains Mohan Bari or Kesar Kyari in the center.

Jaipur City Palace, Jaipur

Jaipur City Palace was built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur. The palace is a beautiful blend of Mughal and Rajput styles of architecture. The previous royal family continues to reside in one section of the palace. Located within the walls of the City Palace, Chandra Mahal is a seven-storeyed tower. However, the ground and first floors have now been given over for the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum.

Hawa Mahal, Jaipur

The Palace of Wind or Hawa Mahal was constructed in 1799 by the poet-king Sawai Pratap Singh. The five-storied structure is made of pink sandstone and has 356 intricately carved jharaokha (windows). It was designed for the women of the royal family to sit in privacy while observing life on the street.

Nahargarh Fort, Jaipur

The northern frontier of Jaipur is fortified by Nahargarh Fort. Situated on a rough crest of the Aravalli range, the fort, which literally means ‘abode of the tigers’, was built in 1734 by Jai Singh to further defend Amber. Later, in 1868, the fort was extended to its present size. Much of the original structures are now in ruins, but the lovely building added by sawai Ram Singh II and Sawai Madho Singh II still survive.

Jaigarh Fort, Jaipur

It is one of the few military structures of the medieval India preserved almost intact containing palaces, gardens, open and covered reservoirs, a granary, an armoury, a well-planned cannon foundry, several temples, a tall tower and a giant mounted cannon-the Jai Ban – the largest in the country. Jaigarh Fort was built by Sawai Jai Singh II sometime in the early 18th century amidst the arid, rocky and thorn-scrub covered hills.

Jal Mahal, Jaipur

Jal Mahal is a tiny palace located in the middle of small Man Sagar Lake.

Jaisalmer Fort

Also called as Golden Fort or “Sonar Kila”, it is a world heritage site. It was built in 1156 AD by Rawal Jaisal and stands on Trikuta Hill (the triple peaked hill) among an undulating sea of sand. The fort is built in Sandstone, protected by high walls, approachable through four successive gates, the Akhaiy Pol, the Ganesh Pol, the Suraj Pol and the Hawa Pol.

Jalore Fort

Jalore Fort is one of the nine castles of the Maru’, under the Paramaras in the 10th century, It has been known through history as the Sonagiri or the ‘golden mount’. The precise year of its construction is not known however it is believed to be built between the 8th and 10th centuries. Jalore fort is located atop a steep and perpendicular hill 336m high, fortified with a wall and bastions with cannon mounted upon them. The fort has four gigantic gates and is approachable only from one side, after a two-mile long serpentine ascent.

Gagron Fort, Jhalawar

Gagron Fort is an example of ‘Jal Durg’, or Water Fort surrounded by waters of Ahu, Kali and Sindh rivers on three sides. It is included in the list of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The foundation of this impregnable, magnificent fort was laid in the 7th century. Outside the fort is a Dargah of Sufi Saint Mitheshah, where a fair is held every year during the Islamic month of Moharram. Nearby is a monastery of Saint Pipa, a contemporary of Saint Kabir.

Jhalawar Fort

Situated in the centre of the town, the Jhalawar fort or Garh Palace was built by Maharaj Rana Madan Singh and his successors added beautiful paintings inside the rooms. The Zenana Khas or the ‘Women’s Palace’ has some excellent frescoes on both, walls and mirrors and they are prime examples of the Hadoti school of art.

Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur

Situated on a steep hill, Mehrangarh fort is one of the largest forts in India. The beauty and the grandeur of numerous palaces in the fort narrate a saga of hard sandstones yielding to the chisels of skilled Jodhpuri sculptures. The fort is known for its exquisite latticed windows, carved panels, intricately decorated windows and walls of Moti Mahal, Phool Mahal and Sheesha Mahal.

Moti Mahal, Jodhpur

Moti Mahal, as the name suggests, is the Pearl Hall where the royal families held their audience. The hall is known to have glass windows and five nooks that enabled the queens to listen to the proceedings taking place in the Srinagar Chowki, The Royal Throne of Jodhpur.

Phool Mahal, Jodhpur

Going by the name, the Phool Mahal or Flower Hall is the most exorbitant of all the halls in the palace. This beautiful chamber is said to be the pleasure dome for the Maharajas. The gold used for constructing the Mahal came from Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Khejarala Fort, Jodhpur

Located 85 kilometres from the main city, the 400-year old Khejarala Fort is situated in a rural setting. The stunning red sandstone monument, now a hotel, is an example of Rajput architecture. Visitors will be mesmerized by the fort’s picturesque settings, latticework friezes and intricate Jharoka.

Ummaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur

Umaid Bhawan Palace was built by Maharaja Umaid Singh in 1929 to counter a famine which had hit the state at the time. It was also known as the Chittar Palace while being constructed thanks to the use of stones drawn from the Chittar hill. The palace was designed by HV Lanchester, a renowned British architect, and was completed in 16 years. Built with sandstone and marble, the architecture of the palace is described as a blend of lndo-Saracenic, Classical Revival and Western Art Deco styles. It is recognised as one of the largest private homes in the world and also one of the more spectacular buildings. It is the only palace built in the 20th century.

Sardar Samand Palace, Jodhpur

Built on the banks of the Sardar Samand Lake by Maharaja Umaid Singh in 1933, the Sardar Samand Lake Palace is a spectacular hunting lodge. It remains the royal family’s favorites retreat and houses a vast collection of African trophies and original water colour paintings.

Fort of Timangarh, Karauli

Timangarh fort is situated in Masalpur village. According to prevailing believes in Samvat (Hindu calendar) 1244 Yaduvanshi ruler Timanpal constructed this Fort. On all four side of this fort, there exists unique sample of 5 feet wide and 30 feet high battledore architecture. It seems as a complete city is enclosed within fort. Market inside fort wall, flooring, garden, temples and remains of well are still available.

Unt Giri Fort, Karauli

This fort was established during 15th Century in Kalyanpura village on a tunnel shaped high mountain range. The fort is spread over 4 Km of area, and has a 100 feet high waterfall which directly drop water over a Shivalinga. Till last Mughal Empire, this fort remained in ownership of Yaduvanshi.

Dev Giri Fort, Karauli

The Fort is located on east of Unt Giri on bank of Chambal River. In year 1506-07 attack of Sikander Lodhi caused major damage to this fort. In present it has one Bavdi, ransacked stone scriptures and few remains of palace are available.

Mandrayal Fort, Karauli

In south of Karauli, on the bank of Chambal River and between the mountain ranges, Mandrayal fort made of red stone is situated on a small hill. Due to its location near Gwalior, from the view of a monument it is considered important. The Surya Pol of Fort receives direct sunlight starting from sunrise to sunset. In year 1327 Maharaja Arjun Dev had acquired this fort, which remained under custodianship of Karauli.

Bahadurpur Quila (fort), Karauli

This fort is located on Mundrayal Route, near forest of Sasand Village and deserted environment. ‘Bahadur pura Ka Quila’ stands like an insuppressible warrior is an actual example of inseparable Mughal art. Double storied Narp Gopal Bhawan, Saheliyon Ki Bavdi, Artistic Jharokha, 18 feet long girder of common and VIP courts, 5 warriors, Magadh Rai Ki Chatri are worth watching. The fort was constructed by Nagaraj was son of Yaduvanshi King Timanpal, expansion of this fort was done throughout 1566 to 1644. Ruler of Jaipur Sawai Jaising also resided in this fort.

Ramthera Fort, Karauli

The Ramthera fort is situated in Sapotra Subdivision of Karauli district between Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary and Bharatpur Bird Reserve; it is just 15 kilometers away from Kailadevi Sanctuary.

Rawal Palace, Karauli

Established during 13 century Palace (Rawal Palace) made out of Red and White Stone is an example of stone craft. Artistic pictures and carving on huge gate, reticulated vents, artillery, Nahar Kathara, Suri Gurj, Gopal singh Akhada, Bhanwar Bank, Nazar Bagichi, Manik Mahal, Fountain Pond, Gopal Temple, Deewan-e-Aam, Fauj Kachari, Kirkiri Khana, Giyan Bangla, Sheesha Mahal, Moti Mahal, Harvilas, Ranglal, Teda Kuwa, Jannani Dayothi and others along with effective establishment are also part of its culture and traditions.

Jagmandir Palace, Kota

The Jagmandir Palace was built by one of the queens of Kota between 1743 and 1745, and is situated in the middle of the Kishore Sagar Lake. Built in red sandstone, it is a monument of exquisite beauty. The palace is open to tourists who can enjoy boat rides in the Kishore Sagar Lake and the panoramic view of the palace from the lake. The Keshar Bagh, situated near the Jagmandir Palace is well known for its royal cenotaphs.

Garh Palace, Kota

This large complex, also known as the City Palace, is built in a predominantly Rajput style of architecture. The palace is a sprawling complex of suites and apartments built by different rulers of the Rajput dynasty at different times in history.

Situated within the walls of the Garh palace is Maharao Madho Singh Museum which houses a splendid collection of Rajput miniature paintings of the Kota school. The exquisite sculptures, frescoes and murals present a breathtaking view.

Nagaur Fort

It is said that Nagaur fort was initially built by ruler of Nag dynasty in 2nd century and was then rebuilt in the early 12th century. This fort has witnessed several battles and has also been altered multiple times. Being one of the first Mughal strongholds in North-India it is an outstanding example of Rajput-Mughal architecture.

Khimsar Fort, Nagaur

It is said that the Nagaur fort was initially built by the ruler of the Nag dynasty in 2nd century, and this 500 year old fort, located on the eastern edge of the Thar Desert was built in about 1523. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb used to stay at this fort. Black deer roam in herds around this fort.

Kuchaman Fort, Nagaur

Kuchaman Fort is the oldest & most inaccessible forts of Rajasthan. Situated on top of a straight hill, it possesses unique water harvesting system, a beautiful palace and stunning wall paintings. The rulers of Jodhpur used to mint their gold and silver currency here.

Devgarh, Pratapgarh

Devgarh is located in Pratapgarh sub-division on a small hill. It is also known as “Devliya”. This palace is surrounded by small hills and situated at average elevation of 1809 feet from sea level. Rajmahal, old Bawadia, Jain temples are located in Devgarh. A famous temple of “Beej mata” is also situated here, where a fair takes place every year.

A temple of lord Raghunath is placed in Rajmahal itself, where a solar clock is placed on the top of it. The clock tells time according to the light of sun. The Palace and its vicinity also contain some ponds including Tej sagar and Sonela.

Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajsamand

The Kumbhalgarh Fort was built by Rana Kumbha between A.D. 1443 and 1458 on the site of a still older castle which tradition ascribes to Samprati, a Jaina prince of the second century B.C. It is the second most important fort of Mewar after Chittaurgarh. It is defended by a series of walls with battlements and bastions built on the slope of the

hill which is reached through seven great gateways viz. Aret Pol, Halla Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ram Pol, Nimboo Pol, Bhairon Pol. Among important temples are those of Mahadeva, Pitaliya Dev, Neelkantha, etc. Bawan Devri and Golerao temples (nine in numbers) are Jaina temples. The most important building, though of later period, is the Badal Mahal or Cloud Palace.

Ranthambore Fort, Sawai Madhopur

Ranthambore Fort was built by the Chauhan rulers in the 10th century. It has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the group Hill Forts of Rajasthan. The fort is characterized by temples, tanks, massive gates and huge walls. The fort is well protected by a massive fortification wall provided with stepped and Z-shaped gateway with two strong and massive doors. An architectural marvel, the fort includes the Hammir Badi Kachahari, Chhoti Kachahari, Battis Khambha Chhatri, Hamir Palace, Rani Palace, Toran Dwar, Mahadeo Chhatri and Sametonki Haveli within its premises. Among temples, the Ganesa temple is important besides a few Jain temples.

Khandhar Fort, Sawai Madhopur

The imposing Khandar Fort is a place worth visiting and is situated just 45 kms from Sawai Madhopur. Located on top of a strategic vertical hill, could never come under an easy attack and thus was truly regarded as invincible. This magnificent fortification was long ruled by the Sisodia Kings of Mewar after which it was taken over by the Mughals.

Laxmangarh Fort, Sikar

Laxmangarh town is a popular tourist place that is known for the Laxmangarh Fort. The fort was built on the hill in 1862 by Laxman Singh, Rao Raja of Sikar. It is believed that the foundation of the Laxmangarh town was based on the planning system of the capital city Jaipur.

Anupgarh Fort, Sri Ganganagar

Anupgarh Fort is a ruin in the city of Anupgarh. It was built by Anoop Singh Rathore.

Udaipur City Palace

City Palace, Udaipur, was built over a period of nearly 400 years, withcontributions from several rulers of the Mewar dynasty. Construction began in 1553, started by Maharana Udai Singh II of the Sisodia Rajput family as he shifted his capital from the erstwhile Chittor to the new found city of Udaipur.

Lake Palace, Udaipur

Now a hotel, The Lake Palace was originally called Jag Niwas Palace and served as a summer palace. Built between 1743 and 1746 on the island near Jagmandir Palace in Lake Pichhola, the palace, which faces east, is a wondrous sight to behold. The walls made of black and white marbles are adorned by semi-precious stones and ornamented niches. Gardens, fountains, pillared terraces and columns line its courtyards.

Jag Mandir, Udaipur

Jag Mandir is a palace built on an island on the Lake Pichhola. Also called the ‘Lake Garden Palace’, the construction for this began in 1551 and was completed around 1652. The royal family used the palace as its summer resort and for hosting parties. Interestingly, Prince Kurram – later Emperor Shah Jahan – was given shelter here when he rebelled against his father Emperor Jahangir. The palace had such an impact on Emperor Shah Jahan that it went on to become the inspiration for one of the most magnificent Wonders of the World, the Taj Mahal.

Monsoon Palace (Sajjangarh), Udaipur

This 19th century palace is built by Maharana Sajjan Singh on top of Bansdara Mountain. Built with white marble, the palace offers a panoramic view of the city’s lakes, palaces and surrounding countryside.

Lok Devta & Devis of Rajasthan

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Lok Devta & Devis of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has a strong tradition of venerating righteous warriors as deities. Legends and anecdotes relate folk deities with supernatural power impressing & evoking faith and beliefs of people in these local deities. This post is an attempt to consolidate information of such folk deities (Lok Devtas and Devis) into single piece.

Panchpir: Of the numerous lok devtas and devis, the five greatest are worshipped throughout theRajasthan, these are – Goga Ji, Ramdevji, Pabuji, Mehaji and Harbuji. (Note: Vir Tejaji is not part of this).

Goga Ji

Birth 1003 A.D. at Dadrewa in the Churu district of Rajasthan
Legend Protects from Snakes bites (Jaharpeer) Saint Gogaji fought with Mahmood Gajnavi for protection Of cows.
Died (Samadhi) Gogamedi in Hanumangarh District
Worship Main Temple: Gogamedi, built by King Ganga Singh. The villages in Rajasthan has a Than dedicated to him, Than is always under Khejri tree.
Fairs Organised every year at Gogamedi from 9th day of dark-half (Krishna Paksh) of Bhadra month to eleventh of the month.
Phad Musical Instruments – Damru & Madal Farmers tie 9 Knot – Goga Rakhadi – to their plough for good harvest.
 
Other Facts
Goga Ji identification – Blue Horse, Spear and Snake

Teja Ji

Birth 1074 A.D. at Khadnaal in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
Day was Magh Shukla Chaturdashi
Legend Also Known as Snake Diety. Tejaji sacrificed life while recovering cows of Lachha Gujri from cluthes of meenas. Kala & Bala – benefactor in agricultural activities.
Worship Tejaji’s major Than are located at Sursura, Beawar, Saindaria & Bhanwata in Ajmer district. Saindaria – Main place – as this is supposed to be place he was bitten by snake.
Fairs Parbatsar, Nagaur cattle fair is organized from Bhadra Shukla Dashmi to Poornima.
Other Facts Tejaji Ji identifications – Horse-back, with Sword and Snake

Pabu Ji

Birth 1239 A.D. at Kolu Village, Phalodi in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend Associated with Rathore family of Marwar. Snake Diety. Tejaji sacrificed life while recovering cows of Lachha Gujri from cluthes of meenas. Kala & Bala – benefactor in agricultural activities.
Worship Tejaji’s major than are located at Sursura, Beawar, Saindaria & Bhanwata in Ajmer district. Saindaria – Main place – as this is supposed to be place he was bitten by snake.
Fairs Parbatsar, Nagaur cattle fair is organized from Bhadra Shukla Dashmi to Poornima.
Other Facts Tejaji Ji identifications – Horse-back, with Sword and Snake

Ramdev Ji

Birth Undookasmer Village, Shiv Tehsil in the Barmer district of Rajasthan.
Legend After giving away Pokhran in dowry for his niece Ramdev Ji made Runicha (Ramdevra) his new residence.
Died (Samadhi) Runicha, Jaisalmer
Worship Temples located at Runicha (Jaisalmer), Barathia (Ajmer) and Suratkheda (Chittorgarh). Ramdevji started Kamadia Panth. As symbol, his pagaliya (Foot prints) are worshipped.
Fairs Runicha (Jaisalmer) – Bhadrapada Shukla Dwitya to Ekadashi.
Other Facts Terah Taali dance is presented by kamadias. Ramdev ji composed – Chaubis Vaniya.

Dev Narayan Ji

Birth 1233 A.D. at Kolu Village, Phalodi in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend The brave warrior and his Sadhak are considered incarnation of lord Vishnu.
Worship Devmali near Asind (Bhilwara), Devdham Jodhpuria (Tonk).
Leaves of Neem are essential for worship.
Fairs Fairs are held at Ajmer, Bhilwara and Tonk & Chittaurgarh on Bhadrapad Shukla Shasthi & Saptami.
Other Facts Leeelagar is name of his horse.

Veer Kalla Ji

Birth Vikram Samvat 1601, Merta in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend Kallaji is famous as “Lok Devta with four hands”
Worship Ranela is sacred peeth. Temples are located at Bhauraigarh, Mahiyadham varda, Salumbar, Samalia, Gatroad.

Baba Tallinath

Birth Shergarh, Jodhpur
Legend Also known as Nature loving Lok Devta, Held at high esteem in Jalore district. When a person is bitten by poisonous creature, taken to baba’s place & thread is tied.
Worship Panchmukhi hill of Panchota Village (Nagaur District)

Hadbu Ji Sankhla (Harbunji)

Birth Bhudole in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan. (Contemporary of Rao Jodha)
Legend One of Panch Peers (Goga ji, Ramdevi ji, Pabu ji, Hadbu Ji, Manglia Meha ji) of Marwar. Well versed in Shakun Shastra. He was the Cousin of Baba Ramdev.
Worship Main Temple: Baingti Village, Phalodi, Jodhpur In the temple, Sankhla Rajput act as priests and worship Harbhuji ki gaadi.
Fairs Parbatsar, Nagaur cattle fair is organized from Bhadra Shukla Dashmi to Poornima.
Other Facts Tejaji Ji identifications – Horse-back, with Sword and Snake

Meha Ji Manglia

Birth Bapni Village, Jodhpur
Legend Manglias are main worshippers.
Worship Main Temple: Bapni Village, Jodhpur
Fairs Bapni village – Bhadrapada Krishna Ashtami

Mallinath Ji

Birth 1358 A.D. at Kolu Village, Phalodi in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan.
Legend Defeated army of Subedar Nizamuddin of Malwa in 1378 AD.
Worship Main Temple Located in Tilwara, Barmer
Fairs Tilwara, Barmer – Chaitra Krishna Ekadashi to Chaitra Shukla Ekadashi. Tharparkar Cow is traded most in his fair.
Other Facts Malani pargani in Barmer is named after him.

Other Lok Devta’s of Rajasthan

Bhomiaji Worshipped in villages as a protector of land.
Mamadev Lok Devta of rain
Eloji Lok Devta of Love (Cupid).
Fatta ji Waged war with robbers in Santhu village in Jalore District. Fair – every year on Bhadon Sudi Navami.
Dev Baba Protector & savior of Gurjars. Temple: Nagla Jahag village of Bharatpur District.
Panraj Ji Born – Naga Village, Jaisalmer Two fairs every year at panrajsar, Jaisalmer.

Lok Devis of Rajasthan (Folk Godesses)

Like Lok Devta, Lok Devis are also worshipped in Rajasthan with equal devotion. In Rajasthan, several communities like Rajputs worship their particular goddess as kuldevi, some communities worship tree as kuldevi.

Kaila Devi Tutelary (Kuldevi) of Karauli’s royal family, worshipped as form of durga. Lakkhi fair – Chaitra Shukla Ashtami – on Trikut hill at Kaila Devi.
Shila Devi After victory over East Bengal, Maharaja Man Singh of Amer installed Shila Devi in Amer in 16th Century.
Karni Mata Temple: Deshnok, Bikaner Goddess of Rats, white rats in temple are called as kaba. Kuldevi of Rathore Clan Charan community also considers her as their Kuldevi.
Jeen Mata Temple: Rewasa Village, Sikar According to inscription found in Harsh Mountain – Temple of Jeen Mata was built during period of Prthviraj Chouchan I. Jeen Mata is considered Kuldevi of Chouchans.
Sakrai Mata Main Temple – udaipurwati, Jhunjhunu. Kuldevi of Khandelwals. She is also called as Shakambhari Devi & temple of Shakambhari devi is located at Sambhar & Saharanpur of UP.
Jal Devi Temple: Bavadi, Tonk District.
Rani Sati Marble temple in Jhunjhunu.
Sheetla Mata She protects children from Chicken Pox. Donkey is her vehicle & Kumhar (Potter) is her Pujari. Main Temple: Sheel ki Dungari, Chaksu, Jaipur Also known as Sedhal mata.
Mahamaya (mahamai) Worshipped as protector of children. Pregnant women worship Mahamaya of Mavli (Udaipur) for safe delivery & well being of their children.
Aai Mata Sirvi Community of Kshatriyas considers her as their Kuldevi. Temple: Bilada
Narayani Mata Temple: Barva Doongri, Rajgarh, Alwar Barbers consider Narayani Mata as their kuldevi.
Ashapura Mata Considered incarnation of Hinglaj mata Kuldevi of Chauhan dynasty. Shakambhari in Sambhar, Chamunda in Ajaymeru Merwara, Asapura in Nadole are famous temples

Bhakti saint of Rajasthan

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Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

Bhakti movement in Rajasthan: Bhakti movement in Medieval India is responsible for the many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of Indian subcontinent. Main Bhakti movement originated in ancient Tamilnadu in 12th Century, Nayanmars and Alvars played major role in Bhakti movement. It began to spread to the north during the late medieval ages when north India was under Islamic rule. The main period of Bhakti Movement in Rajasthan is early 16th Century to late 18th Century.  The Islamic rulers were pressing public to convert religion from Hindu to Islam. The Bhakti movement was counter to the prevalent caste ideology which was dividing Hinduism. So, the Bhakti movement has its own importance to save Hinduism. The movement was spontaneous and the mystics had their own versions of devotional expression which play a major role in Rajasthan.

Main Characteristics of Bhakti Movement: One chief characteristic of the Bhakti movement can be mentioned as belief in one God. A devotee could worship God by love and devotion. The second characteristic of the Bhakti movement was that there was no need to worship idols or to perform elaborate rituals for seeking his grace. The third feature on which the Bhakti saints laid stress was the equality of all castes. There was no distinction of high or low as far as the devotion to God was concerned. The fourth feature was the emphasis, which these saints laid on Hindu-Muslim unity. According to these saints all men irrespective of their religion are equal in the eyes of God. The saints preached in the language of the common people like Rajasthani, Khadi and other local language. They did not use Sanskrit, which was the language of the cultured few. These saints laid stress on purity of heart and practice of virtues like truth, honesty, kindness, and charity. Some saints regarded God as formless or Nirguna while others consider him as having different forms or Saguna. Most of Bhakti Movement saint in Rajasthan are of Saguna Bhakta.

The main period of Bhakti Movement in Rajasthan is early 16th Century to late 18th Century.

Important Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan:

  1. Dadu Dayal
  2. Sundar das
  3. Meera Bai
  4. Bhakhan
  5. Wajind
  6. Raghavdas
  7. Lal Das
  8. Charan Das
  9. Mavaji
  10. Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti

1. Dadu Dayal

Dadu Dayal (1544—1603) was a poet-saint from Gujarat, a religious reformator which have said against formalism and priest craft. “Dadu” means brother and “Dayal” means “the compassionate one”.

He was reputedly found by an affluent business man floating on the river Sabarmati. He later moved to Naraina, near Jaipur Rajasthan, where he gathered around himself a group of followers, forming a sect that became known as the Dadupanth.

This organization has continued in Rajasthan to the present-day and has been a major source of early manuscripts containing songs by Dadu and other North Indian saints. Dadu’s compositions in Braj language were recorded by his disciple Rajjab and are known as the Dadu Anubhav Vani, a compilation of 5,000 verses. Another disciple, Janagopal wrote the earliest biography of Dadu.

Dadu alludes to spontaneous (sahaja) bliss in his songs. Much of the imagery used is similar to that used by Kabir, and to that used by earlier Sahajiya Buddhists and Nath yogis. Dadu believed that devotion to God should transcend religious or sectarian affiliation, and that devotees should become non-sectarian or “Nipakh”.

Key Points:

  • Believed to be born in 1544 in Samvat near Ahmedabad, Gujarat
  • In 1568, came to Sambhar & began to give sermons and “Dhunia”
  • Followers of Dadu Dayal made – Dadu Panth.
  • Naraina is the principal seat of Dadu Panthis and here clothes & pothis of Dadu ji are kept.
  • His teachings have been consolidated by his disciples – Dadudayal Ki vani & Dadudayal-Ra-Duha.
  • Contemporary of Rana Pratap & Akbar. In 1575, met Akber and influenced him by his views.
  • Dadu Dayal stressed on faith in God and Guru, knowledge of self, love, morality, futility of casteism, truth and simple life.
  • Community of nomad disciples of Dadu.
  • Cave on Bhairana hill in Naraina, where Dadu Dayal enetered into Samadhi.

Followers of Dadu Dayal can be classified into five types:

1.         Khalsa

2.         Virakta

3.         Sthandhari

4.         Uttaradev

5.         Khaki

2. Sunder Das: Sunderdas (1596–1689) was a noted saint, poet, philosopher and social reformer of medieval India. He was a disciple of Dadu Dayal. Sunderdas was born in 1596 in Dausa in Rajasthan state in India. Sant Sunderdas composed about 48 books. He is revered as the Shankaracharya of Hindi literature, and is popularly known as Sant Kavi Sunderdas.

Key Point:

  • Sunderdas ji established Naga sect.
  • Wrote: Sunder vilas, Sunder Granthavali, Gyan Samudra and Sundersar.
  • He is also known as Shankaracharya of Rajasthan.
  • Died in: 1707 (or in 1689) in Sangner, Jaipur.

Meera Bai: Born in Samvat 1573 at Kudki, Nagaur and was married to Bhojraj, eldest son of Rana Sanga.Her compositions include Teeka Raag Govind, Rukmani mangal, Teeka on Geet-Govind, and Narsi Mehta Ni Mund.Meera Bai established Pasi sect in Brindhavan (UP).Meera was devotee of Krishna and treated him as her husband.

Lal Das: Born in 1540 at Dholidoov village of Mewat on Shravana Krishna Panchami.Opposed superstitions prevailing in society & stressed on devotion & purity.Sermons are available in Laldas ji ki chetavaniyan.Died: At Nagla village of Bharatpur. His Samadhi is at sherpur of Alwar.Major sites are in Alwar, Sherpur & Nagla.

Charan Das

  • He was born in Derha near Alwar in Rajasthan.
  • He was the Author of around twenty works.
  • Many of these are in verse and deal with aspects of devotion, particularly relating to the worship of Krishna.
  • He Wrote commentaries on various Upanishads, particularly the Katha Upanishad, and on specific yoga practices, especially Pranayama, control of the breath.
  • He Belived in harmony between Hinduism & Islam.

Mavaji: He considered incarnation of Vishnu and two disciples of Mavaji, Aji & Vaje built Laxmi Narayn temple at confluence of Som & Mahi Rivers.

Rajjab Ji: He was the disciple of Dadu Dayal ji. He had born in Pathan Patwar, Sanganerand Ancient seat in Sanganer known as Rajjab Dwar. He Authored Rajjab vani, Sarvangi.

Bhakhan: He was born in Narena, Low caste Muslim singer; entertain Dadu with his fascinating songs.

Wajind: Initially, He was a Pathan hunter.When heCame under influence of Dadu and became follower and also known for Created literature for Dadu Panth.

Raghavdas: He was a Dadu Panthi scholarandin 1660 A.D. wrote Bhaktamal.

Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti: He was born in: 1143 in Sanjar, Iran

He became disciple of Khwaja Usman Harooni of Chistiya Order (Silsila). Came to India during reign of Iltutmish and settled in Ajmer in 1233 A.D. His shrine is open to all irrespective of religion, caste or creed and especially for poor and needy; hence he is popularly known as Garib Nawaz. Died in Ajmer, his tomb is popularly known as The Dargah Sharif.

Folk musical instruments of Rajasthan

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Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan

The vast array of Rajasthani folk instruments are made ingeniously from a variety of materials available in Rajasthan that give them peculiar sound. Both percussion instruments and stringed instruments have been used in Rajasthani folk songs. Shells of dried gourds of all shapes and sizes are used for gorse stems or bamboos segments for flutes and baked clay pots for drums. The folk music instruments are classified into following major types:

1. String Music Instruments: Sarangi, Ravanhathha, Kamayacha, Ektara, Morchang.

2. Wind Instruments: Pungi, Satara, Algoza, Murla, Nad and Shehnai

3. Auto phonic Instruments: Ghanti, Ghungroo, Manjeera, Khartal & Jhalar

4. Percussion Instruments: Dhol, Chang, Moisang and Nagara

Tatya Vadya – String Music Instruments of Rajasthan

  • Instruments having strings fall under this category.
  • Sound is produced by the vibration of a string or chord.
  • Vibrations are caused by plucking or by bowing on the string which has been pulled taut.
  • Length of string/wire, degree to which it has been tightened, determines the pitch of the note and also to some extent the duration of the sound.

Sarangi

  • Most well-known string instrument of Rajasthan.
  • Multi-stringed instrument that is played by using a bow drawn across the strings and running of fingers on the strings.
  • Langas of Jaisalmer, Barmer and Jogis of Marwar use Sarangi.

Jantar

  • Jantar resembles Veena in form and has two tumbas.
  • Its Dand is made up of Bamboo with 5-6 wires.
  • This instrument is used by Bhopas of Gurhars when singing story of Bagadawats.

Ravanhathha

  • Ravanhatta is also a kind of sarangi.
  • The Instrument is made from a belly of half coconut shell and has a body of bamboo.
  • It has two main strings(horse hairs) and a variable number of supporting strings
  • The Ravanhathha of the Thori or Nayak Bhopas is probably the earliest instrument played with a bow, and this humble instrument could well be the precursor of the violin.
  • The bow has ghungroos (bells) attached to it.
  • Ravanhathha is main instrument used while reciting Phad of Pabuji.

Kamayacha: Kamachya has three main strings of gut, besides nine supplementary and four sympathetic steel strings all passing through a broad bridge.

The long wooden curved bow of horse-tail hair moving on all the strings is characteristic of this instrument. It is used exclusively by the Manganiyars in the Jaisalmer-Barmer region.

Iktara: Iktara is generally played by Nath, Kalbelia saints and it is a single string instrument, mounted on the belly of a gourd attached to a body made of bamboo.

Versions: The Galaleng Jogis of Dungarpur and Banswara have twin guarded Kendru appears akin to the ancient Kinnari Veena, and it has often been called the Keengri in Rajasthan literature. The Chautara, also called the Tandoora or Nissan, is also a popular five stringed drones and beat instrument used as an accompaniment to devotional music and for the Terahtali dance.

Rawaj: This instrument is similar to Sarangi and it is played by using nails and had 12 strings.It is usually played by Raos and Bhats of Mewar

Bhapang: Bhapang is a single stringed instrument & is also known as ‘talking drum’.

  • Bhapang is mainly played by Jogis of Alwar region.
  • The instrument is made up of tumbas made out of long gourd. The lower part of tumbas is covered by animal skin while upper part is empty.

SUSHIRA VADYA – Wind Music Instruments of Rajasthan

  • Instruments where the air is blown by mouth for music. Sound is produced by blowing air into a hollow column. Pitch of the note is determined by controlling the air passage and the melody is played by using the fingers to open and close the in the instrument.
  • The simplest of these instruments is the flute. Generally flutes are made of bamboo or wood and the Indian musician prefers these due to the tonal and musical attributes of these materials.
  • Excavations of the Indus civilizations have shown bird whistles of clay, and seals which show wind and percussion instruments.

There is reference in the Vedas to an instrument-the Venu which was used as an accompaniment to chanting and recitation. There is also mention of a kind of a flute called the Nadi.

Pungi: Pungi or Poongi is made of gourd or Tumba and Pungi is generally played by Snake charmers (Kalbelia & Jogis.)

Algoza: Algoza is a flute made of Bamboo tube and Algoza are favourite instrument of Bheels & Kalbelia

Satara: Satara is an integrated form of Algoza, Flute and Shehnai and It has two long tubes and has six holes like shehnai.

Shehnai: Shehnai is made out of wood, with a double reed at one end and a metal or wooden flared bell at the other end.It usually has between six and nine holes.By controlling the breath, various tunes can be played on it.

GHANA VADYA – Auto phonic Music Instruments of Rajasthan

Earliest instruments invented by man are said to be the Ghana Vadya. Once constructed, this variety of instrument does not need special tuning prior to playing.

These are principally rhythmic in function and are best suited as accompaniment to folk and tribal music and dance. Instruments made of metal.

Manjeera: It is round in shape and made of brass & bronze mixed together.The shape of hemispherical metal cups struck against each other. They have different kinds likejhanit and the taala.Manjeera is the main instrument in Terahtali dance.

Khartal: Khartal is made of small cymbals incrustated into wood blocks.

Jhalar: Jhalar is another variety of musical instrument, which is formed by a single metal plate, the Thali.This is struck in various ways producing different kind’s tones and rhythms.

Ghungroo: Ghungroo is one of many small metallic bells strung together to form ghungroos.

AVANADDHA VADYA – Percussion Music Instrument of Rajasthan

A percussion instrument produces a sound by being hit with an object. Sound is produced by striking the animal skin which has been stretched across an earthern or metal pot or a wooden barrel or frame.

The earliest references to such instruments have been found in the Vedas where there is mention of Bhumi Dundhubhi; this was a hollow pit dug in the ground and covered with the hide of a buffalo or ox which was stretched across the pit.

Nagara: The Nagara is a folk drum played with the Surnai and Nafeeri (the two sticks).During ancient times, they were usually played during important ceremonies.The Tasha and Shehnai usually accompany this instrument.

Matkas: The Matkas of Pabuji and the Ghada is a pair of huge earthenware pots, their mouths covered with membrane.One player plays each Matka, and the Bhopas use it to accompany their singing. The whole effect is heightened by the graceful dance of the player.

Folk dramas of Rajasthan

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Folk Dramas of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is a hub of folk art, theatre, music, dance and craft. The tribal culture of Rajasthan has done much to preserve and nurture the folk theatre tradition of Rajasthan. Khayal is the most prominent form of folk theatrical form of Rajasthan. Other important folk theatre includes Swang, Phad, Rammat, Nautanki, Bhawai, Gavari etc.

Khayal

Khayal theatre emerged near about 18th century and remained same in coming 200 years and the subject of Khayal is usually mythological story or an ancient episode. Due to the diversity of culture in Rajasthan, Khayal theatre has different forms in the name of the city, acting style, the community or the author’s name such as:

  • Kuchamani Khayal
  • Shekhawati khayal
  • Jaipuri Khayal
  • Ali Bakshi khayal
  • Turra Kalangi Khayal
  • Kishangarhi Khayal
  • Hathrasi Khayal
  • Nautanki Khayal

Tamasha

  • Tamasha a folk-drama began in Jaipur state during the times of Maharaja Pratap Singh for the first time.
  • The Bhatt family of Jaipur included Jaipuri Khayal and Dhrupad Gayaki (style of singing) in Tamasha Theatre.
  • The dialogues of Tamasha are poetic in nature and predominantly include music dance and singing
  • Tamasha is performed in an open stage called as Akhada.

Rammat

  • This drama originated about 140 years ago in Bikaner region through a folk-poetry competition.
  • The characters playing this musical drama are known as Khelar.
  • A devotional song in praise of Ramdev ji is usually sung before starting Rammat.
  • The main instruments of Ramat are Nagada and Dholak.
  • The songs of this drama are mainly connected with Chaumasa, rainy season, Lavani and Ganapati Vandana.
  • Mani Ram Vyas, Tulsi Ram, Phagh Maharaj, Sua Maharaj etc. were main Rammat – Writers
  • This type of drama is mostly performed in Bikaner, Jaisalmer & Phalodi regions.

Phad

  • Phad is a life-sketch of Some Lok Devta depicted on a cloth.
  • While reciting Phad, Bhopa plays Jantar or Ravanhathha musical instrument.

Swang

  • Swang theatre is considered its origin near about the 15th century A.D
  • The performer of Swang is called Behrupiya.

Gavari

  • Gavari is played as part of festival that continues for 40 days during months of July-August. The hero of Gavari dance is an old man who is supposed to be incarnation of Shiva. Major themes of Gavari are – Devi Ambad, Badshah Ki Sawari and Banjara, Khadaliya Bhoot and fight lion & pig.

Nautanki

Nautanki is performed in the region of Bharatpur, Karauli, Dholpur, Alwar and Gangapur city.

The story plot of the Nautanki is generally based on mythology, historical narrations, folklores, romances and contemporary Socio-Political issues.

Bhawai (Bhavai)

  • Bhavai folk theatre of Rajasthan is very similar to ‘Swang’ folk theatre and considered its origin near about 13-14th century in Apabhramsa Jain religious verses.
  • ‘Abul Fazal’ also mentioned in his book ‘Ain-e-Akbari’ regarding the Bhavai
  • Bagha ji was the father of modern Bhawai in Rajasthan.
  • Bhawai Natak is presented by Bhopa & Bhopi in the form of Saga Ji and Sagi in the areas of Rajasthan adjacent to Gujrat
  • A major play written in Bhawai style is Shanta Gandhi’s – Jasma Oden.

Gandharva: Gandharva are resident of Marwar. Their themes are based on Jain Sect and Anjan Sundari & Maina Sundari is two dramas performed in this style.

Raas Leela: Raas Leela is staged based on stories of Puranas. Leela’s or acts of Krishna are performed and the main character is called Raasdhar.

Folk dances of Rajasthan

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Folk Dances of Rajasthan

Folk dances of Rajasthan trace their origin to rural customs and traditions. These dances form an integral part of people’s lives and are performed on important occasions and festivals. The rise of princely states during medieval times, also added to growth of folk dances, as the rulers gave patronage to art & crafts. Jaipur Gharana is supposedly the first gharana of Kathak dance. Its pioneer was Bhanu ji.

1. Bhavai Folk Dance: Bhavai is one of the traditional folk dances of Rajasthan. This is a very difficult form of dance and can only be performed by skilled artists. This dance basically involves women dancers balancing 8 to 9 pitchers on their heads and dancing simultaneously. This nail biting , suspenseful dance, the well skilled dancers balance a number of earthen pots or brass pitchers and then sway with the soles of their feet perched on the top of a glass and also sometime on the edge of a naked sword or on the rimos a brass Thali (plate) during the performance.

This artistic form of dance is believed to be originated in the neighboring state Gujarat and was soon picked up and adapted by the local tribal men and women and gave it a distinctive Rajasthani essence. This traditional folk dance, performed by the womens of the Jat, Bhil, Raigar, Meena, Kumhar, and Kalbelia communities of Rajasthan evolved from the extraordinary quality and capacity of the these communities to carry a number of pots of water on head over a long distance in the desert.

  • Location: Mostly famous in Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Banswara and Dungarpur
  • Performed By: Skilled male or female dancers
  • Performance during the Occasion of Marriages

Features: Bhavai dance basically involves women dancers balancing 8 to 9 earthen-pots (matki’s) on their heads and dancing simultaneously.

Additionally, dancers also put their feet on the top of a glass pieces or on the

Edge of a naked sword or on the rimos a brass Thali (plate) during the performance.

Famous Persons associated with dance form: Mrs. Krishna Vyas Chhangani, from Jodhpur (Rajasthan).

Chari Folk Dance: Chari Dance is a folk dance in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Chari dance is a female group dance. It is related to Ajmer and Kishangarh. Chari dance is prominent in Gujjar and Saini community of Kishangarh, Ajmer and known all over Rajasthan. The Chari dance is performed at marriage celebrations, on the birth of a male child and at celebrations and festivals of goodness.

  • Location: Most famous in Kishangarh and Ajmer.
  • Performed By: Women from Gujjar Community
  • Performance Occasions: Marriage occasions, on the birth of a male child or any big festival celebration.

Features: This dance describes the art of collecting water in a Chari or pot by the Rajasthani women in their day to day life. These ladies carry brass pots on their heads balancing it to perfection. These pots are kept ignited with the cotton seeds dipped in oil. These lit pots display beautiful effect in the dark night.

Famous Persons associated with this dance form: Falku Bai

Chakri Folk Dance: Chakri dance is believed as same as the Raai dance of ‘Beriyas’ tribe of Madhya Pradesh. Devi Lal Sagar made this dance popular.

  • Location: Hadoti region of Bundi, Kota & Baran District.
  • Performed By: Women of Kanjar tribe
  • Performance Occasions: Marriages & Festivals of Hadoti Region.

Features: As the name suggests, Chakri dance involves a series of fast and vigorous spinning movements with the beats of the Dholak. Famous Persons associated with dance form: Shanti Devi, Phulwa Filma

Drum Folk Dance: Drum dance is very famous dance in Rajasthan. Dancers dress traditional Rajasthani colourful dresses during this dance. Drum dance is a unique dance. Drum dance, which is very well-known dance of Rajasthan, is a professional dance-form of Jhalore region of Rajasthan, where only the men participants can perform. In this dance, five men hit huge drums that are attached around their necks.

A dancer holding a huge drumming instruments in their hands, also go together with the drummers. Some other member holds weapon which is not covered in their mouth to give an additional effect to the performance. The dancer is given a weapon, which he puts in his mouth and three other uncovered weapons are given to handle with his hands while avoiding causing an injury to himself. Drum dance is a very beautiful dance of rajasthan, the men musicians can play big drums and brass plates or Thalis, Women and others can dance in group. The Drum dance becomes very exciting when its Tempo increases and the dancers speed up their movements and their Dance steps.

The Drum dance can be performed mostly at the time of any big festival or any marriages in Rajasthan. There is no restriction for the performance of drum dance but it is generally performed in big occasions like festivals, marriage etc. The Credit for bringing this dance to limelight goes to Jay Narayan Vyas.

  • Most Famous Location is Jalore district in Rajasthan.
  • Performed By: Only Men
  • Performance Occasions: Marriages

Features: In this dance, five men beat huge drums that are tied around their necks and one dancer holding huge cymbals in their hands also accompany the drummers and one dancer holds a naked sword on his mouth and juggle with other three dancers.

Fire Folk Dance: Fire dance, Folk dance of Rajasthan fire dance is one of the unique dances performed in the desert region of Rajasthan. This dance is the marvelous example of the Jasnathis

 of Bikaner and Churu’s lifestyle who are well known for their tantric powers throughout Rajasthan. Fire dance is very tricky and difficult

to enact and is mainly performed by the Banjara community

who are well versed with the art. Some of the

 dance steps involve awe-inspiring fire stunts wherein the performers dance by holding fire

 rods in their hands and filling up their mouths with kerosene.

The performance of fire dance requires dedication and immense practice. The dance takes place on a large ground, which is spread with live wood and charcoal. On this ground, the Jasnathi men and boys jump on to the fire with the accompaniment

of drum beats. These drumbeats give a tempo for the performance. This music gradually rises and sets a dance in a fast tempo. At a certain point, it reaches at a crescendo, where the dancers seem to be in a trance like state. The dancers perform their actions as if they are blessed with a divine protection. The performance on a large bed of flaming coals is considered as a specialty of this region.

Some of the traditional folk dance of Rajasthan by the Banjara Community is also called the same. But this dance is completely different from the above-mentioned performance. Here, the dance is performed around the Fire. The person dancing usually takes two flamed sticks in his hands and fills up his mouth with kerosene oil. With the accompaniment of some dancing steps, he throws the oil over the lamps.

Location & Performed By: Jasnathis of Bikaner and Churu districts of Rajasthan.

Performance Occasions: On the festive occasions like Holi, Janmashtami etc.

Features: Jasnathi men and boys jump on to the fire with the accompaniment of drum beats. The dance involves breathtaking fire stunts wherein the dancers perform by holding fire rods in their hands and filling up their mouths with kerosene. The fire rods are also moved on their heads and legs by the dancers and the dancers move on top of flaming bed of charcoal.

Gair Folk Dance: Gair dance is one of the popular folk dances practiced in the Rajasthan state. It is one of the many dance forms of the Bhil community of state. It is mainly performed by the community at the festival of Holi. Colourful costumes, traditional instruments and captivating dance steps are the highlight of this dance. This folk dance is performed by both male and female. However, several differences can be observed in the performance of men and women in this dance. Usually, the dancers dance in a big circle with wood stick in their hands. The dancers move in and out a big circle and beat their sticks to create the rhythm when they turn. They move first in clockwise then in anti-clockwise direction. According to rhythm, they perform various steps and take turns in-between.

Sometimes, it is performed exclusively by men folk. At that time, a series of half-swirls make up a simpler version of the dance. Depending on the dancer’s ability and proficiency, it is danced with a series of intricate pattern steps. The striking of the sticks gives the dance a vigorous character and a consistent tempo.

The musical instruments that accompany this folk dance comprise of dhol, nagada, and dholak. The melodious song and enchanting background music encourages one to dance with the beat.

Location: Performed in Mewar region.

However, its variations like the Dandi Gair is found in the Marwar region and Geendad is

 found in the Sehkhawati region

Performed By: Both men and women dance together of Bhil tribe

Performance during the Occasion of: Holi

Features: The Gair dance is performed by both

Men and Womenfolk holding wooden sticks. It is group dance consisting of two circles where

groups of dancers moving in and out a big circle. According to rhythm, they perform various steps, striking their sticks & take turns in-between.

Gawri Folk Dance: Gawari dance of Rajasthan

 is a tribal dance of the famous Bhil tribe. They move from places to places to perform this dance which is a type of a dramatically dance. Among

the main characters of Gawari dance are Rai

Buriya Shiva, his two ‘Rais’, and ‘Katkuriya’,

 the comic handyman. Between the enactments

of various episodes, the entire troupe dances around a central spot consecrated to a deity.

Location: Udaipur, Rajsamand and Chittorgarh districts of Rajasthan

Performed By: Gawri is a dance drama of Bhil Tribe

Performance Occasions: After the monsoons,

 in the months of September and October

Features: This tribal dance has a troupe which travels through village to village with their dance for a month. Gawari expresses the devotion and faith to Lord Shiva and his wife Parvati through Folk Dance, Music and Folklores. It also

Symbolizes human love for forests, animals and people. Women do not take part in Gavri and all the female roles are played by men.

Ghoomar Folk Dance: Often performed exclusively for ladies gathering, Ghoomar is particularly a women’s dance. It was initially developed by the Bhil tribal community of Rajasthan but later adopted by various others as well. Known for its enthusiastic and traditional touch; Ghoomar has not only build its name in India but also has gained international recognition and applaud.

This spectacular folk dance has derived its name from ‘ghoomna’ which means circling. Fascination starts when colors of the flowing ‘Ghaghara’ (the long skirts) of the women dancers start to flow. Filled with oodles of grace, the skirt flair sways while the women twirl in circles, their faces covered with a veil.

Location: Across Rajasthan

Performed By: Originally by Bhil Community, adopted by different communities including Rajputs (Women)

Performance Occasions: Rajput Marriages

Features: Ghoomar is a very simple dance where the dancers move gently and gracefully in circles. Dancing includes pirouetting, which displays the spectacular colors of the flowing ‘Ghaghara’, the long skirt of the Rajasthani women.

Kachi Ghodi Folk Dance: The centuries of history that is behind Rajasthan has resulted, among other things, in the gathering of a very rich folk culture. The Kachhi Ghodi dance is one of the most popular Folk Dances in Rajasthan.

The Kachhi Ghodi Dance in Rajasthan India is performed on dummy horses. This dance is always performed by men. Men in elaborate costumes- red turbans and dhotis and kurtas ride the well decorated dummy horses. With uncovered weapons in their hands, these dancers move musically to the beating of drums and fifes while a singer narrates the exploits of the Bavaria bandits of Shekhawati.

The dance begins from the bandit regions of Shekhawati, and this dance is performed for the leisure of the bridegroom’s party. Dancers elaborate costumes that look like them riding on dummy horse. It’s a kind of dynamic dance; it uses mock fights and the show of swords, nimble sidestepping and pirouetting to the music of fifes and drums. A narrative singer usually sings the achievements of the bandit Robin protectors of Rajasthan.

The performing arts of Rajasthan generally hail from the tribes of Rajasthan and show the socio historical scenario that was strange to the time or race they represent. Horses have always been a very vital part of war and transportation in Rajasthan. The legend (story of past) of the Brave Rana Pratap Singh goes untold without the mention of his loyal vehicle- Chetek. Horses, as much as they were the symbol of royal power, were also used by the bandits and highwaymen who found it easy to stop people traveling on elephants of bullock carts with their horses.

Kacchi Ghodi dance of Rajasthan is performed on the bridegroom’s party. On the narrative song, the dancers riding on fake horses uses mock fight to perform the scenes of the achievements of the bandit. Display of weapons and pirouetting to the beats of drums attracts the audience very much. Kacchi Ghodi of Rajasthan is a well-known folk dance full of enthusiasm and colors.

Kacchi Ghodi of Rajasthan is performed by men on dummy horses. Men wear elaborative costumes embroidered with amazing mirror-work and ride the dummy horses. The dummy horses are used as support and are equally decorated with meticulous embroidery and mirrored-work. The dancers ride the dummy horses with weapons in their hands. These dancers with weapons move to the beats of drums and fifes. In Kacchi Ghodi dance of Rajasthan, a singer describes the tales of Bavaria bandits of Shekhawati region.

The bandits of the Shekhawati region were especially popular, mostly due to the high concentration of businessmen and traders in that part of Rajasthan. And traders meant money; and traders meant long overnight journeys on caravans that are full with expensive goods. The Kachhi Ghodi Dance Rajasthan represents the conflict of the bandits of the Bavaria clan of tribes with the passing masses.

Kalbelia Folk Dance: The Kalbelia or Kalbeliya, as it is sometimes spelled is a dance form that is associated with a Rajasthani tribe of the same name. The dance form consists of swirling; graceful movements that make this dance a treat to behold. The movements associated with the Kalbelia also make it one of the most sensuous forms of folk dance in India. The Kalbelia dance is generally performed for any joyous celebration and is considered to be an integral part of the Kalbelia culture. Another unique aspect of the Kalbelia dance is that it is only performed by women while the men play the instruments and provide the music.

Kalbelia dance is included in UNESCO’s list of the Cultural Heritage of Humanity from the year 2010.

Location: Pali district, Ajmer, Chittorgarh and Udaipur district.

Performed By: Women from Kalbelia community

Performance Occasions: Kalbelia songs are based on stories taken from folklore and mythology and special dances are performed during Holi.

Features: The dancers are women in flowing black skirts who dance and swirl, replicating the movements of a serpent. The cloths are mixed in red and black hues and embroidered in unique patterns. Kalbelia dance has a traditional musical instruments which is Poongi also called been. Other traditional musical instruments used by Kalbelia tribe in Kalbelia dance are Dufli, Morchang, Dholak, Khanjari and Khuralio.

Kathputli Folk Dance: Kathputlis are a type of puppets. Rajasthan is famous for its puppet-playing tradition. String puppets or Kathputli dance in Rajasthan is an old tradition. In this dance the puppeteer uses ballads to narrate the stories. These storied or tales of romance and chivalry are told with movements of string puppets. In olden days, puppeteers used to travel from place to place through various villages to entertain people. Through puppets, the puppeteer tells the stories of legendary heroes or historic events are narrated through it.

Different types of puppets or Kathputlis are used for popular puppet shows that include Glove Puppets, String Puppets, Rod Puppets and Shadow Puppets. Puppetry or Kathputli in Rajasthan holds an important place in traditional entertainment of people. Stories from mythology and legends are told through puppets in Rajasthan. So, with entertainment they spread awareness among the citizens.

Kathputli Dance means the dances of puppets. It is a traditional dance of Indian state of Rajasthan. Kathputli is a join of two rajasthani language words Kath meaning wood and Putli meaning a doll which has no life, hence Kathputli means a doll made of wood. Kathputli are usually made of mango wood and stuffed with cotton. These puppets are generally one and half feet in height and aremade in Sawai-Madhopur, Bari, and Udaipur.

Famous Persons associated with dance form:

Organisations: Rupayan Sansthan in Jodhpur founded by Vijaydan Detha and Komal Kothari in 1960 and Bharatiya Lok Kala Mandal, Udaipur, founded by Devilal Samar in 1952, are working in the field preserving and promoting the art of Kathputli. New Delhi also has an area known as ‘Kathputli Colony’, in Shadipur Depot, where puppeteers have lived long.

Terah Taali Folk Dance: Performed by the members of the Kamada tribe, Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan is one of the ancient performing arts of Rajasthan. Performed with Manjeeras and other metallic instruments, Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan is one of the most entertaining dance forms of Rajasthan and attracts tourists from all over.

The Terah Taal Dance in Rajasthan however is also an important ritual in the Baba Ramdev temple at Runicha. During the Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan the music of the Ektara accompanies the dance performance. Manjeeras are tied to thirteen different parts of the parts of the body. The sounds of these Manjeeras produce the Terah Taal or the thirteen beats. Often during the Terah Taal the dances with swords are also performed. The

Terah Taal Dance, Rajasthan requires accuracy and precision which can only be done by the professional dancers who participate in this beautiful dance performance. Terah thirteen cymbals are used to give rhythm to the intricate movements of the performer and to provide a synchronous pulse to the accompanying musical instruments as well as the devotional singing is a bewitching performance. Nine cymbals are fastened on the right leg, seven between the knee and the ankle, one on the instep, one on the big toe, and each on both the arms, while the performer or sometimes two, sit in front the heroon housing the image of the legendary Ramdeoji along with the accompanists playing on chutara and khartla, singing songs in adoration of the saint.

Location: Ramdevra, Didwana, Dungarpur, Udaipur

Performed By: Woman from Kamad tribe while sitting on the floor before Baba Ramdeo’s image

Performance Occasions: In honor the folk hero, Baba Ramdeo

Features: The women have 13 ‘manjeeras’ (little brass discs) tied to the various parts of their body, which they strike with the ones they hold in their hand.

Often a sword is also used by the professional Terah Taali dancer and also a pot on her to make the dance more attractive. Male artists sing local Rajasthani folk songs as background music and play different instruments like pakhwaja, dholak jhanjhar, sarangi, harmonium etc.

Famous Persons associated with dance form: Mangi Bai, Mohini Narayani, laxman das Kamad.

Walar Folk Dance:

Location: Udaipur, Pindwara (Sirohi) and Abu Road

Performed By: Women from Garasia community

Performance Occasions: On occasion of Gangaur & Teej festivals.

Features: Involves simple circular movements of dancers on beats, generally accompanied by the beats of the mandal, chang and a variety of other musical instruments.

Folk Arts of Rajasthan

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Folk Arts of Rajasthan

Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring trades’ people. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian and decorative rather than purely aesthetic. Folk Art is characterized by a naïve style, in which traditional rules of proportion and perspective are not employed.

As a phenomenon that can chronicle a move towards civilization yet rapidly diminish with modernity, industrialization, or outside influence, the nature of folk art is specific to its particular culture. The varied geographical and temporal prevalence and diversity of folk art make it difficult to describe as a whole, though some patterns have been demonstrated.

Characteristics-Characteristically folk art is not influenced by movements in academic or fine art circles, and, in many cases, folk art excludes works executed by professional artists and sold as “high art” or “fine art” to the society’s art patrons. On the other hand, many 18th- and 19th-century American folk art painters made their living by their work, including itinerant portrait painters, some of whom produced large bodies of work.

Terms that might overlap with folk art are naïve art, tribal art, primitive art, popular art, outsider art, traditional art, tramp art and working-class art/blue-collar art. As one might expect, these terms can have multiple and even controversial connotations but are often used interchangeably with the term “folk art”.

Folk art expresses cultural identity by conveying shared community values and aesthetics. It encompasses a range of utilitarian and decorative media, including cloth, wood, paper, clay, metal and more. If traditional materials are inaccessible, new materials are often substituted, resulting in contemporary expressions of traditional folk art forms. Folk art reflects traditional art forms of diverse community groups — ethnic, tribal, religious, occupational, geographical, age- or gender-based — who identify with each other and society at large. Folk artists traditionally learn skills and techniques through apprenticeships in informal community settings, though they may also be formally educated. Folk arts are simple, direct, and mostly always colorful.

Antique Folk Art-Antique folk art is distinguished from traditional art in that, while collected today based mostly on its artistic merit, it was never intended to be ‘art for art’s sake’ at the time of its creation. Examples include: weathervanes, old store signs and carved figures, itinerant portraits, carousel horses, fire buckets, painted game boards, cast iron doorstops and many other similar lines of highly collectible “whimsical” antiques.

Contemporary Folk Art-Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, and decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms constantly emerge. Contemporary folk artists are frequently self-taught as their work is often developed in isolation or in small communities across the country.

Rajasthani folk art has been divided into following types:

Wall & ground paintings: Devra, Pathwari, Sanjhi, Mandav etc.

Cloth Paintings: Pat, Pichhwai, Phad etc.

Painting on Paper: Paane

Painting made on Wood: Kavad

Painting on Human body: Mehandi, Godana

Thape: Thape is a form of drawings on walls.In Rajasthan it is made up turmeric, geru, henna and kumkum and the Pictures are drawn on the both side of the door, to invoke deities, Prevalent in Rajasthan

Badaley: In Jodhpur, metal utensils used for drinking water have a layer of cloth or leather wrapped around them. They are provided with beautiful designs & colors.

Thewa Art: Thewa is a special art of jewelry making which involves embossing of intricately worked-out sheet gold on molten glass. It evolved in Pratapgarh district, Rajasthan India. Its origin dates back to the Mughal age.

Thewa is a traditional art of fusing 23K Gold with multicolored glass. The glass is treated by a special process to have glittering effects, which in turn highlights the intricate gold work. The whole Thewa piece is hand crafted over a period of one month by skilled artisans. Thewa, an art that pulsates with life, caught seemingly in movement, in motifs used on jewellery, which shows the culture, heritage and tales of romance and valour of Rajasthan with nature and happiness depicting the art of the fine craftsmanship. The process of making Thewa work is detailed; time consuming and intricate, taking up to a month to complete each piece. It starts with broken pieces of terracotta, finely ground, mixed with chemicals and oil to produce a thick paste. The paste spread on a wooden base has a 23carat gold sheet of 40gauge thickness set onto the mixture and the free hand design etched on it. Black paint spread over the gold sheet that highlights the design so it becomes clearly visible for further detailed work with fine tools. The craftsman removes the excess gold creating a design often based on the Hindu mythology or Mughal court scenes, historical events or with flora and fauna motifs.

Origin-Nathu ji Soni invented the process; the secrets of the craft that passed directly from father to son over the generations’ remains it in the family only, who call themselves ‘Raj-Sonis’. Many of the members from this family have been awarded by UNESCO, National & State Government. Some of the finest examples of this unique form of decorative art are in local museum collections in India as well as abroad including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Victoria & Albert.

Other Origin: THEWA is a word from the local Rajasthani language which literally means “SETTING”. Thewa is an art of fusing 23ct gold with multicolored glass. It is a very detailed and intricate process. A 23ct gold piece is first beaten into a very thin sheet. Intricate designs are inscribed onto these gold sheets using very fine chisel. This gold sheet, called as “Thewa Ki Patti” is fixed to a lac-resin compound spread on a board by slightly warming the lac and then pressing the gold sheet onto it. An open work pattern is pierced thru these gold sheets placed on the lac-resin covered board by knocking off the portions which ultimately creates the intricate design. The gold sheet is gently peeled off by heating it. Like the rest of Rajasthan handicrafts, the glass works of Pratapgarh are unique in both design and usage. Besides beautiful and traditional items such as handicraft items, glass photo frames, trays, glass art ware, glass jewelry boxes, lamp shades, flower vases, crystal wine glasses, flasks, glass pots, antique crystal chandeliers, glass coasters, glass lamp shades and glass paintings, Pratapgarh is renowned for its Thewa work. Colored glass base, embossed with golden miniature artwork is the special attraction of the Thewa work. Floral patterns are etched on gold foil and superimposed on glass moulds and the glassware is cast in such moulds. Thewa pendants are famous pieces of jewelry and their blazing hues and exquisite patterns attract women across the world. Like many others of the local craftsmen, Jagdish Lal Raj Soni and Beni Ram Soni craft persons from Pratapgarh in Rajasthan state in India were also awarded Shilp Guru Award for Thewa art.

Recently one craftsman Mahesh Raj Soni of the traditional artisan family has won another national award and Padma Shree 2015 for his excellent Thewa handicraft and with this his family has been featured in the LIMCA yearbook 2011 as “Eight national awards in one family”  Hitesh Rajsoni has been awarded by ” UNESCO Seal of Excellence Award” in 2004. He is the youngest personality in Rajsoni Family who got this Award.

There are some who need a tree to meditate. And some who need music. But then there are those, who fend for gold. Because the fine nuances of creating intricate patterns in gold require such keen patience and concentration, that the art indeed becomes a true meditative bliss to the senses. And the gratification of coming the closest, that any mortal’s tactile memory can ever get, to touch a piece of art as overwhelming and magnificent, as the idea of god himself.

  • When the hunting tigers and Stags from the wild imagination of Nathu ji Soni descended onto the canvas of gold, Thewa was born about 500 years ago.
  • It is believed that this magnificent art wrapped around a big box impressed Raja Savant Singh of Pratapgarh so much that he bestowed immense wealth upon the Soni (goldsmith) and rewarded him with the title of ‘Rajsoni’- The chief jeweler of the court.
  • Both the title and the craft are being passed on through generations. Mutual learning amongst family and friends has made it into a small cluster of craftsmen who perform this craft rather secretively.

Thewa comes from two words of the local dialect, ‘Tharna’ – meaning to hammer(to get thin foils of gold from very small quantity of the metal) and ‘Vada’ – meaning silver wire (which in the loop form makes the resting foundation for the main piece), both being the most important aspects of the art. While the forefathers of this art only made chests and boxes, today the masters of this skill have extend their expertise to photo frames, mirrors, cufflinks, brooches, trays, plates and personal accessories like rings and necklaces which are adorned by men and women alike. The inspiration for this art comes from the Mogul miniature paintings involving traditional design subjects ranging from mythological genres to the more secular themes. Today the art has acquired a more unique stance than ever because the conventional style has been blended with a variety of techniques like Meenakari, diamond setting etc and a new palette of materials, which includes – beads, threads and others lending a contemporary idiom to the time honored practice.

Thirty two year old Giresh Raj Soni is a descendent of Nathu ji Soni and continues to dwell in the competence of this art. Besides being conferred with State and National Awards, Giresh ji and his wife Usha Soni have been recognized by UNESCO as well. The Government of India has even issued a stamp featuring an awe-inspiring piece of Thewa on a plate in 2002. But no material honor can compete with what the Rajsoni has accomplished for himself by ritualistically engaging himself in this art of controlled precision – a calm and collected temperament that leaves him happy to confess – ”I’ve lost the ability to ever get angry”.

The craft requires a working plane made locally using ‘chapadi’ (purified lac) to create a hard bed. Pure 23-carat gold, silver strips, Belgian glass and strings of beads and stones are amongst the other raw materials involved.

It becomes essential to constantly check on the lac bed for air bubbles else it may cause an avoidable denting of the fragile gold foil. Master craftsmen however do not sketch; instead they directly puncture the blueprint with fine chisels and sharp tools. But such is the single minded attention required, that any error or deviation in the process of splitting the pattern can result in the entire piece of foil being wasted. All such discarded pattern sheets and cut outs from the jail are melted again and prepared for the fresh work.

The entire jali is then laid out in a frame of silver wire called “vaada” to lessen the risk of damage. The silver wire frame used in this task is pre-assembled on brass dies and soldered to precision. The entire framed composition is then set out on a mica sheet using forceps with extremely controlled and steady hands. Once pinned together over the mica, the two metals can be easily soldered and the mica is then removed. The delicate entity so obtained is then placed on a piece of colored Belgian glass using am bonding technique that remains to be a unique secret within the family. A solid silver casing called ‘chandi ki dibiya’ is then used to enclose the entire composition including the Belgian glass.

The art has remained a guarded secret…. even the daughters of the family are kept ignorant about the master stroke technique, considering that they will eventually settle out of the clan. The boys of the house on the other hand are trained in sketching patterns from the age of ten, so that when they finally start to practice the art, the language and expression of these jaali scenes unconsciously and effortlessly flows out of their hands, directly into the foil.

The ever-increasing prices of gold have rendered this practice as a good deal for those who subscribe to more value for less money.

  • Thewa art is minute painting on glass using gold.
  • Glass used is colored Belgium glass.
  • Different colors are used to make it attractive
  • The art is limited to Pratapgarh

Mandana Art

  • Mandana is an art of the tribal wall and floor paintings found in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
  • It is derived from the word ‘Mandan‘ referring to decoration and beautification and comprises simple geometric forms like triangles, squares and circles to decorate houses.
  • In tribal ideology they are famed for warding off evil and acting as a good luck charm.
  • It uses white khariya or chalk solution and geru or red ochre.
  • The design may show Ganesha, peacocks, women at work, tigers, floral motifs, etc.

Phad

Phad painting or Phad is a style religious scroll painting and folk painting, practiced in Rajasthan state of India.This style of painting is traditionally done on a long piece of cloth or canvas, known as Phad. The narratives of the folk deities of Rajasthan, mostly of Pabuji and Devnarayana are depicted on the Phads. The Bhopas, the priest-singers traditionally carry the painted Phads along with them and use these as the mobile temples of the folk deities. The Phads of Pabuji are normally about 15 feet in length, while the Phads of Devnarayana are normally about 30 feet long. Traditionally the Phads are painted with vegetable colors.

The Joshi families of Bhilwara, Shahpura in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan are widely known as the traditional artists of this folk art-form for the last two centuries. Presently, Shree Lal Joshi, Nand Kishor Joshi, Prakash Joshi and Shanti Lal Joshi are the most noted artists of the Phad painting, who are known for their innovations and creativity. Noted examples of this art are Devnarayana Ki Phad and Pabuji Ki Phad.

  • Phad is a painted scroll, which depicts stories of epic dimensions about local deities and legendary heroes.
  • Bhopas (local priests) carry these scrolls on their shoulders from village to village for a performance Represents the moving shrine of the deity and is an object of worship.
  • Most popular & largest Phad – local deities Devnarayanji and Pabuji.
  • Shahpura, Tehsil in Bhilwara is famous for Phad.
  • 2006, Shri laal Joshi – was awarded Padamshri for contribution to Phad.

Handicrafts of Rajasthan

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Sculpture Art in Rajasthan:   Sculpture Art in Rajasthan started from Maurya Period. Different areas in Rajasthan are famous for Different Color Stones. A state that has so many varieties of stones is bound to have progressive sculpture art.

Different Stones:

  • Dungarpur – Green Black
  • Bharatpur – Pink
  • Makrana – White
  • Jodhpur – Badami/Brown/Buff
  • Dholpur – Red
  • Rajsamand – White with tint of Black
  • Jalore – Granite
  • Kota – Slate
  • Sculpture art of Sangmarmar Stone – Jaipur
  • Meenakari on Sangmarmar stone – Jaipur
  • Picchikari on Sangmarmar stone- Bhilwara
  • Sangmarmar mines – Makrana
  • : Som pura Caste people of Dungarpur & Talwara(In Banswara)

Terracotta: Terracotta is clay-like earthenware ceramic that can be either glazed or unglazed. In addition to being used for flower pots, terracotta is also often used for water and sewage pipes, bricks, and sculptures. The word “terracotta” comes from the Italian words for “baked earth.”

Molela near Nathdwara is especially famous for its Terracotta toys. Harji Village in Jalore famous for Terracotta Horses in Nagaur district Banuravta Village

Blue Pottery:

Blue Pottery is widely recognized as a traditional craft of Jaipur, though it is Turko-Persian in origin. The name ‘blue pottery’ comes from the eye-catching blue dye used to color the pottery.

Jaipur blue pottery, made out of a similar frit material to Egyptian faience, is glazed and low-fired. No clay is used: the ‘dough’ for the pottery is prepared by mixing quartz stone powder, powdered glass, Multani Mitti (Fuller’s Earth), borax, gum and water. Another source cites Katira Gond powder (a gum) and saaji (soda bicarbonate) as ingredients. Some of this pottery is semi-transparent and mostly decorated with animal and bird motifs. Being fired at very low temperature makes them fragile. The range of items is primarily decorative, such as ashtrays, vases, coasters, small bowls and boxes for trinkets. The colour palette is restricted to blue derived from the cobalt oxide, green from the copper oxide and white, though other non-conventional colours, such as yellow and brown are sometimes included.

The use of blue glaze on pottery is an imported technique, first developed by Mongol artisans who combined Chinese glazing technology with Persian decorative arts. This technique travelled east to India with early Turkic conquests in the 14th century. During its infancy, it was used to make tiles to decorate mosques, tombs and palaces in Central Asia. Later, following their conquests and arrival in India, the Mughals began using them in India. Gradually the blue glaze technique grew beyond an architectural accessory to Indian potters. From there, the technique travelled to the plains of Delhi and in the 17th century went to Jaipur.

Other accounts of the craft state that blue pottery came to Jaipur in the early 19th century under the ruler Sawai Ram Singh II (1835 – 1880).The Jaipur king had sent local artisans to Delhi to be trained in the craft. Some specimens of older ceramic work can be seen in the Rambagh Palace, where the fountains are lined with blue tiles. However, by the 1950s, blue pottery had all but vanished from Jaipur, when it was re-introduced through the efforts of the muralist and painter Kripal Singh Shekhawat, with the support of patrons such as Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay and Rajmata Gayatri Devi.

Today, blue pottery is an industry that provides livelihood to many people in Jaipur. The traditional designs have been adapted, and now, apart from the usual urns, jars, pots and vases, you can find tea sets, cups and saucers, plates and glasses, jugs, ashtrays and napkin rings.

Key Points:

  • Origin – First developed by Mongol artisans who combined Chinese glazing technology with Persian decorative arts and with Turks & Mughals conquests came to India, Rajasthan – Jaipur is famous for these arts.
  • It is started in Rajasthan during the reign of Raja Man Singh-I but the main credit for development goes to – Sawai Ram Singh II (1835-80).
  • However by 1950, Blue Pottery vanished. Post Independence redeveloped through efforts of Kripal Singh Shekhawat. His efforts were recognized by GOI, received Padamshri (1974).

Ivory Works (Haathi dant): it is a hard smooth ivory colored dentine that makes up most of the tusks of elephants and walruses Items include: Jewellery, Powder boxes, jewellery boxes, cufflinks, lamps and artistic decorations, idols of gods and goddess, brooches. Udaipur district in Rajasthan is most famous for ivory works. Jodhpur is famous for Black, green & Red strips bangles.

Meenakari: Enameling is the art of colorings or decorating a metal surface by attaching or fusing pieces of different mineral substances, over it. Enameling is considered the most alluring and technical of all metal decorations. In the past enameling was only done on gold, but presently it is done other metals like silver, copper etc.

The art of decorating metal with enameling or Meenakari was alien to India and was introduced by the Mughals. Raja Man Singh of Amber brought Meenakari to Rajasthan at the turn of the 16th century. Man Singh brought skillful minakars from the Mughal palace at Lahore and established them in Jaipur, which became the center of Meenakari.

The technique of Meenakari requires a high degree of skill and application. The piece of metal on which meenakari is to be done is fixed on a lac stick. Delicate designs of flowers, birds, fish etc are etched or engraved on it. This leads to the creation of walls or grooves, to hold color. Enamel dust of required color is then poured into the grooves and each color is fired individually. The heat of the furnace melts the color and the colored liquid gets spread equally into the groove. This process is repeated with each color. As each color is individually fired, colors, which are most heat resistant, are applied first, as they are re-fired with each additional color. As a rule, white is the first color applied and red the last. After the last color has been fired, the object is cooled and burnished or polished with agate. The depth of the grooves filled with different colors determines the play of light. Both Silver and Gold can be used as a base for meenakari.

  • A limited number of colors, like gold, blue, green and yellow, stick to silver, whereas all available colors can be applied to gold, making it the preferred medium of enamellers.
  • The meenakari often works with a team of craftsmen. As meenakari is generally done on the reverse side of Kundan jewellery, the meenakari has to work with the goldsmith, the engraver or ghaaria, the designer or chitteria and jadiya who applies the gems on the Kundan or gold.
  • The finished produced is a marvel of the expertise of these different craftsmen and their techniques.

Jaipur is the main center of meenakari. Traditional Mughal colours like red, green and white, dominate the art of enameling from Jaipur. The rich, ruby red color used here is highly sought after.

Nathdwara, Bikaner and Udaipur are also famous for their silver meenakari. Pratapgarh is known for glass enameling. Delhi and Banaras are also important centers for meenakari.

  • Jaipur is worldwide famous for Meenakari on Jewellary.
  • Meenakari Art was imported from Lahore for first time under the reign of Man Singh-I (1589-1614)
  • Nathdwara is also famous for meenakari and the Raitwali area of Kota is known for Meenakari work is done on glasses. Bikaner & Pratapgarh also has significant skills in meenakari work.

Usta Art: The unique form of paintings on camel hide Usta Art came from Iran and flourished in the Mughal durbars and inter-mingled with the Indian culture, Raja Rai Singh, the then king of Bikaner, brought nawab Usta artists to his kingdom and the Usta artisans of Bikaner developed a new stream of Usta art. Their descendents manifested its beauty in the form of Bikaner’s fabulous Junagarh Fort’s Anoop palace, Chandra palace, karan palace and Phool Mahal. The art is still thriving and to this day, Usta craftsmen can be seen practicing the art, handed down by their ancestors. Mohammad Haneef Usta Mr. Ayub Usta, Mr. Iqbal, Mr. Altaf, Mr. Javed Hasan, All have carved a niche in Usta art. . In 1989 Mo.Haneef was honored with state award for his excellence in Manowati Gold embossing. He is being awarded National award for his excellence in Manowati Gold Nakkashi. At present you can find Usta work at Rampuria havelis, Ajmer Dargah, Delhi Nizamuddin Oliya and Mazaar of Amir Khusro the Junagarh fort. During the British rule, leather goods came in use for embossing. After the emboding, it is painted and gold is applied where ever required. Then the ink is used with a brush made of squirrel hair to fill the design with different colours. The Usta art of Bikaner is world famous for its multidimensional forms like meenakari on camel hide, golden meenakari and paintings in palaces and havelis of Bikaner. Mohd. Hanif Usta is a leading Usta artisan of the state. He has inherited this art form from his forefathers and has created excellent pieces of art displayed on camel hide, stone and metal.

Apart from Usta art, there are varied forms of miniature paintings that are quite popular. This art came in India with Usta artists from Iran brought by the emperors and flourished in the Mughal period in courts and palaces. A group of seven Usta artists paintings can be seen even today in the rooms of the Junagarh fort. During the British rule, leather goods came in use for embossing. After the emboding, if is painted and gold is applied where ever required. Then the ink is used with a brush made of squirrel hai to fill the design with different colours. The Usta art of Bikaner is world famous for its multidimensional forms like meenakari on camel hide, golden meenakari and painting in Usta is a leading Usta artisan of the state. He has inherited this art form from his forefathers and has created excellent pieces of art displayed on camel hide, stone and metal. Apart from Usta art, there are varied forms of miniature paintings that are quite popular with contributions from eminent artists like shree Mahaveer Swai Ram & Narayan Swami.

  1. Golden Meenakari work on Camel leather is known as Usta Art.
  • The art was developed by Padam Shri Hissayamuddin Usta from Bikaner.
  • Camel hide training Center in Bikaner is an institution for Usta Art.

Lac Works

LAC, A Resinous substance produced by the female lac insect found in abundance in the forests of Rajasthan, is formed into a variety of jewellery items, chief among them the chudi or bangle. Although all lac jewellery is regarded as propitious and is worn especially on auspicious occasions, lac bangles are also worn to signify that the wearer is married. The bangles are available in a stunning array of colours and are also frequently studded (naqqashi worked) with glass pieces, bright stones, and beads. The traditional bangles are plain and ornamented with Lehriya, wave-like patterns of diagonal lines. Motifs such as the patta (straight lines) or phooldar (floral) are etched onto the surface of multiple layers of many hued lac coats, thus revealing the colour embedded in the initial layers.

  • Sawai madhopur, Laxmangarh (Sikar), Indragarh (Bundi) – Lac work on wooden toys.
  • Jaipur, Hindon, Karauli – Lac bangles.

Mat & Carpet Works: A Carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool but, since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester  are often used, as these fibers are less expensive than wool. The pile usually consists of twisted tufts which are typically heat-treated to maintain their structure. The term “carpet” is often used interchangeably with the term “rug”, although the term “carpet” can be applied to a floor covering that covers an entire house, whereas a “rug” is generally no bigger than a single room, and traditionally does not even span from one wall to another, and is typically not even attached as part of the floor.

Carpets are used for a variety of purposes, including insulating a person’s feet from a cold tile or concrete floor, making a room more comfortable as a place to sit on the floor (e.g., when playing with children or as a prayer rug), reducing sound from walking (particularly in apartment buildings) and adding decoration or colour to a room. Carpets can be made in any colour by using differently dyed fibers. Carpets can have many different types of patterns and motifs used to decorate the surface. In the 2000s, carpets are used in industrial and commercial establishments such as retail stores and hotels and in private homes. In the 2010s, a huge range of carpets and rugs are available at many price and quality levels, ranging from inexpensive, synthetic carpets that are mass produced in factories and used in commercial buildings to costly hand-knotted wool rugs which are used in private homes of wealthy families.

Carpets can be produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric, made using needle felts, knotted by hand (in oriental rugs), made with their pile injected into a backing material (called tufting), flat woven, made by hooking wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric or embroidered. Wall-to-wall carpet is distinguished from rugs or mats, which are loose-laid floor coverings, as wall-to-wall carpet is fixed to the floor and covers a much larger area. Child labour has often been used in Asia for hand knotting rugs. The Good Weave labelling scheme used throughout Europe and North America assures that child labour has not been used: importers pay for the labels, and the revenue collected is used to monitor centres of production and educate previously exploited children.

The term “carpet” is often used interchangeably with the term “rug”. Some sources define a carpet as stretching from wall to wall. Another definition treats rugs as of lower quality or of smaller size, with carpets quite often having finished ends. A third common definition is that a carpet is permanently fixed in place while a rug is simply laid out on the floor. Historically, the term “carpet” was also applied to table and wall coverings, as carpets were not commonly used on the floor in European interiors until the 15th century.

Woven-The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric. The pile can be plush or Berber. Plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting. Normally many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs (although some limitations apply to certain weaving methods with regard to accuracy of pattern within the carpet). These carpets are usually the most expensive due to the relatively slow speed of the manufacturing process. These are very famous in India, Pakistan and Arabia.

Special Circular Design-These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts are produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles forming an extremely durable carpet. These carpets are normally found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic, Knotte A traditional carpet/rug design in preparation on a carpet loom. On a knotted pile carpet (formally, a “supplementary weft cut-loop pile” carpet), the structural weft threads alternate with a supplementary weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave. This supplementary weft is attached to the warp by one of three knot types (see below), such as shag carpet which was popular in the 1970s, to form the pile or nap of the carpet. Knotting by hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Pile carpets, like flat carpets, can be woven on a loom.

The warp threads are set up on the frame of the loom before weaving begins. A number of weavers may work together on the same carpet. A row of knots is completed and cut. The knots are secured with (usually one to four) rows of weft. The warp in woven carpet is usually cotton and the weft is jute.

Antique Rug-Carpet weaving may have been introduced into the area as far back as the eleventh century with the coming of the first Muslim conquerors, the Ghaznavid and the Gauri, from the West. It can with more certainty be traced to the beginning of the Mughal Dynasty in the early sixteenth century, when the last successor of Timur, Babar, extended his rule from Kabul to India to found the Mughal Empire. Under the patronage of the Mughals, Indian craftsmen adopted Persian techniques and designs. Carpets woven in the Punjab made use of motifs and decorative styles found in Mughal architecture.

Akbar, a Mogul emperor, is accredited to introducing the art of carpet weaving to India during his reign. The Mughal emperors patronized Persian carpets for their royal courts and palaces. During this period, he brought Persian craftsmen from their homeland and established them in India. Initially, the carpets woven showed the classic Persian style of fine knotting. Gradually it blended with Indian art. Thus the carpets produced became typical of the Indian origin and gradually the industry began to diversify and spread all over the subcontinent. During the Mughal period, the carpets made on the Indian subcontinent became so famous that demand for them spread abroad. These carpets had distinctive designs and boasted a high density of knots. Carpets made for the Mughal emperors, including Jahangir and Shah Jahan, were of the finest quality. Under Shah Jahan’s reign, Mughal carpet weaving took on a new aesthetic and entered its classical phase. Indian carpets are well known for their designs with attention to detail and presentation of realistic attributes. The carpet industry in India flourished more in its northern part with major centres found in

Kashmir, Jaipur, Agra and Bhadohi

Indian carpets are known for their high density of knotting. Hand-knotted carpets are a speciality

and widely in demand in the West. The carpet industry in India has been successful in establishing social business models that help underprivileged sections of the society. Notable examples of social entrepreneurship ventures are Jaipur rugs, Fab India.

Carpet binding” is a term used for any material being applied to the edge of a carpet to make a

 rug. Carpet binding is usually cotton or nylon,

 but also comes in many other materials such as leather. Non-synthetic binding is frequently

used with bamboo, grass and wool rugs, but is often used with carpet made from other materials.

Key Points:

  • Cotton & Wool are used for making fabric
  • For better quality and strong mattress the thread & knots used for making fabric should be very fine (thin).
  • Carpets are also manufactured in Jaipur & Bikaner jails.
  • Salawas Village of Jodhpur is famous for carpets
  • While carpet manufacturing is enthusiastically followed in Jodhpur, Nagaur, Tonk, Barmer, Bhilwara, Shahpura, Kekri & Malpura.

Textile Art of Rajasthan:

Gota Work: Jaipur & Khandela in Sikar district are famous for Gota work.

Zari Work: Jaipur is very well known for Zari work.

Kota Doria: Kota Doria is a fabric with unique blend of cotton and silk in a square check pattern and the checked pattern is termed as ‘khat’. The silk provides the shine while the cotton provides strength to the fabric and the craft originated in Mysore and then shifted to Kaithun Village near Kota. Hence, the Saris came to be known as Kota-Mansuria.

Jaipuri Quilt (Rajai): Jaipur is very known for it as name mention and the specialty of Jaipuri quilt is that it is very low weight but high insulating (very warm).

Applique Work: In this art different pieces of cloth are fixed together. The interesting colour, shape and pattern combinations against contrasting background catch the eye.

Hand-block prints: Bagru Print, Jaipur is famous for Hand block prints and this print is similar to Sanganeri print but while Sanganeri print has white field, Bagru prints have green fields. The main speciality is that only natural colors are used in Bagru Prints. Alijarin (Ajrak) Print of Barmer; Mostly red and blue colors are used for printing.

Tie and dye:

  • Bandani, Batik, Mothra, Ekdali, Shikari, Cheent.
  • Bandhej, Jaipur Cloth is tied and then colored and when the knot is opened different designs appear on cloth.
  • Jhajam (Carpets): Printed in Chittor are famous.
  • Lehriya – Jaipur
  • Chunri – Jodhpur

Dabu Print: Akola Village in Chittorgarh is famous for Dabu Prints. In Dabu, particular portion of cloth where color is not required, that portion is pressed with Loi or Lugadi. This same material lui or lugadi is called as Dabu as it is pressed on part of cloth where is not required. Apart from skills, Akola also has suitable conditions including water, Soil, natural vegetation that favors printing

Dabu Prints from Akola include Bed sheets, Cloth, Chundari, and Fantiyan. In different areas of Rajasthan, different materials are used as Dabu

  • Sawai madhopur – Wax is used as Dabu
  • Baltora – Soil/Mud is used as Dabu
  • Bagru & Sanganer – Bighan made from wheet is used as Dabu

Sanganeri Print – Sanganer

  • Done on Lattha or Malmal clothes.
  • Post printing, clothes are washed in river
  • Aminshah Nalla has been traditionally associated with this print and use of only Red and black color is seen.
  • Munna Lal Goyal made Sanganeri prints famous worldwide.


Painting Arts of Rajasthan

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Art and Culture- Painting Arts of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is literally the land of kings. Various parts of the region have been ruled by various Rajput clans for centuries. They were known not only for their fighting skills and valour but also for their patronage of arts and culture. Their prowess in architecture is well known considering the massive forts, palaces and temples that attract thousands of tourists every year But Rajasthan also infinite riches in terms of paintings. While it is a vast field and cannot be explored completely even in one life time, let us try to have a brief introduction of historical Rajasthani paintings.

Painting is mentioned as 1 of 64 Kalas (arts) in ancient Indian texts. Historical art of Paintings in India can be classified into two different segments:

1. Murals or Wall Paintings

2. Miniature Paintings.

  • Mural Painting: A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall; ceiling or other large permanent surfaceArchitectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.

Method of Paintings

1. True Fresco Method: The paintings are done when the surface wall is still wet so that the pigments go deep inside the wall surface. The Technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid or wet lime plaster, water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster and the painting becomes an integral part of the wall.

2. Tempora or Fresco-Secco: The Method of painting on the lime plastered surface which has been allowed to dry first and then drenched with fresh lime water.

Shekhawati Paintings:

  • It is covered by the two modern districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar
  • Geometric and floral designs.
  • The interior work is usually painted Secco, using tempera, onto dry plaster.

B. Miniature Paintings of Rajasthan:

The art of Miniature painting was introduced to the land of India by the Mughals, who brought the much-revealed art form from Persia. In the sixteenth century, the Mughal ruler Humayun brought artists from Persia, who specialized in miniature painting. The succeeding Mughal Emperor, Akbar built an atelier for them to promote the rich art form. These artists, on their part, trained Indian artists who produced paintings in a new distinctive style, inspired by the royal and romantic lives of the Mughals. The particular miniature produced by Indian artists in their own style is known as Rajput or Rajasthani miniature. During this time, several schools of painting evolved, such as Mewar (Udaipur), Bundi, Kotah, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Jaipur, and Kishangarh.

  • Besligre has supported the name of “Rajput School of Painting” for Rajasthani Painting.
  • Rajasthani Painting Themes – events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna’s life, beautiful landscapes, and humans
  • Precious stones, Gold and silver were used and Mughal Influence was also there.
  • Dominance of Chaurapanchasika group style in Indian Rajasthani Paintings.

These paintings are done with utmost care and in minute details, with strong lines and bold colours set in harmonious patterns. The miniature artists use paper, ivory panels, wooden tablets, leather, marble, cloth and walls for their paintings. Indian artists employed multiple perspectives unlike their European counterparts in their paintings. The colours are made from minerals and vegetables, precious stones, as well as pure silver and gold. The preparing and mixing of colour is an elaborate process. It takes weeks, sometimes months, to get the desired results. The brushes are required to be very fine, and to get high-quality results, brushes even to this very day are made from hair of squirrels. Traditionally, the paintings are aristocratic, individualistic and strong in portraiture, where the plush court scenes and hunting expedition of royalty are depicted. Flowers and animals are also the recurrent images in the paintings.

The Kishangarh province in Rajasthan is known for its Bani Thani paintings. It is a totally different style with highly exaggerated features like long necks, large, almond shaped eyes, and long fingers. This style of painting essentially depicts Radha and Krishna as divine lovers, and beautifully portrays their mystical love.

Kishangarh miniature painting reached a peak in the eighteenth century, during the rule of Raja Sawant Singh, who fell in love with a slave girl, Bani Thani and commanded his artists to portray himself and her as Krishna and Radha. Other themes of Bani Thani paintings include portraits, court scenes, dancing, hunting, music parties, nauka vihar (lovers travelling in a boat), Krishna Lila, Bhagavata Purana and various other festivals like Holi, Diwali, Durga puja, and Dussehra.

Today, many artists continue to make miniature paintings on silk, ivory, cotton, and paper. However, with the passage of time, the natural colours have been replaced by poster colours. The schools of miniature have also been commercialized, and the artists mostly replicate the work produced by the old painters.

Styles of Rajasthani Painting:

Starting from the 16th century, when the Rajasthani Painting originated, the main schools emerged, including:

Mewar School: Chavand, Nathdwara, Devgarh, Udaipur and Sawar

Marwar School: Jodhpur, Kishangarh, Bikaner, Nagaur, Pali and Ghanerao styles

Hadoti School: Kota, Bundi and Jhalawar styles

Dhundar School: Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati and Uniara styles

Mewar Style

The Mewar School comprises of Nathdwara, Chavand, Udaipur, Sawar and Devgarh styles of painting.

Mewar School of painting is one of the most significant schools of Indian painting of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was developed in Hindu principality of Mewar. The works of the Mewar School are distinguished by simple vivid colour and straight poignant appeal. The relatively hefty number of paintings to which places of derivation can be attributed make probable a more inclusive picture of the expansion of painting in Mewar than any other Rājasthanī painting school. The primitive examples derive from Ragamala, a musical mode series highlighted in the year 1605 at Chawand. This communicative and energetic approach continued with some discrepancies through 1680, after which Mughal sway became more noticeable.

One of the dazzling painters of the untimely phase was that of the artist Sahibdin.

  • Considered to be place of origin of Rajasthani art of Painting.
  • Drawing is bold and the colours are bright and contrasting.
  • Text of the painting is written in black on the top against the yellow ground.
  • Maharana Kumbha contributed a lot to its development. After this Mewar style developed during Maharana Amar Singh-I (1572-1620), Karna Singh & Jagat Singh I (1628-52).

Shravak Pratikramansutra Chumi (1260):

It is the oldest painted volume of this style.

Chitron Ki Ovari (Tasviron ka Karkhana):

It was established during reign if Jagat Singh I.

  • – painted Kaliya Damana (most famous painting) during the reign of MaharanaSangram Singh II (1710-34).
  • – Nuruddin, Manohar, Sahibdin, Kriparam, Jivaram etc.

Famous Painters – Nuruddin, Manohar, Sahibdin, Kriparam, Jivaram etc

            Features:

  1. Appearance of men & women in healthy & attractive height.
  • Pointed nose, round face, large eyes, small neck and open lips.
  • Imposing moustache, decorative figures of women with tender body.
  • Elegant display of Nature.

Nathdwara Style

Nathdwara Painting refers to a painting tradition and school of artists that emerged in Nathdwara, a town in Rajsamand district in the Western state of Rajasthan in India. Nathdwara paintings are of different sub-styles of which Pichhwai paintings are the most popular. The word Pichhwai derives from the Sanskrit words pich meaning back and wais meaning hanging. These paintings are cloth paintings hung behind the image of the Hindu god Shrinathji.

The Nathdwara School is a subset of the Mewar School of painting and is seen as an important school in the 17th and 18th century miniature paintings. The sub-styles of Mewar painting include Udaigarh, Devgarh and Nathdwara as important centers of miniature production. The temple of Shrinathji is believed to have provided a boost to the art activities in the town. It is recorded that to avoid the oppression of the iconoclast Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the image of Shrinathji, a child manifestation of Krishna was installed in Nathdwara in 1670 by Goswami priests from Mathura. After this, many artists, including the famous Acharya Gopinathji, motivated by religious fervor came and created paintings of Shrinathji.

Pichhwai are intricate paintings which portray Lord Krishna. They exist in the holy town of Nathdwara in the Rajasthan state.

Krishna is shown in different moods, body postures, and attire more commonly found on a cloth or paper. It is a very ancient form of art passed on from generation to generation and it has a very devotional theme towards Lord Krishna.

The purpose of Pichhwai, other than its artistic appeal, is to narrate tales of Krishna to the illiterate. They have become the main export of Nathdwara and are in much demand among foreign visitors in the area.

These artists mostly live in Chitron ki gali (Street of paintings) and Chitrakaron ka mohalla (colony of painters) and make a close community with constant interaction. It is no wonder that many times a Pichhwai painting is a group effort, where several skillful painters work together under the supervision of a master artist.

  • Nathdwara style is a sub-style of Mewar School of painting, but as such it is a peculiar mixture of Mewar & Kishangarh styles.
  • Rana-Raj Singh-I brought idol of Srinath ji from Mathura during Aurangzeb reign, hence, artist from Mathura followed and gave birth to new style called as Nathdwara sub-style.
  • Depiction of natural scenery is a distinct feature of the Nathdwara style.
  • Nathdwara is famous for the Pichhwai paintings in Rajasthan. Pichhwai
  • Paintings are painted in permanent natural colors that do not lighten for years.
  • Famous painters included Ilaechii & kalma among women and Ghasiram,
  • Chaturbhunj, Udairaj & Champa lal among men.

Most works produced in this style revolve around the figure of Shrinathji as a manifestation of Krishna and refer to the incident of him holding the Govardhan hill on his last finger. Each Pichhwai painting is considered a seva or an offering to the deity and hence personifies Shrinathji as a prince with jewels and luxuries, surrounded by the milkmaids, gopis. These seva themes are based on different seasons and paintings are made to depict different moods of the season. There are also paintings that show the Lord in different costumes celebrating different festivals. Other themes like Mata Yoshoda, Nandlal and Bal-Gopal figures are also painted in this style.

Bundi Style

Bundi is one of the few places in India, which can lay its claim to an authentic School of Painting. “The Bundi School” is an important school of the Rajasthani style of Indian miniature painting that lasted from the 17th to the end of the 19th century in this princely state.

One of the earliest examples of the Bundi Paintings is the Chunar Ragamala painted in 1561. Bundi paintings emphasized on hunting, court scenes, festivals, processions, life of nobles, lovers, animals, birds and scenes from Lord Krishna’s life.

The Bundi School had a close association with the Mughal style yet it was never fundamental to the evolution and growth of Bundi paintings, however the delicacy of the Mughal style was also not abandoned.

The Chitrashaala, which is also known as the Ummed Mahal, is a part of the Garh Palace. It was built in the 18th Century, and forms a set of rooms on an elevated podium above the garden courtyard. The famous Chitra Shala in Bundi provides a colourful glimpse of history. The walls, ceiling of this palace are completely covered with paintings of the Bundi School which are still in very good condition. These splendid paintings in the Chitrashaala are par excellence and can be compared with probably the best anywhere in the world.

  1. Very close to the Mewar style of Paintings
  2. Rich and glowing colours, the rising sun in golden colour, crimson-red horizon, overlapping and semi-naturalistic trees.
  3. Mughal influence is visible in the refined drawing of the faces.
  4. Style flourished mostly during reign of Rao Surjan Singh.
  5. Chitrashaala (colored paintings) – made during reign of Maharao Ummed Singh depict this style clearly.

Main Features:

  • Pointed nose, receding foreheads, full cheeks, small stature
  • Use of red-yellow colors
  • Use of fine clothes.
  • Domes in background architecture, indicate Mughal influence.
  • In female figures in Bundi style, the upper & lower lines of eyes meet in parallel.
  • Lush landscapes painted in vibrant colors and massed with a variety of forms of trees and floral creepers, water ponds with lotus flowers in the foreground, fish and birds.

Kota / Kotah Style

The Kota style is considered another style of painting from the many among the Hadoti School of Art. The Kota style paintings, some of which are drawn on the walls of Palaces in Kota depict Mother Nature in all her glory. The Kota artists used attractive elements from hunting scenes and beautiful women. These paintings look very natural in their appearance and are mesmerizing.

  1. Though a distinctive Kota Style evolved in mid 17th century, similarities between Bundi and Kota painting continued in many respects. Later, visible variations appeared in details, costumes and methods of shading the faces.
  • Themes of tiger and deer hunt were very popular at Kotah.
  • During the period of Shatrusaal, a concise volume of Bhagwat was painted in Kota Style.
  • Credit for establishment of this style goes to Maharawal Ram Singh.

The Kota school of painting is a fine example of Rajput style of painting. Belonging to the erstwhile Kota kingdom of Rajasthan, it is renowned for the portrayal of battles, hunting expeditions, marriages and other major political events. It was a blend of Muslim and Hindu style of painting. Opaque water colors were usually employed and the themes are usually related to religion, politics and literature.

One of the preferred topics in these paintings was the favorite royal sport, tiger hunting. They portrayed the king, mounted on elephant during the hunt, and his followers amidst thick vegetation. The artists often accompanied the expeditions to record the events. They captured the movements of the animals, most prominent among them being the elephant. Stress was given on the energy and magnificence of the elephant rather than its adornment. Artists belonging to the Kota school were considered the best in depicting the elephant.

Features: Animals painted in this style include deer, tiger, lion and pig and Stout bodies, shining faces and bulging eyes.

Jaipur Style

The rulers of the state were closely allied to the Mughal dynasty, but paintings of the late 16th and early 17th centuries possessed all of the elements of the Rajasthani style. Little is known about the school until the opening years of the 18th century, when stiff, formal examples appear in the reign of Sawai Jai Singh. The finest works, dating from the reign of Pratap Singh, are sumptuous in effect and include some splendid portraits and some large paintings of the sports of Krishna. Although the entire 19th century was extremely productive, the work was rather undistinguished and increasingly affected by Western influences. Of the Rajasthani styles of this period, the Jaipur School was the most popular, examples having been found all over northern India.

  • This school of painting originated at Amber but later shifted to Jaipur, the new capital.
  • Because of close proximity to Mughals, the Jaipur style is strongly influence by Mughal School.
  • The style got patronage under reign of Sawai Jai Singh I (1622-88). Under Jai Singh II (1693-1743), Ishwari Singh (1743-1750) and Madho Singh I (1750-1767), a new style was adopted for the female face. Under Pratap Singh (1779-1803), there was a complete transformation of painting in Jaipur. The Mughal influence was eliminated and a genuine Jaipur- Rajpur style emerged.
  • There are a fairly large number of portraits of the Jaipur rulers.
  • Dominant themes of painting included Mahabharat, Ramayan, Krishna Leela and Geet Govinda & Kama Sutra.

Features: Large size canvas, ornate backgrounds and bright gorgeous borders and Female figures are depicted with large eyes, bunch of long hair, stout physique and pleasant mood.

Jodhpur Style

Jodhpur Shaili Miniature- Jodhpur inherited the art tradition of prior Marwar, which Pali, its sub-centre, revived in early 17th century in its Ragamala paintings. The initial idiom of Marwar art style defines these Pali paintings. This Pali idiom was replaced by Mughal elements in subsequent Jodhpur Ragamala paintings. Jodhpur excelled in the depiction of Baramasa, Ramayana, votive images of gods and the scenes of harem life.

  1. An independent Jodhpur style came into existence during reign of Rao Maldev. Paintings on Uttaradhyayan Sutra were made during his reign.
  2. Executed in a primitive and vigorous folk style Paintings in Mughal style developed under the patronage of Jaswant Singh (1638-1681), who served as the Viceroy of the Mughals for Malwa, Gujarat and the Deccan.
  3. Paintings of the legendary lovers like Dhola-Maru on camelback, hunting scenes are famous.
  4. Ajit Singh (1707-1724) & Abhay Singh (1724-1750) continued the patronage of painting.

The late Jodhpur style, characterized by the lavish use of yellow, blue and green colors, spiral clouds on the horizon, reached its climax in the reign of Man Singh (1823-1843). Beautiful and attractive paintings were painted in the palace of Nagaur during the reign of Bhakhat Singh.

Features: Despite being influenced by the Mewar School, the Jodhpur style has its own striking features and Males are stoutly built and tall, with curved mustaches, touching their throats.

Bikaner Style

Bikaner Shaili Miniature- Uniara, a sub-school of Kotah, is excellent in clubbing various festivals with conventional themes like Baramasa and in the depiction of Ragas and various myths. Indergarh, another Kotah sub-school, preferred portraits. Bikaner style is predominated by Mughal elements. It is partly because most of its master artists, Ali Raza, Ustad Sahibdin, Ruknuddin, Nuruddin and Murad, had come from the Mughal world and were adept in the Mughal style. But despite, in its themes Bikaner always inclined to Hindu myths and legends like Krishna-Lila, Ramayana, Bhagavata, Devi-Mahatmya and Ragamala Depictions of village life, Baramasa, festivals, processions, hunting and the like also have an indigenous touch. Perfect technical execution, maturity of form, elegance and soft colour effects, the widely known ‘neem-kalam’, is in contrast to Rajasthan’s bright deep tones, characterised Bikaner miniatures.

  • Some of the Mughal artists were given patronage by the Bikaner court. So, Bikaner style has more Mughal elements than other schools of Rajasthani paintings.
  • Apart from Mughal, there is considerable influence of Deccani style.
  • Bhagwad Purana painted during period of Rai Singh is considered to be an early painting of this style.
  • Developed peaked during reign of Maharaja Anoop Singh.
  • Most of the paintings are made on the Ramayana, on the Mahabharata, lord Krishna legends, Ragmala and love scenes of Radha and Krishna.

Features:

  • Slim and attractive females with eyes resembling those of deer.
  • Frequent application of blue, green and red colors.
  • Turbans of the style of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb along with the high turbans of Marwari fashion.

Marwar School of Painting

The Marwar School comprises of Kishangarh, Bikaner and Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur and Ghanerao styles.

Marwar developed a suave and dissimilar School of Paintings. The Marwar School imitated the Mughal sway and nobles on durbar and horses scenes were well-known in Mewar School of paintings. Amid 1760 and 1780, the Mughal control departed and the Rajput elements became famous in Jodhpur, which are exemplified by linear pace and shimmering colors. In Marwar festivals, paintings, elephant fights, hunting expeditions and ceremonies are normally depicted. The themes also incorporate scenes collected from the life of Lord Krishna. Other admired themes were ‘Gita Govinda’ and ‘Raagmala

Kishangarh Style

Kishangarh Shaili Miniature- Kishangarh excelled in the sensuous rendering of mystic feminine beauty; an ideal realised in Bani-Thani. Its artists Bhawani Das, Surat Ram, Nihal Chand gave to the art world some of its timeless masterpieces. The Krishna-cult dominated the Kishangarh art scenario, but Ramayana episodes, hunting scenes and portraits were also rendered. Raja Sawant Singh, a great art patron, was often painted as Krishna.

Miniature art at Jaipur began during the reign of Sawai Jai Singh. Muhammad Shah and Sahib Ram were the principal painters of the Jaipur style. Jaipur excelled in life-size portraits, depiction of myths, ragas, astrological principles and different amusing and erotic themes. Jaipur generally used a large size canvas, ornate backgrounds and bright gorgeous borders. After the Govardhan Puja Krishna going to the jungle with gopas and cows

  • Developed under the patronage of Raja Sawant Singh (1748-1757 A.D.), who wrote devotional poetry in praise of Krishna.
  • Most common theme of this style consisted of the depiction of the love between lord Krishna and Radha.
  • Master painter Nihal Chand who, in his works, has been able to create visual images of his master’s lyrical compositions.
  • He is also credited with making Bani-Thani during Sawant Singh’s reign.

Best Wishes!!

Fairs and Festivals of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

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Fairs & Festivals of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is a land of fairs & festivals, but before we can understand of these it is essential to learn the names of Indian Seasons & months, as the India festivals & fairs are organized based on Hindi calendar, which is LUNAR.

The rich cultural heritage of Rajasthan beautifully reflects in its numerous fairs and festivals, which are as colourful as the rainbow. The rich traditions of Rajasthan have given birth to a wide variety of fairs and festivals, which occupy an important place in the life of the people. Be it harvest season or the birth of a child, Rajasthani people love to celebrate. Some of the fairs and festivals such as the Elephant festival and Pushkar Fair are quite unique and attract visitors from across the world. Enjoy the cultural panorama of Rajasthan by participating in its wonderful fairs and festivals.

In Hindu calendar, year begins with 1- Chaitra:

            First day after new moon (Amavsya)

            New Year of Vikram Samvat (2073 in 2016)

            New Year of Saka Samvat (Official Government calendar)

            1 Chaitra = 22 march (Normal year) & 21 March (Leap year)

            Chaitra = 30 days (normal year) & 31 days (Leap year).

The festival according to the months:

Festivals and Fairs of Rajasthan in Chaitra:

  1. Festivals

Gangaur

They worship lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati and offer prayers for a long and happy life of their husbands. And the unmarried girls pray to be blest with a husband like lord Shiva. The festival is celebrated in the month of March/April.

The term “Shakti” has always held a special status in the Hindu religion. Shakti refers to an exclusively feminine principle and is perceived in all phenomena of life. The originator of life on Earth, it is responsible for the movement of all things, be it the cosmic objects or the various forces of nature. Deprived of Shakti, all creation on the planet will be rendered inept. Numerous ancient Indian texts, like the Vedas, Puranas and Epics bear citation of this cosmic power, recognizing its godly form as Parvati the wife of Hindu God Shiva. Over the ages, Shakti has been synonymous to a myriad of forms and identified under many names one of which is Gauri and as is suggestive by the name, the notable Gangaur festival is observed in honor of this very manifestation of Shakti (Gauri). The term “Gangaur” is comprised of “Gan” and “Gaur” where the prior refers to Shiva and the latter to Gauri. The Gangaur festival marks the worship and propitiation of Gauri by the womenfolk, in various parts of Central and Western India, majorly Rajasthan.

The womenfolk celebrate the festival of Gangaur with great zeal and devotion, praying to Goddess Parvati/Gauri to bless them with a bountiful spring that’s full of harvest, and also marital harmony. They also urge the goddess to bless their husbands with good health and long life. Although this festival holds special significance for the married women, unmarried girls are also seen partaking in it in hopes of being blessed with a good husband. The story of Gangaur revolves around Parvati being escorted by Lord Shiva from her parental home, following a grand farewell. As per ancient texts, Parvati had performed severe penance for days to persuade Lord Shiva to have her as his wife. Her perseverance and devotion did indeed move him.

The Gangaur festival starts on the first day of the month of Chaitra (as per Hindu calendar) which is on the following day of Holi, and is consummated on the third day of Shukla Paksha of the same month. This festival is usually an 18-day affair, during which all women are expected to observe a fast restricting them to only one meal a day. Clay idols of Shiva-Gauri perfected by the local craftsmen are decorated and worshipped during the full course of the festival. Certain Rajput families worship traditional wooden figurines of the divine couple, which are repainted every year by Matheran (local painters) before the festival commences. These figures are then placed within baskets along with wheat grass and flowers; wheat plays an important role in the rituals as it signifies harvest. People also buy earthen pots known locally as Kunda and decorate them in a traditional Rajasthani painting style called maandna. It is customary for married women to receive gift hampers from their parents known as Sinjara, which comprises of clothes, jewellery items, makeup and sweets. These gift hampers are generally sent on the second last day of the festival which the women utilize to get ready on the final or main celebration day. Decorating hands and feet with beautiful designs made out of Mehndi (myrtle paste) is another popular practice that’s widespread during the Gangaur festival.

The traditional procession is carried out with great pomp and pageantry in Jaipur, starting from the Zanani-Deodhi in City Palace and covering Tripolia Bazaar, Chhoti Chaupar, Gangauri Bazaar, Chaugan Stadium and Talkatora along the way. The royal procession of goddess Gangaur comprises of camels, chariots, bullock carts and dancing folk artists.

  • Worship of Eser ji & Gauri ji made of clay.
  • 16 days festival
  • Main Celebration: Jodhpur, Jaipur, Udaipur, Kota
  • Colonel Tod described Gangor of Udaipur.

Teej festival

Teej festival is held every year during the Hindu month of Shravan and marks the advent of the monsoon. The onset of monsoon is a time to celebrate as the rain brings water to the parent land.

Teej refers to all the monsoon festivals observed particularly in the western and northern states of India. The festivals celebrate the bounty of nature, arrival of the monsoon, greenery and birds with social activities, rituals & customs. The festival is mainly for women and includes dancing, singing, getting together with friends and narrating stories, applying henna on hands and feet, wearing brightly coloured Lahariya saris, sharing festive foods and playing under trees on swings on Hariyali Teej. The festivals are dedicated, in many parts of India, to Goddess Parvati, also known as Teej Mata. Women pray to the goddess seeking the wellness of their husband. On this occassion, a royal procession of Goddess Teej comprising of camels, dancing folk artists, royal palanquins, chariots and bullock carts, starts from the City Palace, winding its way through Tripolia Bazaar and Chhoti Chaupar on both days. The traditional sweet Ghewar is closely associated with the festival and enjoyed heartily over its duration.

The Teej Festival is dedicated to Goddess Parvati and commemorates the day when she was united with Lord Shiva. Young girls, newlywed women and elderly women can be seen attired in traditional costumes or in special multicolored striped pattern Lahariya Sari and ornaments. They can be seen applying henna to decorate their hands and singing songs of love and enjoying flower bedecked swings, which are hung on trees.

Kajli Teej

The festival of Kajli Teej is unique to the city of Bundi. A dazzlingly theatrical and lively event, it is held every year in the month of Bhadra (July-August). This week-long celebration filled with gaiety and fanfare pays homage to Goddess Uma by the seekers of marital bliss and love. Women wear colourful traditional costumes, new sets of bangles and decorate their hands with beautiful henna designs. A local fair is held nearby which is extremely popular with the rural folk around Bundi. Handicrafts such as traditional kataar, paintings, bangles, rural handicrafts and fancy eatables attract many people from Rajasthan, other parts of India and foreign shores.

Abhaneri festival

Abhaneri festival’ is named after the village Abhaneri in the Dausa district which is around 90 km from Jaipur on the Agra road. This two-day festival has gained immense popularity amongst the tourists around the globe. This year, it will commence from 11th to 12th October with various Rajasthani & local folk performances like Kachhi Ghori, Kalbelia, Ghoomar, and Bhawai. Festival was initiated by Rajasthan Tourism in 2008; it is of great significance for Rajasthan. The village of Abhaneri was originally named Abha Nagri, meaning “city of brightness”. The place is popular for the Chand Baori-step well, one of the largest step wells built over a thousand years ago. Be a part of the celebrations at Abhaneri and dip into the rustic charm of traditional Rajasthani music.

Rajasthan Kabir Yatra

The Rajasthan Kabir Yatra is a travelling music festival which will journey over Rajasthan, creating a space where musicians, artists, scholars, students and seekers can immerse themselves in the voices of Bhakti and Sufi saint-poets such as Kabir, Mira, Bulleh Shah, questioning and dissolving boundaries of caste, class, religion and identity.

Dussehra

Dussehra is a Hindu festival celebrated all over the country. As the name suggests, it is the ‘Tenth Day’ of the fierce battle fought; when Lord Rama killed King Ravana. This holy day marks the victory of good over evil. The Dussehra Festival of Kota is quite a unique experience for both the residents and tourists. Villagers dress themselves in colourful traditional wear and join long processions to offer their prayers to Lord Rama. Cultural programmes are organised and include scintillating performances by well-known artists. However, the highlight of the festivities is the theatrical representation of the encounter popularly known as ‘Ramleela’. The drama is so highly anticipated among the locals that spectators start chanting the name of Lord Rama during the show. The climax of the show holds most appeal as it ends with setting alight gigantic effigies of the 10-headed Ravana along with his brother Kumbh karana and his son Meghnath. These 75-feet tall statues are stuffed with crackers and once set on fire, they burst to create an extravagant show.

Marwar Festival

The most popular festival in Jodhpur is the Marwar Festival. The two-day festival is held every year in the month of Ashwin (between September and October) in memory of the heroes of Rajasthan. It was originally known as the Maand Festival. The main attraction of this festival is the folk music centering on the romantic lifestyle of Rajasthan’s rulers. The music and dance of the Marwar region is the main theme of this festival. The folk dancers and singers assemble at the festival and provide lively entertainment. These folk artists give you a peek into the days of yore, of battles and of heroes who live on through their songs. Among other attractions at the festival is the Camel Tattoo Show and various competitions like Moustache, Turban Tying, Tug of War, Matka Race, Traditional Dress Competition and many more. The venues of this festival include the famous Clock Tower & Osian’s sand dunes.

The Pushkar Fair

The Pushkar Fair (Pushkar Camel Fair) or Pushkar Mela, as it is locally known as, is an annual weeklong camel and livestock fair held in the town of Pushkar between the months of October and November. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs. Apart from the buying and selling of livestock, it has become an important tourist attraction. Competitions such as the ‘Matka phod’, ‘longest moustache’ and ‘bridal competition’ are the main draws for this fair which attracts thousands of tourists. In recent years, the fair has also included an exhibition cricket match between the local Pushkar Club and a team of foreign tourists.

Kolayat Fair

The Kolayat Fair of Bikaner holds great importance for the locals who eagerly await it. Tourists also experience a great time as the fair is celebrated on an expansive scale. Also known as ‘Kapil Muni Fair’, it is held in the month of November. The pomp and show of the fair is not its only attraction as it also possesses great religious significance. A large number of devotees visit the fair to take a holy dip in the Kolayat Lake. It is believed that a holy dip can absolve them of all their sins.

Chandrabhaga Fair

Every year, the Chandrabhaga Fair in Rajasthan welcomes thousands of visitors and participants from all over the nation. It is held at Jhalrapatan, situated at a distance of about six kilometres from Jhalawar, in the month of Kartik (October and November). This fair attracts travellers, pilgrims and explorers alike with rituals and traditions practiced in this region. A lot of pilgrims assemble on the banks of river Chandrabhaga during the fair and participate in this gala event. The festival, named after the river Chandrabhaga, is considered very sacred by the people of Rajasthan. People travel from far just for a dip in the river as they believe this will purify their souls. A huge cattle fair is also organised here, where livestock such as cows, horses, buffaloes, camels and bullocks are purchased from various parts for resale. The fair includes several spiritual and traditional activities. During the fair, the Department of Tourism organises activities over a course of 3 days like traditional Deepdan, Shobha Yatra and various competitions as well as cultural evenings.

Bundi Festival

The Bundi Festival is celebrated in the month of Kartik (October-November) and includes several spiritual and traditional activities. It is a remarkable cluster of traditional art, culture and craftsmanship and visitors are left charmed by its magnificence. The program includes a colourful Shobha Yatra, arts & crafts fair, ethnic sports, cultural exhibition, classical music & dance program, turban competitions, bridal clothing, musical band competitions, and a sparkling fireworks display. Early in the morning, after the full moon night of Kartik Purnima, women and men clad in attractive colourful costumes light Diyas or lamps on the banks of River Chambal and seek blessings.

Matsya festival

The Matsya festival of Alwar held in November over two days is the foremost of all fairs and festivals of Rajasthan. It is celebrated to glorify the prosperity, traditional values and colourful customs of the region. This festival is renowned for its colourful processions, cultural performances, an array of sporting events and impressive artistic exhibitions. The magnificence of Alwar’s numerous palaces and forts, lakes, hunting lodges, archaeological sites and thick forests, make it a delightful setting for a flamboyant celebration.

Kumbhalgarh festival

The Kumbhalgarh fort, cradled in the Aravali Ranges, north of Udaipur, hosts the vibrant and colourful Kumbhalgarh Festival. This three-day festival is an incredible effort by the Department Of Tourism of the state to promote the culture and heritage of Rajasthan. The event is divided into two parts- day and night. In the daytime there is the folk performance by traditional artistes and competitions like turban tying and henna applying. On the other hand, the night is filled with impressive explosions of lights, sound, colours and dance. The Kumbhalgarh Festival is a must visit for ardent patrons of art, music and dance.

Ranakpur Festival

It is Located in district Pali is the city of Ranakpur that becomes the delightful setting for one of the most popular festivals of Rajasthan. Organized by the Department of Tourism, this festival offers a unique insight into the local culture and heritage. With fun activities like yoga, nature walks at the foothills in forests of Aravallis, visits to the Ranakpur Jain temple, hot air ballooning, interesting activities like: tug of war, beautiful decorations, cultural programmes, the open air amphitheater at Sun Temple showcases attractive folk and classical performances every evening and much more, the Ranakpur Festival is something you simply cannot miss. This festival is usually held on the 21st and 22nd of December every year, playing host to tourists from all corners of the globe, to immerse them in a colorful affair of cultural festivity.

Winter Festival – Mt. Abu

The annual Winter Festival held at Mount Abu in December pays homage to the rich culture and tradition of Rajasthan. The much-talked about event is a rare combination of cultural vibrancy, stunning handicrafts and delicious food, set against a scenic backdrop. This two day extravaganza brings together craftsmen and performers from every corner of the state. It is also known for its sporting and entertainment events, such as kite flying, rowing competitions and poetry reading sessions. Also, it is the only festival in Rajasthan where cricket has been introduced as a part of the celebration. A Grand procession marks the beginning of the festival. It culminates at the Nakki Lake with the ‘Deepdan’ ceremony in the evening, where hundreds of Diyas (earthen lamps) are set afloat in the water as a form of respect. A stunning display of fireworks ends the festival on a spectacular note.

Camel Festival, Bikaner

The camels of Bikaner region are renowned for their strength, endurance and beauty. The camel has always been an integral part of Bikaner, and this can gauged by the fact that the Bikaner army had a Camel Corp called “Ganga Risala” which took part in both the World Wars and as well as in conflicts in Somaliland, Egypt and China. “Ganga Risala” was the predecessor of Indian Army’s camel unit “Ganga Jaisalmer Risala” which saw action in Indo-Pakistan War of 1965, and was later disbanded in the year 1975. The camel is still utilized by the Border Security Force’s Bikaner Camel Corp for patrolling the long international border which Rajasthan shares with Pakistan, and remains a star attraction at Republic Day Parade.

The Festival is a two-day affair the dates for Bikaner Camel Festival this year were the 12th and 13th January. This festival which fervently celebrates the “ship of the desert” is cheered on by thousands of locals and tourists, as it brings to the fore not only the special relation people of this region have with this sturdy animal, but also promotes camel breeding and the age old tradition of camel taming and training.

The festival starts with a procession of camels adorned beautifully in traditional necklaces and anklets, and vibrantly colored bridles. This colorful parade starts from the magnificent Junagarh Fort and ends at the Dr. Karni Singh Stadium. It is upon reaching the open ground that the Camel Festival begins in earnest. The camel pageant is held, with camel owners showing off their majestic camels decked up to the brim. There are also competitions for camel milking and the best fur cutting design. But it is the dancing competition that is the most eagerly awaited. The audience is left spellbound by the jingling of anklets to rhythm of music, as the day ends with cultural performance by the local artists.

There are also number of competitions for both the tourists and the locals. These competitions include tug of war for both males and females and the water pot race for women. There is also the Turban tying competition for tourists from other countries not forget the villagers wrestling competition and a Kabbadi display match. Like the previous day, this is followed by an evening of cultural programs where the audiences are bewitched by the colorful swirling skirts and the music. A dazzling display of fireworks brings the Bikaner Camel Festival to a close.

The Jaipur Kite Festival

Rajasthan has long since been considered as one of the most colorful and culturally rich states in the country. It is well known across the world as the land of festivals, and with good reason. The fervor and zest that is displayed at each and every celebration is just another colorful feather in the beautiful plumage of Rajasthan. One of the first major celebrations of every New Year is Makar Sankranti, a festival that follows the solar cycle rather than the lunar cycle, like most festivals in India. Over the years, Makar Sankranti has come to be celebrated as one of the most colorful and vibrant festivals of the country, and where there is pomp to be displayed, Rajasthan is always at the forefront, displaying their fun and frolic with full gusto. As several feasts and rituals showcasing the beauty of Rajasthani culture dot the entire state, any mention of Makar Sankranti would be incomplete without a mention of the Jaipur Kite Festival. The kite flyers and visitors, throng to Jaipur in multitudes to experience and partake in the merrymaking.

The kite festivals observed on Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan which marks the transition of the sun to Makara Rashi (Capricorn) from the Dhanu Rashi (Sagittarius). It is said that the northward journey of the sun (Uttarayan) begins on this day, making the celebrations quite auspicious in nature. In Jaipur, Makar Sankranti is a government holiday where all shops, banks, and offices are closed, adding to the merriment of celebration, as people indulge in fun-loving rivalry, and try to outdo each other in the numerous kites flying activity held across the city.

The beginning of this festival finds its roots in the belief that winters were over and spending prolonged hours in the sunlight are supposed to be good for everyone. Makar Sankranti marks the beginning of summer which is greeted by the population spending the day on their roofs, flying kites, and trying to cut each other’s strings. Steadily, the Kite Festival in Jaipur was born, and today, people fly kites throughout the day as the startling blue of the sky gets dotted with a million colors, transforming it into a sight to behold.

Jaipur Literature Fest

Expanding the horizons of literature, the Jaipur Literature Festival taking place every year at the Diggi Palace, Jaipur invites some of the finest writers rather, the crème de la crème of the literary landscape under one roof. It is described as the ‘greatest literary show on Earth’; this festival celebrates writers from all across the world. The Jaipur Literature Festival marks that period in the month of January when readers flock to satiate their voracious appetite for deep thoughts and being an inch closer to their favourite writers.

Nagaur Fair

The Nagaur Fair is the second biggest fair in India. Held every year between the months of January and February, it is popularly known as the Cattle Fair of Nagaur as this is where owners gather to trade animals. Approximately 70,000 bullocks, camels and horses are traded every year at this fair. The animals are lavishly decorated and even their owners dress up with colourful turbans and long moustaches. Besides cattle, sheep, horses and even spices are traded. Other attractions include the Mirchi Bazaar (largest red chilli market of India), sale of wooden items, iron-crafts and camel leather accessories. Several sports are also held during the fair. These include tug-of-war, camel races and bullock races. Nagaur fair is also famous for its jugglers, puppeteers, storytellers, etc.

Baneshwar Fair

Baneshwar Fair is a popular tribal festival held in the Baneshwar Temple of Dungarpur. This festival held on the full moon day of February or Magh Shukla Purnima attracts a large number of tourists. On this pious occasion, Bhils travel all the way from Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh to take a dip at the confluence of the rivers, Mahi and Som. In addition to this fair, the Vagad Festival is also one of the popular celebrations of Dungarpur. This festival showcases dance forms and music from the region. Holi, the popular Hindu festival, is celebrated here with tribal dances.

Desert Festival

Once a year, the empty sands around Jaisalmer come alive with a mesmerizing performance on the sand dunes in the form of the Desert Festival. The festival, organised by the Department of Tourism around January-February, goes on for three whole days and lets you enjoy the rich and colourful Rajasthani folk culture. Rajasthani men and tall, beautiful women dressed in their best and brightest costumes dance and sing ballads of valour, romance and tragedy, while traditional musicians attempt to outdo each other to showcase their musical superiority.

The high points of the festival are puppeteers, acrobats, camel tattoo shows, camel races, camel polo, traditional processions, camel mounted bands, folk dances, etc.

Udaipur World Music Festival

The City of Lakes sings a different tune come February. Udaipur plays host to the fourth edition of the Udaipur World Music Festival. Organized by SEHER, this festival brings together global artists and ensembles from over 20 countries including Iran, Spain, Brazil, Senegal, France, Portugal, Italy and India, amongst other nations. The event is designed to cater to the music sensibilities of people across different ages and from all walks of life. An absolute once-in-a-lifetime experience, this one is a sheer treat for lovers of good music.

Braj Holi

The Braj festival in Rajasthan is held every year for two days in the Shukla Paksha of the Phalguna month, a few days prior to Holi. This festival is dedicated to Lord Krishna who is believed to have spent a considerable amount of time in a region called Braj in Rajasthan. This festival not only replicates the spirit of Holi but also impersonates the timeless love of Radha and Krishna. The highlight of this festival is the Raslila dance performed with great zest and unity. The entire town is painted and no one is spared from being splashed with colours. The festival is celebrated with great pomp and ceremony in Deeg, Kaman and Bharatpur in the Bharatpur District.

Dhulandi Festival

Dhulandi Festival (Festival of Colours) is celebrated all over India a day after Holika Dahan and marks the beginning of spring. On this day, young and old alike play with colours and water and the celebrations can last for the better part of the day. The festival is celebrated in a very special way all over the state where the Department of Tourism organizes an event meant especially for foreign tourists.

Mewar Festival

The Mewar Festival is celebrated with much gusto and fervor, drawing not just the locals from adjoining villages and towns but also tourists from other countries who are eager to see the glorious traditions of Rajputana bought alive. When you visit Udaipur during the Mewar Festival, experience the color and joy that is associated with it and which is regaled with age old rituals and tradition of the Rajputana. Of the innumerable festivals that mark the advent of spring, none is more colorful than the Mewar festival celebrated in Udaipur. As the date of the Mewar festival in Udaipur etches closer, locals, tourists and performing artists start pouring into the city, creating a spectacular ambience of mesmerizing decorations which is further augmented by the bright colored traditional wear that locals wear.

The Mewar festival, held every year in the month of March-April, can be split into distinct but integral parts i.e. Religious and Cultural.

The festival coincides with Gangaur festival which holds a special significance for womenfolk, the celebrations for which begin at least a fortnight ago. Gangaur begins from the next day of Holi and starts with gathering of ashes from the Holi fire. Barley seeds are buried in the collected ashes and are watered every day until the seeds germinate. Newly married women are required to observe fast for 18 days to ensure a happy married life. Many unmarried girls also observe fast for 18 days, eating just one meal a day. While the married women pray for marital bliss and good health of their partner, the single ones pray for a match of their choice. On the day of the Gangaur, women dressed in their finest clothes gather to dress the images of Isar (Lord Shiva) and his consort Gangaur (Goddess Parvati). These idols are then carried in a huge procession which begins from the clock tower and ends at Gangaur Ghat at Lake Pichhola. Here, the idols are transferred onto boats. This makes for a beautiful sight to behold, as hundreds of boats carrying the idols sail gently in the lake.

The procession is followed by a number of cultural events, including presentation of dance forms such as Ghoomar and Kalbelia. The traditional songs sung by the local bards welcome the tourists and continue to enthrall them during the festival. The 3-day long Mewar festival is brought to an end with an impressive display of fireworks.

Rajasthan Festival

Bright, multihued and the ‘Land of Kings’ – Rajasthan celebrates its foundation day (30 March) in a radiant and invigorating event, it is celebrated as Rajasthan Festival will be celebrated in Jaipur and all over the State, reliving its heritage and stories. Organised by Tourism Department of Rajasthan, this long festivity has day packed programmes ranging from morning chants to musical evenings. With something that connects with every age group, Rajasthan Festival will be a testimony of vivacious musical concerts, harmonious religious chants, captivating film festivals, musical night, army pageant, police tattoo show, heritage fashion show, grand closing ceremony and much more.

Summer Festival – Mt. Abu

When the harsh summer beats down on the arid land of Rajasthan, its only hill station – Mount Abu provides more than respite as it comes alive with its unique two-day summer festival. Soulful ballad singing kicks off the summer festival in style and is followed by mesmerizing folk dance styles of Gair, Ghoomar and Daph. The highlight is undoubtedly the Sham-e-Qawwali, which features some of the best folk singers from various parts of India. Along with a colourful showcase of folk culture, the festival also hosts horse racing events, tug of war, skating races, CRPF band show and boat races on the Nakki Lake. The festival concludes with a dazzling display of fireworks and the gorgeous landscape of Mount Abu, with its verdant hills and lakes make it a one-of-its-kind experience.

Festivals & Fairs of Rajasthan in Vaisakha:

Akshay Tritiya: Vaishakha Shukla Tritiya

Fairs: Brithari Mela in Alwarand Mata Kundalini mela is held at Rashmi, Chittorgarh on Vaisakha Poornima.

Shravana

Teej Festival: Shravana Shukla Tritiya – Chotti Teej

Fairs: Kalyan Ji ka Mela at Diggipuri-Malpura- Tonk on Amavsya and Teej ka Mela at Jaipur (Famous), rest rajasthan celebrate on Shukla Tritiya (3rd)

Bhadra:

Teej Festival: Bhadra Shukla Tritiya – Badi Teej

Ganesh Chaturthi: Shukla Chaturthi

Fairs:

  • Baba Ramdev Ji ka Mela at Runicha – Pokaran- Jaisalmer from Shukla Paksh – Dooj (2nd) -11th
  • Gogaji Mela at Nohar, Hanumangarh from Krishna Ashtami to Ekadashi
  • Goga Ji Mela at Dadrewa, Churu from Krishna Navami to Shukla Navami.
  • Brithari Mela (II) in Alwar
  • Karjali Teej mela in Bundi on 3rd
  • Ganesh Mela at Ranthambore, Sawai Madhopur on Ganesh Chaturthi (4th) Charbhuja mela at Charbhuja, Udaipur on Shukla Ekadashi.

Ashwin: Karni Mata Mela – in Nokh, Bikaner from Sukla 1st – 10th and Jambheshwar Mela at Nokha, Bikaner.

Festivals: Deepawali:Kartik Amavsya

Fairs: Kapil Muni Mela in Kolayat Bikaner on Kartik Purnima, Puskar Mela in Pushkar, Ajmer from Kartik Shukla Ekadashi to Purnima and Neelapani mela at Hathod village, Dungarpur on kartika Poornima.

Magha: Beneshwar Mela in Beneshwar, Dungarpur from Shukla Ekadashi to Purnima (Shivaratri). This fair is called kumbha of tribals.

Phalguna (Falgun)

Holi: Falgun Poornima

Fairs: Khatu Shyam ji Mela – in Sikar – from Shukla 10th -12th and Jambheshwar Mela at Nokha, Bikaner

Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan

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Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan

The rock inscriptions of Rajasthan serve as a very authentic evidence for the reconstruction of the history and culture of Rajasthan. They offer reliable pieces of information that has helped in building up the chronology and political history of Rajasthan.

Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan

S.No Year Inscription Facts to Remember
1 443 BC Barli, Ajmer Brahmi Script Reveals that Jaina cult was prevalent in Madhyamika.
2 1St – BC Ghosundi, Chittor Mentions Asvamedha Yajna by King Sarvatata. Mentions about Krishna & Sankarshana (Balram)
3 225 AD Nandsa Yupe Stambha, Bhilwara Nandsa (Bhilwara) Language Sanskrit
4 227 AD Barnala Yupe Stambha, Jaipur Language Sanskrit Presently preserved at Amer museum Mentions establishment of 7 Pathshala
5 238-239 AD Badwa Stambha, Baran Language Sanskrit Describes triratra yajna performed by three brothers.
6 274 AD Bichpuria, Tonk Language Sanskrit Mentions performance of Yajna – without any name Dharak described as Agnihotri
7 278 AD Vijayagarh Language Sanskrit Describes Pundareek yajna performed by Yashovardhana
8 423 AD Gungdhar, Jhalawar Language Sanskrit Mentions construction of Vishnu temple by Mayuraksha minister of Vishwakarma
9 424 AD Nagari Language Sanskrit Presently preserved at Ajmer museum Evidence about Vishnu worship.
10 490 AD Bharamar Mata, Chittor Language Sanskrit Mentions punyashobha, Rajyavardhana & Yashogupta of Gaur dynasty.
11 6th AD Khand, Chittor Language Sanskrit Two parts: one is 3-line & other is 8-line First part mentions Vishnudatta Second part mentions Manohar Swamy: Vishnu mandir
12 625 AD Basantgarh, Sirohi Language Sanskrit Raujil, son of Vajra Bhatt has been mentioned ruler of Arbuda region.
13 646 AD Shamboli, Mewar Information on Guhil Dynasty of mewar
14 661 AD Nadi Village, Mewar Language Sanskrit in Kutil Script Bravely of Guhil ruler Aparajit has been described
15 685 AD Mandore, Jodhpur Language Sanskrit Engraved on rock in Bawadi
16 713 AD Shakner-Ghatta, Chittor Language Sanskrit Mentions Raja Manbhanga or Manmori
17 738 AD Kanaswan, Kota Language Sanskrit Informs regarding Maurya ruler Dhawal
18 861 AD Ghatiyala, Jodhpur Language Sanskrit Information related to political, social & religious policies of Pratihara dynasty.
19 861 AD Ghatiyala, Jodhpur Language Marathi Verses with meaning in Sanskrit About Harishchandra, a Brahmin – supposed to be father of Pratihara dynasty.
20 865 AD Osian, Jodhpur Language Sanskrit Vatsraj given title of Ripudaman Varna System described
21 946 AD Pratapgarh Language Sanskrit
22 971 AD Chittor Language Sanskrit Presently preserved at Bhartiya Mandir, Ahmedabad. Describes prosperity of Chittor & achievements of Parmar rulers.
23 977 AD Aahar (Ahad) Language Sanskrit Description of 3 Kings- Allat, Narwahan & Shakti kumar Also gives information regarding military system of Mewar. Col Tod took the inscription to England
24 1086 AD Jhalrapatan Placed at Sarvasukhia Kothi Engraved by Pandit Harsukh in Sanskrit

Art and Culture: Rajasthani Folk Literature

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

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Rajasthani Folk Literature

Faad Literature

  • Shahpura in Bhilwara is famous for this folk literature.
  • It is happening from life of Lok Devta like Pabuji, Dev Narayan ji, Ramdev ji etc are depicted in Faad.
  • Padam Shri Lal Joshi ji from Bhilwara – gave international recognition to Faad literature.
Author Work
Asig Jiyadarya Raas
Atyudhan Mahariya Veer Satsai
Badar Dhaadhi Veer Bhayan
Bankidas Ashiya Bankidas Ri Khyaat
Baraith Isardas Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya
Bhandari Vyas Hammirayan
Bithu Meha Pabuji Ra Chand, Gogaji Rasavla
Chand Bardai Prthviraj Raso
Chandra Singh Kah-Mukrani
Dalpat Vijay Khuman Raso
Dayal (Dayaram) Rana raso
Dayaldas Sidayach Dayaldas Ri Khyaat
Dungar See Shatrusaal Raso
Gardan Shivdas Achaldas Keechi Ri Vachanika
Hari Bhadra Suri Samaraichcha Katha
Hemachandra Suri Deshinaammala, Shabnushasana
Hemraj Stulibhadra Phag
Hemratna Suri Gora Badal ri Chaupayi
Hrishivardhan Suri Nal Damyanti Raas
Jagjivan Bhatt Ajitoday
Jai Singh Suri Hammir Mad-mardana
Jaisom Karmachand Vanshokeertana kam Kavyam
Jaswant Singh Bhasha Bushan
Jayanak Prthviraj Vijayam
Jinprabha Suri Padmavati Chaupai
Jodharaj Sarangdeva Hammir Raso, Hammir Kavya
Kanhaiyalal Sethia Leeltans, Patal aur Peethal, Dharti Dhora Ri
Karanidaan Suraj Prakash
Kesari Singh Barhat Roothi Rani
Kripa Ram Barath Rajia Ka Doha
Madhodas Ram Raso
Magha Shishupal Vadh
Maharana Khumbha Sangeet Raj
Mahesdas Binhai Raso
Malik Mohammad Jaisi Padmavat
Mandan Raj Vallabh
Meera Padavali
Muhnot Nainsi Muhnot Nainsi Ri Khyat , Marwar Ra Pargana Ri Vigat
Muraridan Dingle Kosh
Murlidhar Vyas Rajasthani kahawatein
Nagaridaas Varagya Sagar
Nall Singh Vijaypal Raso
Narpati Nalha Bisaldev Raso
Nayan Chand Suri Hammir Mahakavya
Padmanabh Kanhad-de-Prabandh
Prithvi Raj Rathore Ganga Lahari
Pt. Ramana Asopa Marwari Grammar, Nainsi ki Khyati
Pundareek Vitthal Raag Manjari, Ragmala
Rajshekhar Prabandh Kosh
Ramnath Kaviya Draupadi Vinaya, Pabuji ra Soratha
Rana Kumbha Sangitraj, Ekling Mahamtyq, Nritya Ratnakosh
Ranachorr Bhatt Amarkavya Vanshavali
Sadashiv Raj Vinod
Sanwar Daiya Ek Duniya Mahari
Sawai Singh Dhamora Peru Prakash, Gandi Katha
Shailendra Suri Panch Pandav Charit Rasu
Shalibhadra Suri Bharateshwar Bahubali raas
Shreedhar Pashavnath Charitra
Shridhan Ranmall Chanda
Siddha Rishi Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
Sitaram Lalas Rajasthani Shabdakosh
Somdeva Lahit Vigrah Raj
Sudan Sujan Charitra
Suja ji Rao Jaitasi Ro Chand
Suryamal Mishran Vansh Bhaskar, Sati Raso, Veer Satsai
Swarup Das Pandava Yashendu Chandrika
Udhyotan Suri Kuvlyayamala
Udhyotan Suri Kuvalaya Mala
Vajrasen Suri Bharteshwar Bahubali Ghor
Veerbhan Raj Rupak
Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV Harkaili
Vijay Sen Suri Revantgiri Raas
Vijaydan Detha Batan Ri Phulwari
Vijhana Gyan Manjari
Vitthaldas Rukmani Haran

Introduction: Art and Culture of Rajasthan

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Introduction

It is a land of art, crafts and festivals which will fascinate peoples from India and foreigners also. Every fair and festival is a reflection of its rich art and craft in terms of bazaars, music, dance, cuisine, sport events which provides an opportunity to gain an insight view of the life & culture of Rajasthan. Its art can be seen in terms of handicraft items made of stone, clay, leather, wood, ivory, glass, silver, gold, brass and textiles.

Rajasthan is renowned the world over for its hand-printed textiles, jewellery, painting, furniture, leatherwork, pottery and metal craft, The use of exuberant colours and ornate, designs are some unique features of the artwork of the state. Extensive areas of Rajasthan are monotone, beige –brown desert but the dramatic spectacle and visual variety that pervade it make it one of the most vibrantly colourful of Indian states. These paradoxes are seen again and again- a recurring motif reflected in its decorative arts and crafts. Though time and again, it has been ravaged by invaders from all across the world, Rajasthan still houses the most opulent and rich treasures. Its history is a long saga of blood feuds and violent battles, but the forbidding stone battlements of its forts shield mirrored rooms and marble carvings of delicacy and grace.

The high-balconies that sometimes were a deterrent to the freedom of women were also marvels of exquisite ornamentation. The jeweled belts and anklets that adorned them were not just ornaments but also rich symbols of love and pride. Needless to say, as an intimate part of everyday life, Rajasthani art and culture has withstood the vicissitudes of industrialism and tourism.  Rajasthan and its crafts are a source of endless fascination-whether one approaches them for purely visual, aesthetic pleasure or pauses to savoir the underlying history, culture and symbolism. Not all Rajasthani crafts however, have originated locally. Rajasthan was on the ancient trade route, which exposed its people to different cultures and traditions. Traces of these can be still seen in the various art forms. Sculptures that date back to 10th century has been found along with cave paintings, terracotta works in Baroli and Hadoti regions are live testimonials of Rajasthan’s allegory of love.

History reveals that kings and their kinsmen were patrons of arts and crafts and they encouraged their craftsmen in activities ranging from wood and marble carving to weaving, pottery and painting.

The constant battles amongst the Rajputs and other invaders were not only a time for change for the people but also art and culture. When a kingdom fell and a new ruler took over, it was time for change paintings depicting the new ruler’s victory, scenes from the battle and processions of the victorious march were faithfully reproduced on the walls and handmade paper. Rajputs, who sacrificed wealth, power, territory and life itself, to withstand the Mughals were also impressed by their art and aesthetics, taking styles, symbols and techniques, often stealing artisans and incorporating them into their own eclectic, rich tradition.

Clothes-their colour, design and cut-may tell people which village and caste someone comes from, but it is the jewellery in which people’s wealth is invested. In most Rajasthani villages, it is silver. Huge and heavy chunks of it are worn around ankles, waist, neck and wrists, dangling in rings from ears, nose and hair, in chains of buttons down the kurta or choli fronts. The beautiful, ornate designs of Adivasi jewellery have now become fashionable among the urban elite and can be bought everywhere. The aristocracy and the well-to-do did not wear silver. Kundan and enamel jewellery inlaid with precious stones was a speciality of Rajasthan, particularly of Jaipur. Rajasthan has abundant deposits of semi precious and precious stones that are much in demand these days.

 Ivory: The ivory bangles that most Rajasthani women wear are considered auspicious. Ivory is also inlaid and shaped into intricate items of great beauty. Miniature paintings were also painted on ivory.

 Lac and Glass: Lac bangles are made in bright colours and sometimes inlaid with glass. Other decorative and functional items are also available.

 Sandalwood and Wood: Carved wood is presented in a wide range of objects and is simple and inexpensive.

Crafts: Stone statues on religious themes can be seen all over the state. In fact in some cities, there are still entire lanes where the stone carvers can be seen giving final touches to statues or even pillars. Other crafts like blue pottery, hand block printing, tie and dye, terracotta sculptures, painting on camel hide, embroidery, cloth painting, carpets, durries, inlay work on brass and wood are to be found all over Rajasthan.

The rich heritage of Rajasthan manifests itself in its unique art and culture. The latticed havelis, ornate palaces and intricately carved temples, the architectural beauty of forts and palaces symbolize the skills of its artists. On the other hand, its colourful fairs & festivals with traditional dance and music represent a unique culture of this vibrant state.

Rajasthan is famous for its forts, intricately carved temples, and decorated havelis, which were built by Rajput kings in pre-Muslim era Rajasthan. Rajasthan’s Jaipur Jantar Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Chittorgarh Fort, Lake Palace, miniature paintings in Bundi, and numerous city palaces and havelis are an important part of the architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the Pink City, is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sand stone dominated by a pink hue. In Bundi, maximum houses are painted blue. At Ajmer, the white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar Lake is exquisite.

Jain Temples of Rajasthan from north to south and east to west, Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu, Ranakpur Temple dedicated to Lord Adinath in Pali District, Jain temples in the fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodurva Jain temples, Mirpur Jain Temples, Sarun Mata Temple Kotputli, Bhandasar and Karni Mata Temple of Bikaner are some of the best examples.

Each region of Rajasthan has a different and diverse form of art, culture and heritage.

Language and Literature: Art -Culture of Rajasthan

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Language & Literature

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts. –

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

 Rajasthani Literature

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

RAJASTHANI LITERATURE

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts:

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

(PDF) Historical Places of Rajasthan : State Gazetteer

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Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

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(PDF) History and Culture of Rajasthan: State Gazetteer

This is very useful for all competitive exams; Rajasthan Public Service Commission RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains, Rajasthan subordinate exams, Lecturer, Teachers, SI, LDC etc.

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
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RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

We are providing some free study notes/ebook/pdf for education purpose only and the material already available free online. if any objection please contact us – thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

Disclaimer:-The myupsc.com is not an official website of any government examination, and not associated with the Government Organization. The Information and study material we are providing here have been collected from http://plan.rajasthan.gov.in. All the Readers/students/others please also check details on Original website before taking any decision. Here we are not responsible for any Inadvertent Error that may have crept in the information being published in this Website and for any loss to anybody or anything caused by any Shortcoming, Defect or Inaccuracy of the Information on this Website. If any Problem please contact us@thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Free Study Notes

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Index

1. Literature & Language of Rajasthan

2. Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthani Language
  • Rajasthani Literature

3. Art & Handicrafts of Rajasthan

4. Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthani Paintings
  • Rajasthani Folk Arts

5.  Rajasthan Festivals & Fairs

6. Practice MCQ

  • Compositions of Literature of Rajasthan
  • Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan
  • Festivals & Fairs of Rajasthan

7. Rajasthani Folk Dances

8. Practice MCQ

  • Folk Music Instruments of Rajasthan
  • Folk Dramas of Rajasthan
  • Rajasthani folk dances

9.  Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

10. Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

11. Practice MCQ

  • Havelis, Cenotaph & Tombs of Rajasthan
  • Sculptures of Rajasthan

12. Saints and Lok Devta of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ

Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan – Download

We are providing some free study notes/ebook/pdf for education purpose only and the material already available free online. if any objection please contact us – thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Index

1. Literature & Language of Rajasthan

2. Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthani Language
  • Rajasthani Literature

3. Art & Handicrafts of Rajasthan

4. Practice MCQ

  • Rajasthani Paintings
  • Rajasthani Folk Arts

5.  Rajasthan Festivals & Fairs

6. Practice MCQ

  • Compositions of Literature of Rajasthan
  • Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan
  • Festivals & Fairs of Rajasthan

7. Rajasthani Folk Dances

8. Practice MCQ

  • Folk Music Instruments of Rajasthan
  • Folk Dramas of Rajasthan
  • Rajasthani folk dances

9.  Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan and Related MCQ

10. Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan

11. Practice MCQ

  • Havelis, Cenotaph & Tombs of Rajasthan
  • Sculptures of Rajasthan

12. Saints and Lok Devta of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ

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Art culture Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

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Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice Questions for RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam and other Competitive Exams of Rajasthan.

Content:

  1. Political Background of Rajasthan
  2. Govt of India Acts
  3. Important term used in Polity
  4. Governor
  5. Chief Minister
  6. Council of Ministers
  7. State Legislature
  8. Election Commission
  9. High Court
  10. Rajasthan State Legal Service Authority
  11. Lok Adalats in Rajasthan
  12. Administration of Rajasthan
  13. Chief Secretary
  14. State Secretariat
  15. Directorates
  16. Administrative Setup
  17. Local Self Government in Rajasthan
  18. Panchayati Raj in Rajasthan
  19. Urban Local Government
  20. Important Constitutional, Statutory & Executive bodies
  21. Rajasthan Public Service Commission
  22. Advocate General of Rajasthan
  23. Inter-State Council
  24. Rajasthan State Human Rights Commission
  25. Rajasthan State Information Commission
  26. Lokayukta
  27. Rajasthan State Commission for Women
  28. Chief Minister’s Advisory Council
  29. Rajasthan Police
  30. Mewar Bhil Corps
  31. Miscellaneous

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Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan in Hindi

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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Art & Culture of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question

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Art and Culture of Rajasthan Solved Practice Questions as per Syllabus and trending topics of Current Affairs.
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What is the importance of handicraft in our economy?

Handicrafts are hugely important in terms of economic development. They provide ample opportunities for employment even with low capital investments and thus become a prominent medium for foreign earnings. From transforming the traditional Indian arts, and crafts to the customized version of an overseas art form.

Who was Muhnot Nainsi?

  • Born in Jodhpur city, Mohanot Nainsi was the minister and minister of Maharaja Jaswant Singh-I of Jodhpur.
  • Angered by something, the Maharaja put both Nainasi and his brother Sundarasi in prison.
  • Due to tortures in captivity, both brothers committed suicide.
  • Along with being knowledge lover and History lover he was a man of self-pride and brave nature.
  • Munshi Devi Prasad has called Nainsi as Abul Fazal of Rajputana. Nainsi wrote a famous book titled Muhnot Nainsi RI Khyat.

Mirpur Jain Temple, Sirohi

This is also one of the most important Jain temples of Rajasthan which is known for its extensive architecture as it is dated back to the 9th century. The temple was built by the Rajputs and signified as the oldest marble monument in Rajasthan. The temple is having the idol of the 23rd Tirthankar who is the Parsavanatha. The architecture of this temple globally acclaimed and the carvings of the pillars are the true representation of every beautiful note of Hindu mythology.

Goga Ji

  • Birth-1003 A.D. at Dadrewa in the Churu district of Rajasthan
  • Legend Protects from Snakes bites (Jaharpeer).
  • Saint Goga ji fought with Mahmood Gajnavi for protection of cows.
  • Died (Samadhi) -Gogamedi in Hanumangarh District
  • Worship: Main Temple: Gogamedi, built by King Ganga Singh.
  • Villages in Rajasthan has dedicated to him, than is always under Khejri tree.
  • Farmers tie 9 Knot – Goga Rakhadi – to their plough for good harvest.
  • Goga Ji identification – Blue Horse, Spear and Snake

Famous Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

In Rajasthan, the emergence of saint bhakts was witnessed from 16th century to end of 18 century.

Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

  • Dadu Dayal
  • Mira Bai
  • Sundar das
  • Rajjab
  • Bhakhan
  • Wajind
  • Raghavdas
  • Lal Das
  • Charan Das
  • Mavaji

What do you know about Akbari Fort & Museum?

This fort was constructed in 1570 by Akbar and is also called as Daulat-khanna or Magazine. Plans for battle of Haldighati were finalized in this fort in 1576 and Jahangir camped in the fort for 3 years to bring mewar under Mughal control.

• This fort is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture and it is the location from where Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir read out the Farman permitting the British East India Company to trade with India. In 1801, control of fort passed to British who converted it into magazine (armory).

• Currently, the fort is converted into a state museum and houses a collection of Mughal, Rajput armor and sculpture. The fort also has beautiful paintings and Janana portion has excellent Picchikari works.

Main Features of the Mughal Paintings in India

1. Confined to Mughal court:

Mughal painting remained confined to the Mughal court and did not reach the people.

2. A synthesis of Indian and Persian elements:

The Mughal rulers brought Persian painters with them. At the same time they patronized Indian painters and the collaboration between these two schools of painters resulted in the synthesis.

3. Main themes of painting:

Apart from Persian books of fables, themes from Mahabharata were also selected. Indian scenes and landscapes came into vogue.

4. Abundant use of colours:

Golden colours considered to be the symbols of prosperity of the Mughals began to be used increasingly.

5. Climax of Mughal painting:

Jahangir had a very discriminating eye and Mughal painting reached its climax of glory during his reign.

What are the main handicrafts of the people of Rajasthan?

Top 10 Historical Places in Rajasthan?

Which famous folk dance is associated with Rajasthan?

Write the dialects of Rajasthan and their region?

What is Fire Dance in Rajasthan?

Write about some Famous cattle fairs in Rajasthan?

Osian Jain Temple, Jodhpur

Write about two most famous saints in the Bhakti Movement from Rajasthan

Adi Shakti Puja

Write down the name of Prominent Freedom Fighters of Rajasthan

What are the reasons and consequences of the Battle of Tunga?

Kalibangan

What were the contributions of Sawai Raja Jai Singh?

Sagarmala Gopa

Explain different types of Rajasthani Paintings?

Kolayat

Describe about famous Lok Devis of Rajasthan (Folk Godesses)

Bala Quila, Alwar

Duleh Rai/Dulha Rao

Write short notes on the following:

1. Shahbad Fort, Baran

2. Shergarh Fort, Baran

3. Nahar Garh Fort, Baran

4. Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur

5. Bhainsrorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh

Describe the Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature.

Rajasthan’s handicraft have its historical and multiple importance, describe?

Expect on the relation between ruler and Samanta/feudatory after the treaty with the Mughals?

Name the Institute which is famous for the exhibiting of puppets.

In how many parts Rajasthan is divided in the sight of folk Dramas?

Which writer demonstrates the predatory history of Rajasthan?

Four dialects of Rajasthan and there region?

For which purpose Walter created the Rajput Hitkarni Sabha?

Aoudak fort

Gentlemen agreement

Toul movement

Arthuna temple Shiva art

Phad

Khyal

Define the name of Terahtali Dance?

Bhapang

Define the contribution of Laxmi Kumari Chundawat in the field of Rajasthan literature

The importance of Sanganer, Bagru and Barmer in the field of dyeing and printing in Rajasthan?

Imported features of Satyprakash joshi’s Radha?

Short note on Blue Pottery

Short note on Anup Singh the ruler of Bikaner?

Feudatory Administrative system’s important features?

Important feature of Jantar–Mantar the astronomical observatory of Jaipur

Impact of Mughals Architect on Rajasthan’s Palaces

Describe Folk entertainment of Rajasthan Describe.

Cultural achievement of Pratap Singh

Explain gavri dance,bhawai dance,ravan hatha andrammat

Political and cultural achievement of Maharana kumbha

Main incidents happened in Bijoliya peasant movement.

Growth of women education in Rajasthan and its hurdals?

Political, Social and economic expects of Prajamandal movements.

Define the important features of Rajasthan painting along with various painting forms and schools.

Explain the various phases in the unification of Rajasthan

Bijolia Edict

Raj Singh (Mewar)’s Achievements/Achievements of Raj singh

Characteristics of Folk Songs

Judicial Administration of Medieval Rajasthan

Explain the Contribution of folk deities & Saints in Society?

Sarangpur Battle

Beli Krishna – Rukman Ri

Jantar

Shivaji Sagar

Kalsu Bai

1- Describe the Bhakti Saints and folk Gods of medieval Rajasthan.

2- Describe the role of Praja Mandals in the socio-economic upliftment of people.

3-Throw light on the treaties signed between 1803 and 1823 between East India Company and different Rajputana Kingdoms.

4- Shakti Pooja In Rajasthan.

4(a)- Women’s political participation in Freedom Movement in Rajasthan.

4(b) – Role of Castism in Rajasthan

5- Artisan castes in Rajasthan.

6- Rajputana -Madhya Bharat Sabha.

7- Battle of Tunga. 4

8- Jaipur Art during Reign of Sawai Pratap Singh

9- Teej Tyunhara Bawdi, Le dubi Gangaur.

10- Sagar Mal Gopa.

11- Dulha Rai.

12- Mandan Suthradhar

13- Chatra Chauth

14- Nouchoki

15- Kali Bai

16- Gair Dance

17- Thewa Art

18- Morchang

19- Rajasthan Proverb is mirror of religion, Philosophy, policy, agriculture, social traditions, etc.” Explain with examples.

20- Describe various communities of Rajasthan Drawing and comment on their subject matter.

21-Describe the various popular Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

22- Describe the social structure of medieval Rajasthan.

23- Kavi Magh.

24- Merger of Ajmer-Merwara in Rajasthan.

25- Devji.

26- Wedding Customs of Tribals.

27-Rajasthani festivals from Chaitra to Phalguna

28-Role of Rajasthan in 1857 Revolution

29- Gindar Dance

30- Bari- Padla

31- Phad

32- Chitra Shala

33-Pathwari

34- Saint Ranabai

35- Rasdhari Khayal

36- Tasha

37- Tukkangira and Shah Ali

38- Pushti Marg

39- Describe the Religious Beliefs, Cults and Saints of Rajasthan.

40- Describe the contribution of Tessitorry in Dingal Literature.

41- Illustrate the peasant movements of Rajasthan before independence.

42- Contemporary Scenario of Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

43- Nana Bhai Khant and Kalibai Bheelbala.

44- Cultural contribution of Maharana Kumbha.

45- Vrihad Rajasthan.

46- Shekhawati ki Hawaiian.

47- Thakur Kushal Singh Champavat

48- Rangri tongue.

49- Kukadala

50- Gofan

51- Sugali Mata

52- Pandit Durgalal

53- Ravan Hatta

54- Baneshwar Fair

55- Thewa Art

56- Ludrava

57 – Galiyakote

58- Lakulish Temple

59- Kaithoon

60- Throw light on the historical importance and events of Bijoliya Farmers Movement of Rajasthan.

60(a) – Explain the various stages of unification of Rajasthan.

61- Famous Jain temples of Rajasthan.

62- Haveli Music

63- Chirdawi Khayal

64- Bhope of Rajasthan

65- Sclupture art of Molela.

66- Sacrifice of Krishna Kumari.

67- Motilal Tejawat.

67(a) – Describe Rajasthan’s freedom struggle of 1857

68- Bhoora Singh Shekhawat.

69- Merwarda

70- Sahariya.

71- Bappa Rawal.

72- Ghoomar.

73- Suryamal Mishra.

74- Kiradu

75- Arthuna.

76- Kallaji Rathore

77- Jantar.

78- Dingal.

79- Dr. Komal Kothari.

80- Explain the role of Folk Gods of Rajasthan in the socio-cultural development of the state.

81- Explain the role of Sangeet Natak Academy in Cultural development of Rajasthan.

82- Animal fare of Nagaur.

83- Johar.

84- Devnarayanji ki Phad.

85- L.C. Tacitori

86- Raj Prasthi

87- Gajner.

88- Jainarayan Vyas.

89- Nirnjani Sampradaya.

90- Jan Kavi.

91- Bharthari.

92- Manikya lal Verma.

93- Management of Kanhede

94- Soonhari Kothi

95- Girdhaveri.

96- Bhagri

97- Pabuji.

98- Kiradu.

99- Gair Nirtya.

100- Rawan Hatha.

101- Rohida

102- Jamo

103. Ramgopal Singh

104. Galiyakote.

105- Write about the important Archaeological sites of Rajasthan.

106- Suryamal Mishran Literary activities

107- Cattle fairs in Rajasthan.

108- Rammat.

109- Matsya Union.

110- Pabuji ki Phad.

111- Sagarmala Gopa.

112- Kachi Ghodi Dance

113- Bani- Thani.

114- Battle of Khanva

115- Mithe Shah Dargah

116- Menal.

117- Keshari Singh Baraith

118- Bhatner Fort

119- Algoza

120- Sathin

121- Lal Bagh

122- Goga Pir

123- Kurjan

124- Kolayat

125. Write an essay on ‘Nationalism in Rajasthan Literature.

126. What are the main problems in preserving and maintaining rich historical and cultural heritage of Rajasthan? Suggest measures.

127. Explain the salient features of folk music of Rajasthan.

128. Write the names of five freedom fighters of Rajasthan.

129. Kishangarh School of Painting.

130. Important Tourist Places in Rajasthan.

131. Kanhiyalal sethiya

132. Bishan Singh Shekhawat.

133. Kali Bangha.

134. Praja Mandal.

135. What are the main Problem in preserving and maintaining the rich historical and cultural heritage of Rajasthan? Suggest steps.

136. Write the names of main tribes of Rajasthan and explain their role in the development of Rajasthani art, culture and literature.

137. Write the name of four freedom fighters from Rajasthan.

138. Name four cattle fairs of Rajasthan and their location.

139. Veer Tejaji.

140. Mewar school of painting

141. Important Archaeological sites in Rajasthan.

141. Vijay Dhan Detha.

142. Surya mal Mishran.

143. Write an essay on ‘Nationalism in Rajasthan Literature’?

144. Discuss the main features of ‘Rajput Paintings’.

145. Evaluate the social impact of Praja Mandal Movement in Rajasthan.

146. Kishangarh School Of Painting.

147. Lal Bag.

148. Important tourist places in Rajasthan.

149. Name two places where Nagori- Bullocks are traded in cattle- fairs.

150. Name the author of following:-

(1) Raj Ballabh, (2) Prabandh Chintamani, (3) Vamsha Bhaskar, (4) Kandhe Prabandh.

151.  Describe the teachings of Sunderdas.

(I) Tazim (II) Angarakha

151.  (I) 30 March 1949 A.D. (II) Akbar’s visit to Ajmer.

152. Nritya Ganesh.

153. Bani Thani

154. Fire Dance.

155. Main dialect of Rajasthan

156. Write about Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

157. Freedom struggle in Rajasthan Prior to Independence.

RAS Mains Exam Complete Study Notes

Download RAS Mains Study Notes

Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III Paper-IV
Unit-I
Rajasthan History Administrative Ethics   Rajasthan Current Affairs General Hindi & English
Art-Culture Rajasthan National Current Affairs
Indian History   International Current Affairs
Indian Culture
World History
Unit-II
Economy-Rajasthan Science & Technology Public Administration
Indian Economy Agriculture-Rajasthan Polity & Administration
                                          Unit-III
Sociology Geography-Rajasthan Sports & Yoga
Management Geography-India Behaviour
Accounting & Auditing Geography-World Law
general studies of Rajasthan