Goa Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Goa Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Goa Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Goa based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Goa General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Introduction of Goa

Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th state of the Union states of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was a part of Union Territory of Goa, Daman & Diu till 30th May 1987 when it was carved out of form a separate state. Goa covers an area of 3702 square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa. Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Tere Khol River which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and West by Arabian Sea. Goa lies in Western Coast of India and is 594 Kms (by road) away from Mumbai city.

A brief summary of the 2011 census: Goa’s population is 1458545 with 739140 Males and 719405 Females. The growth of 14.8 per cent, during 1991 to 2000, is lower than the 16.08 per cent recorded during 1981 to 1990.

The sex-ratio (number of females per thousand males) in Goa is 973 in 2011 compared to 967 in 1991. The density of population per sq km in Goa is 364 in 2001 as compared to 316 in 1991. North Goa has a much higher density (437) as compared to South Goa (300). The national figure is 324. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa was a former state of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.

Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Agriculture is one of the important economic activities in Goa. The total agricultural area is approximately 1400 sq km from which 1200 sq km is owned by the govt and remaining 200 sq km is owned privately. Rice and coconut are the staple produce of Goa. Paddy is cultivated during the monsoon from the months of June to September.

In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silaharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom’s grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Goa General Knowledge 2020

In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961. The Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, and was finally abolished in 1812.

In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India’s twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

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Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

The Non – Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 1, 1920 was the first mass movement organized nationwide during India’s struggle for freedom. In this article, we will read in detail about the Non – Cooperation Movement’s causes, methods, impact, and end.

Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement: The Non – Cooperation Movement has had four main causes:
 

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
 

2. Dissatisfaction with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
 

3. Rowlatt Act
 

4. Khilafat Agitation
 

Let’s look in detail at every cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
On April 13, 1919, a large but unarmed crowd gathered at Amritsar in the Jallianwala Bagh to protest the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal. However, this unarmed crowd of women and children, among others, was fired mercilessly with rifles and machine guns on General Dyer’s orders. Thousands of people have been killed and injured. Martial law was proclaimed throughout Punjab after this massacre and the people were subjected to the most uncivilized atrocities.
 
In order to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh incident and the role of General Dyer, the British government set up the Inquiry Disorders Committee, popularly known as the Hunter Committee after its chairman Lord William Hunter. While the Hunter Committee held General Dyer responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, it upheld his reasons for ordering the firing on the unarmed crowd as well as for imposing martial law in Punjab.
 
The people of India, due to their clear biases, did not accept the recommendations of the Hunter Committee. There has been unrest among the masses to ensure justice for the wrongs of Punjab has been delivered. In protest, Mahatma Gandhi gave up the Kaiser – I – Hind title granted to him by the British government. 

2. Unhappiness with the reforms in Montagu – Chelmsford
The 1919 Government of India Act was enacted based on the 1918 Montagu – Chelmsford proposals recommendations. This Act introduced the ‘ Dyarchy ‘ system and divided topics into lists – Reserved and Transferred. The Legislative Assembly (lower house) was introduced with direct elections, but the right to vote was severely curtailed. In addition, there was no control over the Governor General and his Executive Council by the Legislative Assembly.
 
Indian nationalists, however, had gone far beyond such stopping concessions. The Indian National Congress met under Hasan Imam’s presidency at a special session in Bombay in August 1918 and condemned the reforms of Montagu – Chelmsford and instead called for effective self – government.
 
3. Rowlatt Act
The government enacted the 1919 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, popularly called the Rowlatt Act, based on the findings of the Rowlatt Committee. This act allowed the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism for a maximum period of two years without trial. The government passed Montagu Chelmsford Reforms and Rowlatt Act in succession, which were part of the British ‘ Carrot and Stick policy. This action gave the movement a new direction. At all levels of India, Gandhi organized a mass protest.
 
4. Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat Movement, which began in 1919, brought the Muslims and the Hindus on a common platform against the British rule, was the most important cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.
 
Khilafat Movement in India
Turkey had aligned itself in the First World War with Germany – led Axis powers that were defeated by Great Britain – led Allied powers. The political – conscious Muslims were critical of British and their allies treatment of the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire that had divided it and properly removed Thrace from Turkey.
 
The Muslims also regarded the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims and they strongly felt that his position over the Muslim religious places should not be undermined.
 
Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani, and countrywide Khilafat agitation, a Khilafat Committee was soon formed. The All – India Khilafat Conference held in November 1919 in Delhi decided to withdraw all government cooperation if the government did not meet its demands.
 
Mahatma Gandhi saw the Khilafat agitation as “an opportunity not to unite Hindus and Muslims in a hundred years time.”Also, the Muslims League gave full support to the National Congress and its political agitation.
 
In early 1920, Gandhi declared that the Khilafat question overshadowed the constitutional reforms and the Jallianwala massacre and announced that he would lead a non – cooperation movement if the terms of peace with Turkey did not satisfy the Indian Muslims.
 
Who were the Leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
The Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement. Mahatma Gandhi later also became one of the leaders of the Khilafat Movement in India by strongly advocating the Khilafat cause.

The launch of the Non-Cooperation Movement
The above mentioned causes resulted in unrest among the masses anxious to take political action against the British government. Only added fuel to the fire was the economic hardship suffered by ordinary Indians. On August 1, 1920, the Non – Cooperation Movement was officially launched.
 
Congress Nagpur session in December 1920 defined the Non – Cooperation program clearly in detail. Following changes to the Indian National Congress Constitution at the December 1920 Nagpur Session:
 

1. The Congress goal has been shifted from achieving self – government through constitutional and legal means to achieving Swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means.
 

2. The Congress now had to have a 15-member Working Committee to look after its daily affairs.
 

3. Linguistically, Provincial Congress Committees were to be organized now.
 

4. The membership fee was reduced to 4 years per year to make it possible for the poor to join.
 

5. Congress was to use Hindi as far as possible.

 
The non – cooperation movement method and spread

  • Together with the Ali brothers, Mahatma Gandhi undertook a nationwide tour of numerous student and political worker rallies and meetings. This led to thousands of students leaving schools and colleges to join over 800 national schools and colleges throughout the country. 
  • The educational boycott in Bengal was especially successful. C.R Das played an important role in promoting the movement and Subhash Bose became the head of the Calcutta National Congress. The educational boycott was also very successful in Punjab, and Lala Lajpat Rai played the leading role here.
  • The other successful boycott observed was lawyers such as C.R Das, Motilal Nehru, M.R Jaykar, Saifuddin Kitchlew and others boycotting the law courts.
  • However, the Non – Cooperation Movement’s most successful item was the foreign cloth boycott. A major form of the boycott was also the picketing of shops selling foreign cloth. Liquor shops were also picketing.
  • Gandhi and Congress put a lot of stress on handspun Khadi in support of domestic textiles. Charkhas were widely popularized and khadi became the national movement’s uniform.
  • In July 1921, at the All India Khilafat Conference in Karachi, Mohammed Ali declared that continuing in the British Army was ‘ religiously unlawful for the Muslims. Gandhi repeated Mohammed Ali’s exhortation, adding that every civilian and army member should sever links with the repressive British government.
  • A movement against Union board taxes has been launched in Midnapore district of Bengal. No – tax movements were also organized in the Andhra district of Guntur in Chirala – Pirala and Pedanandipadu taluka.
  • In U.P, where a powerful Kisan Sabha movement was underway, Jawaharlal Nehru led the non – cooperation movement among others.
  • The Non – Cooperation and Khilafat propaganda in the Malabar region of Kerala helped to arouse Muslim tenants, called the Moplahs, against their renters, but the movement sometimes took on a common color.
  • In Assam, tea plantation laborers went on strike. While Andhra became popular with defiance of forest laws.
  • The Akali movement took place in Punjab as part of the Non – Cooperation Movement to wrest control of the gurudwaras from the corrupt mahants (priests)

 
End of the Non-Cooperation Movement
While in 1921 the Non – Cooperation Movement was in full steam, the masses were awakened from their slumber and the grass root workers of Congress, as well as the leadership, were asking Mahatma Gandhi to launch the next phase of mass civil disobedience.

Gandhi announced that massive civil disobedience would begin in the Bardoli Taluka district of Surat and that all other parts of the country should cooperate by maintaining total discipline and silence in order to concentrate the entire attention of the movement on Bardoli.

However, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred before mass civil disobedience could be launched.
 
 
Chauri Chaura Incident
A Congress – Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura in U.P. district of Gorakhpur on February 5, 1922. Irritated by some policemen’s behavior, they were attacked by a crowd section. The police opened fire on the unarmed procession in retaliation. Instigated by this, the whole procession attacked the police and the mob set fire to the building when the police hid inside the police station. The cops who were trying to escape were hacked into pieces and thrown into the fire. In the Chauri Chaura incident, 22 police officers were killed.


Gandhi was profoundly disturbed by the Chauri Chaura incident news. Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement because it violated the strict condition of non – violence that he had set for the launch of the civil disobedience phase and the continuation of the non – cooperation movement. Thus, the Non – Cooperation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922.
 
Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement
Despite the failure of the Non – Cooperation Movement to achieve its primary goal of Swaraj, it has succeeded on many other counts highlighted below:
 

1. The National Congress has shown that it represents the country’s majority opinion. It can not be charged with representing a ‘ microscopic minority ‘ anymore.’
 

2. The movement’s geographical spread was also nationwide. While some areas were more active than others, few areas, if any, remained entirely passive to the call for non – cooperation.
 

3. The Non – Cooperation Movement was the masses ‘ first opportunity to participate in politics and combat injustice and economic hardship caused by years of foreign rule.
 

4. Notwithstanding the incidents of Malabar, which were not seen later during the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was considerable involvement of Muslims in the movement and the maintenance of communal harmony.

Important Features of Indian Constitution

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Every written constitution in the world has its own unique characteristics, and no exception is the Indian Constitution. But the Indian Constitution has many prominent features that distinguish it from the other Constitutions. This article clearly explains the Indian Constitution’s 8 key features.

1. World’s Longest Constitution
The Indian Constitution contains 395 articles and 12 schedules, making it the world’s longest written constitution. Just compare it with other countries Constitutions. For example, the UK has no written constitution, while the US Constitution contains only seven articles.
 
Not only have this but since 1951 about 90 articles and more than 100 amendments been added. However, since the articles are not added separately as part of an existing article (e.g. Article 21A, 35A etc.) the total number of articles remains the same at 395.
 
2. Taken from various sources
The Indian Constitution was framed from multiple sources including the 1935 Government of India Act and Other Countries Constitutions.

Feature of Indian Constitution                           
 
Borrowed From (Source)
Basic structure (Federal scheme, Judiciary, Governors, Emergency powers, Public Service Commissions, Administrative details etc.) Government of India Act 1935
Fundamental Rights American Constitution
Directive Principles Irish Constitution
Cabinet form of government British Constitution


In addition to these, the Constitutions of Canada, Australia, Germany, the U.S.S.R., and France also adopted various provisions.

 
3. Federal System with Unitary Features
Federal System with Unitary The Indian Constitution includes all the federal characteristics of governance such as dual government system (center and state),division of powers between the three state organs (executive, judiciary and legislature), constitutional supremacy, independent judiciary and bicameralism (lower and upper house).

Nevertheless, the Indian Constitution is unique in that it includes many unitary features such as a strong centre, all India services common to the center and the states, emergency provisions that can transform the Constitution into a unitary one if necessary, appointment of governors by the president on the advice of the center, etc.
 
Indeed, Article 1 clearly states that India is a ‘ Union of States ‘ rather than a federation of States. In India, the states did not come together to form the centre (or Union) like in the case of the USA which is the purest form of a federation. Rather, for administrative convenience, it is the center that created the states. Article 3 of the Indian Constitution makes Parliament the sole authority to create new states clearly indicating that the Indian Constitution is of a unitary nature with certain federal characteristics.
 
4. Parliamentary Form of Government
On the pattern of the British parliamentary system of government, the Indian Constitution has opted for the parliamentary form of government. The key characteristics of the parliamentary form of government are:

1. Executive are members of the legislature

2. Collective responsibility to the legislature of the Council of Ministers


3. Rule of the majority party

4. Prime Minister’s or chief minister’s leadership in the state


5. Lower house dissolution (Lok Sabha and state assemblies)

6. Government form of the Cabinet


5. Balance between the Sovereignty of Parliament and Judicial Supremacy
A fine balance has been struck between parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy by the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court is vacuumed by Articles 13, 32 and 136 with the power of judicial review. By its power of judicial review, it can strike down any parliamentary law as unconstitutional.

On the other hand, the Parliament, being the representative of the people’s will, has the authority to make laws, and it can also amend the major part of the Constitution through its video vested powers under Article 368.
 
6. Independent and Integrated Judicial System
In India, unlike the United States where there is a two-tiered judiciary, a single judicial system prevails with the Supreme Court at the top, the State and District High Courts and other subordinate courts below and subject to the supervision of the High Courts.
 
It is the duty of all levels of courts in India to enforce both central and state laws unlike in the US, where federal courts adjudicate on federal matters and state courts on state matters.
 
Not only is the judiciary system well fully integrated in India, but because of the following provisions it is also independent

1. Appointment of judges of Supreme Court and High Courts by collegium system


2. Removal of judges in Parliament through an impeachment procedure that is very difficult to pass

3. Supreme Court judges salaries, pensions, and allowances are charged to India’s Consolidated Fund

4. Power to punish for self – disregard


5. Ban on judges practice after retirement…etc
 
7. Directive Principles of State Policy
In Part IV of the Constitution, the Directive Principles of State Policies (DPSPs) aims to make India a welfare state. Therefore, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar calls the Directive Principles as the Indian Constitution’s novel feature. The Principles of the Directive are inherently unjustifiable, that is, they are not enforceable for their violation by the courts.
 
Their usefulness, however, lies in their moral obligation to apply these principles to the state in making laws. As such, the principles of the directive are fundamental to the country’s governance.
 
8. Combination of rigidity and flexibility
The Indian Constitution strikes a fine balance between rigidity and flexibility when it comes to ease of modification. Article 368 lays down two types of modifications:

1. Some provisions may be amended by a special parliamentary majority, i.e. a 2/3rd majority of the members of each House present and vote and majority (i.e. more than 50 %) of each House’s total membership.

2. Some other provisions can be amended by a special parliamentary majority and with half of the total states ratifying them.
This ensures that with the widest possible majority, the Constitution is amended.

At the same time, in the manner of the ordinary legislative process, certain provisions of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority of Parliament. Such amendments are not within the scope of Article 368.

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Rajasthan GK Complete Study Material in English

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general studies of Rajasthan

The Abor Hills

The Abor Hills is a region of Arunachal Pradesh in the far northeast of India, near the border with China. The hills are bordered by the Mishmi Hills and Miri Hills, and drained by the Dibang River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra.

During the British Raj, the hills had a reputation as a troublesome area, and military expeditions were sent against the residents in the 1890s. The region was administered as the Abor Hills District from 1948, with headquarters at Pasighat, but later reorganized into the Lower Dibang Valley and Lohit districts.

The Abor Hills are a tract of country on the north-east frontier of India, which was occupied by an independent tribe, the Adi people, formerly called the Abors. It lay north of Lakhimpur district, in the province of eastern Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Mishmi Hills and on the west by the Miri Hills, the villages of the tribe extending to the Dibong River.

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela

Preface

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the syllabus of RPSC and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the shop in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. Very soon it will be available on Amazon, Flip-kart etc.
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Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D) Study Notes

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D)

  1. Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal
  2. Guhil Dynasty of Mewar
  3. Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
  4. Rathod Dynasty of Marwar
  5. Rathod of Bikaner
  6. Kachwaha of Amber
  7. Chauhan Dynasty
  8. Chauhan of Ranthambore
  9. Chauhan of Jalore
  10. Hada Chauhan of Bundi
  11. Hada Chauhan of Kota
  12. Parmar of Abu

Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  Raja Nagbhatta I

  • Founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihar.
  • Made triple alliance with Bappa Rawal and Jaisimha to defeat Arabs.

 Raja Watsaraj

  • First Pratihar king to occupy Kannauj.
  • He defeated Dharmapala of Gaud Dynasty and defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 Raja Nagbhatta II

  • Occupied Kannauj.
  • Defeated Dharmapala in the battle of Mudgagiri.
  • Defeated by Govinda of Rashtrakuta.

    Raja Mihir Bhoj

  • Defeated Devpala of Bengal.
  • Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court in 851 A.D.

    Raja Yashpal

  • Last ruler of this dynasty.
  • His rule came to an end due to emerging of Gazni power.

Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

    Guhil

  • In 566 A.D. Guhil established this dynasty.
  • He established independent city Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

  • Original Name was Kaalbhoj
  • In 734, he defeated Maan Mori and took Chittorgarh under his control and made Nagada his capital.
  • At first, started gold coin in Rajasthan.
  • He built Eklingji Temple in Udaipur.

    Allat (943 A.D. to 953 A.D.)

  • Original Name is  Alu Rawal
  • Built Varah Temple of Ahar.
  • Married Hun Princess Hariyadevi.
  • Established bureaucracy in Mewar.

    Jaitra Singh (1213-1253 A.D.)

  • Fought battle of Bhutala and defeated the army of Iltutmish.
  • He made Chittor his new capital.
  • His reign is called Golden Age of Medieval Mewar.

    Ratan Singh (1302-1303 A.D.)

  • AllauddinKhilji defeated him and he was killed.
  • After his death, his wife Padmavati committed Jauhar.
  • This was biggest Saka of Chittor and first Saka of Rajasthan.
  • Gora and Badal, two commanders showed courage during the battle.
  • In 1540 A.D. Malik Mohammed Jayasi wrote Padmavat in which he mentioned the beauty of Queen Padmavati.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

Rana Hammir (1326-1364)

Khetri Singh (1364-82)

  • He captured Zafar Khan, Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Son of Hammir

 Rana Lakha (1382-1421)

  • He married Hansa Bai, princess of Marwar.
  • His son Rana Choonda took the oath that not to come on the throne. Thus he is also called Bhishmapitamah of Mewar.

    Rana Mokul Singh (1421-33)

  • He reconstructed Samidheshwar Temple in Chittoor.
  • In 1433, he was murdered in Zilwada.

    Rana Kumha (1433-68)

  • Defeated Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Malwa, in battle of Sarangpur (Mandalgarh).
  • He erected Vijay Stambh (sign of Rajasthan police) after this victory which is 37 meters tall and 10 meter in width having 9 floors.
  • It is compared with Qutub Minar.
  • Rana Kumbha defeated the joint army of Mahmud Khilji and Qutbuddin of Gujarat in 1456.
  • Important fort built by Kumbha- (1) Kumbhalgarh (2) Achalgarh (3) Basantgarh
  • Important books written by Kumbha- (1) Rasik Priya (2) Sudha Prabhandh (3) Sangeet Raj (5 part) (6) Sangeet Sudha (7) Kamaraj Ratisaar
  • He gave patronage to many scholars in his court. Important are- (a) Mandan (b) Kanh Vyas (c) Ramabai (d) Muni Sundar Suri etc.
  • He was a musician as well.
  • He was killed by his son Ooda Singh or Udai Singh.

  Rana Udai Singh (1468-73)

  • He killed his father Rana Kumbha and came to the throne.
  • Ramuel, his brother, defeated him and ascended the throne.

  Rana Sanga (1508-1528)

  • In 1517 and 1519, he fought the battle of Khatoli and Bari respectively with Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in both the battles.
  • In 1519, he defeated MehmudKhilji in the battle of Gagron.
  • In 1527, he was defeated in the battle of Khanwa by Babur.
  • The important king who took part in the battle of Khanwa (Maldev- Marwar, Medini Rai- Chanderi, Mahmood Lodhi (small brother of Ibrahim Lodhi)
  • He died at Kalpi (M.P.)

   Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572)

  • Saved by Panna Dhai in the childhood
  • In 1557, fought the battle of Harmada with Haji Khan Pathan who was governor of Ajmer.
  • In 1559, he founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake.
  • In 1568 Akbar attacked and Jaimal and Fatta was killed

    Maharana Pratap (1572-1597)

  • In 1576, He fought the battle of Haldighati with Akbar and was defeated by Akbar. Akbar deputed Man Singh against Maharana Pratap.
  • Thermopylae of Rajasthan – James Tod
  • Kumbhalgarh war (1577, 1578, 1579) between (Sahbaz v/s Pratap)
  • His horse’s name was Chetak who was injured in this battle and later died. Chetak’s cremation is in Balicha Village.
  • In 1582, he fought Battle of Diver.
  • In 1597. He died in Chawand.

  Karan Singh (1620-1628)

  • He started construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.

 Jagjit Singh I (1628-52)

  • He finished the construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  • He constructed Jagdish Temple of Udaipur.

Raj Singh (1652-80)

  • He protested against Jajiya Tax by Aurangzeb
  • Supported Aurangzeb in the fight of Successor

Jai Singh (1680-98)

  • He built Jaisamand Lake.

Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

    Rao Siyaji

  • He founded this dynasty.
  • In 1273, he died protecting cows in Bithu village.

    Rao Chunda

  • The real founder of Rathod dynasty in Mewar.
  • He was killed in a battle with Salim Shah of Multan.

 Rao Jodha (1438-89)

  • He established city Jodhpur.
  • He constructed Mehrgarh Fort.
  • His 5th son Bika established Bikaner.

    Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)

  • He killed his father and ascended the throne.
  • In 1541, he defeated Jaitasi of Bikaner.
  • In 1543, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in Battle of Sumail.

    Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)

  • He was defeated by the Mughal but still denied to form an alliance with them.
  • He is called Pratap of Marwar.

    Raja Udai Singh (1583-1595)

  • He established a marital relation with Mughals.
  • His daughter Mani Bai was married to Jahangir.

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)

  • He wrote BhasaBhusan, Anand Vilas, Prabodh Chandrodaya and AparokshaSidhanta Saar.

Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)

Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)

Rathod of Bikaner

Rao Bika (1465-1504)

  • In 1465, he established Rathod dynasty in Bikaner region.
  • In 1488, established Bikaner.

   Rao Naroji (1504-05)

   Rao Lunkaran (1505-1526)

    Rao Jait Singh (1526-1542)

    Rao Kalyan Singh (1542-1571)

    Raja Raj Singh I (1571-1611)

Maharaja Rao Anup Singh (1669-1698)

  • He wrote ‘Anup Vivek’, ‘Kaam Prabodh’,’ ShraddhPrayog Chintamani’, ‘Anupodaya.’

    Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh (1698-1700)

    Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh (1943-1950)

  • He was the last ruler of Bikaner and merged in present Rajasthan state and signed the instrument of accession to the dominion of India.

Kachwaha of Amber

    Prithviraj

  • He was feudal of Rana Sanga; therefore, he fought Battle with Babur in the Battle of Khanwa.

Bharamal

  • The accepted sovereignty of Akbar.
  • The first king of Rajasthan to accept sovereignty and establish a marital relation with Mughal.

Bhagwantdas

  • Suppress Mirza revolt in Sarnal Battle. Thus he was given Nagada and Parcham by Akbar as the award.
  • His daughter was married to Jahangir.

    Maan Singh

  • He was made Subedar of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal.
  • Established Maanpur city in Bihar
  • He established Akbarnagar city in Bengal.
  • Began the construction of forts of Amber
  • Constructed Radha Govind Temple in Vrindavan

Mirza Raja Jaisingh

  • Ruled for the maximum period in Jaipur (46 Years)
  • Shah Jahan titled him ‘Mirza Raja’.
  • On 11 June 1665, Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh.
  • He constructed Jaigarh Fort in Jaipur.

    Sawai Jai Singh

  • He saw the reign of seven Mughal Badshah.
  • Changed the name of Amber to Islamabad.
  • His Purohit was ‘PundarikRatnagar’.

    Ishwari Singh

  • In 1747, he defeated Madho Singh in the Battle of Rajmahal on the bank of river Banas.
  • 1748, he was defeated by Madho Singh in the Battle of Bagru.
  • After this defeat, he committed suicide.

Chauhan Dynasty

    Vasudev

  • In 551 A.D. he established Chauhan dynasty.
  • According to Bijoliya inscription, he constructed Sambhar Lake.

    Ajayraj

  • In 1113 he established Ajmer city.
  • He built Ajmer fort.

    Arnoraj

  • He constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Also constructed Varah Temple in Pushkar.

    Vigraharaj IV

  • He took away Delhi from Tomar dynasty.
  • He constructed a school later QutubuddinAibak built Dhai Din Ka Jhopda in place of this school.

    Prithviraj III

  • In 1182, he defeated Chandel ruler Parmarardidev in Battle of Mahoba.
  • 1191, he defeated Mohammad Ghori in First Battle of Panipat.
  • 1192, he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in Second Battle of Panipat.
  • Moinuddin Chisti came to India during his reign.
  • He constructed Pithoragarh near Delhi.
  • Kaimash and Bhuvanmalla were his two ministers.

Chauhan of Ranthambore

  • After the death of Prithviraj III, his son Govindraj established his rule in Ranthambore.

    Hammir Dev

  • In 1299, he defeated the army of Alauddin Khilji led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan.
  • Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle.
  • After that Allauddin Khilji raids the Ranthambore fort with his army and defeats them.
  • 1301, first Siege of Ranthambore took place. This was the first Siege of Rajasthan.
  • He fought 17 battle in his life in which he only lost the last one.

Chauhan of Jalore

  • Founder of this branch of Chauhan was Kirtipal.
  • In inscriptions, Jalore is mentioned as Jabalipur.
  • Allauddin Khilji changed the name of Siwana to Khairabad.

Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • In 1241, Deva Hada defeated Jait Meena and occupied Bundi.
  • 1354, Barsingh constructed Taragarh fort of Bundi.
  • Rao Surjan constructed Ranchhod Temple in Dwarika.
  • Budhhasingh wrote ‘Nehtarang’.
  • Maratha interference took place during the reign of Budhhasingh.

Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • In 1631, Madho Singh founded this state.
  • Mukund Singh constructed AbaliMeeni Palace in Kota.

Guhils of Chittorgarh: History of Rajasthan

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Guhils of Chittorgarh

Guhil

He is known as the founder of Guhil dynasty.

Originally he was born in Anandnagar, Gujarat but in 565 C.E, he established independent city at Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

Born as Kalbhoj

 Is said to have defeated Maan Mori and laid foundation of Guhilot Dynasty rule in Mewar.

Formed triple alliance with Nagabhatta & Jaysimha to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan.

The Kingdom of Mewar: History of Rajasthan

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 The Kingdom of Mewar

The kingdom of Mewar includes present day districts of Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara. The region was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, the Name Medhpaat became Mewar.

The creators of Mewar’s ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation Stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the Seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.

The Guhilot had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested. The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud. According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

The Chauhan Dynasty: History of Rajasthan

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The Chauhan Dynasty

The Raja Saheb of Mainpuri, Head of all Chauhan clans

1. Songara Chauhan: Kuldevi is Chandi Devi. They are descended from the Rajas of Jalore, and had one branch, viz. Bhadoria

2. Khichi Chauhan: Kuldevi is Bhagwati. They are descended from Raja Bhagwat rai, Raja Gugalsingh and Raja Jaisingh of Khinchipur.

3. Hada Chauhan: Kuldevi is Ashapura. They are descended from Raja Manik Rai of Sambhar, and have the following branches, Udawat, Devra, Devre, Jaitawat and Chandrawat.

4. Bhadauria Chauhan: Their Kingdom was Bhadawar and are said to be a branch of the Songara Chauhan.

5. Bachgoti: Their name is derived from Vatsa Gotri and has two branches viz. Rajkumar and Rajwar.

The word Chauhan is the vernacular form of the Sanskrit term Chahamana. While the earlier versions of Chandbardai work Prithviraj Raso does not mention Chauhan as born from Agnikunda, the later versions do.

The 15th-century Hammira Mahakavya of Nayachandra Suri & Jayanayak’s Prithviraj Vijay considers Chauhans as Suryavanshi. Pandit Gaurishankar Ojha seconds this opinion.

Based on Bijloia Inscription (1170 CE), Dr. Dasrath Sharma considers that early ancestor of Chauhan was born at Ahichchhatrapura in the gotra of sage Vatsa. Ahichchhatrapura can be identified with modern Nagaur.

Chahamanas probably started out as petty rulers of Ahichchhatrapura. As the Chahamana territory expanded, the entire region ruled by them came to be known as Sapadalaksha. In course of time Chauhans formed ruling dynasties at various places.

Major Chauhan dynasties include:

  • Chauhans of Shakambhari
  • Chauhans of Ranthambore
  • Chauhans of Jalore

Apart from these, there are other ruling dynasties that claim Chauhan descent including:

  • Haras of Hadoti

Chauhans of Shakambhari:

Raja Guvaka I, 1st Raja of the Chahamana Dynasty at Harsha from 809 to 836, also known as Govindraj I, his predecessors were rulers at their capital of Purnatallakapura, initially he was the Samanta of Raja Nagabhata II of Kannauj, who had married his sister Kalavati Devi; he took part in a battle against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata II, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa; at some time he probably declared himself independent, and made his capital at Harsha, married and had issue. He lived around 815.

 Vasu-deva (c. 6th century CE)

  • Considered as founder of Shakambhari branch of Chauhans around 551 CE
  •  According to a mythical account in Prithviraja Vijaya, he received the Sambhar Salt Lake as a gift from a vidyadhara (a supernatural being).
  • Samanta-raja (c. 684-709 CE); identified as the legendary Manik Rai by R. B. Singh
  • Nara-deva (c. 709-721 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja I (c. 721-734 CE), alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala
  • Vigraha-raja I (c. 734-759 CE)
  • Chandra-raja I (c. 759-771 CE)
  • Gopendra-raja (c. 771-784 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja I (c. 784-809 CE)
  • Govinda-raja I (c. 809-836 CE), alias Guvaka-I: Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar
  • Chandra-raja II (c. 836-863 CE)
  • Govindaraja II (c. 863-890 CE), alias Guvaka II
  • Chandana-raja (c. 890-917 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja (c. 917-944 CE)
  • Simha-raja (c. 944-971 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja II (c. 971-998 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja II (c. 998-1012 CE)
  •  Govinda-raja III (c. 1012-1026 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja II (c. 1026-1040 CE)
  • Viryarama (c. 1040 CE)
  • Chamunda-raja (c. 1040-1065 CE)
  •  Durlabha-raja III (c. 1065-1070 CE), alias Duśala
  • Vigraha-raja III (c. 1070-1090 CE), alias Visala
  • Prithvi-raja I (c. 1090-1110 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja II (c. 1110-1135 CE): Moved the capital to Ajayameru (Ajmer) and Repulsed a Ghaznavid attack, and also defeated the Paramara king Naravarman.
  • Arno-raja (c. 1135-1150 CE), alias Ana: Defeated Turkish invaders and Constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Jagad-deva (c. 1150 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja IV (c. 1150-1164 CE), alias Visala deva: Expanded the Chauhan territories, and captured Delhi from The Tomaras.
  • Apara-gangeya (c. 1164-1165 CE)
  • Prithvi-raja II (c. 1165-1169 CE)
  •  Someshvara (c. 1169-1178 CE)
  •  Prithvi-raja III (c. 1178-1192 CE): Better known as Prithviraj Chauhan and Defeated Mohd. Ghori in first Battle of Tarain in 1191

Battles of Tarain: 1191 & 1192 :-The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were series of two battles fought in 1191 and 1192 A.D between Prithviraj Chauhan III of Ajmer and Ghurid ruler Mu’izz al-Din Muhammad or Mohammed  Ghori. The battles were fought near the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana.

  1. To extend the boundaries of his empire Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori entered into India in 1175 CE.
  2. He advanced to Gujarat in 1178 CE and advanced further by seizing Peshawar and Lahore and he ended the rule of Ghaznavid in Punjab with the help of the ruler of Jammu.
  3. As a result of successive conquests the boundaries of Ghori’s kingdom extended to the border of Prithviraj’s kingdom. In 1191, Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. Prithviraj’s along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. This is how the First war of Tarain began.
  4. Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.
  5. In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhammad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhammad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him.
  6. Prithviraj Chauhan cease-fired.  Muhammad Ghori deceived Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput arm mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious.
  7. About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi. 

Muhammad Ghori: Muhammad Ghazni established the Ghaznavid Empire with capital at Ghazni. After his death, Ghazni was Oghuz Turks. Ghori defeated the Turks and laid foundation of Ghurid Empire. After having made his position strong and secure at Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori turned his attention to India.

In 1175, Muhammad Ghori captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions. He turned south across the desert towards Anhilwara (modern day Patan, in Gujarat). In 1178, suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). As a result, Ghori retreated back to Multan.

In 1186 he attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions. Ghori returned back to Ghanzi to help his brother, only to return in 1191.

The first Battle of Tarain (1191): In 1191, Ghori proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

This brought him on northwestern frontier of Prithviraj Chauhans kingdom. Realizing their grave situation, the Hindu princes of north India formed a confederacy under the command of Prithiviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj’s army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai marched on to Bathinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori).

Ghori was wounded in personal battle with Govind Tai and so Ghori’s army retreated, giving victory to Prithviraj Chauhan. However, Prithviraj did not pursue Ghori’s army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori’s ambition, instead electing to retake the fortress of Bathinda.

Alternatively it has also been mentioned that, Ghori’s army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner.

Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him. Hence, Prithviraj Chauhan won the First Battle of Tarain, held in 1191.

After the First Battle:

Ghori return to Ghazni, and started preparations to avenge the defeat. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to Prithviraj to demand his submission, but the Chauhan ruler refused to comply.

The Second Battle of Tarain (1192): In 1192, Ghori challenged Prithviraj and a battle ensued at the same place (Tarain). Both Ghori and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. But Ghori changed his tactics as he did not want to engage in melee combat with disciplined Rajput warriors. He divided his huge troop into 5 parts and four units were sent to attack the Rajput flanks and rear. Hoping for Rajput attack, Ghori ordered his fifth unit to fast retreat. As Ghori expected, the Rajput’s charged the fleeing Ghurid unit. The Ghurids then sent a fresh cavalry unit of 12,000 and they managed to throw back the Rajput advance. Muhammad Ghori won the second Battle of Tarain.

Regarding, fate of Prthiviraj after second battle, two stories emerge.

  • The first story says that Prthivraj Chauhan was captured in the battle field and executed.
  • The second story, the more famous one in Rajasthan, is based on poem written by Prithviraj’s court poet Chandbardai. The story says that Mohammad Ghori attacked Prithviraj Chauhan unfairly at night, defeated his armies and captured him. Later Chauhan was taken to Ghor and presented in the court. Ghori ordered Prithvi to lower his eyes to which Prithvi retorted that the eyelids of Rajputs are lowered only on his death. Feeling insulted, Ghori blinded the Rajput prince.
  • Chandbardai entered the court of Mahmud of Ghori in a disguise. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was a very skilled archer, and he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look at his target. Ghori disdained to believe this and asked for the display.

When Prithviraj was given a bow and arrows into his hand and asked to take aim. Sighting opportunity, Chandbardai recited in a poetic stanza the location where Ghori sat. The stanza is: “Char bans, Chaubis Gaj, angul ashta Praman, Ta Upar sultan hai, Chuke mat Chauhan.” (Four measures ahead of you and twenty four yards away as measured with eight finger measurement, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).

  • Getting the direction and location Prithviraj shot his arrow through Ghori and killed him.

Consequences of Second Battle of Tarain on India: The second battle of Tarain was a decisive battle. It was a major disaster for the Rajputs and their political prestige suffered a serious setback. In 1193, Ghori’s general Qutub-Din Aibak took over Ajmer and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. Son of Prithviraj was moved to Ranthambore (laid foundation of Chauhan kingdom there). Further, in 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place, in which Aibak defeated Gahadavala ruler Jayachandra. In conlusion, the Battles of Tarain and Chandwar laid the foundation for establishment of Turkish rule in India.

Bakhtiyar Khilji extended the domain of empire to Bihar destroying Universities of Nalanda & Vikramsila in the process. Later in 1202, his army completed the occupation of Hindustan by taking the province of Bengal.

Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms: The most important cause for the downfall of Hindu Kingdoms was that the lack unity. They were divided by factions and Rajput Kingdoms were engaged in eternal mutual conflicts. It was the result of these conflicts that Jai Chandra did not help, Prithvi Raj Chauhan in putting up a united front against invaders.

Secondly, the military methods of Indian Kingdoms were also out of date and inferior to those of Muslims. Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry. More importantly, Ghori had spent the time carefully planning his campaign and his tactics proved a major winner in war.

1. Govinda-raja IV (c. 1192 CE): Banished by Hari-raja for accepting Muslim suzerainty and established the Chauhan branch of Ranthambore

2. Hari-raja (c. 1193-1194 CE): Hewas a king from the Shakambhari Chahamana dynasty of north-western India. After the Ghurid invaders defeated his brother Prithviraja III in 1192 CE, he dethroned his nephew Govindaraja IV, who had been appointed as a vassal ruler by the Ghurids. He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the Ghurids in 1194 CE.

Hariraja was a son of the Chahamana king Someshvara and Queen Karpura Devi. He and his elder brother Prithviraja III were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chalukya court by his maternal relatives. Prithviraja ascended the Chahamana throne after Someshvara death, but his reign ended in 1192 CE with a Ghurid conquest of the kingdom. The Ghurids appointed Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV as a vassal ruler in return for a heavy tribute.

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chauhan lost Ranthambore as a result of defeat of Prithviraja III in battle of Tarain 1192. By Mahmud of Ghori But, Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV accepted the Ghurid suzerainty, and ruled Ranthambore as his vassal.

  • Govinda-raja
  • Son of Prthvi Raja Chauhan III
  • Balhana-deva or Balhan
  • Prahlada or Prahlad,
  •  Viranarayana or Vir Narayan,
  • Vagabhata, son of Balhana;
  • Known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles
  • Jaitra-simha or Jaitra Singh
  •  Hammira-deva or Hammir Dev

In 1299, he defeated Allauddin Khilji’s army led by Ulugh Khan & Nusrat Khan.

  • In 1301, Allauddin Khilji again invaded his kingdom, which resulted in his defeat and death.

The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Delhi Sultans: After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja Chauhans son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja rule over Ajmer was not favoured by Hariraja, probably due to his acting as a Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by Prithviraj’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-installed on the throne of Ajmer.

  1. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan (Jaitra – perhaps his general) towards Delhi. The second attempt to failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja immolated himself.
  2. By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an independent kingdom.
  3. The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin strategy and farsightedness won the day in battle and the Rajputs forces were completely routed. After the victory, Aibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too was completely sacked. The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms, notably, the Chalukyas, Chandellas and Gahadavalas.
  4. In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to his policy of non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly bring any significant change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.

Chauhans of Jalore: Prathihar king VatsaRaja was the ruler of Jalore during 8th century. Towards the end of 12th Century, Parmars ruled here. Historians believe that the Jalore fort was built by Parmar rulers. It is known from a stone inscription of 1238 A.D. of fort that Parmar King Biral’s-queen Maludevi Powered Gold wins on Sindhu King.

Nadole king, Arhan’s, youngest son Kirtipala started Chouhan tradition in Jalore. The Chauhan lineage of Jalore is as under:

  • Kirtipala (c. 1160-1182 CE)
  • Samara-Simha (c. 1182-1204 CE)
  • Udaya-Simha (c. 1204-1257 CE)
  • Chachiga-deva (c. 1257-1282 CE)
  • Samanta-Simha (c. 1282-1305 CE)
  • Kanhada-deva (c. 1292-1311 CE)
  • Wrote Kanha-Prabhandha: Epic elaborating war between Kanha Dev & Alaudin Khilji.

Subsequent Rulers:

  • Rathore king Rao Maldev ruled the fort of Jalore in 15th Century.
  •  During Akbar’s rule, Abdul Rahim Khan Khana took it infinitely from Gazni Khan.
  • Jahangir built the walls of the fort.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb it permanently became a part of Jodhpur.

The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is credited with having taken possession of several adjoining territories (in possession of the Chalukyas and the Paramaras).

  • The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert capital.
  • According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being hard pressed sued for peace.
  • The terms included the offer of one hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did not yield the desired result, probably because of its geographical position.
  • Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the Guhilot of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an encounter.
  • The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.

Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore): History of Rajasthan

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Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore)

The strongest of the Gurjara-Prathira branch was the one at Bhinmal, under king Vyaghramukh. The Gurjar clan, which ruled at Bhinmal, was known as Chapas (this name is a short version of Chapotkrisht, Sanskrit word which means excelled in archery or strong bowmen). As per the records of Heun Tsang, the famous astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta was in the court of Vyaghramukh.

Kings of Bhinmal branch of Gurjara- Pratihara:

1. Raja Nagabhatt I Pratihara: He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

2. Raja Yashovardhana Pratihara

3. Raja Watsraj Pratihara: He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country but he was defeated in the hands of Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 4. Raja Nagabhatt II Pratihara: He got victory over Kannauj.He was defeated in the hands of Govinda of Rashtrakuta dynasty.He defeated Dharmapala and Chakrayudha in the battle of Mudgagiri.

 5. Raja Mihir Bhoj Pratihara: During the period of Mihir Bhoja Kanauj was restored to its former glory.Mihir Bhoja defeated Devapala of Bengal.Suleiman, Arab traveller visited the court of Mihir Bhoja in 851 A.D.

6. Raja Mahendrapal Pratihara

7. Raja Mahipal Pratihara

8. Raja Vinayakpal Pratihara

9. Raja Mahendrapal II Pratihara

10. Raja Vijay pal Pratihara

 11. Raja Rajyapal Pratihara

 12. Raja Trilochnpal Pratihara

 13. Raja YashPal Pratihara: He was the last ruler of the dynasty. He ruled from 1027 to 1036. Prathihara dynasty came to end with the invasion of Muhammad of Ghazni.

After the downfall of Prathiharas, their capital Kannauj was occupied by Gahadwalas (Rathores). Chandradeva, who belonged to Rathore clan of Rajput warriors, defeated Gopala and established the Gahadavala dynasty.

  • After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad of Ghuri attacked Jaychand. In 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place in which Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaychand. Soon the kingdom of Gahadwalas was destroyed.
  • Rao Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, of Kannauj, came to Marwar during his pilgrimage to Dwarka.
  • His Son, Rao Asthan conquered Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately got killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.
  • Rao Chanda/Chundarji, 10th in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas – and established rule of Rathores in Marwar. Jodhpur was the primary state of Rathores but different states (Bikaner, Kishangarh etc) were also founded by different Rathore rulers.

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs: History of Rajasthan

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The Origin of Rajputs

The term Rajput starts coming in use from the 6th Century AD. The origin of the Rajputs is the subject of debate. There are four main streams of thought on origin of Rajputs:

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs:

This theory says that the Rajputs are descendents of the races like Sakas, Kushanas, and Hunas etc. Dr. VA Smith, Col. James Todd, William Crooks supported this theory. The main argument of James Todd behind the foreign origin of the Rajputs was that these people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas.

Mixed Origin Theory

This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that Rajput is a mixed race. Some of them were descendents of the Aryans while some of them were from the foreign races such as Hunas, Sakas etc.

Kshatriyas theory of origin

This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that the Rajputs are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama. The theory divides the Rajput based on their lineage as Suryavanshi & Chandravanshi, which they trace from Surya and Chandra. They worship fire as the Aryans did and worship of fire was not the tradition of the Foreigners only.

Agnikula Theory

This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, Rajputs were the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu. The four Rajput clans from Agnikunda are Chauhans, Chalukyas, Parmaras and Pratiharas. Muhnot Nainsi & Suryamal Mishran also support this theory

Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

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Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

Because of Alexander’s invasion in 326 BCE tribes of South Punjab especially Malav, Shivi and Arjunayan migrated to Rajasthan. Punjab and Rajasthan became the nucleus of a number of oligarchies, or tribal republics whose local importance rose and fell in inverse proportion to the rise and fall of larger kingdoms. According to coins recovered, the most important politically were the Audambaras, Arjunayanas, Malavas, Kunindas, Trigartas, Abhiras, Yaudheyas and Shibis (Shivi).

Arjunayana

The Arjunayanas flourished in the Agra Jaipur tract from c. 200 BC TO 400 AD. Their coins have been found, which do not bear the name of any king or general, the legend is simply ‘Arjunayanam Jayah’, victory to the Arjunayanas. The coins belong to C 100 BC, but the Arjunayana state must have been much more ancient, for the ruling class believed that it descended from Arjuna, the epic hero. They worked in close cooperation with the Yaudheyas, their northern neighbours, who believed themselves to be the descendants of Dharma, the eldest brother of Arjuna.

  • Arjunayanas had their base in the present-day Bharatpur-Alwar region.
  • They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period (c. 185 – c. 73 BCE).

Rajnaya

  • Different scholars have ascribed different regions to Rajnaya janapadas; based on coins Cunningham suggested their region as near Mathura, Smith suggested former Dholpur state as original home of Rajnaya and Rapson ascribed them in same region as of Arjunayanas & Kings of Mathura.

Shivi

  • Shivi gana covered present districts of Udaipur & Chittorgarh.
  • The Shibis (Shivi) migrated from the Punjab to Rajasthan and settled at Madhyamika (later Nagri), located near Chittorgarh.
  • Nagri was excavated in 1904 A.D by D. R. Bhandarkar Malavas
  • The Malavas are actually mentioned in the Mahabhashya of Patanjali.
  • According to D. R. Bhandarkar, they initially lived in the Punjab; later, they migrated to eastern Rajasthan (Jaipur & Tonk), and finally to region in Madhya Pradesh, which is known as Malwa after them.
  •  Their capital in Rajasthan was Nagar, located in Tonk.

Shalvya: It was situated in Alwar district

Yodheya or Yaudheyas: Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana was an ancient confederation who lived in the area between the Indus River and the Ganges River. Present Ganganagar & Hanumangarh districts formed part of their gana

  • They find mention in Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha.
  • Later, the Junagarh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas.

The name itself is derived from ‘Yodha’ and signifies ‘warrior’. Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing upto the time of Samudragupta. They survived the onslaught of the Mauryan imperialism and closed their ranks in face of the Machiavellian Magadhan statecraft.

They disillusioned the Sunga ambitions and subsequently defied the alien Sakas and Kushans, resisted their advance and were instrumental in bringing about their downfall. Their country is called Bahudhanyaka and their capital is Rohtak in Mahabharata. According to Dr Altekar, we find from the spots where its coins have been discovered, that it extended from Saharanpur in the east to Bahawalpur in the west, from Ludhiana in the North West to Delhi in the south east. It was a confederation of three republics. Rohtak in Punjab was the capital of one of them, the northern Panchala known as Bahudhanyaka country was the centre of power for the second. Northern Rajputana seems to have been the jurisdiction of the third. The powerful Trans Beas state, mentioned by Alexander’s historians, which possessed fertile territory and virile inhabitants, and which was governed by an aristocracy exercising its powers with justice and moderation was the Yaudheya republic.

Rajasthan at a Glance

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River Inter-linking Project in Rajasthan

The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is studying the preliminary level of the feasibility of the three river inter-linking projects in Rajasthan. The proposed links are Parwati – Kalisindh -Chambal Link, Yamuna-Rajasthan Link Project and Rajasthan – Sabarmati Link Project.

There‘s also a plan to divert water of Chambal to Bisalpur dam by linking its tributary, Brahmani river, to Banas river upstream of Bisalpur.

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ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

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Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

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Hydrology-Water Resources of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

The Great Indian Water Divide in Aravalli distributes the river water of this region into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The rivers flowing in the west and south of Aravalli ranges, including Mahi, Som, Jokham and Sabarmati drain the water into the Arabian Sea. On the other hand, rivers flowing to the east, including Chambal and its tributaries, join the Bay of Bengal. There are also inland rivers like Luni and Ghaggar which drain out in the Rann of Kutch and Thar Desert respectively.

Rivers in Rajasthan are mostly seasonal, but this fact explains little because a river is not just the surface flow, evident to a naked eye. All the rivers and their floodplains in this desert state are vast grazing grounds supporting millions of livestock. These unseen rivers also recharge the groundwater making well irrigation possible.

Modern-day development activities, however, are putting an enormous pressure on them. If deforestation has reduced the water flow, rampant sand mining has affected the water retention and seepage into subsurface channels. Aravallis also has large number of marble mines and processing units. While digging operations extensively damage the environment, discharge of a large amount of slurry by processing units also blocks water channels. Industrial and domestic wastewater has further affected the quality and biodiversity of rivers. Reduced water flow is in turn making it easier for the encroachers to infringe upon these riverbeds.

This has also put most dams in the state in critical state as they are not getting water as per their designed depend abilities. This disrupts the water resources planning of the state and execution of contingency plan every year1.

Only two river basins (Chambal and Mahi) are perennial. In the recent past, many perennial rivers in these two basins became seasonal due to over-abstraction of groundwater from the catchment area of the rivers rendering reduced water table leading to reduced or nil base flow.

Rajasthan connects strongly with water through its heritage of lakes, ponds, stepwalls, dug wells and Tankas (underground tanks). Rivers thus have a limited presence in cultural and mythological landscape and are mostly seen as means of irrigation along their stretches. The region around Aravalis comprising south east Rajasthan has a stronger connection with rivers than the drier north-western and central plains. In fact, many of the forts had rivers as their natural defence against enemy attacks.

As per the latest estimates, the total internal surface water resources of Rajasthan are estimated at 25.93 BCM1 (21.71 BCM at 50% dependability and 14.12 BCM at 75% dependability) of which about 16.05 BCM are considered ―economically exploitable at 50% dependability. The state is allocated in addition, some 17.88 BCM in trans-boundary or inter-state river waters. The renewable groundwater resource (fresh, dynamic component) is placed at 10.61 BCM per year (10.79 BCM as of March 2009). The static reserve of fresh and saline groundwater reserves have been reported to be 32.9 BCM and 29.7 BCM respectively.

There are six major river basins in the State. Banas basin which is the largest drains out 45,833 Sq km. Luni basin, which comes next, drains out 37,363 Sq km. Chambal Basin, drains out 31,360 Sq km; Mahi basin drains out 16,985 Sq km, Banganga basin drains out 8,878 Sq km and Sabarmati drains out 4,164 sq km. There are more rivers like Sahibi, Ruparel and Ghaggar which have smaller catchment areas besides several streams which feed the bigger rivers. (Source: Water Resources Department, Rajasthan)

Five of these rivers can be further divided into sub-basins as given below:

  1. Luni Basin –Luni, Sukri, Redeye, Mithari, Bandi, Khari, Jawai, Guhiya and Sagi, and Jojari.
  2. Banas Basin – Banas, Berach, Dain, Gudia, Kalisil, Khari, Kothari, Mashi, Morel, Sudra. Indravati, Sabari, Pranhita, Lower Godavari, and Wainganga sub basin;
  3. Chambal Basin – Banas, Chakan, Chambal Downstream, Chambal Upstream, Kalisindh, Kunnu, Mej and Parwati.
  4. Mahi Basin- Anas, Bhadar, Jakham, Moran, Som and Mahi.
  5. Sabarmati Basin- Sabarmati, Sei, Vatrak and Wakal

Source: Study On Planning Of Water Resources Of Rajasthan

Physiographic features of Rajasthan

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State of Rajasthan is located in the north-western part of the subcontinent. Pakistan lies on its west and northwest, while it is bounded by the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh on the north and northeast. Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh form the east and southeast boundary and Gujarat lies on the southwest side.

The Aravalli range of hills and mountains, from where most rivers originate, divides the state into two major parts, southeast and northwest. The Range does not intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea, as it lies in a direction parallel to that of the coming monsoon winds, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow.

This makes western Rajasthan relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the south-western part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile.

Around two third of the northwest is covered by sand dunes while the floodplains of Mahi, Banas and Chambal river systems form the southeastern part.

Around 67 per cent of the state‘s area is affected due to desertification / and land degradation where the wind erosion (44.2%) is the maximum contributor followed by water (11.2%), vegetal degradation (6.25%) and salinization (1.07%) (ISRO, 2007).

The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. These expand from Western India – Pakistan boundary and steadily combine with the parched deciduous forests of Aravalli hills as well as the South East plateau. These forests are found in the districts of Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer, Jalore, Churu, Bikaner and Nagaur.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are home to the Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia, and other trees. Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur districts, are enclosed with this kind of forests. Intermittent expansion of definite species of parched deciduous forests is found beside the arid river beds of Nagaur, Jalore, Bikaner and Ganganagar districts. The Central Indian sub – tropical hill forests are found in Sirohi, Rajasthan, frequently on the hills near Mount Abu. These forests have some evergreen and partially evergreen species of trees. Mixed Miscellaneous forests are also found in the South-Eastern and Eastern region of Rajasthan including Kota, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara, Jhalawar and Baran districts.

Rajasthan: State Profile

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the largest state of India by area and forms North West end of the country sharing its border with Pakistan.

  1. Area: The total area of Rajasthan state is 342,239 sq km
  2. Administrative units: The state has been divided into 33 districts.
  3. Population: The total human population of the state is 68.54 million. (Census 2011)
  4. Total forest cover: 32,627 sq km
  5. Climate: The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district.

In the west, Rajasthan is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the south-eastern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile. The climate varies throughout Rajasthan. On average winter temperatures range from 8° to 28° C (46° to 82° F) and summer temperatures range from 25° to 46° C (77° to 115° F). Average rainfall also varies; the western deserts accumulate about 100 mm (about 4 in) annually, while the southeastern part of the state receives 650 mm (26 in) annually, most of which falls from July through September during the monsoon season.

(Source: www.rajasthan.gov.in )

General Science Question Bank for all exams- PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

1. Electron beam therapy is a kind of radiation therapy to treat?

(a) Enlarged prostate gland

(b) Gall bladder stones

(c) Certain types of cancer

(d) Kidney stones

2. Cobalt (60) isotope is used in the treatment of?

(a) Heart diseases

(b) Skin diseases

(c) Diabetes

(d) Cancer

3. Which of the following is an ant diabetic drug?

(a) Insulin

(b) Penicillin

(c) Chloroquin

(d) Aspirin

4. The organ of the human body directly affected by the disease of hepatitis is

(a) Liver

(b) Lungs

(c) Heart

(d) Brain

5. Which one of the following disease is not caused by virus?

(a) Polio

(b) Rabies

(c) Small pox

(d) Diphtheria

6. Of the following, ELISA test is performed to test

(a) Diabetes

(b) Tuberculosis

(c) AIDS

(d) Syphilis

7. The radio-isotope used to detect blood-clots in the Circulatory system is

(a) Arsenic-74

(b) Cobalt-60

(c) I-131

(d) Sodium-24

8. Keeping pigs away from human settlements helps in the Eradication of

(a) Malaria

(b) Japanese encephalitis

(c) Elephantiasis

(d) Polio

9. Which one of the following human organs is less susceptible to harmful radiations?

(a) Eyes

(b) Heart

(c) Brain

(d) Lungs

10. Artemisinin, a drug to cure malaria is obtained from a

(A) Seed plant

 (b) Fungus

(c) Bacterium

(d) Moss

11. The Minamata disease of Japan in 1953 was caused by eating fish contaminated with

(a) Nickel

(b) Lead

(c) Mercury

(d) Cadmium

12. The disease caused by swelling of the membrane over Spinal cord and brain is

(a) Leukaemia

(b) Paralysis

(c) Sclerosis

(d) Meningitis

13. Emphysema is a disease caused by environmental pollution in which the affected organ of the body is

(a) Liver

(b) Kidney

(c) Lungs

(d) Brain

14. The mad cow disease is caused by

(a) Bacteria

(b) Viruses

(c) Fungus

 (d) Prisons

15. Which of the following decrease in number in the human body due to Dengue fever?

(a) Platelets

(b) Haemoglobin

(c) Sugar

(d) Water

16. What is MRI?

(a) Magnetic Record of Intestines

(b) Magnetic Recording of Investigations

(c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(d) Magnetic Resonance in Intestines

17. Which of the following disease is caused by Vitamin B3?

(a) Beri – beri

(b) Night blindness

(c) Rickets

(d) Pellagra

18. Salk’s vaccine is connected with which one of the following diseases?

(a) Small pox

(b) Tetanus

(c) T.B.

(d) Polio

19. Which of the following is a substance available in small quantity in the sea and administered in a certain deficiency disease?

(a) Iron

(b) Vitamin A

(c) Fluorine

(d) Iodine

20. In countries where polished rice is the main cereal in their diet, people suffer from

(a) Pellagra

(b) Beri-beri

(c) Scurvy

(d) Osteomalacia

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Mahatma Gandhi: Biography and GK Questions PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Mahatma Gandhi Biography (1869–1948)

Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Until Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, his life and teachings inspired activists including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

Who Was Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi (October 2, 1869 to January 30, 1948) was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule and in South Africa who advocated for the civil rights of Indians. Born in Porbandar, India, Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948. Mahatma Gandhi leading the Salt March in protest against the government monopoly on salt production.

Early Life and Education

Indian nationalist leader Gandhi (born Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, which was then part of the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karmachand Gandhi, served as a chief minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putli bai, was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept with the lights on even as a teenager. In the ensuing years, the teenager rebelled by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household servants.

Although Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father hoped he would also become a government minister and steered him to enter the legal profession. In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The young Indian struggled with the transition to Western culture.

Upon returning to India in 1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just weeks earlier. He struggled to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom case, a nervous Gandhi blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees.

Gandhi’s Religion and Beliefs

Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous ancient Indian religion that espoused non-violence, fasting, meditation and vegetarianism.

During Gandhi’s first stay in London, from 1888 to 1891, he became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of sacred texts to learn more about world religions.

Living in South Africa, Gandhi continued to study world religions. “The religious spirit within me became a living force,” he wrote of his time there. He immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity, austerity, fasting and celibacy that was free of material goods.

Gandhi in South Africa

After struggling to find work as a lawyer in India, Gandhi obtained a one-year contract to perform legal services in South Africa. In April 1893, he sailed for Durban in the South African state of Natal.

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly appalled by the discrimination and racial segregation faced by Indian immigrants at the hands of white British and Boer authorities. Upon his first appearance in a Durban courtroom, Gandhi was asked to remove his turban. He refused and left the court instead. The Natal Advertiser mocked him in print as “an unwelcome visitor.”

Nonviolent Civil Disobedience

A seminal moment occurred on June 7, 1893, during a train trip to Pretoria, South Africa, when a white man objected to Gandhi’s presence in the first-class railway compartment, although he had a ticket. Refusing to move to the back of the train, Gandhi was forcibly removed and thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg.

Gandhi’s act of civil disobedience awoke in him a determination to devote himself to fighting the “deep disease of color prejudice.” He vowed that night to “try, if possible, to root out the disease and suffer hardships in the process.”

From that night forward, the small, unassuming man would grow into a giant force for civil rights. Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight discrimination.

Gandhi prepared to return to India at the end of his year-long contract until he learned, at his farewell party, of a bill before the Natal Legislative Assembly that would deprive Indians of the right to vote. Fellow immigrants convinced Gandhi to stay and lead the fight against the legislation. Although Gandhi could not prevent the law’s passage, he drew international attention to the injustice.

After a brief trip to India in late 1896 and early 1897, Gandhi returned to South Africa with his wife and children. Gandhi ran a thriving legal practice, and at the outbreak of the Boer War, he raised an all-Indian ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers to support the British cause, arguing that if Indians expected to have full rights of citizenship in the British Empire, they also needed to shoulder their responsibilities.

Satyagraha

In 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he called “Satyagraha” (“truth and firmness”), in reaction to the South African Transvaal government’s new restrictions on the rights of Indians, including the refusal to recognize Hindu marriages.

After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in 1913, including Gandhi. Under pressure, the South African government accepted a compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts that included recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of a poll tax for Indians. 

Return to India 

When Gandhi sailed from South Africa in 1914 to return home, Smuts wrote, “The saint has left our shores, I sincerely hope forever.” At the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi spent several months in London.

In 1915 Gandhi founded an ashram in Ahmedabad, India, that was open to all castes. Wearing a simple loincloth and shawl, Gandhi lived an austere life devoted to prayer, fasting and meditation. He became known as “Mahatma,” which means “great soul.”

Opposition to British Rule in India

In 1919, with India still under the firm control of the British, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison people suspected of sedition without trial. In response, Gandhi called for a Satyagraha campaign of peaceful protests and strikes. 

Violence broke out instead, which culminated on April 13, 1919, in the Massacre of Amritsar. Troops led by British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators and killed nearly 400 people.

No longer able to pledge allegiance to the British government, Gandhi returned the medals he earned for his military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians to serve in World War I.

Gandhi became a leading figure in the Indian home-rule movement. Calling for mass boycotts, he urged government officials to stop working for the Crown, students to stop attending government schools, soldiers to leave their posts and citizens to stop paying taxes and purchasing British goods.

Rather than buy British-manufactured clothes, he began to use a portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth. The spinning wheel soon became a symbol of Indian independence and self-reliance.

Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violence and non-cooperation to achieve home rule.

After British authorities arrested Gandhi in 1922, he pleaded guilty to three counts of sedition. Although sentenced to a six-year imprisonment, Gandhi was released in February 1924 after appendicitis surgery.

He discovered upon his release that relations between India’s Hindus and Muslims devolved during his time in jail. When violence between the two religious groups flared again, Gandhi began a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924 to urge unity. He remained away from active politics during much of the latter 1920s.

Gandhi and the Salt March

Gandhi returned to active politics in 1930 to protest Britain’s Salt Acts, which not only prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt—a dietary staple—but imposed a heavy tax that hit the countries poorest particularly hard. Gandhi planned a new Satyagraha campaign, The Salt March that entailed a 390-kilometer/240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where he would collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly.

“My ambition is no less than to convert the British people through non-violence and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India,” he wrote days before the march to the British viceroy, Lord Irwin.

Wearing a homespun white shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, Gandhi set out from his religious retreat in Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with a few dozen followers. By the time he arrived 24 days later in the coastal town of Dandi, the ranks of the marchers swelled, and Gandhi broke the law by making salt from evaporated seawater.

The Salt March sparked similar protests, and mass civil disobedience swept across India. Approximately 60,000 Indians were jailed for breaking the Salt Acts, including Gandhi, who was imprisoned in May 1930.

Still, the protests against the Salt Acts elevated Gandhi into a transcendent figure around the world. He was named Time magazine’s “Man of the Year” for 1930.

Gandhi was released from prison in January 1931, and two months later he made an agreement with Lord Irwin to end the Salt Satyagraha in exchange for concessions that included the release of thousands of political prisoners. The agreement, however, largely kept the Salt Acts intact. But it did give those who lived on the coasts the right to harvest salt from the sea.

Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule, Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference, however, proved fruitless.

Protesting “Untouchables” Segregation

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932 during a crackdown by India’s new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. He embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to segregate the “untouchables,” those on the lowest rung of India’s caste system, by allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the proposal.

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and leadership passed to his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting India’s rural areas.

India’s Independence from Great Britain

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, Gandhi launched the “Quit India” movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day Pune.

“I have not become the King’s First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation of the British Empire,” Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of the crackdown.

With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment in 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchill’s Conservatives in the British general election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent states—predominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus, however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward Muslims.

Gandhi’s Wife and Kids

At the age of 13, Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage. She in Gandhi’s arms in February 1944 at the age of 74

In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby.

In 1888, Gandhi’s wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was born in India 1893. Kasturba gave birth to two more sons while living in South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

On January 30, 1948, 78-year-old Gandhi was shot and killed by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse, who was upset at Gandhi’s tolerance of Muslims.

Weakened from repeated hunger strikes, Gandhi clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living quarters in New Delhi’s Birla House to a late-afternoon prayer meeting. Godse knelt before the Mahatma before pulling out a semiautomatic pistol and shooting him three times at point-blank range. The violent act took the life of a pacifist who spent his life preaching nonviolence.

Godse and a co-conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949. Additional conspirators were sentenced to life in prison.

Legacy

Even after Gandhi’s assassination, his commitment to nonviolence and his belief in simple living — making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest — have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

Questions on Gandhiji mostly asked in competitive exams

Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, politician, social activist, and writer who became the leader of the nationalist movement against the British rule of India. He is also called Bapu and known as the Father of the Nation.

Q.1. Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was born on

 (a) October 5, 1896    (b) October 3, 1840

 (c) October 2, 1869    (d) October 10, 1880

Q.2. At which place was Gandhiji born?

(a) Porbandar  (b) Rajkot

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Delhi

Q.3. what was Gandhiji’s age when he got married to Kasturba?

(a) 19 years      (b) 15 years

(c) 12 years      (d) 13 years

Q.4. Gandhiji confessed his guilt of stealing for the purpose of smoking in a letter, promising never to steal in future and asking for adequate punishment. To whom was this letter addressed?

 (a) Father        (b) Mother

(C) Elder Brother        (d) Friend

Q.5. About how old was Gandhiji when he reached London to become a barrister?

(a) 20 years      (b) 19 years

(c) 21 years      (d) 18 years

Q.6. to become a barrister in England, one had to join one of the Inns of Courts. After obtaining admission, Gandhiji joined the Inner Temple on

(a) October 5, 1870     (b) December 15, 1885

(c) November 6, 1888 (d) January 3, 1880

Q.7. Devadas was Gandhiji’s

(a) Only child  (b) Second child

(c) Eldest child            (d) youngest child

Q.8. Gandhiji, the votary of nonviolence was shot dead on January 30, 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi, shortly after 5 p.m. while going to the prayer meeting. Which was that fateful day of the week?

(a) Saturday    (b) Wednesday

(c) Friday        (d) Monday

Q.9. In which South African unit had most of the India emigrants taken up abode?

(a) Johannesburg         (b) Natal

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.10. While holding a first-class ticket Gandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to the van compartment. On his refusal to comply with the unjust order, a constable was called to push him out with bag and baggage. Identify the railway station where this incident took place.

(a) Natal          (b) Johannesburg

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.11. At which place was Gandhiji arrested for the first time by the British Government for sedition?

(a) Bombay     (b) Pune

(c) Calcutta     (d) Ahmedabad

Q.12. On which day of March 1930 Gandhiji started with a band of chosen volunteers on his famous Dandi March to break the law by manufacturing illegally, but openly, salt from the sea?

(a) Tenth          (b) Thirteenth

(c) Eleventh     (d) Twelfth

Q.13. When was the Gandhi – Irwin Pact signed?

(a) March 1, 1932        (b) March 5, 1931

(c) March 10, 1935      (d) March 7, 1937

Q.14. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected President of the Congress in 1938 with Gandhiji’s goodwill. He wanted a second term, but Gandhiji did not approve of it. Despite the disapproval, Bose fought the election and won it, defeating the official candidate by over 200 votes. Gandhiji took it as a personal defeat. Identify the candidate.

(a) Lala Lajpat rai        (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(C) Pattabhi Sitaramayya        (d) Sarojini Naidu

Q.15. On being arrested for his “Quit India” programme, where was Gandhiji detained?

(A) Yeravada Jail        (b) Byculla Prison

(C) Aga Khan Palace Jail        (d) Ahmedabad Prison

Q.16. Lord Mountbatten arrived in India on 22nd March 1947 as the new Viceroy in the place of Lord Wavell to finalise the process of the transfer of power. His first act was to invite Gandhiji to meet him in that connection. When did Gandhiji meet him for the first time?

 (a) March 29, 1947     (b) March 30, 1947

 (c) March 31, 1947     (d) March 23, 1947

Q.17. The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. Who was its author?

 (A) Ruskin Bond       (b) John Ruskin

 (C) Leo Tolstoy          (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 18. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

 (a) Infinite capacity for suffering      (b) Non-violence

 (c) Truth         (d) All the three

Q. 19. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati.

 (a) Magan lal Gandhi (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Pyarelal ji  (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q. 20. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

 (a) Light of India       (b) Hind Swaraj

 (c) My Experiments with Truth         (d) Both (b) & (c)

Q. 21. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government-run Gandhi museum.

 (a) 1960          (b) 1965

 (c) 1971          (d) 1976

Q. 22. Identify the leader who lass met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

 (A) Vallabhbhai Patel            (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vinoba Bhave

Q. 23. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti-untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

 (a) Bombay    (b) Ahmedabad

 (c) Poona        (d) Nasik

Q. 24. When on August 15, 1947 the transfer of power took place, the Congress President issued a message to the nation and saluted Mahatma Gandhi as “the maker of freedom achieved in a unique way.” He said “never before was so great an event consummated with such little bloodshed and violence.” Who was the Congress President?

 (a) J B Kripalani         (b) Vallabhbhai Patel

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Motilal Nehru

Q. 25. What did Gandhiji mean by ‘Swaraj’?

 (a) Freedom for the country   (b) Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

 (c) Self-Government  (d) complete independence

Q. 26. When did Gandhiji take the vow of brahmacharya or celibacy of life?

 (a) 1911          (b) 1906

 (c) 1900          (d) 1905

Q. 27. When did Gandhiji get his head shaved, discard his clothes and settle for a loin cloth?

 (a) 1930          (b) 1921

 (c) 1925          (d) 1930

Q. 28. Who worked as a Private Secretary to Mahatma Gandhi?

 (a) Pyarelal ji  (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Kishori lal Mashruwala     (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q.29. Who in South Africa gave Gandhiji ‘Unto This Last’ to read which proved to be one of the most decisive books of his life?

 (A) John Holmes Haynes       (b) H S Polak

 (C) Hermann Kallenbach       (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 30. To put the ideas of ‘Unto This Last’ into practice, Gandhiji founded the Phoenix Settlement near Durban which came into being in the middle of the year ________________.

 (a) 1903          (b) 1904

 (c) 1905          (d) 1906

Q.31. Who described Gandhi’s march to Dandi in the following words? “Like the historic march of Ramchandra to Lanka, the march of Gandhi will be memorable”.

 (a) Motilal Nehru       (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vallabhbhai Patel

Q. 32. The historic August session of the All-India Congress Committee, at which the Quit India Resolution was passed, was held at Gowalia Park in __________________.

 (a) Bombay    (b) Calcutta

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Amritsar

Q. 33. Gandhiji accorded very high priority to communal harmony in his programme of actions. At which place did he undertake his last fast for it on January 13, 1948?

 (a) Nasik         (b) Delhi

 (c) Calcutta    (d) Bombay

Q. 34. After the attainment of political independence in 1947, Gandhiji felt that the Congress, as a propaganda vehicle and a parliamentary machine, had outlived its usefulness. So to keep the Congress away from unhealthy competition with political parties and communal bodies, Gandhiji towards the end of January 1948 sketched a draft constitution for the Congress to transform itself into ______________.

 (A) Lok Samiti           (b) Lok Kalyan Sangh

 (C) Lok Sevak Sangh (d) People’s Forum

Q. 35. Which of the following did Gandhiji describes as his two lungs?

 (a) Ahimsa and peace (b) Ahimsa and truth

 (c) Truth and Peace    (d) Brahmacharya and Aparigraha

Q. 36. The differences with Gandhiji led Subhas Chandra Bose to resign the Presidentship of the India National Congress in 1939. Leaving the Congress he formed a new party called __________________.

 (a) Indian National Party       (b) Forward Bloc

 (c) Freedom Party      (d) Freedom Bloc

Q. 37. Identify the Viceroy who wrote home these words after his first meeting with Gandhiji:”Mr Gandhi’s religious and moral views are, I believe, admirable, but I confess that I find it difficult to understand the practice of them in politics.”

 (a) Lord Wavell          (b) Lord Irwin

 (C) Lord Reading      (d) Lord Mountbatten

Q. 38. What was the profession of Gandhiji’s father?

 (a) Farmer       (b) Diwan

 (c) Shop-keeper          (d) Tehsildar

Q. 39. How many children did Putli bai have?

 (a) Two sons and daughters   (b) One daughter and three sons

 (c) Four sons  (d) three sons

Q. 40. What was the name of Gandhi’s domestic help?

 (a) Titli ai        (b) Rambha ai

 (c) Ranabai     (d) Guardia

Q. 41. What was the name of Gandhiji’s sister?

 (a) Gauri         (b) Ralia

 (c) Rambha     (d) Meera

Q. 42. Who inspired Gandhi with ‘ Ram Nam’ in his childhood?

 (a) Kasturba   (b) Putli bai

 (C) Rambha Dai         (d) Lakshmi Das

Q. 43. What was Gandhiji’s nickname in childhood?

 (a) Monu        (b) Manu or Moniya

 (c) Sonu          (d) Mahu

Q. 44. Which spelling did Gandhiji spell wrong as a child when the school inspector gave dictation to the class?

 (a) School       (b) Kettle

 (c) Uniform    (d) Umbrella

Q. 45. Where did Gandhiji receive his primary education?

 (a) Sudamapuri           (b) Bikaner

 (c) Porbandar (d) Rajkot

Q. 46. Which mythological character impressed Gandhiji for life when he saw a play on his life?

 (a) Harishchandra       (b) Ashoka

 (c) Vikramaditya        (d) Krishna

Q. 47. Who asked Gandhiji to eat meat in order to become strong?

 (a) Sheikh Mehtab      (b) Karsan Das

 (c) Lakshmi Das         (d) Uka

Q. 48. How old was Gandhiji when his father died?

 (a) 15 years     (b) 17 years

 (c) 16 years     (d) 18 years

Q. 49. In which year did Gandhiji pass his matriculation in England?

 (a) 1889          (b) 1890

 (c) 1891          (d) 1892

Q. 50. What were the vows taken up by Gandhiji before he left for England?

 (a) Not to take alcohol           (b) Not to eat meat

 (c) Not to eye other women   (d) All the above

Q. 51. Which institution did Gandhiji join as a member during his stay in England?

 (a) Vegetarian Society           (b) Cricket Club

 (c) Church of England           (d) Film Institution

Q. 52. Which book influenced Gandhiji greatly, which he read in England?

 (a) Be Vegetarian       (b) Vegetables are good for health

 (c) Plea for Vegetarianism     (d) Use of Vegetables

Answer Key:

1. (c) 1869                  

2. (a) Porbandar                                 

3. (d) 13 years

4. (a) Father    

5. (b) 19 years            

6. (c) November 6, 1888

7. (d) Youngest Child

8. (c) Friday   

9. (b) Natal

10. (c) Maritz burg     

11.(d) Ahmedabad     

12. (d) Twelfth

13. (b) March5, 1931 

14. (c) Pattabhi Sitaramayya  

15. (c) Agakhan Palace Jail

16. (c) March 31, 1947           

17. (b) John Ruskin    

18. (d) All three

19. (b) Mahadev Desai           

20. (d) both (b) & (c) 

21. (c) 1971

22. (a) Vallabhbhai Patel        

23. (c) Poona  

24. (a) J B Kripalani

25. (b) freedom for the meanest of the countrymen  

26. (b) 1906    

27. (b) 1921

28. (b) Mahadev Desai           

29. (b) H S L Polak    

30. (b) 1904

31. (a) Motilal Nehru 

32. (a) Bombay          

33. (b) Delhi

34.(c) Lok Sevak Sangh         

35. (b) Ahimsa and Truth       

36. (b) Forward Bloc

37. (c) Lord Reading 

38. (b) Diwan 

39. (b) One daughter and three sons

40. (b) Rambha dai    

41. (b) Raliat  

42. (c) Rambha Dai

43. (b) Manu or Moniya         

44. (b) Kettle  

45. (d) Rajkot

46. (a) Harishchandra 

47. (a) Sheikh Mehtab

48. (c) 16years

49. (b) 1890    

50. (d) All the above  

51. (a) Vegetarian Society

52. (c) Plea for Vegetarianism               

Part – II                 

1. Who is the author of ‘Unto This Last’?

A. John Ruskin

B. Ruskin Bond

C. Hermann Kallenbach

D. Louis Fischer

Ans:  A

2. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

A. Infinite capacity for suffering

B. Non violence

C. Truth

D. All the three

Ans: D

3. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati. Who translated it into English?

A. Magan lal Gandhi

B. Mahadev Desai

C. Pyarelal ji

D. Sushila Nayyar

Ans: B

4. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

A. Light of India

B. Hind Swaraj

C. My Experiments with Truth

D. Both B & C

Ans: D

5. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government – run Gandhi museum.

A. 1960

B. 1965

C. 1971

D. 1976

Ans: C

6. Identify the leader who last met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

A. Vallabhbhai Patel

B. Sarojini Naidu

C. Jawaharlal Nehru

D. Vinoba Bhave

Ans: A

7. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti – untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

A. Bombay

B. Ahmedabad

C. Poona

D. Nasik

Ans: C

8. Book ‘The Satyagraha’ was originally written in?

A. English

B. Hindi

C. Gujarati

D. Bengali

Ans: C

9. As per Gandhiji, what is the mean of “Swaraj”?

A. Freedom for the country

B. Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

C. Self Government

D. Complete Independence

Ans: B

10. When had Gandhiji gone to London?

A. 1894

B. 1893

C. 1899

D. 1891

Ans:  D

11. Who said “Live as if you were to die tomorrow? Learn as if you were to live forever.”

A.  Mahatma Gandhi

B.  Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

C.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

D.  Sarojini Naidu

Ans: A

12. When is the International Day of Non-Violence celebrated?

A. 14th August

B. 16th May

C. 8th October

D. 2nd October

Ans: D

13. The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October, the birthday of ____________________.

A.  Jawaharlal Nehru

B.  Mahatma Gandhi

C.  Sarojini Naidu

D.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

Ans: B

14. What was the title given by MK Gandhi to his Gujarati translation of “Unto This Last”?

A.  Manavta

B.  Sadbhavna

C.  Sarvodaya

D.  Ahimsa

Ans: C

15. MK Gandhi was born in which place?

A.  Porbandar

B.  Madhya Pradesh

C.  Karnataka

D.  Andhra Pradesh

Ans: A

16. Which of the following slogans is associated with the name of Gandhiji?

A.  Do or Die

B.  Tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe Azaadi dunga

C.  Swaraj is my birth-right

D.  Jai Hind

Ans: A

17. How many days did Mahatma Gandhi and his volunteers took to cover 24 mile journey from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi?

A. 24

B. 20

C. 21

D. 17

Ans: A

18. Where is Sabarmati Ashram?

A.  Rajkot

B.  Ahmedabad

C.  Pathankot

D.  Baroda

Ans: B

19.  Which book did Mohandas Gandhi write?

A.  India – The National

B.  The Story of My Experiments with Truth

C.  Two States

D.  The Good Earth

Ans: B

20. Which of the following was the first movement of Mahatma Gandhi in India?

A. Champaran Satyagraha

B. Bardoli Satyagraha

C. Dandi March

D. Kheda Satyagraha

Ans: A

Source: mkgandhi.org

Best wishes!!

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Current Affairs is the most important, as well as the trickiest part of Civil Services Exam. Making your own notes from any standard national newspaper consumes much of your time, especially if you are a beginner.

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Current Affairs is the most important, as well as the trickiest part of Civil Services Exam. Making your own notes from any standard national newspaper consumes much of your time, especially if you are a beginner.

This is because the news articles that appear in the newspaper generally miss certain essential facts, lack the logical flow of content and are complexly worded.

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

IAS Prelims Test Series

India & World Geography

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

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Environment & Ecology

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Current Affairs Question Bank June- July 2019

1) Indrasaurus wangi sometimes seen in the news recently is a/an

a.  Paravian Dinosaur

b.  Ancient Lizard species

c.  Dolphin native to River Indus

d.  None of the above

Answer : b

A team of researchers has recently discovered a new specimen of a microraptor — volant dromaeosaurid Microraptor zhaoianus — with the remains of a nearly complete lizard preserved in its stomach. The researchers have named the lizard after Lord Indra. The lizard is unlike any previously known from the Cretaceous and represents a new species- Indrasaurus wangi. The name Indrasaurus was inspired by a Vedic legend in which the god Indra was swallowed by a dragon during a great battle (the dragon here referring to Microraptor).

2) Consider the following statements with respect to Blue Flag Programme

1. It is an eco-label awarded to beaches, marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.

2. It is jointly operated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organisation and UN-Oceans.

3. Shivrajpur and Bhogave beaches are the only beaches in India that have attained the Blue Flag. 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  1 and 2 only

c.  1 and 3 only

d.  1, 2 and 3

Answer : a

The iconic Blue Flag is one of the world’s most recognised voluntary eco-labels awarded to beaches, marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.

The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas is run by the international, non-governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental Education).

In order to qualify for the Blue Flag, a series of stringent environmental, educational, safety, and accessibility criteria must be met and maintained.

Japan and South Korea are the only countries in South and South-Eastern Asia to have Blue Flag beaches.

The Union Environment Ministry has recently selected 12 beaches in India to vie for a ‘Blue Flag’ certification.

3) Which of the following tribe(s) is/are not belonging to the state of Sikkim?

1.       Bhutia

2.       Lepcha

3.       Limboo

4.       Tamang

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a.  4 only

b.  1 and 4 only

c.  1, 2 and 4 only

d.  None of the above

Answer : d

List of Tribes in Sikkim:

1.       Bhutia (including Chumbipa, Dopthapa, Dukpa, Kagatey, Sherpa, Tibetan, Tromopa, Yolmo)

2.       Lepcha

3.       Limboo

4.       Tamang

A proposal for reservation of seats for Limboo and Tamang communities in Sikkim Legislative Assembly is under consideration of the Government of India.

4) Consider the following statements with respect to Van Mitra Portal

1.       It is an online portal launched by the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs.

2.       It acts as a platform for citizens to report poaching and illegal trade of forest resources.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c.  Both 1 and 2

d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : d

The Madhya Pradesh government has recently began organising gram sabhas in villages to consider afresh rejected claims of Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers to forest land rights under the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.

To streamline the application process and deal with the bulk of claims, the State has also launched an online application system, Van Mitra, in the Hoshangabad district on a pilot basis.

5) FinSpy sometimes seen in the news recently is a

a.  Bio capsule

b.  Spyware virus

c.  Vaccine for TB

d.  Disinfectant resistant Pathogen

Answer : b

FinSpy is the latest version of spyware virus designed to track nearly every interaction on a mobile device.

FinSpy collects data from instant messengers—even if they are using encryption programs—such as Russian developed messaging app Telegram, Facebook’s WhatsApp, Skype, Signal, China’s WeChat and BlackBerry Messenger.

It can work both on iOS and Android devices.

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General Studies Test – 3

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1.       With reference to the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC), consider the following statements.

1.       It is the world’s largest international maritime exercise.

2.       Only Pacific Ocean littoral countries participate in this exercise.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only 4

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

2.       Which of the following laws are the legacies of British rule in India?

1.       Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code

2.       Section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code

3.       Armed Forces Special Power Act

4.       Section 499 and 500 of the Indian Penal

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 and 3 only

(b)     2 and 4 only

(c)     1, 2 and 4 only

(d)     2 and 3 only

3.       Which of the following were the reasons for French decline in India?

1.       French army was no match for British army

2.       French monarchy had no stakes in the French company

3.       French were engaged in continental expansion in Europe

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 only

(d)     All of these

4.       Consider the following with reference to “Coral reefs”.

1.       Coral reefs are symbiotic association of coral polyps and algae.

2.       Muddy waters are more suitable for the growth of coral reefs.

3.       Coral reefs are equivalent to marine of tropical rain forest.

4.       Lakshadweep islands are of coral origin.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a)     1 and 4 only

(b)     1,3 and 4 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1,2,3 and 4

5.       With reference to the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI), which of the following statements is/are not correct?

1.       BCSBI defines the benchmarks for banking services in India.

2.       It oversees the Scheme of Banking Ombudsman.

3.       It is a statutory body under the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     1 and 2 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

6.       Which one of the following statements about the provisions of the Constitution of India is correct?

(a)     Minorities can establish and administer educational institutions of their choice

(b)     Only linguistic, ethnic and religious minorities find mention under Article 30

(c)     Every religious denomination has unfettered right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes.

(d)     An educational institution established by a religious minority loses its minority status on receiving financial aid from the Government.

7.       The Peshwa accepted the Subsidiary Alliance with the British via which among the following treaties?

(a)     Treaty of Purandhar

(b)     Treaty of Bassein

(c)     Treaty of Salbai

(d)     Treaty of Surji Arjunagaon

8.       Consider the following statements in the context of Peruvian current.

1.       It is cold current

2.       It is responsible for fishing productivity in Peruvian coast.

3.       It cases dryness in Atacama Desert. Which of the statements given above is / are correct

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 and 3 Only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

9. Match the Following

(a)           (b)           (c)          (d)

(a) 2 3 4 1

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 3 1 2 4

(d) 2 4 1 3

(a)     (b)     (c)     (d)

(a) 2 3 4 1

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 3 1 2 4

(d) 2 4 1 3

10.     With reference to the fish production in India, consider the following statements.

1.       In terms of fish production, the inland fisheries sector contributes more than that of the marine sector.

2.       India’s marine fisheries production is more in Gujarat as compared to other States.

3.       In India is the second largest fish producing country in the World. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1, 2 and 3 only

(d)     None of the above statements are correct

11.     With reference to the Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), consider the following statements.

1.       It is an initiative under the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP) for trade expansion among developing country members of the Asia Pacific Region.

2.       India and Pakistan are among the founding members of this Preferential Trade Agreement.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

12.     Which among the following is correct with regards to the Constituent assembly of India?

(a)     Constituent assembly was democratically elected by the people of India.

(b)     The representatives of each community were elected by the members of that community itself.

(c)     Each province/princely states were allocated seats based on their geographical area.

(d)     Mahatma Gandhi was a member of the constituent assembly until he was assassinated in 1948.

13.     Who among the following signed the Treaty of Bassein in 1802 with the British East India Company?

(a)     Baji Rao II

(b)     Baji Rao I

(c)     Sultan Bahadur

(d)     None of the above

14.     Which of the following is not correct in the context of “Wildfires”?

(a)     These are controlled blazes fuelled by weather, wind, and dry underbrush etc.

(b)     They return nutrients to the soil

(c)     They act as a disinfectant.

(d)     They allow sunlight to reach the forest floor, enabling a new generation of seedlings to grow.

15.     In which of the following states, the indigenous beliefs “Donyi-Polo” and “Rangfra” are practiced?

(a)     Arunachal Pradesh

(b)     Mizoram

(c)     Manipur

(d)     Assam

16.     Which of the following functions were performed by the Constituent Assembly of India?

1.       Enactment of the ordinary laws

2.       Adoption of National Flag and National Anthem.

3.       Election of the First President of India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     1 and 3 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

17.     In the tenure of which Governor-General an attempt was made for the first time to codify Hindu and Muslim customary laws?

(a)     Lord Cornwallis

(b)     Warren Hastings

(c)     William Bentinck

(d)     Charles Metcalfe

18.     Which of the following factors is / are responsible for tides formation?

1.       Earth’s gravitational pull

2.       Moon’s gravitational pull

3.       Sun’s gravitational pull

4.       Centrifugal force due to earth’s rotation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a)     2 and 3 only

(b)     1,2 and 3 only

(c)     2,3 and 4 only

(d)     1,2,3 and 4

19.     Consider the following statements regarding the Aral Sea

1.       The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake

2.       It lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

Which of the above given statements are incorrect?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

20.     Consider the following statements about the Lokpal in India.

1.       The institution of Lokpal was first recommended by the first Administrative Reforms Commission.

2.       Under the Lokpal Act (2013), Jurisdiction of Lokpal includes Prime Minister, Ministers, and Members of Parliament.

3. As per the Lokpal Act of 2013, Lokpal can take Suo Motu actions against any public servant.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 and 2 only

(d)     1 and 3 only

21.     With reference to the recently launched “cVIGIL” mobile App, consider the following statements.

1.       The App enables the employees of public sector undertakings to report any instances of corruption in their organization.

2.       The application was launched by the department of personnel and training. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

22.     Consider the following statements about the “Preamble” of the Indian Constitution

1.       It has been amended only once since its inception.

2.       It is not a part of the constitution.

3. It is justifiable in nature

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     1 and 2 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

23.     Which among the following was the first municipal corporation set up in India in the year 1687?

(a)     Madras Municipal Corporation

(b)     Bombay Municipal Corporation

(c)     Delhi Municipal Corporation

(d)     None of the above

24.     Which of the following statements is / are correct?

1.       Britain has no climate, only weather.

2.       Egypt has no weather, only climate. Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 Only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

25.     With reference to the SAARC development fund (SDF), which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.       SDF was setup by the World Bank to accelerate economic growth, social progress and poverty alleviation in the SAARC region.

2.       The headquarters of the SDF is located at the Thimpu, Bhutan. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

Answer:

1.A ,2.C ,3.B ,4.B ,5.C ,6.A ,7.B ,8.A ,9.B ,10.C ,11.A ,12.B ,13.A ,14.A ,15.A ,16.D ,17.B ,18.C ,19.D ,20.C ,21.D ,22.A ,23.A ,24.C ,25.B

Rajasthan GK – Test 3

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Daily Practice Multiple Choice Question Answer for RPSC, RAS, RSMSSB, Lecturer, SI and all other competitive exams of Rajasthan.

1. Which article of constitution mentioned “Appointment of Chief Minister”?

1. Article 154

2. Article 161

3. Article 164

4. Article 158

2. Which of the following statement is false about the Chief Minister?

1.  There is no special provision for appointment and election of Chief Minister in the constitution

2.  Article 154 states that the Governor will appoint the Chief Minister

3.  The Governor is free to appoint any person as Chief Minister

4.  There is no such system in the Constitution that the Chief Minister should prove a majority before his appointment

3. What is the minimum age to be appointed as the Chief Minister of a state?

1.  25 years

2.  30 years

3.  35 years

4.  18 years

4. Which of the following post is hold by the Chief Minister?

1.  Chairman of the State Planning Board

2.  Member of National Development Council

3.  Chief Spokesperson of the State Government

4.  All of the above

5. Which of the following is not matched correctly?

1.  Article 167: Duties of the Chief Minister

2.  Article 163: sworn in of the Chief Minister

3.  Article 164: Provisions related to State Ministers

4.  Article 166:  Operations by the State Government

6. Who determines the salary and allowances of the Chief Minister?

1.  Governor

2.  State Legislature

3.  President

4.  Parliament

7. Which of the following statements is false?

1.  Chief Minister’s tenure is not fixed (with some conditions)

2.  If the Chief Minister resigns from his post then the entire Council of Ministers has to resign

3.  The Governor is the President of the Inter-state Council

4.  The collective responsibility of the Council of Ministers is to the State Legislature

8. Which of the following power is not enjoyed by the Chief Minister?

1.  The Governor appoints ministers only to those people who are recommended by the Chief Minister

2.  Chief Minister shifts all the ministers’ departments

3.  Chief Minister can ask the governor to disassociate the Legislative assembly

4.  Chief Minister appoints judges of the state’s high court

9. The State Council is responsible to whom?

1.   to the Governor

2.   to the Legislative Assembly

3.   to the Legislative Council

4.  to the State Legislature

10. Who provide oath to other ministers of the state other than the Chief Minister?

1.   Chief Minister

2.   Speaker of the assembly

3.   Chief Justice of the High Court

4.   Governor

11. The Advocate General of the State is responsible to whom?

1.   Governor

2.   Chief Minister

3.   Speaker of the Assembly

4.   None of these

12. Udaipur, South-eastern margin of Pali & Dungarpur districts are part of which Aravali Region?

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range             2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range                     4. None of the above

13. According to GSHAP data, the state of Rajasthan falls in a region of which seismic hazard?

1. High seismic zone     2.Moderate seismic zone

3. High to Moderate     4. Moderate to High

14. Rajasthan has divided into different climatic regions, the climatic regions of Rajasthan are based on which of the following parameter?

1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity.

2. Koeppen’s Classification

3. Thornthwaite’s classification

4. All of the above

15. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1.         Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.

2.         The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 34degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16DegC.

3.         The region includes Jaisalmer district, Barmer, Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and southern parts of Ganganagar district.

1. Semi-Arid Region          2. Arid Region

3. Sub-Humid                            4. Humid Region

16. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Ajmer, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali, Jalore and Sirohi districts are included in which of the following category?

1.         Semi-Arid Region         2. Arid Region

3. Sub-Humid                             4. Humid Region

17. Consider the following features and identify the wildlife sanctuary:

1. This Sanctuary is situated in the Banaskantha district in Gujarat at the Gujarat-Rajasthan border.

2. The complete area between Mount Abu and Jessore wildlife sanctuary is home to them.

3. Apart from sloth bear, other fauna reported in the sanctuary are leopard, sambar, blue bull, wild boar, porcupine, and a variety of birds.

1. Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary

2. Jessore Wildlife Sanctuary

3.  Daroji bear sanctuary

4. Rajasthan Wildlife Sanctuary

18. Sloth Bear is found in which of the following place?

1. Sawai Madhopur   2 -Alwar

3. Mount Abu                       4- Udaipur

19. Great Indian Bustard is not found in which of the following states of India?

1. Gujarat                            2. Tamil Nadu

3.  Karnataka                     4. Andhra Pradesh

5. Rajasthan                       6. Maharashtra

20. Mahaseer fish is found only in which lake of Rajasthan?

1. Anasagar Lake Ajmer                  2- Fateh Sagar Udaipur

3. Lake Badi Udaipur                      4- Sambhar Lake

21. Find the incorrect matched:

1. Bisalpur Conservation Reserve        Tonk

2. Jodbeed Gadhwala Reserve                         Sirohi

3.  Sundhamata Conservation Reserve      Jodhpur

4.  Gudha Vishnoiyan Reserve                      Jalore

22. Parbati River flows in which of the following districts?

1. Sawai Madhopur             2 Tonk

3. Dholpur                            4.Karauli

1. 1,2,3,4

2. 1, 2, 3

3. 1, 3

4. 1, 3, 4

23.  Berach River is not flow through which of the following District?

1. Udaipur                       2. Chittorgarh

3. Rajsamand                  4- Bhilwara

24. Gogelav and Rotu Conservation Reserve are located in which district of Rajasthan?

1. Udaipur                        2. Jaipur

3. Nagaur                          4. Sariska

25. Find out the incorrect match:

Wildlife Sanctuary                           District

1. Kesarbagh WLS                             Dholpur

2. Phulwari ki Nal WLS                   Udaipur, Pali

3. Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS                      Barmer

4. Sitamata WLS                                         Pratapgarh

26. Which among the following is largest wildlife sanctuary as per their area?

1.  Kailadevi WLS                            2- Kumbhalgarh WLS

3. Phulwari ki Nal WLS                   4. Todgarh Raoli WLS

27. Match the following:

National Park                             District

1.         Ranthambore NP              A. Bharatpur

2.         Keoladeo Ghana NP               B. Alwar

3.         Sariska NP                                C.  Jaisalmer, Barmer

4.         DesertNP                                D. Sawai Madhopur

1.1-A 2-B 3- C 4-D

2. 1-B 2-C 3-D 4-A

3. 1-C 2-D 3-A 4-B

4. 1-D 2-A 3- B 4-C

28. White Rumped Vulture Found in which places of Rajasthan?

1. Udaipur                                       2. Kota

3. All Rajasthan                                4. Mount Abu

29. Which of the following is matching incorrect?

District                           Mascot

1. Bikaner                     Sand grouse

2. Nagaur                       Rajhans

3. Pratapgarh                  wolf

4. Bhilwara                   Peacock

5.  Bundi                         Golden Pheasant

30. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. These forests which are most abundant in central India, as in Madhya Pradesh, parts of Gujarat and Maharashtra, are found in Sirohi district of Rajasthan.

2. These forests have semi-evergreen and some evergreen species of trees.

3. The vegetation consists of many plants which are similar to Himalayas.

4. They are well represented between 700 to 800 m altitudes.

1. Tropical Dry Deciduous (Dhol) Forests

2. Bamboo Forests

3. Sub-Tropical Forests

4. Tropical Rain Forests

31.  Method of Abolition or Creation of a State Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) mentioned in which article of Indian constitution?

1. Article 168

2. Article 169

3. Article 176

4. Article 179

Answer:

  1. 3
  2. 2
  3. 1
  4. 4
  5. 2
  6. 2
  7. 3
  8. 4
  9. 2
  10. 4
  11. 1
  12. 3
  13. 4
  14. 4
  15. 2
  16. 3
  17. 2
  18. 3
  19. 2
  20. 3
  21. 2
  22. 3
  23. 3
  24. 3
  25. 4
  26. 3
  27. 4
  28. 3
  29. 3
  30. 3
  31. 3

Rajasthan GK – Test 2

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Daily Practice Multiple Choice Question Answer for RPSC, RAS, RSMSSB, Lecturer, SI and all other competitive exams of Rajasthan.

1.         In which of the following states Aravalli Range extends in India:

1.         Rajasthan                   2.  Haryana

3.         Delhi                          4. Punjab

5.         Gujarat

Choose the correct pair.

1.         1,2,3,4

2.         2,3,4,5

3.         1,2,3,5

4.         1,2,4,5

2. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is India’s oldest fold mountains.

2. The north end of it continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana

3. It is the source of the Mithari, Luni, and Jawai River.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range

4. Aravali Range

3. Luni Basin, Shekhawati Region, Nagaur Upland, and Ghaggar Plain are considered in which region/plain?

1.  Semi-Arid Basin               2. Sandy Arid Plain

3. Mewar Rocky region       4 The Sambhar Basin

4. Chambal Basin, Banas Basin and Mahi Basin are the example of which plain?

1. Eastern Plain                     2. Western Plain

3. Northern Plain                  4. Southern Plain

5. States in which Thar Desert is not extends in India?

1. Rajasthan                     2. Haryana

3. Punjab                        4.  Gujarat

5. Madhya Pradesh

6. Special Industrial Complexes are being built up in Rajasthan to meet the necessities of industries. Match the following pairs correctly.

1. Hosiery Chopanki                                A. Bhiwadi

2. Gems & Jewellery and Gem Park      B. Bikaner

3. Ceramics Khara                                   C. Jaipur

4. Dimensional Stone                              D. Chittorgarh

1. 1-A 2-B 3-C 4-D

2. 1-B 2-A 3-D 4-C

3. 1-A 2-C 3-B 4-D

4. 1-C 2-D 3-A 4-B

7. Arrange the following peaks of Aravali as per their height in descending order:

1. Kamalnath           2. Bhairach

3. Taragarh                       4. Khoh

1. 1-2-3-4

2. 2-3-1-4

3. 3-4-1-2

4. 1-4-3-2

8. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1.         Stretches from Delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.

2.         Average elevation of 300-670 meters.

3.         To North & East it merges with Ganga-Yamuna Plains.

1. Shekhawati hills               2. Marwar Hills

3. Alwar Hills                                  4. Girwa hills

9.  Malkhet, Khetri Group of hills, Torawati Hills & Alwar hills is part of which Aravali range?

1.  North-Eastern Aravalli Range

2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range

4. All of the above

10. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1. Includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur.

2. It Surround on North by Alwar Hills

3. It Surround on East by Karauli table-land South by Banas plains.

4. West by Sambhar basin

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range             2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range                     4. None of the above

11. Who became the first women governor of Rajasthan?

1. Smt. Vijya Laxmi

2. Smt. Pratibha Patil      

3. Smt. Sudha Srivastava

4. None of the above

12. Which is the state game of Rajasthan?

1. Basketball

2. Kabbadi

3. Hockey

4. Football

13. Rajasthan Revenue Board Headquarter is located at which place?

1. Jaipur

2. Jodhpur

3. Ajmer

4. Kota

14. Which is not a part of Rajasthan Union?       

1. Banswara

2. Bundi

3. Kishangarh

4. Bharatpur

15. Matsya Union merged in Greater Rajasthan and became which of the following?

1. United State of Rajasthan

2. Greater Rajasthan

3. United State of Greater Rajasthan

4. United Rajasthan

16. Who was appointed as the Deputy Head of Rajasthan Union?

1. Bhim singh

2. Manikya Lal Verma

3. Heeralal Shastri

4. Bhadursingh

17. Who said the statement while signing the accession documents, “I am signing on my death warrant”.

1. Banswara State Maharawal, Chandra Veer Singh

2. The ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh

3. The Maharana Bhupal Singh of Udaipur

4. None of the above

18.  Which of the following appointed by Governor of Rajasthan?

1. Advocate general of state.

2. State election commissioner

3.  Chairman & members of RPSC.

4. All the above

19. Who wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha?

1. Sidhha Rishi                                 2- Vigrah Raj

3. Somdeva                                        4. Kumbha

20. Who wrote drama named Harkaili?

1. Sidhha Rishi                                  2- Vigrah Raj Chauhan

3. Kumbha                                         4. Somdeva

21. Who wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay?

1. Kumbha                 2. Somdeva

3. Jayanak                  4. Sidhha Rishi

22. Who wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj?

1. Kumbha                 2. Jayanak

3. Sanga                      4. Somdeva

23. Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by

1. Vijrasen Suri                        2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri                 4.Hemraj

24. Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by?

1. Vijrasen Suri              2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri   4.Hemraj

25. Jiyadarya Raas by

1. Vijrasen Suri                      2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

26. Padmavati Chaupai by

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

27. Stulibhadra Phag written by

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri               4.Hemraj

28. Who wrote Gyan Manjari?

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

Answer:

  1. 3
  2. 4
  3. 1
  4. 1
  5. 5
  6. 3
  7. 4
  8. 3
  9. 1
  10. 2
  11. 2
  12. 1
  13. 3
  14. 4
  15. 1
  16. 4
  17. 1
  18. 4
  19. 1
  20. 2
  21. 3
  22. 1
  23. 1
  24. 3
  25. 2
  26. 4
  27. 2
  28. 1

Rajasthan Gk Test-1

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RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims, Lecturer, Sub-Inspector, Teachers and Other Govt Exams daily Practice MCQ.

1. When did Rajasthan came in to existence?

1. 20th march 1948                 2. 30th march 1949

3. 25th April 1949                  4- 26th Jan 1951    

 

Q.2 Total geographical area of Rajasthan State is?

1. 2, 90, 932 sq km                2. 3, 39, 293 sq km

3. 3, 32, 392 sq km                4.  3, 42, 239 sq km

Q.3 The area of Rajasthan is which percentage of Indian Territory?

1. 9.76%                                  2. 10.47%

3. 10.74%                                4. 11.05%

Q.4 Rajasthan is placed in which division of India?

1. North-western                  2. Western

3. North-eastern                    4. Northern

Q.5 The Tropic of Cancer passes through which district in Rajasthan?

1. Banswara               2. Sirohi

3. Jhalawar                 4. Dholpur

6. Who was the first governor of Rajasthan?

1. Gurumukh Nihal Singh

2. Sardar Hukum Singh

3. Basant Rao Patil

4. None of the above

7. Who was the first chairman of Rajasthan Assembley (Vidhan Sabha)?

1. Ramniwas Mirdha

2. Narottam Joshi

3. Lal Singh Shaktawat

4. None of the above

8. Who was the first chief justice of Rajasthan High Court?

1. K. N. Vanchu

2. K. K. Verma

3. 2. N. Jha

4. None of the above

9. Which one of the following was first implemented in Rajasthan?

1. Cooperative society

2. Public distribution system

3. President Rule

4. Panchayati Raj

10. Rajasthan state Archives is located at which place?

1. Bikaner

2. Jaipur

3. Jodhpur

4. Bharatpur

11. Which one of the following date, Rajasthan Public Service Commission Established?

1. 15-08-1950

2. 16-08-1949

3. 20-12-1952

4. 17-08-1952

12. Ajmer and Abu was the part of which Stage of the integration of Rajasthan?

1. First

2. Third

3. Fifth

4. Seventh

13. On March 25, 1948 which Princely state became part of Rajasthan Union?

1. Sirohi

2. Bharatpur

3. Pratapgarh

4. Alwar

14. Match the following:

Paleolithic Sites                                         Place

1 Lidder River                                    a   Rajasthan

2. Sohan valley                                       b. Punjab

3. Chittorgarh and Kota                       c.   Rajasthan

4. River Wagoon, Kadamli basins       d.  Kashmir

  1. 1-a 2-b 3-c 4-d                        

  2. 1-b 2-c 3-d 4-a

 3. 1-d 2-b 3-c 4-a

 4. 1-c 2-a 3-b 4-d

15. Mesolithic human burials have been found at?

Identify the incorrect answer:

 1. Bagor                   Rajasthan

 2. Langhnaj             Gujarat

 3. Bhimbetka          Madhya Pradesh

 4. Mauda                 Haryana

16. The rock painting of Mesolithic period is found at?

Identify the incorrect answer:

1. Lakhudiyar         Uttarakhand

2. Tekkalkotta        Karnataka

3. Bhimbetka         Madhya Pradesh

 4. Adamagarh       Madhya Pradesh

 5. Pratapgarh        Rajasthan

6.  Mirzapur          Haryana

17. Mehrgarh is located on the bank of which River?

1. Indus                       2. Bolan

3. Saraswati                4. Mahi

18. Which is not the Indus Valley Site in Rajasthan?

   1. Kalibangan           2. Baror

   3. Karanpura            4. Rangpur

19. Identify the Place/Site which has the following features?

1. Most noteworthy is a cylindrical seal, depicting a female figure between two male figures, fighting or threatening with spears.

2. The best terracotta figure is that a charging bull which is considered to signify the “realistic and powerful folk art.

3. The cemetery was located to the west-southwest of the citadel.

4. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist.

Which is the correct answer?

1.  Lothal (Gujarat)                       2.Kalibangan (Rajasthan)

3. Diamabad (Maharashtra)       4.Alamgirpur (U.P.)

20. Match The Following:

1. Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP)      a. Ganga valley

2. Narhan culture                                   b. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan

 3. Ahar culture                                 c. Mewar region of Rajasthan

4. Kayatha and Malwa cultures       d. Maharashtra

5. The Jorwe culture                         e. western Madhya Pradesh

1. 1-a 2-b 3-c 4-d 5-e

2.1-b 2-a 3-c 4-e 5-d

3. 1-c 2-b 3-d 4-a 5-e

4. 1-d 2-c 3-b 4-e 5-a

21. Identify the Place/Site/Culture name which has following features?

1. People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses.

2. Its Pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it

3. Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are its prominent sites.

Which is the correct answer?

1. Ahar-Banas Culture       2.OCP Culture

3. Kalibangan                         4. Dholavira

22. Match the following:

                 Districts                                 Mahajanapads

1.   Jaipur, Alwar & Bharatpur             Matsya Mahajanapads

2.   Bharatpur, Dholpur & Karauli         Kuru Mahajanapads

3.   Northern Alwar region              Saurasena Mahajanapads

Which is the correct answer?

1.   1-a 2-b 3-c

2.   1-a 2-c 3-b

3.   1-b 2-a 3-c

23. Match the Following:

       Capital                          Mahajanapads

1. Viratanagari           Saurasena Mahajanapads

2. near modern day Mathura      Kuru Mahajanapads

3. Indrapath                                 Matsya Mahajanapads

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

1.   1-a 2-b 3-c

2.   1-a 2-c 3-b

3.   1-b 2-a 3-c

4.   1-c 2-a 3-b

24. Where/who acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas?

1. Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi                  2. Ganapatha

3. Junagarh rock inscription          4.All

  • The region surrounding modern districts of Bikaner & Jodhpur was referred to as Jangaldesh during Mahajanpadas period.

25. Consider the following Statements and choose the right answer:

1. Maan Mori, of the Maurya dynasty was killed by him.

2. He belonged to Guhilot clan.

3. Born as Kalbhoj, was the founder of a dynasty, which later comes to rule Mewar.

1. Vyaghramukh               2. Nayachandra Suri

3. Bappa Rawal                4 Bahar Deo                

26. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district.

2. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach.

3. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds.

4. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture.

1. Balathal            2. Pachamta

3. Gilund             4. Ojiyana

27. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Rajasthan.

2. It is located on banks of Katar River.

3. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63.

4. This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.

1. Gilund                      2. Ahar

3. Ojiyana                    4.  Balathal

28. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. Recently excavation was carried out at a village in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

2. It belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture.

3. Art facts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

1. Balathal          2. Pachamta

3. Gilund             4. Ojiyana

29. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. The site is located at source of river Kantali, which used to join river Drishadwati, near Soni-Bhadra on the north.

2. Historian R.L. Mishra wrote that, Red pottery with black portraiture was found which is estimated to be belonging to 2500–2000 BC was found when it was excavated in 1977.

3. It mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

1. Ganeshwar (Sikar)        2.  Jodhpura (Jaipur)

3. Noh (Bharatpur)          4. Sanari (Jhunjhunu)

30. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. This Kingdom played a great part in history of Northern India nearly for 500 years.

2. The King Nagabhatt I from this kingdom won Kannauj and established rule over most of Rajasthan.

3. The capital of their Kingdom was shreemal, which is old name of Bhinmal in Jalore.

Identify the Kingdom?

1. Western Satraps                               2. Rajput Kingdom

3. Vardhana                                            4. Gurjara Kingdom

31. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

 1. These people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas as per theory of James Todd.

 2. This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that it is a mixed race.

3. This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that those are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama.

4. This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, those are the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu.

1. Origin of Pratiharas               2. Origin of Rajputs

3. Origin of Rathores                 4. Origin of Chauhans

32. Arrange these Pratihars Kings as Historical in descending order

1. Harichandra           2. Kakka

3. Jhota                        4. Narabhatta

1.   1-2-3-4

2.   1-3-2-4

3.   1-4-3-2

4.   1-4-2-3

33. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara.

 2. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

3. He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.

4. He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country.

1. Raja Nagabhatt I                     2. Raja Nagabhatt II

3. Raja Mihir Bhoj                      4. Raja Mahendrapal

34. Who Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar?

1.   Durlabha-raja I

2.   Govinda-raja I

3.   Chandra-raja II

4.   Govindaraja II

35. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. He captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions.

2. He suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II.

3. He attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions.

4. He proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

1. Qutub ud-din-Aibak          2. Mahmud Gazni

3. Mohd. Ghori                       4 Iltutmish

Answer Key: 

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 3
  4. 1
  5. 1
  6. 1
  7. 2
  8. 2
  9. 4
  10. 1
  11. 2
  12. 4
  13. 3
  14. 3
  15. 4
  16. 6
  17. 2
  18. 4
  19. 2
  20. 2
  21. 1
  22. 2
  23. 4
  24. 4
  25. 3
  26. 3
  27. 4
  28. 2
  29. 1
  30.  4
  31. 2
  32. 3
  33. 1
  34. 2
  35. 3

National Parks in Rajasthan

National Parks of Rajasthan

S. No. Name of National Park Year of Notification Total Area (Sq.Km)
1 Mukundra Hills (Darrah)   2006 200.54
2 Desert National Park   1992 3162
3 Keoladeo Ghana National Park 1981 28.73
4 Ranthambhore National Park 1980 282
5 Sariska National Park   1982 273.8

Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park

Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.

Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955andvisitors now require seeking permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 sq. km.

In past, Darrah sanctuary was the royal hunting ground of the Maharaja of Kota. This place is located at a distance of about 50 km from Kota. It is located on the eastern bank of Chambal River and is drained by its tributaries.

The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 sq. km. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.

The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve.

The name Darrah is taken as the ‘Pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.

The park is situated between two parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gagrola which run across a length of about 80 km (from Murlipura to Rawatbhata). The four rivers which form the boundary of this valley are Ramzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.

The densely wooded Darrah Sanctuary is spread all over the hilly terrain. The forest of the sanctuary is very thick and dense.

Ranthambore National Park

Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.

Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957andcame under the “Project Tiger “as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 sq. km.

The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 sq. km.

Ranthambore was a hunting reserve of the Maharajas of Jaipur, the park at Ranthambore was once the scene of royal hunting parties in the past.

Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.

  • Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
  •  It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from the gentle to the steep slopes; from flat topped hills of the Vindhayas to the conical hillocks and the sharp ridges of the Aravallis.
  • An important geological feature the ‘Great Boundary Fault’ where the Vindhayas plateaus meet the Aravalli hill ranges.

The Rivers Chambal in the South and the Banas in the North bound the National Park. Pure stands of the Dhok interspersed with open grasslands of the plateaus, six large lakes – Gilai Sagar, Mansarovar, Malik talao, Raj Bagh and Padam Talao with in the National Park.

The rugged park terrain alternates between dry deciduous forest, open grassy meadow, dotted by several lakes and rivers that are only made passable by rough roads built and maintained by the Forest Service.

There are many water bodies located all over the park, which provide perfect relief during the extremely hot summer months for the forest inhabitants.

A huge fort, after which the park is named, towers over the park atop a hill. There are many ruins of bygone eras scattered all over the jungle, which give it a unique, wonderful and mixed flavour of nature, history and wildlife.

Tigers at Ranthambore National park have been known to even hunt in full view of human visitors. These tigers are famous for being seen in the daytime too, due to their lack of fear of human presence in vehicles. This lack of fear of humans is excellent for tourists, as they get to see the tigers often.

Desert National Park

Desert National Park is a beautiful place located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.

The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert.

  1. Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and fauna species.
  2. It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
  3. It also has fossil evidences dating back to the Jurassic Period indicating hot and humid climate characterized by dense forests. 180 million years old fossils of animals and plants are preserved at Wood Fossil Park at Akal, situated 17 km away from Jaisalmer.
  4. The Desert National Park is a unique and fragile ecosystem. More than 60 per cent of it is simply semi-arid desert.
  5. The seemingly barren lands gradually dissolve at the horizon touching Pakistan.
  6. But the warm sands of the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer form a fertile micro broth hiding an astounding variety of animals and birds.
  7. Desert National Park is an excellent example of the desert ecosystem.
  8. The landform primarily comprises rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
  9. The topography of Desert National Park supports sandy, gravelly, rocky and compact salt lake bottoms. Sandy areas dominate the western parts of Jaisalmer district, while gravelly and rocky areas are scattered throughout central, southern and eastern areas.
  10. The Desert National Park is barren with several sand dunes and a few hills in the north-western region. The Park forms a vast sandy and undulating terrain.

Dominant fauna

Birds – Great Indian Bustard, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, Bee-Eaters, Shrikes, Larks, Demoiselle Crane, Macqueen’s Bustard, Sand grouse, Long-Legged, Honey Buzzards, chats, babblers, kites etc.

Mammals – Camel, Desert Fox, Bengal Fox, Chinkara, Wolf, Desert Cat, Blackbuck, Hedgehog, Nilgai

Reptiles – Russell’s viper, Saw Scaled Viper, Monitor Lizard, Spiny tailed lizard, Saw scaled viper, Common Krait, Spiny Tailed Lizard, Gecko, Persian Gecko etc.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park

Detail:

 Bird Sanctuary-1971   

National Park-1981           

Ramsar site Oct-1981

World Heritage Site-1985                 

 Reserve forest

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
  2. Keoladeo was declared a Bird Sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981.
  3. Total area of the National park is about 28.7 sq. km.
  4. Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
  5. Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO.
  6.  It is a Reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
  7. The park was a hunting ground for the maharaja of Bharatpur, who turned his personal hunting domain into a bird sanctuary in 1956.
  8. Maharaja of Bharatpur setting up the sanctuary, building a dam and an artificial lake to store the rains that would fall in torrents during the monsoons.
  9. Duck shoots were organized yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, about 4,250 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972.
  10. Grazing of village cattle was banned in this area in 1982, which led to clashes between government and local farmers.

Sariska National Park

Detail:

Wildlife Reserve-1955                                      

Wildlife Sanctuary-1958   

(1979) Sariska Tiger Reserve        

National Park-1982

  1. Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
  2. The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range.
  3. Sariska was declared a wildlife Reserve in 1955.
  4. The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979.
  5. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 sq. km.
  6. The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 sq. km.
  7. The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
  8. The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
  9. The area of Sariska is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
  10. Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991.
  11.  Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.

Sariska was a hunting reserve for royal families in past. Its plentiful tiger population supported by large herds of Sambhar and Nilgai was the ideal place for the royals of the state as well as their visiting guests to go on shikaars. The broad range of wildlife here is a wonderful example of ecological adoption and tolerance, for the climate here is variable as well as erratic.

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

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Wildlife and its Conservation in Rajasthan

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Wildlife and its Conservation

Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.

Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden and allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife Sanctuary as the name suggests, is the place that is reserved exclusively for the use of wildlife, which includes animals, reptiles, insects, birds etc. Otherwise called as wildlife refuges it provides habitat and safe & healthy living conditions to the wild animals especially to the endangered and rare ones so that they can live peacefully for their entire life and maintain their viable population.

For proper management of the sanctuary the rangers or guards are appointed to patrol the region. They ensure the safety of animals from poaching, predating or harassing.

  • International Union of Conservation of Nature, shortly called as IUCN has grouped wildlife sanctuaries in Category IV of protected areas.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.

Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.

Definition of National Park: National Park implies an area that is exclusively designated by the government for the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity due to its natural, cultural and historical significance. It is home to millions of animals, birds, insects, microorganisms, etc. of different genes and species, which provides a healthy and safe environment to them.

National Parks, not only conserve wildlife, but it also provides an amusement of the environmental and scenic heritage, in a way and by those means that does not cause harm to it, so as to provide enjoyment to the future generations. The plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting and predating of animals, destruction of flowers are highly prohibited.

Key Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park:

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

Difference between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park

Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a consecrated place where sacred species are kept. It is not open for general public, unlike zoo. In other words, it tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries.

Characteristics of Wildlife Sanctuary

1. It is natural area which is reserve by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species.

2. Area is designated for the protection of wild animals.

3. Only animals are conserved, Could be private property also, outside activities allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has defined its Category IV type of protected areas.

National Parks: It is a home to many species of birds and animals which is established by central and state government for the conservation.

Characteristics of National Park

1. Reserve area of land, owned by the government.

2. Area is protected from human exploitation, industrialization and pollution.

3. There is no cutting or Grazing allowed and no any Outside Species Allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. Conservation of ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.

6. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas has defined its Category II type of protected areas.

Biosphere Reserve: The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO designated of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas from November, 1971.

Characteristics of Biosphere Reserve:

1. Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well.

2. Areas are meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.

3. Three areas: Core, Buffer & Marginal. No outside Species allowed Conservation & research purpose.

4. It is internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.

5. The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage.

Wildlife Sanctuary of Rajasthan

S.No. Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) Established Year Area  (In km²)
1 Bandh Baratha WLS 1985 199.5
2 Bassi WLS 1988 138.69
3 Bhensrodgarh WLS 1983 229.14
4 Darrah WLS 1955 80.75
5 Jaisamand WLS 1955 52
6 Jamwa Ramgarh WLS 1982 300
7 Jawahar Sagar WLS 1975 153.41
8 Kailadevi WLS 1983 676.38
9 Kesarbagh WLS 1955 14.76
10 Kumbhalgarh WLS 1971 608.58
11 Mount Abu WLS 1960 112.98
12 Nahargarh WLS 1980 50
13 National Chambal WLS 1979 274.75
14 Phulwari Ki Nal WLS 1983 692.68
15 Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS 1982 252.79
16 Ramsagar WLS 1955 34.4
17 Sajjangarh WLS 1987 5.19
18 Sariska WLS 1955 219
19 Sawaimadhopur WLS 1955 131.3
20 Sawai Man Singh WLS 1984 103.25
21 Shergarh WLS 1983 98.71
22 Sitamata WLS 1979 422.94
23 Tal Chhapper WLS 1971 7.19
24 Todgarh Raoli WLS 1983 495.27
25 Van Vihar WLS 1955 25.6

Source – Wildlife Institute of India

Main wildlife found in Protected Areas

Protected Area           Main Wild Life
DamDamp-baretha Resident and migratory Birds
Sariska  Tiger, Panther, Chital, Sambhar, Porcupine 
Sariska ‘A’  Sambhar, Chital, Panther
Desert National Park  Chinkara, Desert Cat, Fox, Great Indian Bustard 
Ramgarh- Vishdhari  Panther, hyena, Sloth Bear, jackal, Fox, Chital 
Kesar Bagh  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital
Ram Sagar  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital 
Van Vihar  Bear, Wolf, Chital, hyena, Fox, Wild Cat
Keoladevi  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Bear, hyena, Wild Boar, Wolf 
Sitamata  Flying Squirrel, Panther, Wild Cat, Sambhar, hyena, Civet 
Bhensrodgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Four horned antelope, Chinkara, hyena, Fox 
Shergarh  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar 
Darrah  Panther, Wolf, Jackal, Chital, Fox, Sambhar, Sloth Bear, Porcupine 
Jawahar Sagar  Panther, Bear, Wolf, Ghariyal, Crocodile, Chital, Hyena, Fox, Jackal 
National Chambal Ghariyal  Ghariyal, Crocodile, Tortoise, Dolphin, Bear, Chinkara, Otter 
Bassi  Chital, Chinkara, Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat
Tal-Chapar  Black Buck, Resident birds, 
Nahar-Garh  Hyena, Jackal, Fox, Hare 
Jamwa-Ramgarh  Panther, Chital, Wild Boar, Hyena, Jackal 
Sajjan-Garh  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Phulwari- ki- Naal  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Tatgarh Ravli  Panther, Hyena, Wolf, Green Pigeon, Jungle fowl 
Jaisamand  Resident Birds, Hyena, Jackal, Chinkara 
Kumbhalgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Hyena, wild boar, Four Horned antelope, Sambhar
Mount Abu  Panther, Bear, Hyena, Wolf, Porcupine
Sawai Man Singh  Tiger, Panther, Hyena, Fox, Bear, Chital, Sambhar

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
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BREEDS OF GOAT LIVESTOCK IN RAJASTHAN

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BREEDS OF GOAT IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Goat          Distribution Area
  1.   Sirohi Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat.
  2.   Marwari Marwar region of Rajasthan, comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Barmer districts. The breed also extends into certain areas of Gujarat, especially Mehsana district.
  3.   Jhakrana Jhakrana and a few surrounding villages near Behror, in the Alwar district of Rajasthan.
  4.   Barbary Etah, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

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Breeds of Cow – Livestock in Rajasthan

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BREEDS of COWS IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Cow Area (Mainly Found)
  1.   Nagauri 1. Origin from Suhalak area Nagaur 2. This species gives less milk.
  2.   Kankrej 1. Found in Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore. 2. Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk 3. The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.
3. Tharparkar Breed 1. Origin from Malani (barmer) 2. Cows excellent production of milk
4. Rathi Breed  Sri Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer. Good at milk production, males lack draught power.
5.   Gir Breed Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. In Rajasthan it is found in Southeastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi and Kota

  • .
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Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan

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Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan-Livestock

1. Gir

  • This breed is otherwise known as Bhadawari, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi and Surati.
  • Originated in Gir forests of South Kathiawar in Gujarat also found in Maharashtra and adjacent Rajasthan.
  • Basic colours of skin are white with dark red or chocolate-brown patches or sometimes black or purely red.
  • Horns are peculiarly curved, giving a ‘half moon’ appearance.
  • Milk yield ranges from 1200-1800 kgs per lactation.
  • Age at first calving 45-54 months and inter calving period from 515 to 600 days.
  • This is known for its hardiness and disease resistance.

2. Sahiwal

  • Originated in Montgomery region of undivided India.
  • This breed otherwise known as Lola (loose skin), Lambi Bar, Montgomery, Multani and Teli.
  • The best indigenous dairy breed.
  • The colour is reddish dun or pale red, sometimes flashed with white patches.
  • Heavy breed with symmetrical body having loose skin.
  • The average milk yield of this breed is between 1400 and 2500 kg per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 37 to 48 months and the calving interval is 430 to 580 days.

3. Tharparkar

  • Originated in Tharparkar district (Pakistan) of undivided India and also found in Rajasthan.
  • Otherwise known as White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi and Thari.
  • They are medium sized, compact and have lyre-shaped horn and Body colour is white or light grey.
  • The bullocks are quite suitable for ploughing and casting and the cows yield 1800 to 2600 kg of milk per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 38 to 42 months and inter calving period from 430 to 460 days.

4. Hariana

• It was originated from Rohtak, Hisar, Jind and Gurgaon districts of Haryana and also popular in Punjab, UP and parts of MP.

• Horns are small and the bullocks are powerful work animals.

• Hariana cows are fair Milkers yielding 600 to 800 kg of milk in lactation.

• The age at first calving is 40 to 60 months and calving interval is 480 to 630 days.

5. Kankrej

  • It is otherwise called as Wadad or Waged, Wadhiar.
  • Originated from Southeast Rann of Kutch of Gujarat and adjoining Rajasthan (Barmer and Jodhpur district).
  • The horns are lyre-shaped.
  • Colour of the animal varies from silver-grey to iron-grey or steel black.
  • The gait of Kankrej is peculiar called as 1 ¼ paces (sawai chal).
  • Kankrej is valued for fast, powerful, draught cattle.
  • Useful in ploughing and carting.
  • The cows are good milkers, yielding about 1400 kg per lactation.

6. Rathi

  • Mostly found in Lunkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar & Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan and also found in Fazilka & Abhor district of Punjab, adjoining to Rajasthan.
  • Usually brown with white patches all over the body but animals having complete brown or black with white patches are often encountered.
  • Horn: Short and generally do not exceed 3-4 inches
  • Forehead: Medium size & lean
  • Ear- Medium size
  • Body- Medium size & symmetrical

7. Malvi

  • Mostly found in Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh and Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type: Draught and the Colour –White, Males: Grey dark in neck, shoulders, hump quarters, Head: Short, dished forehead.
  • Horns: Strong pointed emerge from outer angles from poll.
  • Tail: Switch is black.

8. Nagauri

  • Mostly found in Nagaur districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type –Draught and the Colour – White, light Grey.
  • Eyes-White eyelids, heavy and over hanging
  • Horns-Black, emerging from outer angles.
  • Ears-Medium size, inside is pinkish.

9. Murrah

  • Most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Sind of Haryana, Nabha and Patiala districts  of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state. It is also called as Delhi, Kundi and Kali.
  • The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities sometimes found.
  • Tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
  • Most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
  • Butter fat content is 7.83%. Average lactation yield is varying from 1500 to 2500 kgs per lactation and also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes.

10. Surti

  • It is also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.
  • The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat. Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey.
  • The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
  • The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket region.
  • The milk yield ranges from 1000 to 1300 kgs per lactation and the peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12 %).

Geography of Rajasthan
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Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

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Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

The line dividing the Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer districts covered in semi arid.
  • Area – 7500 Sq. Km
  • Rainfall – 20 cm
  • Gullying has given rise to conglomerate landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.

Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.

 Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:

1. Luni Basin              

2. Shekhawati Region 

3. Ghaggar Plain                    

4. Nagauri Upland

1. Luni Basin: This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni river.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga Hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni River & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari River meets it.  

2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production & dairy.

Topography of the Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.

3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

4. Nagauri Upland: Average height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand hills & low depressions and the temperature being High, the evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt & Soda in the depression.

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Mountains, Peaks and Aravalli Ranges- Geography of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan is bisected by Aravali range into two major parts: Southeast Rajasthan and Northwest Rajasthan. The northwest consists of a series of sand dunes covers nearly two-thirds of the area. Aravali range is approximately 692 Kms long which is running across Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

The Aravali Mountain in Rajasthan is divided into following Ranges:

Geography of Rajasthan- Mountain,Peak and Aravali Ranges

What is Mountain?

Mountains are landforms that stick up high above the surrounding land. Mountains are much taller than hills, mountains can often be found together in groups or mountain ranges.

Mountains are prominent landforms that have significant heights above sea level and/or the surrounding land. They are steeper than hills. A mountain or mountain range usually has a peak, which is a pointed top. Mountains have different climates than land at sea level and nearby flat land.

The literal meaning of Aravalli Range is ‘line of peaks’. It is the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni and Sabarmati. This region is also famous for heavily forested consisting of large areas of sand and stone and of masses of rose-coloured quartzite.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

  • This range is also known as Alwar hill range.
  • In North-Eastern Aravalli Range all the hill ranges are eroded.
  • It stretches from delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.
  • Average elevation of this range is approx. 300-670 meters.
  • Towards north & east it merges with Ganga-Yamuna plains.
  • Torawati hills, Malkhet & Khetri Group of hills are also part of north eastern Aravali range.

Important Peaks of North-Eastern Aravalli Region:

Peak Name District Height (meters)  
Raghunathgarh Sikar 1055
Khoh Jaipur 920
Bhairach Alwar 792
Barwara Jaipur 786
Babai   Jhunjhunu 780
Bilali Alwar 775
Manoharpur Jaipur 747
Baraith Jaipur 704
Sariska Alwar 677

2. Central Aravali Range

The Average height of Central Aravali Range is 700 meter but in the valley it is approx 550m. Four famous ghats of this range are Bar, Pakheria, Shivpur and sura ghat. Shekhawati lower hills and Marwar hills are part of Central Aravali range.

It includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur Surrounded:-

(1)  North by Alwar hills

(2)  East by Karauli table-land

(3)  South by Banas plains and

(4)  West by Sambhar basin

Important Peaks of Central Aravalli Region

Peaks District Height (m)  
Goramji Ajmer 934
Taragarh Ajmer 870
 Naag Pahar Ajmer 795

3. Southern Aravali Range

The southern Aravali expansion of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and Aravali quartzite also found in this range and it formed 8-10 hill ranges are in parallel. The Southern Aravali range includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur & South-eastern margin of Pali district.

Physiographically it is a dominant part of Aravallis which falls in Mewar. The general altitude of the region is above 650 metre and it extends longitudinally from Bhim tehsil in the north to the Dungarpur tehsil in the south. The region separates Marwar in the west from the Mewar in the east, extending along the western border of Udaipur district. The Aravalli within Mewar appears like a triangular shaped land form, having greates width as well as height in the south. Thus the whole western portion of the Mewar is part of Aravalli and widely known as south Aravalli region.

Peaks of Southern Aravali Range                                                            

Peak Name District Height (m)
Guru Shikhar Sirohi 1722
Ser Sirohi 1597
Dilwara Sirohi 1442
Jarga Sirohi 1431
Achalgarh Sirohi 1380
Kumbhalgarh Rajsamand 1224
Dhoniya Abu Block 1183
Hrishikesh Abu Block 1017
Kamalnath Udaipur 1001
Sajjangarh Udaipur 938
Lilagarh   — 874

Main hill ranges of southern Aravali are:

  • Girwa Hills
  • Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  • Merwara Hills
  • Abu block & Oria plateau
Geography of Rajasthan

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Introduction:Geography of Rajasthan

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General Introduction

The term “geography” comes from the ancient Greeks. In Greek, geo means earth and graphy means to write. Greeks developed an understanding of where their homeland was located in relation to other places and how people and environments were distributed by using geography.

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way those locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there and how they develop and change over the time.

The natural resources of a country are of primary importance for the economic development. As a matter of fact, natural resources determine the economic life of a nation.

Man may grow rich in knowledge and intelligence, however much he may have overcome nature but ultimately he will have to depend on the materials supplied by Mother Nature for the development of his economic life.

The physical factors like topography, soils, geologic formation, climate and the available flora and fauna are the basic influences which lead to differences in land-use, cropping pattern, settlement and density of population and occurrence of minerals, water and power resources in different parts of the country.

Geography also became an important part of other academic disciplines, such as chemistry, economics and philosophy. In fact every academic subject has some geographic connection and the study where certain chemical elements such as gold or silver can be found. Economists examine which nations trade with other nations and what resources are exchanged.

Some people have trouble to understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic. The geography is concerned with many different topics—people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, land forms and much more.

What distinguishes geography is that, it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way. Geography asks spatial questions—how and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. It also asks questions about how the interaction of different human and natural activities on earth’s surface shape the characteristics of the world in which we live.

Geography seeks to understand where things are found and why they are present in those places; how things that are located in the same or distant places influence one another over time; and why places and the people who live in them develop and change in particular ways. Raising these questions is at the heart of the “geographical perspective.”

The study of geography is so broad; the discipline is typically divided into specialties. At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography, human geography, geographic techniques and regional geography.

The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems. Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, Pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography and oceanography.

Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists investigate the nature and impact of wind, ice, rivers, erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes, living things, and other forces that shape and change the surface of the Earth.

Glaciologists focus on the Earth’s ice fields and their impact on the planet’s climate. Glaciologists document the properties and distribution of glaciers and icebergs. Data collected by glaciologists has demonstrated the retreat of Arctic and Antarctic ice in the past century.

Pedologists study soil and how it is created, changed and classified. Soil studies are used by a variety of professions from farmers analyzing field fertility to engineers investigating the suitability of different areas for building heavy structures.

Hydrology is the study of Earth’s water: its properties, distribution and effects. Hydrologists are especially concerned with the movement of water as it cycles from the ocean to the atmosphere then back to Earth’s surface. Hydrologists study the water cycle through rainfall into streams, lakes, the soil and underground aquifers.

Climatologists study Earth’s climate system and its impact on Earth’s surface. For example: climatologists make predictions about El Nino- a cyclical weather phenomenon of warm surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. They analyze the dramatic worldwide climate changes caused by El Nino, such as flooding in Peru, drought in Australia and in the United States, the oddities of heavy Texas rains or an unseasonably warm Minnesota winter.

Biogeographers study the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants and animals. For example: a biogeographer might document all the places in the world inhabited by a certain spider species and what those places have in common.     

Oceanography is a related discipline of physical geography, focuses on the creatures and environments of the world’s oceans. The discovery and tracking of the Gulf Stream helped communications and travel between Europe and the Americas.

Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. They also might look at how consumers in China and India adjust to new technology and markets and how markets respond to such a huge consumer base.

Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers.

The Republic of India is a vast country. It lies entirely in the northern hemisphere. The mainland of the country extends between latitudes 8°4′ and 37°6′ north, longitude 68°7′ and 97°25′ east.

Why everyone should read Geography?

  1. To understand basic physical systems that affect everyday life.
  2. To learn the location of places and the physical and cultural characteristics of those places.
  3. To develop a mental map of your community, province or territory, country and the world so that you can understand the “where” of places and events.
  4. To explain how the processes of human and physical systems have arranged and sometimes changed the surface of the Earth.
  5. To understand the spatial organization of society, people and places.
  6. To understand the geography of past times and how geography has played important roles in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and our environments.
  7. To recognize spatial distributions at all scales- local and worldwide -the complex connectivity of people and land places.
  8. To be able to make sensible judgements about matters involving relationships between the physical environment and our society.
  9. To appreciate Earth as the homeland of humankind and provide insight for wise management decisions about how the planet’s resources should be used.
  10. To understand global interdependence and to become a better global citizen.
  11. To understand earth-sun relationships, water cycles and wind and ocean currents).
  12. To understand the rich natural resources and how peoples are depend on our environment and ecology.

Geography is a focus within the curriculum for understanding and resolving issues about the environment and sustainable development. It is also an important link between the natural and social sciences. As students study geography, they encounter different societies and cultures.

Introduction of Rajasthan

The Rajasthan state was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.

Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau.

The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest indian state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara district.

The Aravalli ranges are india’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges.

The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake.
Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.

Rajasthan has its important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow /originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati, Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.

The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found.

The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane.

The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus river.

The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here.

Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions.  The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C.

Different Regions of Rajasthan: 1. Ahirwal- This include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.

2. Bagar tract- This include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).

3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and northern part of Karauli.

4. Gorwar- South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.

5. Hadoti- districts like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.

6. Marwar- “Jodhpur region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.

7.  Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P. and some parts of Gujarat.

8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P.

9. Shekhawati- district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.

10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara.

Rajasthan: Important Facts

Area 342,239 km2  (Biggest state of India in terms of land)
Population 6.85 cr (2011 census)
Language Official language (Hindi), Additional official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family.
Climate Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September.
Capital  Jaipur
Election Seats    25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Legislature Unicameral
Major Cities (population) Jaipur (3,073,349), Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101), Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Famous Lakes Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm) 313-675
The Thar Desert Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”.)
Literacy 66.11 %
Districts 33
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census) 928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio 888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli Dance.
Fair and Festivals Desert Festival-Jaisalmer, Nagaur Fair-Nagaur, Pushkar Fair- Pushkar, Summer Festival-Mt. Abu, Marwar Festival-Jodhpur, Camel Race Festival-Bikaner, Gangaur Festival-Jaipur, Teej Festival-Jaipur, Mewar Festival-Udaipur, Urs Festival-Ajmer, Kaila Devi Fair-Karauli, Summer Festival-Mount Abu, Dusshera –Kota
World Heritage Sites   The six forts — Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia .
Principal Crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,  Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Principal Minerals Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%), Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%), Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas & Petroleum

District-wise Population-List (As per census – 2011)

District Population Area (km2) Po. Density Sex-ratio
Jaipur 66,26,178 11,143 595 910
Jodhpur 36,87,165 22,850 161 916
Alwar 36,74,179 8,380 438 895
Nagaur 33,07,743 17,718 187 950
Udaipur 30,68,420 11,724 262 958
Sikar 26,77,333 7,732 346 947
Barmer 26,03,751 28,387 92 902
Ajmer 25,83,052 8,481 305 951
Bharatpur 25,48,462 5,066 503 880
Bhilwara 24,08,523 10,455 230 973
Bikaner 23,63,937 30,239 78 905
Jhunjhunun 21,37,045 5,928 361 950
Churu 20,39,547 13,835 147 940
Pali 20,37,573 12,387 164 987
Ganganagar 19,69,168 10,978 179 887
Kota 19,51,014 5,217 374 911
Jalore 18,28,730 10,640 172 952
Banswara 17,97,485 4,522 397 980
Hanumangarh 17,74,692 9,656 184 906
Dausa 16,34,409 3,432 476 905
Chittaurgarh 15,44,338 7,822 197 972
Karauli 14,58,248 5,524 264 861
Tonk 14,21,326 7,194 198 952
Jhalawar 14,11,129 6,219 227 946
Dungarpur 13,88,552 3,770 368 994
SawaiMadhopur 13,35,551 4,498 297 897
Baran 12,22,755 6,992 175 929
Dhaulpur 12,06,516 3,033 398 846
Rajsamand 11,56,597 4,655 248 990
Bundi 11,10,906 5,776 192 925
Sirohi 10,36,346 5,136 202 940
Pratapgarh 8,67,848 4,449 195 983
Jaisalmer 6,69,919 38,401 17 852

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
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RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
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RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
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RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

 In Rajasthan, Lakes are divided into two categories

  • Saltwater Lake and
  • Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

Salt Water Lakes

Sambhar Lake

  • It is India’s largest inland Salt Water Lake.
  • It has been designated as a Ramsar site because this wetland is a favourite spot for migratory birds like Pink Flamingo.
  • The total area of the lake is 150 sq. km.
  • The lake receives water from five rivers Merta, Samand, Mantha, Roopangarh and khandel.

Didwana Lake

  • It is a natural lake, is located at Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
  • It is 2km broad and 4km long.
  • The Production of salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Pachpadra Lake

  • It is located in Barmer district.
  • This is also a Natural Lake, is a salt lake near Pachpadra in Barmer, Rajasthan.
  • Its sodium chloride level is marked at Approx 98%.
  • The total area of this Lake is 25 Sq. km.

      Lunkaransar Lake

  • It is located in Lunkaransar, 80 km away from Bikaner.
  • It is also Natural and a salt water lake.
  • Some other famous Salt Water Lakes are Phalodi, Kuchaman, Kovaad, Kachhor, Rewasa, etc.

2. Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

  • Due to the scarcity of water in Rajasthan, this freshwater lakes act as boons for people of Rajasthan.

Important Fresh Water Lakes of Rajasthan

Jaisamand Lake

  • It was constructed by Maharana Jaising by building the dam on Gomati River from 1685 to 1691.
  • It is located 51 km southeast of Udaipur.
  • It is also called Dhebar Lake.
  • It is the biggest natural lake of Rajasthan.

Rajsamand Lake

 It was constructed by Maharana Rajsingh in 1662.

On the bank of this, lakes many inscriptions are there which tells about the history of Mewar.

Pichhola Lake

  • Lake Pichhola, an artificial fresh water lake, situated on the heart of the Udaipur city in Rajasthan.
  • It was built in 1362 AD by a Banjara and & named after the nearby Picholi village.
  • There are four islands on the lake: Jag Niwas, where the Lake Palace is built, Jag Mandir, with the palace of the same name, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Vilas.
  • The Pichhola Lake and the Swaroop Sagar Lake are connected by an arched bridge built by Maharana Swaroop Singh during 1842-1861.
  • One has Jag Mandir (Temple) and second has Jag Nivas named palaces.

Fateh Sagar Lake

This is an artificial lake was initially built by Maharana Jai Singh in north-west of Udaipur in the year 1678 but it was reconstructed by Maharana Fateh Singh in 1888.

It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

There are Udaipur Solar Observatory, impressive water-jet fountain and Nehru Park – Popular picnic spot.

Anasagar Lake

It is an artificial lake situated in the city of Ajmer.

It was built by Arnoraja alias Anaji, the grandfather of Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1135 -1150 AD and is named after him.

The five Baradari or pavilions, between the garden and the lake, were built by Shahjahan in 1637. On its bank, there’s a garden called “Daulat Baug by Jehangir.

Pushkar Lake

  • It is located in Ajmer district surrounded by mountains.
  • This is also known as Pushkar Sarovar, is located in Pushkar.
  • Pushkar Lake is a sacred lake of the Hindus. The Hindu scriptures describe it as “Tirtha-Raj” – the king of Pilgrimage sites related to a water-body and relate it to the mythology of the creator-god Brahma, whose most prominent temple stands in Pushkar.
  • The Pushkar Lake finds mention on coins as early as the 4th century BC.

Siliserh Lake

  • It is located in Alwar district in between Aravalli Range.

Some other famous lakes are Navlakkha Lake (Bundi), Kolayat Lake (Bikaner), Shaiva Sagar (Dungarpur), Galati and Ramgarh (Jaipur), Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur), Kailana Lake (Jodhpur), etc.

RAS Mains Exam Complete Study Notes

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Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III Paper-IV
Unit-I
Rajasthan History Administrative Ethics   Rajasthan Current Affairs General Hindi & English
Art-Culture Rajasthan National Current Affairs
Indian History   International Current Affairs
Indian Culture
World History
Unit-II
Economy-Rajasthan Science & Technology Public Administration
Indian Economy Agriculture-Rajasthan Polity & Administration
                                          Unit-III
Sociology Geography-Rajasthan Sports & Yoga
Management Geography-India Behaviour
Accounting & Auditing Geography-World Law
general studies of Rajasthan