Modern Indian History MCQ Part-2

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PSC exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.  Modern Indian History MCQ

Click Here for  UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 – 60 Days Revision !

Important solved MCQ for UPSC, State PSC and Other competitive exams. Objective GK & GS Multiple Choice Questions and Answer. These are fact based quizzes written for aspirants of UPSC, IAS, PSC, SSC, SSC-CGL and State SSC exams, IBPS, Banking, Railways, CLAT, State PCS etc. exams. PDF compilation of these questions can be downloaded from MYUPSC.COM.  Modern Indian History MCQ

There is a substantial overlap expected in the static and dynamic UPSC questions asked in the IAS examination, as has been seen in the recent trends. MYUPSC.COM also links, relates and explains the static and dynamic portions of the syllabus that is, connecting the current affairs with the basic concepts for their best comprehension for better grasp and command on the knowledge for the aspirants. Modern Indian History MCQ

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Modern Indian History MCQ Part-2

21.Which among the following was the first establishment of Dutch in current territories of Odisha?

(A) Calcutta
(B) Chinsura
(C) Pippli
(D) Balasore

22.Who said that British established a robber state in Bengal between 1765 and 1772 ?

(A) G. W. Forrest
(B) Lord Macaulay
(C) K. M. Panikkar
(D) Nand Lal Chatterji

23.What is the correct chronological order of setting up of the following Commissions ?
1. Macdonell Commission
2. First Industrial Commission
3. First Fiscal commission

(A) 1, 2, 3
(B) 2, 3, 1
(C) 2, 1, 3
(D) 1, 3, 2

24.The Congress and Muslim League had most cordial relationships in between which among the following years?

(A) 1906 to 1916
(B) 1916 to 1922
(C) 1922 to 1928
(D) 1928 to 1934

25.Who among the following defended Aurbindo Ghosh in the Alipore conspiracy case?

(A) Tej Bahadur Sapru
(B) Motilal Nehru
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(D) Chitranjan Das

26.With reference to the freedom struggle of India, who among the following was not a part of the “Bombay Triumvirate”?

(A) Dadabhai Naoroji
(B) K.T. Telang
(C) Pherozeshah Mehta
(D) Badruddin Tyabji

27.Which among the following was NOT a provision of Charter act of 1833? 

(A) Trading activities of the East India Company were to be abolished
(B) The designation of the supreme authority was to be changed as the Governor General of India in Council
(C) All law making powers to be conferred on Governor General in council
(D) An Indian to be appointed as law member in the Governor General in Council

28.The Battle of Chillianwalla was a part of? 

(A) Anglo-Maratha Wars
(B) Anglo-Carnatic Wars
(C) Anglo-French Wars
(D) Anglo-Sikh Wars

29.Who was the first Muslim President of Indian National Congress? 

(A) Hakim Azmal Khan
(B) Abul Kalam Azad
(C) Rafi Ahmad Kidwai
(D) Badruddin Taiyabji

30.In which year, Sabarmati Ashram was established?

(A) 1914
(B) 1915
(C) 1916
(D) 1917

31.Who is often called as Hindu Luther of Northern India ? 

(A) Dayanand Saraswati
(B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(C) Radhakant Dev
(D) Keshav Chandra Sen

32.Which among the following acts is also known to be a beginning of the parliamentary System in India ? 

(A) Indian Councils Act 1892
(B) Indian Councils Act 1904
(C) Indian Councils Act 1909
(D) Government of India Act 1919

33.What was the number of districts in Bombay Presidency? 

(A) 23
(B) 24
(C) 25
(D) 26

34.The government of India act 1935 provided for: 
1. Provincial autonomy 
2. Establishment of federal court 
3. all India federation at the center 
Which among the above hold correct ? 

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 & 2 only
(C) 2 & 3 only
(D) all of them

35.Which among the following acts had a separate preamble? 

(A) Government of India Act 1919
(B) Indian Councils Act 1909
(C) Indian Councils Act 1904
(D) Indian Councils Act 1892

36.Which among the following organizations was started by Behramji Malabari in Bombay?

(A) Bombay Asiatic Society
(B) Seva Sadan
(C) East India Association
(D) None of the above

37.In which year, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was conferred Bharat Ratna?

(A) 1988
(B) 1991
(C) 1992
(D) 1996

38.The Namgyal Monarchy used to rule which among the following current states of India, once upon a time?

(A) Arunachal Pradesh
(B) Megahalaya
(C) Nagaland
(D) Sikkim

39.In which year, Sabarmati Ashram was established?

(A) 1914
(B) 1915
(C) 1916
(D) 1917

40.Who was the Last Viceroy of India?

(A) Richard Wellesley
(B) Warren Hastings
(C) Lord Mountbatten
(D) Lord Northrook

Answer Key:

  1. C
  2. C
  3. A
  4. B
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. D
  9. D
  10. B
  11. B
  12. A
  13. D
  14. D
  15. A
  16. B
  17. C
  18. D
  19. B
  20. C

IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Topics-Prelims 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test Series

Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs Question Bank

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Study Notes for UPSC Prelims 2020

IAS Prelims 2020 GS Paper-1 Books

UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 Study Material

State Wise Current Affairs 2020

India @ glance

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Study Material

Rajasthan General Studies Books

Rajasthan Patwari Exam 2020 Test Series

Modern Indian History MCQ

Modern Indian History MCQ Part-1

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PSC exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.  Modern Indian History MCQ

Click Here for  UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 – 60 Days Revision !

Important solved MCQ for UPSC, State PSC and Other competitive exams. Objective GK & GS Multiple Choice Questions and Answer. These are fact based quizzes written for aspirants of UPSC, IAS, PSC, SSC, SSC-CGL and State SSC exams, IBPS, Banking, Railways, CLAT, State PCS etc. exams. PDF compilation of these questions can be downloaded from MYUPSC.COM. Medieval Indian History MCQ

There is a substantial overlap expected in the static and dynamic UPSC questions asked in the IAS examination, as has been seen in the recent trends. MYUPSC.COM also links, relates and explains the static and dynamic portions of the syllabus that is, connecting the current affairs with the basic concepts for their best comprehension for better grasp and command on the knowledge for the aspirants. Medieval Indian History MCQ

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Modern Indian History MCQ Part-1

1. Treaty of Salbai is associated with which of the following wars?

(A) First Anglo–Mysore War
(B) First Anglo-Maratha War
(C) Second Anglo-Maratha War
(D) Second Anglo-Mysore War

2. Which Viceroy passed the Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act of 1878?

(A) Lord Lytton
(B) Lord Mayo
(C) Lord Dalhousie
(D) Lord Hardinge

3.Lord Ripon appointed Hunter commission for:

(A) combating terrorism and other anti-national activities
(B) educational reforms in India
(C) appointment of Indian Judges in higher judiciary
(D) None of the Above

4.Who among the following is known to have founded the “Academic Association”?

(A) Henry Vivian Derozio
(B) Madhusudan Datta
(C) Madan Mohan Tarkalankar
(D) Surendranath Tagore

5.Who among the following was called by Jahangir as “English Khan”?

(A) Sir Thomas Roe
(B) William Hawkins
(C) Henry Middleton
(D) None of the above

6.Who among the following edited and published the newspaper Indian Mirror in 1861?

(A) Amitava Ghosh
(B) Ravindranath Tagore
(C) Sumit Ganguly
(D) Manmohan Ghosh and Devendranath Tagore

7.On which among the following dates, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed?

(A) 5 March 1931
(B) 6 March 1931
(C) 7 March 1931
(D) 8 March 1931

8.On which among the following dates, execution of Bhagat Singh took place ?

(A) March 19,1931
(B) April 23, 1931
(C) March 23, 1931
(D) March 14, 1931

9.The Lucknow session of Indian National Congress that took place in 1916 was presided by__:

(A) Rashbihari Ghosh
(B) Ambika Charan Majumdar
(C) Bhupendra Nath Bose
(D) None of the above

10.Which among the following was the first registered Trade Union of India ?

(A) Hindu Mazdoor Sabha
(B) Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh
(C) Madras Labour Union
(D) United Trade Union Congress

11. The Lucknow session of Indian National Congress that took place in 1916 was presided by__:

(A) Rashbihari Ghosh
(B) Ambika Charan Majumdar
(C) Bhupendra Nath Bose
(D) None of the above

12.Which among the following observed the Direct Action Day on August 16, 1946?

(A) Muslim League
(B) Christian League
(C) Sikh League
(D) Hindu League

13.Who among the following started Ganapati Festival in 1893 and thereby gave it national character?

(A) Ganesh Damodar Savarkar
(B) Nana Patil
(C) Lok manya Tilak
(D) Vinoba Bhave

14.Who among the following introduced the Vernacular Press Act?

(A) Sir Ashley Eden
(B) Alexander John Arbuthnot
(C) Lord Lytton
(D) Lord Stanley

15.During which among the following movements, Mahatma Gandhi remarked: “on bended knees I asked for bread and received stone instead” ?

(A) Khilafat Movement
(B) Non-Cooperation Movement
(C) Dandi March
(D) Quit India Movement

16.The Hindu Mahasabha was organized for the first time in 1914 at ___:

(A) Haridwar
(B) Allahabad
(C) Varanasi
(D) None of the above

17.Which party observed the “Black Day” on July 3, 1947 against Partition of India?

(A) Indian National Congress
(B) Forward Bloc
(C) Hindu Mahasabha
(D) Communist Party of India

18.The most important reason for collection of “Chauth” and “Sardeshmukhi” by Marathas was __?

(A) To increase the source of income
(B) To expand his territories
(C) To consolidate his political influence
(D) Because of the opposition of Muslim rulers

19.In which among the following years, Bombay transferred to the East India Company by Charles II ?

(A) 1662 A.D.
(B) 1664 A.D.
(C) 1666 A.D.
(D) 1668 A.D.

20.Who among the following was the French explorer who visited court of Emperor Shah Jahan and left a detailed account of Takht-i-Taus (Peacock throne) ?

(A) Jean-Baptiste Tavernier
(B) Geronimo Verroneo
(C) Pierre-Jean Grosley
(D) Jean-Paul Dubois

Answer Key:

  1. B
  2. A
  3. B
  4. A
  5. B
  6. D
  7. A
  8. C
  9. B
  10. C
  11. B
  12. A
  13. C
  14. C
  15. C
  16. A
  17. C
  18. A
  19. D
  20. A

IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Topics-Prelims 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test Series

Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs Question Bank

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Study Notes for UPSC Prelims 2020

IAS Prelims 2020 GS Paper-1 Books

UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 Study Material

State Wise Current Affairs 2020

India @ glance

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Study Material

Rajasthan General Studies Books

Rajasthan Patwari Exam 2020 Test Series

Examsdaily Static GK topics for Competitive Exams

All PDF/study material which are provided in this post are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don’t make them Commercial. We request you to respect our Hard Work. We are providing everything Free Here MYUPSC.COM Will Not Charge Any Cost for Any Service Here. UPSC Prelims Test Series

If you are new to UPSC field, we recommend you to know about UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains and UPSC Optional and Test Series [Prelims/Mains] and also Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 for better Understanding. All our Advertisements are decent ads and if anyone have any problem with website or advertisements please contact me thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

MYUPSC.com does not own this book, neither created nor scanned. We just provide the links already available on Internet. If any way it violates the law or has any issues then kindly contact us. Thank you. UPSC Prelims Test Series.

Static GK Question Bank

List of national parks in India

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC IAS General Studies UPSC PSC Books 2020

NameState
Anamudi Shola National ParkKerala
Anshi National ParkKarnataka
Balphakram National ParkMeghalaya
Bandhavgarh National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Bandipur National ParkKarnataka
Bannerghatta National ParkKarnataka
Betla National ParkJharkhand
Bhitarkanika National ParkOdisha
Bison (Rajbari) National ParkTripura
Blackbuck National Park, VelavadarGujarat
Buxa Tiger ReserveWest Bengal
Campbell Bay National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Chandoli National ParkMaharashtra
Clouded Leopard National ParkTripura
Dachigam National ParkJammu and Kashmir
Desert National ParkRajasthan
Dibru-Saikhowa National ParkAssam
Dudhwa National ParkUttar Pradesh
Eravikulam National ParkKerala
Galathea National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Gangotri National ParkUttarakhand
Gir Forest National ParkGujarat
Gorumara National ParkWest Bengal
Govind Pashu Vihar Wildlife SanctuaryUttarakhand
Great Himalayan National ParkHimachal Pradesh,
Gugamal National ParkMaharashtra
Guindy National ParkTamil Nadu
Gulf of Mannar Marine National ParkTamil Nadu
Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National ParkChhattisgarh
Hemis National ParkJammu and Kashmir
Inderkilla National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Indra Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National ParkTamil Nadu
Indravati National ParkChhattisgarh
Jaldapara National ParkWest Bengal
Jim Corbett National ParkUttarakhand
Kalesar National ParkHaryana
Kanha National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Kanger Ghati National ParkChhattisgarh
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National ParkTelangana
Kaziranga National ParkAssam
Keibul Lamjao National ParkManipur
Keoladeo National ParkRajasthan
Khangchendzonga National ParkSikkim
Khirganga National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Kishtwar National ParkJammu and Kashmir
Kudremukh National ParkKarnataka
Madhav National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Mahatma Gandhi Marine National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National ParkTelangana
Manas National ParkAssam
Mandla Plant Fossils National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Marine National Park, Gulf of KutchGujarat
Mathikettan Shola National ParkKerala
Middle Button Island National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Mollem National ParkGoa
Mouling National ParkArunachal Pradesh
Mount Abu Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Mount Harriet National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Mrugavani National ParkTelangana
Mudumalai National ParkTamil Nadu
Mukundra Hills National ParkRajasthan
Mukurthi National ParkTamil Nadu
Murlen National ParkMizoram
Nagarhole National ParkKarnataka
Namdapha National ParkArunachal Pradesh
Nameri National ParkAssam
Nanda Devi National ParkUttarakhand
Navegaon National ParkMaharashtra
Neora Valley National ParkWest Bengal
Nokrek National ParkMeghalaya
North Button Island National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Ntangki National ParkNagaland
Orang National ParkAssam
Pambadum Shola National ParkKerala
Panna National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Papikonda National ParkAndhra Pradesh
Pench National Park [3]Madhya Pradesh
Periyar National ParkKerala
Phawngpui Blue Mountain National ParkMizoram
Pin Valley National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Rajaji National ParkUttarakhand
Rani Jhansi Marine National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Ranthambore National ParkRajasthan
Saddle Peak National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Salim Ali National ParkJammu and Kashmir
Sanjay National Park [4]Madhya Pradesh
Sanjay Gandhi National ParkMaharashtra
Sariska Tiger ReserveRajasthan
Satpura National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Silent Valley National ParkKerala
Simbalbara National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Sirohi National ParkManipur
Simlipal National ParkOdisha
Singalila National ParkWest Bengal
South Button Island National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Sri Venkateswara National ParkAndhra Pradesh
Sultanpur National ParkHaryana
Sundarbans National ParkWest Bengal
Tadoba National ParkMaharashtra
Valley of Flowers National ParkUttarakhand
Valmiki National ParkBihar
Vansda National ParkGujarat
Van Vihar National ParkMadhya Pradesh

IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Topics-Prelims 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test Series

Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs Question Bank

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Study Notes for UPSC Prelims 2020

IAS Prelims 2020 GS Paper-1 Books

UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 Study Material

State Wise Current Affairs 2020

India @ glance

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Study Material

Rajasthan General Studies Books

Rajasthan Patwari Exam 2020 Test Series

List of Tiger reserves in India

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC IAS General Studies UPSC PSC Books 2020

Click Here for  UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 – 60 Days Revision !

The foundation and idea behind myupsc.com is to address the useful and good quality study material in English medium for aspirants who are preparation for UPSC Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and State PSC Exams. UPSC PSC General Studies Must Read Books for Prelims and Mains Exam. UPSC PSC Books 2020

PM releases results of 4th cycle of All India Tiger Estimation – 2018

Count of Tigers in India rises to 2967

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu showing the highest increment in management 
  • Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam is the largest tiger reserve in terms of Area.
  • Pench Tiger Reserve in Maharastra is minimum in area.
  • As per website of NTCA, Sunderbans in West Bengal has the largest number of Tigers.
  • Manas (Assam) , Similipal (Orissa), Sunderbans (West Bengal) are Biosphere Tiger reserves.
S.No.Tiger ReserveStateTotal Area (km2)
1BandipurKarnataka1456
2Jim CorbettUttarakhand1288
3KanhaMadhya Pradesh2052
4ManasAssam3151
5MelghatMaharashtra2769
6PalamauJharkhand1130
7RanthamboreRajasthan1411
8SimilipalOdisha2750
9SunderbansWest Bengal2585
10PeriyarKerala925
11SariskaRajasthan1213
12BuxaWest Bengal758
13IndravatiChhattisgarh2799
14NamdaphaArunachal Pradesh2053
15DudhwaUttar Pradesh2202
16Kalakkad-MundanthuraiTamil Nadu1602
17ValmikiBihar899
18PenchMadhya Pradesh1180
19TadobaMaharashtra1728
20BandhavgarhMadhya Pradesh1598
21PannaMadhya Pradesh1579
22DampaMizoram988
23BhadraKarnataka1064
24PakhuiArunachal Pradesh1198
26NameriAssam344
27SatpuraMadhya Pradesh2133
28AnamalaiTamil Nadu1480
29Udanti-SitanadiChhattisgarh1843
30SatkosiaOdisha964
31KazirangaAssam1174
32AchanakmarChhattisgarh914
33KaliKarnataka1098
34Sanjay-DubriMadhya Pradesh1675
35MudumalaiTamil Nadu689
36NagaraholeKarnataka1206
37ParambikulamKerala644
38SahyadriMaharashtra1166
39BiligirirangaKarnataka575
40KawalTelangana2019
41SathyamangalamTamil Nadu1408
42Mukandra HillsRajasthan760
43Nawegaon-NagziraMaharashtra1895
44Nagarjunsagar-SrisailamAndhra Pradesh3296
45AmrabadTelangana2611
46PilibhitUttar Pradesh730
47BorMaharashtra816
48RajajiUttarakhand1075
49OrangAssam492
50KamlangArunachal Pradesh783

IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Topics-Prelims 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test Series

Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs Question Bank

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Study Notes for UPSC Prelims 2020

IAS Prelims 2020 GS Paper-1 Books

UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 Study Material

State Wise Current Affairs 2020

India @ glance

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Study Material

Rajasthan General Studies Books

Rajasthan Patwari Exam 2020 Test Series

List Of Countries And Their Capitals And Currencies

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and State PSC Exams. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to UPSC IAS/State PSC exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and All the States/UT, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. India State Wise GK

COUNTRYCAPITALCURRENCY
AfghanistanKabulAfghani
AlbaniaTiraneLek
AlgeriaAlgiersAlgerian Dinar
AndorraAndorra la VellaEuro
AngolaLuandaKwanza
Antigua & BarbudaSaint John’sEast Caribbean Dollar
ArgentinaBuenos AiresArgentine Peso
ArmeniaYerevanDram
AustraliaCanberraAustralian Dollar
AustriaViennaEuro
AzerbaijanBakuManat
The BahamasNassauBahamian Dollar
Bahrain ManamaBahraini Dinar
BangladeshDhakaTaka
BarbadosBridgetownBarbadian Dollar
BelarusMinskBelarusian Ruble
BelgiumBrusselsEuro
BelizeBelmopanBelize Dollar
BeninPorto-NovoWest African CFA Franc
BhutanThimphuNgultrum
BoliviaLa Paz; SucreBoliviano
Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevoConvertible Mark
BotswanaGaboronePula
BrazilBrasiliaReal
BruneiBandar Seri BegawanBrunei Dollar
BulgariaSofiaLev
Burkina FasoOuagadougouWest African CFA Franc
BurundiBujumburaBurundi Franc
CambodiaPhnom PenhRiel
CameroonYaoundeCentral African CFA Franc
CanadaOttawaCanadian Dollar
Cape VerdePraiaCape Verdean Escudo
Central African RepublicBanguiCentral African CFA Franc
ChadN’DjamenaCentral African CFA Franc
ChileSantiagoChilean Peso
ChinaBeijingChinese Yuan
ColombiaBogotaColombian Peso
ComorosMoronComorian Franc
Democratic Republic Of the CongoKinshasaCongolese Franc
Republic of the CongoBrazzavilleCentral African CFA Franc
Costa RicaSan JoseColon
Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)Yamoussoukro; AbidjanWest African CFA Franc
CroatiaZagrebCroatian
CubaHavanaCuban Peso
CyprusNicosiaEuro
CzechiaPragueCzech Koruna
DenmarkCopenhagenDanish Krone
DjiboutiDjiboutiDjiboutian Franc
DominicaRosesauEast Caribbean Dollar
Dominican RepublicSanto DomingoDominican Peso
East Timor (Timor-Leste)DilliUnited States Dollar
EcuadorQuitoUnited States Dollar
EgyptCairoEgyptian Pound
El SalvadorSan SalvadorUnited States Dollar
Equitorial GuineaMalaboCentral African CFA Franc
EritreaAsmaraNakfa
EstoniaTallinnEstonian Kroon; Euro
EthiopiaAddis AbabaBirr
FijiSuvaFijian Dollar
FinlandHelsinkiEuro
FranceParisEuro; CFP Franc
GabonLibrevilleCentral African CFA Franc
The GambiaBanjulDalasi
GeorgiaTbilisiLari
GermanyBerlinEuro
GhanaAccraGhanaian Cedi
GreeceAthensEuro
GrenadaSt. George’sEast Caribbean Dollar
GuatemalaGuatemala CityQuetzal
GuineaConakryGuinean Franc
Guinea-BissauBissauWest African CFA Franc
GuyanaGeorgetownGuyanese Dollar
HaitiPort-au-PrinceGourde
HondurasTegucigalpaLempira
HungaryBudapestForint
IcelandReykjavikIcelandic Krona
IndiaNew DelhiIndian Rupee
IndonesiaJakartaRupiah
IranTehranRial
IraqBaghdadIraqi Dinar
Republic of IrelandDublinEuro
IsraelJerusalemShekel
ItalyRomeEuro
JamaicaKingstonJamaican Dollar
JapanTokyoYen
JordanAmmanJordanian Dinar
KazakhstanAstanaTenge
KenyaNairobiKenyan Shilling
KiribatiTarawa AtollKiribati Dollar
North KoreaPyongyangNorth Korean Won
South KoreaSeoulSouth Korean Won
KosovoPristinaEuro
KuwaitKuwait CityKuwaiti Dollar
KyrgyzstanBishkekSom
LaosVientianeKip
LatviaRigaLats
LebanonBeirutLebanese Pound
LesothoMaseruLoti
LiberiaMonroviaLiberian Dollar
LibyaTripoliLibyan Dinar
LiechtensteinVaduzSwiss Franc
LithuaniaVilniusLithuanian Litas
LuxembourgLuxembourgEuro
MacedoniaSkopjeMacedonian Denar
MadagascarAntananarivoMalagasy Ariary
MalawiLilongweMalawi Kwacha
MalaysiaKuala LumpurRinggit
MaldivesMaleMaldivian Rufiyaa
MaliBamakoWest African CFA Franc
MaltaVallettaEuro
Marshall IslandsMajuroUnited States Dollar
MauritaniaNouakchottOuguiya
MauritiusPort LouisMauritian Rupee
MexicoMexico CityMexican Peso
Federal States of MicronesiaPalikirUnited States Dollar
MoldovaChisinauMoldovan Leu
MonacoMonacoEuro
MongoliaUlaanbaatarTogrog
MontenegroPodgoricaEuro
MoroccoRabatMoroccan Dirham
MozambiqueMaputoMozambican Metical
Myanmar (Burma)NypyidawKyat
NamibiaWindhoekNamibian Dollar
NauruYarenAustralian Dollar
NepalKathmanduNepalese Rupee
NetherlandsAmsterdam; The HagueEuro
New ZealandWellingtonNew Zealand Dollar
NicaraguaManaguaCordoba
NigerNiameyWest African CFA Franc 
NigeriaAbujaNaira
NorwayOsloNorwegian Krone
OmanMuscatOmani Rial
PakistanIslamabadPakistani Rupee
PalauMelekeokUnited States Dollar
PanamaPanama City Balboa
Papa New GuineaPort Moresby PapaPapa New Guinean Kina
ParaguayAsuncionGuarani
PeruLimaNuevo Sol
PhillipinesManilaPhillipine Peso
PolandWarsawZloty
PortugalLisbonEuro
QatarDohaQatari Riyal
RomaniaBucharestRomanian Rupee
RussiaMoscowRuble
RwandaKigaliRwandan Franc
Saint Kitts and NevisBasseterreEast Caribbean Dollar
Saint LuciaCastriesEast Caribbean Dollar
Saint Vincent and The GrenadinesKingstown EastCaribbean Dollar
SamoaApiaTala
San MarinoSan MarinoEuro
Sao Tome and PrincipeSao TomeDobra
Saudi ArabiaRiyadhSaudi Riyal
SenegalDakarWest African CFA Franc
SerbiaBelgradeSerbian Dinar
SeychellesVictoriaSeychoellois Rupee
Sierra LeoneFreetownLeone
SingaporeSingaporeSingapore Dollar
SlovakiaBratislavaEuro
SloveniaLjubljanaEuro
Solomon IslandsHoniaraSolomon Islands Dollar
SomaliaMogadishuSomali Shilling
South AfricaPretoria; Cape Town; BloemfonteinRand
SpainMadridEuro
Sri LankaColomboSri Lankan Rupee
SudanKhartoumSudanese Pound
SurinameParamariboSurinamese Dollar
SwazilandMbabaneLilangeni
SwedenStockholmSwedish Krona
SwitzerlandBerneSwiss Franc
SyriaDamascusSyrian Pound
TaiwanTaipeiNew Taiwan Dollar
TajikistanDushanbeSomoni
TanzaniaDar es Salaam; DodomaTanzanian Schilling
ThailandBangkokThai Baht
TogoLomeWest African CFA Franc
TongaNuku’alofaPa’anga
Trinidad and TobagoPort-of-SpainTrinidad and Tobago Dollar
TunisiaTunisTunisian Dinar
TurkeyAnkaraTurkish Lira
TurkmenistanAshgabatTurkmen New Manat
TuvaluVaiakuTuvaluan Dollar
UgandaKampalaUgandan Shilling
UkraineKievHryvnia
United Arab EmiratesAbu DhabiDirham
United KingdomLondonPound Sterling
United States of AmericaWashington D.C.United States Dollar
UruguayMontevideoUruguayan Peso
UzbekistanTashkentUzbekistan Som
VanuatuPort-VilaVanuatu Vatu
Vatican CityVatican CityEuro
VenezuelaCaracasBolivar Fuerte
VietnamHanoiDong
YemenSanaaYemeni Rial
ZambiaLusakaZambian Kwacha
ZimbabweHarareUnited States Dollar

Important study materials for all competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, RRB, Bank and all state government exams like APPSC, MPSC, KPSC, TNPSC, TSPSC, RPSC, OPSC, UPPSC, WBPSC, etc,. Here we give subject wise study materials in the PDF Format also. Candidates can download the study material PDF from the below links.

Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Volume-3

MYUPSC.COM – Current Affairs Yearbook 2020: Volume-3 covered from The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana and some useful government resources ...
Read More

State Wise Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

Uttarakhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Uttarakhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for UKPSC and all other competitive ...
Read More

UPPSC Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for UPPSC and all other ...
Read More

Tripura Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Tripura Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for Tripura State PSC and all ...
Read More

TPSC Telangana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Telangana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for TPSC State PSC and all ...
Read More

Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for State PSC ...
Read More

Sikkim GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Sikkim Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Odisha Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Odisha Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for Odisha State PSC and all ...
Read More

Nagaland Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Nagaland Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for NPSC and all other competitive ...
Read More

Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for Mizoram PSC and all other ...
Read More

General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 PDF

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the India Yearbook 2020, Useful for UPSC, State PSC SSC and all other ...
Read More

Meghalaya Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Meghalaya Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook 2020: Latest Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Maharashtra Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Maharashtra Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

KPSC Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for KPSC State PSC and all ...
Read More

Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Jharkhand General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Jharkhand General Knowledge Yearbook 2020: It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Jharkhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for ...
Read More

Jammu & Kashmir Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Jammu & Kashmir Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for JKPSC and all ...
Read More

Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for HPPSC and all other ...
Read More

Haryana Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Haryana GK Yearbook 2020: It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for HPSC ...
Read More

GPSC Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for GPSC and other competitive exams ...
Read More

Goa Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Goa Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Delhi GK Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Delhi Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals ...
Read More

Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for RPSC and all other competitive ...
Read More

MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for MPPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant ...
Read More

CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Chhattisgarh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for CGPSC State PSC and all ...
Read More

BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020 : Latest And Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Bihar Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for BPSC State PSC and all ...
Read More

APSC Assam Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Assam Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for APSC State PSC and all ...
Read More

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook 2020 : Current Affairs

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Useful for APPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. It gives us ...
Read More

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

MYUPSC.COM - Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 covered from The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana and some useful government resources for ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-12

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-11

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-10

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-9

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-8

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-7

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-6

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-5

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-4

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-3

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-2

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-1

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

Current Affairs 1-25 March 2020

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide ...
Read More

UPSC Prelims: Monthly Current Affairs March 2020

All PDF which are provided here are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don’t ...
Read More

Daily News Prescription – 21 March 2020

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

Daily News Prescription – 20 March 2020

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

Daily News Prescription – 19 March 2020

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

Daily Current Affairs 18 March 2020

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing ...
Read More

UPSC Prelims 2020 Complete Study Material with Practice Test

UPSC Prelims 2020 Complete Study Material for General Studies Paper-1 with 50-Practice Solved Test

Civil Services Preliminary exam comprises of two compulsory papers of 200 marks each (General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II). The questions will be of multiple choices, objective type. The marks in prelims will not be counted for final ranking, but just for qualification for main exam.The Commission will draw a list of candidates to be qualified for Civil Service (Main) Examination based on the criterion of minimum qualifying marks of 33% in General Studies Paper-II of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination and total qualifying marks of General Studies Paper-I of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination as may be determined by the Commission.

UPSC Syllabus for GS Paper I – (200 marks) Duration: Two hours (Counted for the merit rank in the Prelims)·        

Current events of national and international importance.         

History of India and Indian National Movement.         

Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.        

Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.        

Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.        

General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.        

General Science.

What you will get ?

You will get 34 Product given below:

  1. UPSC Prelims 2020: Basic Geography Concepts Rs. 25.00
  2. Polity: UPSC Prelims 2020 Highly Expected Questions Rs. 20.00
  3. PT 365 Govt Schemes for UPSC and all other exam 2020 Rs. 40.00
  4. UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Solved Test 1-40Rs.90.00
  5. General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Rs. 130.00
  6. Indian Economy Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.160.00
  7. Indian And World Geography Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.130.00
  8. Indian Polity Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.125.00
  9. Indian History : Latest Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.125.00
  10. Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1Rs.140.00
  11. Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2Rs.140.00
  12. UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1Rs.300.00
  13. Indian Art, Culture, Heritage and Architecture for Civil Services ExaminationRs.40.00
  14. UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Solved Test 1-15 for GS Paper-IRs.30.00
  15. Indian Economy Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims 2020Rs.49.00
  16. India Yearbook Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2020Rs.80.00
  17. UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Practice Test 1-12 Rs.30.00
  18. Indian History Question BankRs.40.00
  19. Indian Geography Question BankRs.80.00
  20. Indian Polity Topic Wise Question BankRs.40.00
  21. 2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020Rs.80.00
  22. Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12thRs.25.00
  23. Geography & Environment Current issues yearbook 2019Rs.35.00
  24. Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20Rs.30.00
  25. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Useful for UPSC & PSC ExamsRs.120.00
  26. UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year Solved Paper 2010-19Rs.40.00
  27. UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-4 Ethics, Integrity and AptitudeRs.60.00
  28. UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-3 Complete Study NotesRs.70.00
  29. UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study NotesRs.70.00
  30. UPSC IAS Main exam GS Paper-1 Complete study notesRs.60.00
  31. Art & Culture of IndiaRs.45.00
  32. Indian History Complete Study NotesRs.60.00
  33. Indian Polity for Civil Services ExaminationRs.65.00
  34. Physical Economic and Human Geography of IndiaRs.60.00

Total Cost = Rs. 2674

You have to Pay Rs. 600/- for these 34 products. (Offer valid till 15th February 2020)

Click Here To Buy

Daily News Prescription - General Studies of India

General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 PDF

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the India Yearbook 2020, Useful for UPSC, State PSC SSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of India General Knowledge in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

UPSC PRELIMS 2020 BATCH 3: COMPLETE REVISION

India General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. General Awareness Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UPSC and Other State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega General Studies Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the India.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The General Knowledge Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The India General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, and Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 8 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc. This section introduces you to the various States/UTs in the Country and urges you to explore their magnificent uniqueness.

India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress since Independence. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4′ and 37° 6′ north, longitudes 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

General Knowledge 2020 Yearbook Download

India General Knowledge 2020

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Economic Survey 2020: Analysis, Highlights & Summary – PDF Download

Economic Survey 2019-20 PDF has been tabled in the Parliament by Chief Economic Advisor (CEA) Krishnamurthy V Subramanian. The Survey focuses on the theme of integrating old with new through Trust in the economy; promoting pro-business policies and creating wealth and job opportunities. The Survey projects India’s GDP growth at 6-6.5 percent in 2020-21. Have a look at the detailed analysis of the Economic Survey below along with the highlights and brief summary. India Economic Survey 2020

The Survey 2020 throws light on new ideas to boost growth and accelerate wealth creation. These are – Thalinomics, Adoption of China model, Trust and others. The Survey reviews and analyses the overall economic progress made in the last fiscal along with the key policy challenges. This annual document of the Union Finance Ministry focuses on the implementation of various Government Schemes and policies and their impact on the economy so far. Besides talking about the macroeconomic and microeconomic factors, GDP growth rate, Inflation, the Economic Survey 2019-2020 throws a light upon the major impact of employment, agricultural policies and climate change on the Indian Economy. India Economic Survey 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

On February 1, 2020, the Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman will present the Union Budget 2020-21, which lays out finances of the Central Government and estimated revenue and expenditure for 2020-21. Here is the detailed analysis and brief summary of the Economic Survey 2020. India Economic Survey 2020

Theme of Economic Survey 2020 – “Enable Markets, Promote ‘Pro-Business’ Policy & Strengthen ‘Trust’ in Economy”

Key Highlights of the Economic Budget 2020

Economic Survey 2020 PDF

India’s Overall Economic Performance in 2019-20: GDP, Inflation, Fiscal Developments, GST

– India witnessed a GDP growth of 4.8% in the first half of 2019-20 amidst weakened global trade and demand

– Growth of Agriculture and allied activities & Public administration, defence, and other services’ was higher in the first half of 2019-20 in comparison to second half 2018-19.

– Current Account Deficit (CAD) contracted to 1.5% of GDP in H1 of 2019-20

– Remarkable Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and increase of foreign exchange reserves

– Headline inflation mounted from 3.3% in the first half of 2019-20 to 7.35% in December 2019-20 due to food inflation rise

– Survey predicts 5% GDP growth for 2019-20 overall based on CSO’s first Advance Estimates

– Revenue Receipts registered higher growth in H1 of 2019-20

– Gross GST monthly collections crossed Rs 1 lakh crore for five times in 2019-20 till December 2019

Economic Survey 2020 PDF

GDP Growth in 2020-21: Economic Survey 2019-20 projects the GDP Growth of 6% – 6.5% in fiscal 2020-21.

Economic Survey 2020 PDF

Wealth Creation: Invisible Hand Supported by Hand of Trust

The Economic Survey talks about the need to bring openness in the market for the creation of wealth through increased investment. In light of this, the survey points towards an Invisible Hand that is supported by the Hand of Trust. It presents an amalgamation of old and new; old in terms of ancient Indian tradition and new suggests the use of FinTech in Indian Public Sector Banks. It calls for strengthening this invisible hand through: Economic Survey 2020 PDF

– Equal opportunities for new entrants

– Fair competition & ease doing business

– Trade for job creation

– Scaling up of the banking sector

– Introduction of the idea of trust as a public good

Entrepreneurship and Wealth Creation

The Survey calls for the creation of wealth through:

– Entrepreneurship of the working class

– Pro-business policies to test the power of competitive markets

– Elimination of policies that weaken the markets

– Integration of Assemble in India into Make in India

– Scaling up of the banking sector

– Privatization to foster efficiency

Pro-business versus Pro-markets

The Economic Survey says that India needs more of pro-business policies and break away from pro-crony policies to become a USD 5 trillion economy. The Survey says that till 2011, several Pro-Crony policies were followed such as preferential allocation of natural resources. These pro-crony policies majorly led to willful defaults which drained off the banks. India Economic Survey 2020

Pro-Crony Meaning: In Favour of a close friend or companion

Undermining Markets: Is Government Intervention required?

The Survey suggests restricted government intervention in the markets. It lists out several instances where the intervention of Government has adversely affected the market such as imposing stock limits under Essential Commodities Act (ECA), 1955 that led to increase in onion prices in 2019; regulation of drug prices under ECA; intervention in the food grain market and so on. The government must analyse and then decide whether its intervention is even required in a particular market. This will directly benefit by encouraging investments and economic growth. India Economic Survey 2020

Creation of Jobs and Growth

 The Economic Survey calls for the integration of “Assemble in India” with “Make in India” to create more jobs and accelerate growth. The survey seeks to:

– Increase export market share to 3.5% by 2025 and 6% by 2030

– Creation of over 4 crore rewarding jobs by 2025 and over 8 crore jobs by 2030

This can be achieved by adopting China-like policies such as export of goods majorly to rich markets.

Targeting Ease of Doing Business

India was ranked at 63rd position in World Bank’s Doing Business 2019 rankings, a jump of 79 positions from 142nd rank in 2014. However, the economy is still trailing in several parameters such as Ease of Starting Business, Paying Taxes, Registering Property and Enforcing Contracts.

The Economic Survey calls for close coordination between the Logistics Divisions of Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Union Ministry of Shipping, Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs and the port authorities. There are some sectors that require a more focused approach such as the tourism sector, manufacturing sector and others. India Economic Survey 2020

Golden jubilee of Bank Nationalisation

The year 2019 marked the golden jubilee year of Bank Nationalisation. The Survey points out that the growth of Indian Banking Sector has not been proportionate with the overall growth of the economy. So far, only one Indian bank has made it to the list of Global Top 100 Banks. In 2019, a Rupee investment in public sector banks (PSBs) led to a loss of 23 paise on an average. The Survey calls for making PSBs more efficient through:

– Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) for employees of banks

– Creation of an entity similar to that of GSTN to aggregate data from all PSBs and ensure better monitoring of borrowers through artificial intelligence and machine learning. Economic Survey 2020 PDF

Economic Survey 2020 PDF

Privatisation and Wealth Creation

The Economic Survey 2020 calls for privatization to boost job and wealth creation. It examines the before and after the performance of over 10 CPSEs that underwent strategic disinvestment. The Strategic disinvestment in BPCL has led to an increase of over Rs. 30,000 crore wealth in India. Collectively, the net profit, net worth, return on assets (ROA) & equity (ROE) have improved notably. The more aggressive disinvestment is suggested for higher profitability. India Economic Survey 2020

Thalinomics: Economics of Plate of Food in India

This year, the Survey throws a light upon the price paid by a person for a Thali in India anywhere. The prices of a vegetarian Thali have declined sharply since 2015-16; however, this price increased in 2019-20. During 2006 – 2020, the affordability of Indian vegetarian Thalis improved by 29% and affordability of non-vegetarian Indian Thali improved by 18%. 

– RBI’s monetary policy stance remained “accommodative” in 2019-20

– The Repo rate was cut by 110 basis points in 2019-20 due to slower growth & lower inflation.

– Non Performing Advances (NPA) ratio remained unchanged for Commercial banks at 9.3% during March-September 2019

– Credit growth declined of banks & NBFCs declined.

Prices and Inflation

– CPI inflation increased to 4.1% in 2019-20 from 3.7% in 2018-19

– WPI inflation declined to 1.5% in 2019-20 from 4.7% in 2018-19

– The major drivers of CPI inflation in 2019-20 were food and beverages, particularly vegetables and pulses

Sustainable Development and Climate Change

– The Survey acknowledges that India is rightly moving forward on the path of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) implementation. The states like Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu came out as front runners in SDG India Index 2019.

– Apart from this, India hosted COP-14 of UNCCD which resulted in the adoption of “Delhi Declaration”

– India strongly committed itself to implement the Paris Agreement at COP-25 of UNFCCC at Madrid, Spain.

– Indian Forest and tree cover increased to 80.73 million hectare

– One of the major concerns is still burning of agricultural residues that lead to high pollution levels and deteriorates air quality.

– International Solar Alliance (ISA)

Agriculture and Food Management

– The Economic Survey states that the largest proportion of the Indian population depends on agriculture for job opportunities. However, the share of agriculture and allied sectors in Gross Value Added (GVA) of India is continuously declining due to higher growth of non-agricultural sectors.

– The GVA at Basic Prices of ‘Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing’ sector expected to grow by 2.8% for 2019-20.

– Livestock sector has grown at 7.9% CAGR in the last five years. The income from Livestock has become a secondary source of income for rural families.

– The Survey stresses on the sustainability of food security by addressing the growing food subsidy bill and revising the rates and coverage under NFSA.

Industry and Infrastructure

– The industrial sector has registered a 0.6% growth in 2019-20 and 5% in 2018-19

– Fertilizer sector showcased a growth of 4% in 2019-20

– Steel sector registered a growth of 5.2% in 2019-20

– Over 119 crore telephone connections were provided until September 2019

– Report on National Infrastructure Pipeline projects total investment of Rs 102 lakh crore on infrastructure from 2020 to 2025 in India

– Industrial growth is estimated at 2.5% of fiscal 2019-20.

Employment, Social Infrastructure and Human Development

– The Government’s expenditure on social services such as health & education as a proportion of GDP increased to 7.7% in 2019-20.

– India improved its position in the Human Development Index by fetching 129th rank in 2018 from 130th in 2017.

– Total formal employment increased to 9.98% in 2017-18 from 8% in 2011-12.

– Gender disparity widened in the labour market due to a decrease in the female labour force.

– Citizens’ access to health services improved through Ayushman Bharat and Mission Indradhanush.

– Over 3.30 crore children & 87.18 lakh pregnant women have been vaccinated under Mission Indradhanush.

– In terms of houses, over 76% of households in rural and 96% in urban areas had pucca houses.

Key points to note
The Economic Survey is tabled a day before the presentation of Union Budget.
The Survey is prepared by the Finance Ministry’s Department of Economic Affairs.
The Chief Economic Advisor (CEA) of India is the chief author of the Economic Survey.
It consists of Volume I, Volume II and Statistical Appendix.
It details the state of Indian Economy, future prospects and key challenges.
It reveals the true GDP growth achieved in the past fiscal and projects the further GDP growth.
It talks about the job growth & annual collection of the Goods and Services Tax (GST).

Theme: Shifting gears with Investment as a key driver

The Economic Survey 2019 was focused on achieving Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of USD 5 Trillion Indian Economy. The last year survey called for the adoption of behavioural economics to “nudge” people towards expected behaviour. The Survey 2018-19 projected the GDP growth at 7% for 2019-20. To achieve this growth, the Survey depicted Private Investment as a key driver for the overall growth and job creation. 

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Goa Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Goa Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Goa General Knowledge 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Goa Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Goa General Knowledge 2020

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Goa based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Goa General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Click Here To Download

Introduction of Goa

Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th state of the Union states of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was a part of Union Territory of Goa, Daman & Diu till 30th May 1987 when it was carved out of form a separate state. Goa covers an area of 3702 square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa. Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Tere Khol River which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and West by Arabian Sea. Goa lies in Western Coast of India and is 594 Kms (by road) away from Mumbai city.

A brief summary of the 2011 census: Goa’s population is 1458545 with 739140 Males and 719405 Females. The growth of 14.8 per cent, during 1991 to 2000, is lower than the 16.08 per cent recorded during 1981 to 1990.

The sex-ratio (number of females per thousand males) in Goa is 973 in 2011 compared to 967 in 1991. The density of population per sq km in Goa is 364 in 2001 as compared to 316 in 1991. North Goa has a much higher density (437) as compared to South Goa (300). The national figure is 324. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa was a former state of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.

Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Agriculture is one of the important economic activities in Goa. The total agricultural area is approximately 1400 sq km from which 1200 sq km is owned by the govt and remaining 200 sq km is owned privately. Rice and coconut are the staple produce of Goa. Paddy is cultivated during the monsoon from the months of June to September.

In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silaharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom’s grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Goa General Knowledge 2020

In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961. The Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, and was finally abolished in 1812.

In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India’s twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa General Knowledge 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Goa General Knowledge Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics for UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

The Non – Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 1, 1920 was the first mass movement organized nationwide during India’s struggle for freedom. In this article, we will read in detail about the Non – Cooperation Movement’s causes, methods, impact, and end.

Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement: The Non – Cooperation Movement has had four main causes:
 

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
 

2. Dissatisfaction with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
 

3. Rowlatt Act
 

4. Khilafat Agitation
 

Let’s look in detail at every cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
On April 13, 1919, a large but unarmed crowd gathered at Amritsar in the Jallianwala Bagh to protest the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal. However, this unarmed crowd of women and children, among others, was fired mercilessly with rifles and machine guns on General Dyer’s orders. Thousands of people have been killed and injured. Martial law was proclaimed throughout Punjab after this massacre and the people were subjected to the most uncivilized atrocities.
 
In order to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh incident and the role of General Dyer, the British government set up the Inquiry Disorders Committee, popularly known as the Hunter Committee after its chairman Lord William Hunter. While the Hunter Committee held General Dyer responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, it upheld his reasons for ordering the firing on the unarmed crowd as well as for imposing martial law in Punjab.
 
The people of India, due to their clear biases, did not accept the recommendations of the Hunter Committee. There has been unrest among the masses to ensure justice for the wrongs of Punjab has been delivered. In protest, Mahatma Gandhi gave up the Kaiser – I – Hind title granted to him by the British government. 

2. Unhappiness with the reforms in Montagu – Chelmsford
The 1919 Government of India Act was enacted based on the 1918 Montagu – Chelmsford proposals recommendations. This Act introduced the ‘ Dyarchy ‘ system and divided topics into lists – Reserved and Transferred. The Legislative Assembly (lower house) was introduced with direct elections, but the right to vote was severely curtailed. In addition, there was no control over the Governor General and his Executive Council by the Legislative Assembly.
 
Indian nationalists, however, had gone far beyond such stopping concessions. The Indian National Congress met under Hasan Imam’s presidency at a special session in Bombay in August 1918 and condemned the reforms of Montagu – Chelmsford and instead called for effective self – government.
 
3. Rowlatt Act
The government enacted the 1919 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, popularly called the Rowlatt Act, based on the findings of the Rowlatt Committee. This act allowed the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism for a maximum period of two years without trial. The government passed Montagu Chelmsford Reforms and Rowlatt Act in succession, which were part of the British ‘ Carrot and Stick policy. This action gave the movement a new direction. At all levels of India, Gandhi organized a mass protest.
 
4. Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat Movement, which began in 1919, brought the Muslims and the Hindus on a common platform against the British rule, was the most important cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.
 
Khilafat Movement in India
Turkey had aligned itself in the First World War with Germany – led Axis powers that were defeated by Great Britain – led Allied powers. The political – conscious Muslims were critical of British and their allies treatment of the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire that had divided it and properly removed Thrace from Turkey.
 
The Muslims also regarded the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims and they strongly felt that his position over the Muslim religious places should not be undermined.
 
Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani, and countrywide Khilafat agitation, a Khilafat Committee was soon formed. The All – India Khilafat Conference held in November 1919 in Delhi decided to withdraw all government cooperation if the government did not meet its demands.
 
Mahatma Gandhi saw the Khilafat agitation as “an opportunity not to unite Hindus and Muslims in a hundred years time.”Also, the Muslims League gave full support to the National Congress and its political agitation.
 
In early 1920, Gandhi declared that the Khilafat question overshadowed the constitutional reforms and the Jallianwala massacre and announced that he would lead a non – cooperation movement if the terms of peace with Turkey did not satisfy the Indian Muslims.
 
Who were the Leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
The Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement. Mahatma Gandhi later also became one of the leaders of the Khilafat Movement in India by strongly advocating the Khilafat cause.

The launch of the Non-Cooperation Movement
The above mentioned causes resulted in unrest among the masses anxious to take political action against the British government. Only added fuel to the fire was the economic hardship suffered by ordinary Indians. On August 1, 1920, the Non – Cooperation Movement was officially launched.
 
Congress Nagpur session in December 1920 defined the Non – Cooperation program clearly in detail. Following changes to the Indian National Congress Constitution at the December 1920 Nagpur Session:
 

1. The Congress goal has been shifted from achieving self – government through constitutional and legal means to achieving Swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means.
 

2. The Congress now had to have a 15-member Working Committee to look after its daily affairs.
 

3. Linguistically, Provincial Congress Committees were to be organized now.
 

4. The membership fee was reduced to 4 years per year to make it possible for the poor to join.
 

5. Congress was to use Hindi as far as possible.

 
The non – cooperation movement method and spread

  • Together with the Ali brothers, Mahatma Gandhi undertook a nationwide tour of numerous student and political worker rallies and meetings. This led to thousands of students leaving schools and colleges to join over 800 national schools and colleges throughout the country. 
  • The educational boycott in Bengal was especially successful. C.R Das played an important role in promoting the movement and Subhash Bose became the head of the Calcutta National Congress. The educational boycott was also very successful in Punjab, and Lala Lajpat Rai played the leading role here.
  • The other successful boycott observed was lawyers such as C.R Das, Motilal Nehru, M.R Jaykar, Saifuddin Kitchlew and others boycotting the law courts.
  • However, the Non – Cooperation Movement’s most successful item was the foreign cloth boycott. A major form of the boycott was also the picketing of shops selling foreign cloth. Liquor shops were also picketing.
  • Gandhi and Congress put a lot of stress on handspun Khadi in support of domestic textiles. Charkhas were widely popularized and khadi became the national movement’s uniform.
  • In July 1921, at the All India Khilafat Conference in Karachi, Mohammed Ali declared that continuing in the British Army was ‘ religiously unlawful for the Muslims. Gandhi repeated Mohammed Ali’s exhortation, adding that every civilian and army member should sever links with the repressive British government.
  • A movement against Union board taxes has been launched in Midnapore district of Bengal. No – tax movements were also organized in the Andhra district of Guntur in Chirala – Pirala and Pedanandipadu taluka.
  • In U.P, where a powerful Kisan Sabha movement was underway, Jawaharlal Nehru led the non – cooperation movement among others.
  • The Non – Cooperation and Khilafat propaganda in the Malabar region of Kerala helped to arouse Muslim tenants, called the Moplahs, against their renters, but the movement sometimes took on a common color.
  • In Assam, tea plantation laborers went on strike. While Andhra became popular with defiance of forest laws.
  • The Akali movement took place in Punjab as part of the Non – Cooperation Movement to wrest control of the gurudwaras from the corrupt mahants (priests)

 
End of the Non-Cooperation Movement
While in 1921 the Non – Cooperation Movement was in full steam, the masses were awakened from their slumber and the grass root workers of Congress, as well as the leadership, were asking Mahatma Gandhi to launch the next phase of mass civil disobedience.

Gandhi announced that massive civil disobedience would begin in the Bardoli Taluka district of Surat and that all other parts of the country should cooperate by maintaining total discipline and silence in order to concentrate the entire attention of the movement on Bardoli.

However, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred before mass civil disobedience could be launched.
 
 
Chauri Chaura Incident
A Congress – Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura in U.P. district of Gorakhpur on February 5, 1922. Irritated by some policemen’s behavior, they were attacked by a crowd section. The police opened fire on the unarmed procession in retaliation. Instigated by this, the whole procession attacked the police and the mob set fire to the building when the police hid inside the police station. The cops who were trying to escape were hacked into pieces and thrown into the fire. In the Chauri Chaura incident, 22 police officers were killed.


Gandhi was profoundly disturbed by the Chauri Chaura incident news. Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement because it violated the strict condition of non – violence that he had set for the launch of the civil disobedience phase and the continuation of the non – cooperation movement. Thus, the Non – Cooperation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922.
 
Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement
Despite the failure of the Non – Cooperation Movement to achieve its primary goal of Swaraj, it has succeeded on many other counts highlighted below:
 

1. The National Congress has shown that it represents the country’s majority opinion. It can not be charged with representing a ‘ microscopic minority ‘ anymore.’
 

2. The movement’s geographical spread was also nationwide. While some areas were more active than others, few areas, if any, remained entirely passive to the call for non – cooperation.
 

3. The Non – Cooperation Movement was the masses ‘ first opportunity to participate in politics and combat injustice and economic hardship caused by years of foreign rule.
 

4. Notwithstanding the incidents of Malabar, which were not seen later during the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was considerable involvement of Muslims in the movement and the maintenance of communal harmony.

Important Features of Indian Constitution

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics for UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Every written constitution in the world has its own unique characteristics, and no exception is the Indian Constitution. But the Indian Constitution has many prominent features that distinguish it from the other Constitutions. This article clearly explains the Indian Constitution’s 8 key features.

1. World’s Longest Constitution
The Indian Constitution contains 395 articles and 12 schedules, making it the world’s longest written constitution. Just compare it with other countries Constitutions. For example, the UK has no written constitution, while the US Constitution contains only seven articles.
 
Not only have this but since 1951 about 90 articles and more than 100 amendments been added. However, since the articles are not added separately as part of an existing article (e.g. Article 21A, 35A etc.) the total number of articles remains the same at 395.
 
2. Taken from various sources
The Indian Constitution was framed from multiple sources including the 1935 Government of India Act and Other Countries Constitutions.

Feature of Indian Constitution                           
 
Borrowed From (Source)
Basic structure (Federal scheme, Judiciary, Governors, Emergency powers, Public Service Commissions, Administrative details etc.) Government of India Act 1935
Fundamental Rights American Constitution
Directive Principles Irish Constitution
Cabinet form of government British Constitution


In addition to these, the Constitutions of Canada, Australia, Germany, the U.S.S.R., and France also adopted various provisions.

 
3. Federal System with Unitary Features
Federal System with Unitary The Indian Constitution includes all the federal characteristics of governance such as dual government system (center and state),division of powers between the three state organs (executive, judiciary and legislature), constitutional supremacy, independent judiciary and bicameralism (lower and upper house).

Nevertheless, the Indian Constitution is unique in that it includes many unitary features such as a strong centre, all India services common to the center and the states, emergency provisions that can transform the Constitution into a unitary one if necessary, appointment of governors by the president on the advice of the center, etc.
 
Indeed, Article 1 clearly states that India is a ‘ Union of States ‘ rather than a federation of States. In India, the states did not come together to form the centre (or Union) like in the case of the USA which is the purest form of a federation. Rather, for administrative convenience, it is the center that created the states. Article 3 of the Indian Constitution makes Parliament the sole authority to create new states clearly indicating that the Indian Constitution is of a unitary nature with certain federal characteristics.
 
4. Parliamentary Form of Government
On the pattern of the British parliamentary system of government, the Indian Constitution has opted for the parliamentary form of government. The key characteristics of the parliamentary form of government are:

1. Executive are members of the legislature

2. Collective responsibility to the legislature of the Council of Ministers


3. Rule of the majority party

4. Prime Minister’s or chief minister’s leadership in the state


5. Lower house dissolution (Lok Sabha and state assemblies)

6. Government form of the Cabinet


5. Balance between the Sovereignty of Parliament and Judicial Supremacy
A fine balance has been struck between parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy by the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court is vacuumed by Articles 13, 32 and 136 with the power of judicial review. By its power of judicial review, it can strike down any parliamentary law as unconstitutional.

On the other hand, the Parliament, being the representative of the people’s will, has the authority to make laws, and it can also amend the major part of the Constitution through its video vested powers under Article 368.
 
6. Independent and Integrated Judicial System
In India, unlike the United States where there is a two-tiered judiciary, a single judicial system prevails with the Supreme Court at the top, the State and District High Courts and other subordinate courts below and subject to the supervision of the High Courts.
 
It is the duty of all levels of courts in India to enforce both central and state laws unlike in the US, where federal courts adjudicate on federal matters and state courts on state matters.
 
Not only is the judiciary system well fully integrated in India, but because of the following provisions it is also independent

1. Appointment of judges of Supreme Court and High Courts by collegium system


2. Removal of judges in Parliament through an impeachment procedure that is very difficult to pass

3. Supreme Court judges salaries, pensions, and allowances are charged to India’s Consolidated Fund

4. Power to punish for self – disregard


5. Ban on judges practice after retirement…etc
 
7. Directive Principles of State Policy
In Part IV of the Constitution, the Directive Principles of State Policies (DPSPs) aims to make India a welfare state. Therefore, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar calls the Directive Principles as the Indian Constitution’s novel feature. The Principles of the Directive are inherently unjustifiable, that is, they are not enforceable for their violation by the courts.
 
Their usefulness, however, lies in their moral obligation to apply these principles to the state in making laws. As such, the principles of the directive are fundamental to the country’s governance.
 
8. Combination of rigidity and flexibility
The Indian Constitution strikes a fine balance between rigidity and flexibility when it comes to ease of modification. Article 368 lays down two types of modifications:

1. Some provisions may be amended by a special parliamentary majority, i.e. a 2/3rd majority of the members of each House present and vote and majority (i.e. more than 50 %) of each House’s total membership.

2. Some other provisions can be amended by a special parliamentary majority and with half of the total states ratifying them.
This ensures that with the widest possible majority, the Constitution is amended.

At the same time, in the manner of the ordinary legislative process, certain provisions of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority of Parliament. Such amendments are not within the scope of Article 368.

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Rajasthan GK Complete Study Material in English

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam General Studies Study Material in English. Rajasthan General Knowledge for RPSC RAS and all other competitive exams. we are providing you complete study notes/eBook here.

What you will get?

You will get set of 6-PDF:

  1. Geography of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  2. History of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  3. Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  4. Rajasthan Polity and Administration with Practice MCQ
  5. Economy of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  6. Rajasthan Current Affairs Year Book 2019

Click Here to download

Must Read Books for Competitive Exams

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

Important Books for UPSC RPSC and Other Competitive Exams

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One Current Affairs Quarterly (June-August) 2019 Study Magazine in Hindi Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-Polity and Governance Special Issue  
Geography and Environment-Current Affairs 2019 Yearbook Special Issue   Current Affairs Rajasthan Yearbook 2019 For RPSC and RSMSSB Exams Current Affairs Question Bank March-July 2019
Current Affairs Study Notes January-August 2019 HSSC Haryana Police Constable 2019-20 Solved Test Paper HSSC Clerk Recruitment Exam 2019-20 Practice Solved Test Paper  
Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019 Electrical Engineering Objective Question Bank for All Competitive Exams 500+ Current Affairs MCQ for All Competitive Exams 2019  
UPSC IAS Prelims last 10 years solved questions GS Paper-I Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ Administrative Ethics-RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2  
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-IV Ethics Integrity and Aptitude Complete Study Notes   RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes
UPSC IAS Mains GS Paper-3 Study Notes with Practice Questions Revision Notes: Environment and Ecology IAS Prelims 2020: Art and Culture Revision Notes    
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes   Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes- Hindi RPSC RAS Mains Art and Culture Practice Solved Question
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Complete Study Notes with Practice Questions   Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes
Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes   Geography of Rajasthan Study notes with MCQ 2000 Solved MCQ for IAS Preliminary Exam 2020:GS Paper-I
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-3   RAS MAIN EXAM PRACTICE  TEST-2 RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-1
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question   RAS MAINS EXAM ECONOMY SOLVED QUESTIONS Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RPSC RAS Mains Exam
History Of India Practice Question Bank   Indian Polity Question Bank eBook Geography of India Question Bank
general studies of Rajasthan

The Abor Hills

The Abor Hills is a region of Arunachal Pradesh in the far northeast of India, near the border with China. The hills are bordered by the Mishmi Hills and Miri Hills, and drained by the Dibang River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra.

During the British Raj, the hills had a reputation as a troublesome area, and military expeditions were sent against the residents in the 1890s. The region was administered as the Abor Hills District from 1948, with headquarters at Pasighat, but later reorganized into the Lower Dibang Valley and Lohit districts.

The Abor Hills are a tract of country on the north-east frontier of India, which was occupied by an independent tribe, the Adi people, formerly called the Abors. It lay north of Lakhimpur district, in the province of eastern Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Mishmi Hills and on the west by the Miri Hills, the villages of the tribe extending to the Dibong River.

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Current Affairs Quiz – 6

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

The following current affairs quiz will help in facing General Studies Paper for all competitive exams. Questions will be both conceptual and factual. Current affairs form the bulk of all exams preparation. Solving daily questions based on current affairs will help you both understand issues and remember facts better.

Click here

Current Affairs Quiz-5

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

Click here

Current Affairs Quiz-4

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

Click here

Current Affairs Quiz-3

Join Telegram

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

Click here

Current Affairs Quiz-2

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

Click here

Current Affairs Quiz-1

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

Click here

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela

Preface

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the syllabus of RPSC and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the shop in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. Very soon it will be available on Amazon, Flip-kart etc.
General Studies of Rajasthan

Click Here – Buy/Order at home

Demo-

Current Affairs Study Magazine January-August 2019

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

We have covered current affairs from January to August 2019 for competitive exams:

The Current affair of the following topics:

  1. ART AND CULTURE
  2. SOCIAL ISSUES
    a) Education
    b) Health and Sanitation
    c) Women and Child
    d) Vulnerable Groups
  3. POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
  4. ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    a) Indian Economy
    b) Banking and Finance
    c) Agriculture
    d) Industry
    e) Infrastructure
    f) Human Resource Development
  5. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND BILATERAL ISSUES
  6. DEFENCE AND SECURITY
  7. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
  8. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    a) Space
    b) Biotechnology
    c) Meets and programs
    d) IT and ICT
    e) Health, Medicine and Diseases
  9. MISCELLANEOUS
  10. General Budget 2019-20

Click Here to download via – instamojo

Click Here to download via – easebuzz

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D) Study Notes

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D)

  1. Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal
  2. Guhil Dynasty of Mewar
  3. Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
  4. Rathod Dynasty of Marwar
  5. Rathod of Bikaner
  6. Kachwaha of Amber
  7. Chauhan Dynasty
  8. Chauhan of Ranthambore
  9. Chauhan of Jalore
  10. Hada Chauhan of Bundi
  11. Hada Chauhan of Kota
  12. Parmar of Abu

Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  Raja Nagbhatta I

  • Founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihar.
  • Made triple alliance with Bappa Rawal and Jaisimha to defeat Arabs.

 Raja Watsaraj

  • First Pratihar king to occupy Kannauj.
  • He defeated Dharmapala of Gaud Dynasty and defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 Raja Nagbhatta II

  • Occupied Kannauj.
  • Defeated Dharmapala in the battle of Mudgagiri.
  • Defeated by Govinda of Rashtrakuta.

    Raja Mihir Bhoj

  • Defeated Devpala of Bengal.
  • Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court in 851 A.D.

    Raja Yashpal

  • Last ruler of this dynasty.
  • His rule came to an end due to emerging of Gazni power.

Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

    Guhil

  • In 566 A.D. Guhil established this dynasty.
  • He established independent city Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

  • Original Name was Kaalbhoj
  • In 734, he defeated Maan Mori and took Chittorgarh under his control and made Nagada his capital.
  • At first, started gold coin in Rajasthan.
  • He built Eklingji Temple in Udaipur.

    Allat (943 A.D. to 953 A.D.)

  • Original Name is  Alu Rawal
  • Built Varah Temple of Ahar.
  • Married Hun Princess Hariyadevi.
  • Established bureaucracy in Mewar.

    Jaitra Singh (1213-1253 A.D.)

  • Fought battle of Bhutala and defeated the army of Iltutmish.
  • He made Chittor his new capital.
  • His reign is called Golden Age of Medieval Mewar.

    Ratan Singh (1302-1303 A.D.)

  • AllauddinKhilji defeated him and he was killed.
  • After his death, his wife Padmavati committed Jauhar.
  • This was biggest Saka of Chittor and first Saka of Rajasthan.
  • Gora and Badal, two commanders showed courage during the battle.
  • In 1540 A.D. Malik Mohammed Jayasi wrote Padmavat in which he mentioned the beauty of Queen Padmavati.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

Rana Hammir (1326-1364)

Khetri Singh (1364-82)

  • He captured Zafar Khan, Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Son of Hammir

 Rana Lakha (1382-1421)

  • He married Hansa Bai, princess of Marwar.
  • His son Rana Choonda took the oath that not to come on the throne. Thus he is also called Bhishmapitamah of Mewar.

    Rana Mokul Singh (1421-33)

  • He reconstructed Samidheshwar Temple in Chittoor.
  • In 1433, he was murdered in Zilwada.

    Rana Kumha (1433-68)

  • Defeated Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Malwa, in battle of Sarangpur (Mandalgarh).
  • He erected Vijay Stambh (sign of Rajasthan police) after this victory which is 37 meters tall and 10 meter in width having 9 floors.
  • It is compared with Qutub Minar.
  • Rana Kumbha defeated the joint army of Mahmud Khilji and Qutbuddin of Gujarat in 1456.
  • Important fort built by Kumbha- (1) Kumbhalgarh (2) Achalgarh (3) Basantgarh
  • Important books written by Kumbha- (1) Rasik Priya (2) Sudha Prabhandh (3) Sangeet Raj (5 part) (6) Sangeet Sudha (7) Kamaraj Ratisaar
  • He gave patronage to many scholars in his court. Important are- (a) Mandan (b) Kanh Vyas (c) Ramabai (d) Muni Sundar Suri etc.
  • He was a musician as well.
  • He was killed by his son Ooda Singh or Udai Singh.

  Rana Udai Singh (1468-73)

  • He killed his father Rana Kumbha and came to the throne.
  • Ramuel, his brother, defeated him and ascended the throne.

  Rana Sanga (1508-1528)

  • In 1517 and 1519, he fought the battle of Khatoli and Bari respectively with Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in both the battles.
  • In 1519, he defeated MehmudKhilji in the battle of Gagron.
  • In 1527, he was defeated in the battle of Khanwa by Babur.
  • The important king who took part in the battle of Khanwa (Maldev- Marwar, Medini Rai- Chanderi, Mahmood Lodhi (small brother of Ibrahim Lodhi)
  • He died at Kalpi (M.P.)

   Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572)

  • Saved by Panna Dhai in the childhood
  • In 1557, fought the battle of Harmada with Haji Khan Pathan who was governor of Ajmer.
  • In 1559, he founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake.
  • In 1568 Akbar attacked and Jaimal and Fatta was killed

    Maharana Pratap (1572-1597)

  • In 1576, He fought the battle of Haldighati with Akbar and was defeated by Akbar. Akbar deputed Man Singh against Maharana Pratap.
  • Thermopylae of Rajasthan – James Tod
  • Kumbhalgarh war (1577, 1578, 1579) between (Sahbaz v/s Pratap)
  • His horse’s name was Chetak who was injured in this battle and later died. Chetak’s cremation is in Balicha Village.
  • In 1582, he fought Battle of Diver.
  • In 1597. He died in Chawand.

  Karan Singh (1620-1628)

  • He started construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.

 Jagjit Singh I (1628-52)

  • He finished the construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  • He constructed Jagdish Temple of Udaipur.

Raj Singh (1652-80)

  • He protested against Jajiya Tax by Aurangzeb
  • Supported Aurangzeb in the fight of Successor

Jai Singh (1680-98)

  • He built Jaisamand Lake.

Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

    Rao Siyaji

  • He founded this dynasty.
  • In 1273, he died protecting cows in Bithu village.

    Rao Chunda

  • The real founder of Rathod dynasty in Mewar.
  • He was killed in a battle with Salim Shah of Multan.

 Rao Jodha (1438-89)

  • He established city Jodhpur.
  • He constructed Mehrgarh Fort.
  • His 5th son Bika established Bikaner.

    Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)

  • He killed his father and ascended the throne.
  • In 1541, he defeated Jaitasi of Bikaner.
  • In 1543, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in Battle of Sumail.

    Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)

  • He was defeated by the Mughal but still denied to form an alliance with them.
  • He is called Pratap of Marwar.

    Raja Udai Singh (1583-1595)

  • He established a marital relation with Mughals.
  • His daughter Mani Bai was married to Jahangir.

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)

  • He wrote BhasaBhusan, Anand Vilas, Prabodh Chandrodaya and AparokshaSidhanta Saar.

Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)

Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)

Rathod of Bikaner

Rao Bika (1465-1504)

  • In 1465, he established Rathod dynasty in Bikaner region.
  • In 1488, established Bikaner.

   Rao Naroji (1504-05)

   Rao Lunkaran (1505-1526)

    Rao Jait Singh (1526-1542)

    Rao Kalyan Singh (1542-1571)

    Raja Raj Singh I (1571-1611)

Maharaja Rao Anup Singh (1669-1698)

  • He wrote ‘Anup Vivek’, ‘Kaam Prabodh’,’ ShraddhPrayog Chintamani’, ‘Anupodaya.’

    Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh (1698-1700)

    Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh (1943-1950)

  • He was the last ruler of Bikaner and merged in present Rajasthan state and signed the instrument of accession to the dominion of India.

Kachwaha of Amber

    Prithviraj

  • He was feudal of Rana Sanga; therefore, he fought Battle with Babur in the Battle of Khanwa.

Bharamal

  • The accepted sovereignty of Akbar.
  • The first king of Rajasthan to accept sovereignty and establish a marital relation with Mughal.

Bhagwantdas

  • Suppress Mirza revolt in Sarnal Battle. Thus he was given Nagada and Parcham by Akbar as the award.
  • His daughter was married to Jahangir.

    Maan Singh

  • He was made Subedar of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal.
  • Established Maanpur city in Bihar
  • He established Akbarnagar city in Bengal.
  • Began the construction of forts of Amber
  • Constructed Radha Govind Temple in Vrindavan

Mirza Raja Jaisingh

  • Ruled for the maximum period in Jaipur (46 Years)
  • Shah Jahan titled him ‘Mirza Raja’.
  • On 11 June 1665, Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh.
  • He constructed Jaigarh Fort in Jaipur.

    Sawai Jai Singh

  • He saw the reign of seven Mughal Badshah.
  • Changed the name of Amber to Islamabad.
  • His Purohit was ‘PundarikRatnagar’.

    Ishwari Singh

  • In 1747, he defeated Madho Singh in the Battle of Rajmahal on the bank of river Banas.
  • 1748, he was defeated by Madho Singh in the Battle of Bagru.
  • After this defeat, he committed suicide.

Chauhan Dynasty

    Vasudev

  • In 551 A.D. he established Chauhan dynasty.
  • According to Bijoliya inscription, he constructed Sambhar Lake.

    Ajayraj

  • In 1113 he established Ajmer city.
  • He built Ajmer fort.

    Arnoraj

  • He constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Also constructed Varah Temple in Pushkar.

    Vigraharaj IV

  • He took away Delhi from Tomar dynasty.
  • He constructed a school later QutubuddinAibak built Dhai Din Ka Jhopda in place of this school.

    Prithviraj III

  • In 1182, he defeated Chandel ruler Parmarardidev in Battle of Mahoba.
  • 1191, he defeated Mohammad Ghori in First Battle of Panipat.
  • 1192, he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in Second Battle of Panipat.
  • Moinuddin Chisti came to India during his reign.
  • He constructed Pithoragarh near Delhi.
  • Kaimash and Bhuvanmalla were his two ministers.

Chauhan of Ranthambore

  • After the death of Prithviraj III, his son Govindraj established his rule in Ranthambore.

    Hammir Dev

  • In 1299, he defeated the army of Alauddin Khilji led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan.
  • Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle.
  • After that Allauddin Khilji raids the Ranthambore fort with his army and defeats them.
  • 1301, first Siege of Ranthambore took place. This was the first Siege of Rajasthan.
  • He fought 17 battle in his life in which he only lost the last one.

Chauhan of Jalore

  • Founder of this branch of Chauhan was Kirtipal.
  • In inscriptions, Jalore is mentioned as Jabalipur.
  • Allauddin Khilji changed the name of Siwana to Khairabad.

Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • In 1241, Deva Hada defeated Jait Meena and occupied Bundi.
  • 1354, Barsingh constructed Taragarh fort of Bundi.
  • Rao Surjan constructed Ranchhod Temple in Dwarika.
  • Budhhasingh wrote ‘Nehtarang’.
  • Maratha interference took place during the reign of Budhhasingh.

Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • In 1631, Madho Singh founded this state.
  • Mukund Singh constructed AbaliMeeni Palace in Kota.

Guhils of Chittorgarh: History of Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Guhils of Chittorgarh

Guhil

He is known as the founder of Guhil dynasty.

Originally he was born in Anandnagar, Gujarat but in 565 C.E, he established independent city at Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

Born as Kalbhoj

 Is said to have defeated Maan Mori and laid foundation of Guhilot Dynasty rule in Mewar.

Formed triple alliance with Nagabhatta & Jaysimha to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan.

The Kingdom of Mewar: History of Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

 The Kingdom of Mewar

The kingdom of Mewar includes present day districts of Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara. The region was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, the Name Medhpaat became Mewar.

The creators of Mewar’s ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation Stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the Seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.

The Guhilot had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested. The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud. According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

The Chauhan Dynasty: History of Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

The Chauhan Dynasty

The Raja Saheb of Mainpuri, Head of all Chauhan clans

1. Songara Chauhan: Kuldevi is Chandi Devi. They are descended from the Rajas of Jalore, and had one branch, viz. Bhadoria

2. Khichi Chauhan: Kuldevi is Bhagwati. They are descended from Raja Bhagwat rai, Raja Gugalsingh and Raja Jaisingh of Khinchipur.

3. Hada Chauhan: Kuldevi is Ashapura. They are descended from Raja Manik Rai of Sambhar, and have the following branches, Udawat, Devra, Devre, Jaitawat and Chandrawat.

4. Bhadauria Chauhan: Their Kingdom was Bhadawar and are said to be a branch of the Songara Chauhan.

5. Bachgoti: Their name is derived from Vatsa Gotri and has two branches viz. Rajkumar and Rajwar.

The word Chauhan is the vernacular form of the Sanskrit term Chahamana. While the earlier versions of Chandbardai work Prithviraj Raso does not mention Chauhan as born from Agnikunda, the later versions do.

The 15th-century Hammira Mahakavya of Nayachandra Suri & Jayanayak’s Prithviraj Vijay considers Chauhans as Suryavanshi. Pandit Gaurishankar Ojha seconds this opinion.

Based on Bijloia Inscription (1170 CE), Dr. Dasrath Sharma considers that early ancestor of Chauhan was born at Ahichchhatrapura in the gotra of sage Vatsa. Ahichchhatrapura can be identified with modern Nagaur.

Chahamanas probably started out as petty rulers of Ahichchhatrapura. As the Chahamana territory expanded, the entire region ruled by them came to be known as Sapadalaksha. In course of time Chauhans formed ruling dynasties at various places.

Major Chauhan dynasties include:

  • Chauhans of Shakambhari
  • Chauhans of Ranthambore
  • Chauhans of Jalore

Apart from these, there are other ruling dynasties that claim Chauhan descent including:

  • Haras of Hadoti

Chauhans of Shakambhari:

Raja Guvaka I, 1st Raja of the Chahamana Dynasty at Harsha from 809 to 836, also known as Govindraj I, his predecessors were rulers at their capital of Purnatallakapura, initially he was the Samanta of Raja Nagabhata II of Kannauj, who had married his sister Kalavati Devi; he took part in a battle against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata II, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa; at some time he probably declared himself independent, and made his capital at Harsha, married and had issue. He lived around 815.

 Vasu-deva (c. 6th century CE)

  • Considered as founder of Shakambhari branch of Chauhans around 551 CE
  •  According to a mythical account in Prithviraja Vijaya, he received the Sambhar Salt Lake as a gift from a vidyadhara (a supernatural being).
  • Samanta-raja (c. 684-709 CE); identified as the legendary Manik Rai by R. B. Singh
  • Nara-deva (c. 709-721 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja I (c. 721-734 CE), alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala
  • Vigraha-raja I (c. 734-759 CE)
  • Chandra-raja I (c. 759-771 CE)
  • Gopendra-raja (c. 771-784 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja I (c. 784-809 CE)
  • Govinda-raja I (c. 809-836 CE), alias Guvaka-I: Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar
  • Chandra-raja II (c. 836-863 CE)
  • Govindaraja II (c. 863-890 CE), alias Guvaka II
  • Chandana-raja (c. 890-917 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja (c. 917-944 CE)
  • Simha-raja (c. 944-971 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja II (c. 971-998 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja II (c. 998-1012 CE)
  •  Govinda-raja III (c. 1012-1026 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja II (c. 1026-1040 CE)
  • Viryarama (c. 1040 CE)
  • Chamunda-raja (c. 1040-1065 CE)
  •  Durlabha-raja III (c. 1065-1070 CE), alias Duśala
  • Vigraha-raja III (c. 1070-1090 CE), alias Visala
  • Prithvi-raja I (c. 1090-1110 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja II (c. 1110-1135 CE): Moved the capital to Ajayameru (Ajmer) and Repulsed a Ghaznavid attack, and also defeated the Paramara king Naravarman.
  • Arno-raja (c. 1135-1150 CE), alias Ana: Defeated Turkish invaders and Constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Jagad-deva (c. 1150 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja IV (c. 1150-1164 CE), alias Visala deva: Expanded the Chauhan territories, and captured Delhi from The Tomaras.
  • Apara-gangeya (c. 1164-1165 CE)
  • Prithvi-raja II (c. 1165-1169 CE)
  •  Someshvara (c. 1169-1178 CE)
  •  Prithvi-raja III (c. 1178-1192 CE): Better known as Prithviraj Chauhan and Defeated Mohd. Ghori in first Battle of Tarain in 1191

Battles of Tarain: 1191 & 1192 :-The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were series of two battles fought in 1191 and 1192 A.D between Prithviraj Chauhan III of Ajmer and Ghurid ruler Mu’izz al-Din Muhammad or Mohammed  Ghori. The battles were fought near the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana.

  1. To extend the boundaries of his empire Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori entered into India in 1175 CE.
  2. He advanced to Gujarat in 1178 CE and advanced further by seizing Peshawar and Lahore and he ended the rule of Ghaznavid in Punjab with the help of the ruler of Jammu.
  3. As a result of successive conquests the boundaries of Ghori’s kingdom extended to the border of Prithviraj’s kingdom. In 1191, Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. Prithviraj’s along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. This is how the First war of Tarain began.
  4. Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.
  5. In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhammad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhammad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him.
  6. Prithviraj Chauhan cease-fired.  Muhammad Ghori deceived Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput arm mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious.
  7. About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi. 

Muhammad Ghori: Muhammad Ghazni established the Ghaznavid Empire with capital at Ghazni. After his death, Ghazni was Oghuz Turks. Ghori defeated the Turks and laid foundation of Ghurid Empire. After having made his position strong and secure at Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori turned his attention to India.

In 1175, Muhammad Ghori captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions. He turned south across the desert towards Anhilwara (modern day Patan, in Gujarat). In 1178, suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). As a result, Ghori retreated back to Multan.

In 1186 he attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions. Ghori returned back to Ghanzi to help his brother, only to return in 1191.

The first Battle of Tarain (1191): In 1191, Ghori proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

This brought him on northwestern frontier of Prithviraj Chauhans kingdom. Realizing their grave situation, the Hindu princes of north India formed a confederacy under the command of Prithiviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj’s army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai marched on to Bathinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori).

Ghori was wounded in personal battle with Govind Tai and so Ghori’s army retreated, giving victory to Prithviraj Chauhan. However, Prithviraj did not pursue Ghori’s army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori’s ambition, instead electing to retake the fortress of Bathinda.

Alternatively it has also been mentioned that, Ghori’s army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner.

Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him. Hence, Prithviraj Chauhan won the First Battle of Tarain, held in 1191.

After the First Battle:

Ghori return to Ghazni, and started preparations to avenge the defeat. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to Prithviraj to demand his submission, but the Chauhan ruler refused to comply.

The Second Battle of Tarain (1192): In 1192, Ghori challenged Prithviraj and a battle ensued at the same place (Tarain). Both Ghori and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. But Ghori changed his tactics as he did not want to engage in melee combat with disciplined Rajput warriors. He divided his huge troop into 5 parts and four units were sent to attack the Rajput flanks and rear. Hoping for Rajput attack, Ghori ordered his fifth unit to fast retreat. As Ghori expected, the Rajput’s charged the fleeing Ghurid unit. The Ghurids then sent a fresh cavalry unit of 12,000 and they managed to throw back the Rajput advance. Muhammad Ghori won the second Battle of Tarain.

Regarding, fate of Prthiviraj after second battle, two stories emerge.

  • The first story says that Prthivraj Chauhan was captured in the battle field and executed.
  • The second story, the more famous one in Rajasthan, is based on poem written by Prithviraj’s court poet Chandbardai. The story says that Mohammad Ghori attacked Prithviraj Chauhan unfairly at night, defeated his armies and captured him. Later Chauhan was taken to Ghor and presented in the court. Ghori ordered Prithvi to lower his eyes to which Prithvi retorted that the eyelids of Rajputs are lowered only on his death. Feeling insulted, Ghori blinded the Rajput prince.
  • Chandbardai entered the court of Mahmud of Ghori in a disguise. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was a very skilled archer, and he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look at his target. Ghori disdained to believe this and asked for the display.

When Prithviraj was given a bow and arrows into his hand and asked to take aim. Sighting opportunity, Chandbardai recited in a poetic stanza the location where Ghori sat. The stanza is: “Char bans, Chaubis Gaj, angul ashta Praman, Ta Upar sultan hai, Chuke mat Chauhan.” (Four measures ahead of you and twenty four yards away as measured with eight finger measurement, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).

  • Getting the direction and location Prithviraj shot his arrow through Ghori and killed him.

Consequences of Second Battle of Tarain on India: The second battle of Tarain was a decisive battle. It was a major disaster for the Rajputs and their political prestige suffered a serious setback. In 1193, Ghori’s general Qutub-Din Aibak took over Ajmer and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. Son of Prithviraj was moved to Ranthambore (laid foundation of Chauhan kingdom there). Further, in 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place, in which Aibak defeated Gahadavala ruler Jayachandra. In conlusion, the Battles of Tarain and Chandwar laid the foundation for establishment of Turkish rule in India.

Bakhtiyar Khilji extended the domain of empire to Bihar destroying Universities of Nalanda & Vikramsila in the process. Later in 1202, his army completed the occupation of Hindustan by taking the province of Bengal.

Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms: The most important cause for the downfall of Hindu Kingdoms was that the lack unity. They were divided by factions and Rajput Kingdoms were engaged in eternal mutual conflicts. It was the result of these conflicts that Jai Chandra did not help, Prithvi Raj Chauhan in putting up a united front against invaders.

Secondly, the military methods of Indian Kingdoms were also out of date and inferior to those of Muslims. Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry. More importantly, Ghori had spent the time carefully planning his campaign and his tactics proved a major winner in war.

1. Govinda-raja IV (c. 1192 CE): Banished by Hari-raja for accepting Muslim suzerainty and established the Chauhan branch of Ranthambore

2. Hari-raja (c. 1193-1194 CE): Hewas a king from the Shakambhari Chahamana dynasty of north-western India. After the Ghurid invaders defeated his brother Prithviraja III in 1192 CE, he dethroned his nephew Govindaraja IV, who had been appointed as a vassal ruler by the Ghurids. He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the Ghurids in 1194 CE.

Hariraja was a son of the Chahamana king Someshvara and Queen Karpura Devi. He and his elder brother Prithviraja III were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chalukya court by his maternal relatives. Prithviraja ascended the Chahamana throne after Someshvara death, but his reign ended in 1192 CE with a Ghurid conquest of the kingdom. The Ghurids appointed Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV as a vassal ruler in return for a heavy tribute.

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chauhan lost Ranthambore as a result of defeat of Prithviraja III in battle of Tarain 1192. By Mahmud of Ghori But, Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV accepted the Ghurid suzerainty, and ruled Ranthambore as his vassal.

  • Govinda-raja
  • Son of Prthvi Raja Chauhan III
  • Balhana-deva or Balhan
  • Prahlada or Prahlad,
  •  Viranarayana or Vir Narayan,
  • Vagabhata, son of Balhana;
  • Known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles
  • Jaitra-simha or Jaitra Singh
  •  Hammira-deva or Hammir Dev

In 1299, he defeated Allauddin Khilji’s army led by Ulugh Khan & Nusrat Khan.

  • In 1301, Allauddin Khilji again invaded his kingdom, which resulted in his defeat and death.

The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Delhi Sultans: After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja Chauhans son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja rule over Ajmer was not favoured by Hariraja, probably due to his acting as a Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by Prithviraj’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-installed on the throne of Ajmer.

  1. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan (Jaitra – perhaps his general) towards Delhi. The second attempt to failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja immolated himself.
  2. By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an independent kingdom.
  3. The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin strategy and farsightedness won the day in battle and the Rajputs forces were completely routed. After the victory, Aibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too was completely sacked. The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms, notably, the Chalukyas, Chandellas and Gahadavalas.
  4. In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to his policy of non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly bring any significant change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.

Chauhans of Jalore: Prathihar king VatsaRaja was the ruler of Jalore during 8th century. Towards the end of 12th Century, Parmars ruled here. Historians believe that the Jalore fort was built by Parmar rulers. It is known from a stone inscription of 1238 A.D. of fort that Parmar King Biral’s-queen Maludevi Powered Gold wins on Sindhu King.

Nadole king, Arhan’s, youngest son Kirtipala started Chouhan tradition in Jalore. The Chauhan lineage of Jalore is as under:

  • Kirtipala (c. 1160-1182 CE)
  • Samara-Simha (c. 1182-1204 CE)
  • Udaya-Simha (c. 1204-1257 CE)
  • Chachiga-deva (c. 1257-1282 CE)
  • Samanta-Simha (c. 1282-1305 CE)
  • Kanhada-deva (c. 1292-1311 CE)
  • Wrote Kanha-Prabhandha: Epic elaborating war between Kanha Dev & Alaudin Khilji.

Subsequent Rulers:

  • Rathore king Rao Maldev ruled the fort of Jalore in 15th Century.
  •  During Akbar’s rule, Abdul Rahim Khan Khana took it infinitely from Gazni Khan.
  • Jahangir built the walls of the fort.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb it permanently became a part of Jodhpur.

The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is credited with having taken possession of several adjoining territories (in possession of the Chalukyas and the Paramaras).

  • The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert capital.
  • According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being hard pressed sued for peace.
  • The terms included the offer of one hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did not yield the desired result, probably because of its geographical position.
  • Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the Guhilot of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an encounter.
  • The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.

Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore): History of Rajasthan

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore)

The strongest of the Gurjara-Prathira branch was the one at Bhinmal, under king Vyaghramukh. The Gurjar clan, which ruled at Bhinmal, was known as Chapas (this name is a short version of Chapotkrisht, Sanskrit word which means excelled in archery or strong bowmen). As per the records of Heun Tsang, the famous astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta was in the court of Vyaghramukh.

Kings of Bhinmal branch of Gurjara- Pratihara:

1. Raja Nagabhatt I Pratihara: He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

2. Raja Yashovardhana Pratihara

3. Raja Watsraj Pratihara: He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country but he was defeated in the hands of Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 4. Raja Nagabhatt II Pratihara: He got victory over Kannauj.He was defeated in the hands of Govinda of Rashtrakuta dynasty.He defeated Dharmapala and Chakrayudha in the battle of Mudgagiri.

 5. Raja Mihir Bhoj Pratihara: During the period of Mihir Bhoja Kanauj was restored to its former glory.Mihir Bhoja defeated Devapala of Bengal.Suleiman, Arab traveller visited the court of Mihir Bhoja in 851 A.D.

6. Raja Mahendrapal Pratihara

7. Raja Mahipal Pratihara

8. Raja Vinayakpal Pratihara

9. Raja Mahendrapal II Pratihara

10. Raja Vijay pal Pratihara

 11. Raja Rajyapal Pratihara

 12. Raja Trilochnpal Pratihara

 13. Raja YashPal Pratihara: He was the last ruler of the dynasty. He ruled from 1027 to 1036. Prathihara dynasty came to end with the invasion of Muhammad of Ghazni.

After the downfall of Prathiharas, their capital Kannauj was occupied by Gahadwalas (Rathores). Chandradeva, who belonged to Rathore clan of Rajput warriors, defeated Gopala and established the Gahadavala dynasty.

  • After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad of Ghuri attacked Jaychand. In 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place in which Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaychand. Soon the kingdom of Gahadwalas was destroyed.
  • Rao Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, of Kannauj, came to Marwar during his pilgrimage to Dwarka.
  • His Son, Rao Asthan conquered Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately got killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.
  • Rao Chanda/Chundarji, 10th in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas – and established rule of Rathores in Marwar. Jodhpur was the primary state of Rathores but different states (Bikaner, Kishangarh etc) were also founded by different Rathore rulers.

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs: History of Rajasthan

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

The Origin of Rajputs

The term Rajput starts coming in use from the 6th Century AD. The origin of the Rajputs is the subject of debate. There are four main streams of thought on origin of Rajputs:

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs:

This theory says that the Rajputs are descendents of the races like Sakas, Kushanas, and Hunas etc. Dr. VA Smith, Col. James Todd, William Crooks supported this theory. The main argument of James Todd behind the foreign origin of the Rajputs was that these people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas.

Mixed Origin Theory

This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that Rajput is a mixed race. Some of them were descendents of the Aryans while some of them were from the foreign races such as Hunas, Sakas etc.

Kshatriyas theory of origin

This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that the Rajputs are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama. The theory divides the Rajput based on their lineage as Suryavanshi & Chandravanshi, which they trace from Surya and Chandra. They worship fire as the Aryans did and worship of fire was not the tradition of the Foreigners only.

Agnikula Theory

This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, Rajputs were the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu. The four Rajput clans from Agnikunda are Chauhans, Chalukyas, Parmaras and Pratiharas. Muhnot Nainsi & Suryamal Mishran also support this theory

Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

Because of Alexander’s invasion in 326 BCE tribes of South Punjab especially Malav, Shivi and Arjunayan migrated to Rajasthan. Punjab and Rajasthan became the nucleus of a number of oligarchies, or tribal republics whose local importance rose and fell in inverse proportion to the rise and fall of larger kingdoms. According to coins recovered, the most important politically were the Audambaras, Arjunayanas, Malavas, Kunindas, Trigartas, Abhiras, Yaudheyas and Shibis (Shivi).

Arjunayana

The Arjunayanas flourished in the Agra Jaipur tract from c. 200 BC TO 400 AD. Their coins have been found, which do not bear the name of any king or general, the legend is simply ‘Arjunayanam Jayah’, victory to the Arjunayanas. The coins belong to C 100 BC, but the Arjunayana state must have been much more ancient, for the ruling class believed that it descended from Arjuna, the epic hero. They worked in close cooperation with the Yaudheyas, their northern neighbours, who believed themselves to be the descendants of Dharma, the eldest brother of Arjuna.

  • Arjunayanas had their base in the present-day Bharatpur-Alwar region.
  • They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period (c. 185 – c. 73 BCE).

Rajnaya

  • Different scholars have ascribed different regions to Rajnaya janapadas; based on coins Cunningham suggested their region as near Mathura, Smith suggested former Dholpur state as original home of Rajnaya and Rapson ascribed them in same region as of Arjunayanas & Kings of Mathura.

Shivi

  • Shivi gana covered present districts of Udaipur & Chittorgarh.
  • The Shibis (Shivi) migrated from the Punjab to Rajasthan and settled at Madhyamika (later Nagri), located near Chittorgarh.
  • Nagri was excavated in 1904 A.D by D. R. Bhandarkar Malavas
  • The Malavas are actually mentioned in the Mahabhashya of Patanjali.
  • According to D. R. Bhandarkar, they initially lived in the Punjab; later, they migrated to eastern Rajasthan (Jaipur & Tonk), and finally to region in Madhya Pradesh, which is known as Malwa after them.
  •  Their capital in Rajasthan was Nagar, located in Tonk.

Shalvya: It was situated in Alwar district

Yodheya or Yaudheyas: Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana was an ancient confederation who lived in the area between the Indus River and the Ganges River. Present Ganganagar & Hanumangarh districts formed part of their gana

  • They find mention in Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha.
  • Later, the Junagarh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas.

The name itself is derived from ‘Yodha’ and signifies ‘warrior’. Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing upto the time of Samudragupta. They survived the onslaught of the Mauryan imperialism and closed their ranks in face of the Machiavellian Magadhan statecraft.

They disillusioned the Sunga ambitions and subsequently defied the alien Sakas and Kushans, resisted their advance and were instrumental in bringing about their downfall. Their country is called Bahudhanyaka and their capital is Rohtak in Mahabharata. According to Dr Altekar, we find from the spots where its coins have been discovered, that it extended from Saharanpur in the east to Bahawalpur in the west, from Ludhiana in the North West to Delhi in the south east. It was a confederation of three republics. Rohtak in Punjab was the capital of one of them, the northern Panchala known as Bahudhanyaka country was the centre of power for the second. Northern Rajputana seems to have been the jurisdiction of the third. The powerful Trans Beas state, mentioned by Alexander’s historians, which possessed fertile territory and virile inhabitants, and which was governed by an aristocracy exercising its powers with justice and moderation was the Yaudheya republic.

Rajasthan at a Glance

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Click Here to download PDF

River Inter-linking Project in Rajasthan

The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is studying the preliminary level of the feasibility of the three river inter-linking projects in Rajasthan. The proposed links are Parwati – Kalisindh -Chambal Link, Yamuna-Rajasthan Link Project and Rajasthan – Sabarmati Link Project.

There‘s also a plan to divert water of Chambal to Bisalpur dam by linking its tributary, Brahmani river, to Banas river upstream of Bisalpur.

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

Thank You!!

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD PDF

Hydrology-Water Resources of Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

The Great Indian Water Divide in Aravalli distributes the river water of this region into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The rivers flowing in the west and south of Aravalli ranges, including Mahi, Som, Jokham and Sabarmati drain the water into the Arabian Sea. On the other hand, rivers flowing to the east, including Chambal and its tributaries, join the Bay of Bengal. There are also inland rivers like Luni and Ghaggar which drain out in the Rann of Kutch and Thar Desert respectively.

Rivers in Rajasthan are mostly seasonal, but this fact explains little because a river is not just the surface flow, evident to a naked eye. All the rivers and their floodplains in this desert state are vast grazing grounds supporting millions of livestock. These unseen rivers also recharge the groundwater making well irrigation possible.

Modern-day development activities, however, are putting an enormous pressure on them. If deforestation has reduced the water flow, rampant sand mining has affected the water retention and seepage into subsurface channels. Aravallis also has large number of marble mines and processing units. While digging operations extensively damage the environment, discharge of a large amount of slurry by processing units also blocks water channels. Industrial and domestic wastewater has further affected the quality and biodiversity of rivers. Reduced water flow is in turn making it easier for the encroachers to infringe upon these riverbeds.

This has also put most dams in the state in critical state as they are not getting water as per their designed depend abilities. This disrupts the water resources planning of the state and execution of contingency plan every year1.

Only two river basins (Chambal and Mahi) are perennial. In the recent past, many perennial rivers in these two basins became seasonal due to over-abstraction of groundwater from the catchment area of the rivers rendering reduced water table leading to reduced or nil base flow.

Rajasthan connects strongly with water through its heritage of lakes, ponds, stepwalls, dug wells and Tankas (underground tanks). Rivers thus have a limited presence in cultural and mythological landscape and are mostly seen as means of irrigation along their stretches. The region around Aravalis comprising south east Rajasthan has a stronger connection with rivers than the drier north-western and central plains. In fact, many of the forts had rivers as their natural defence against enemy attacks.

As per the latest estimates, the total internal surface water resources of Rajasthan are estimated at 25.93 BCM1 (21.71 BCM at 50% dependability and 14.12 BCM at 75% dependability) of which about 16.05 BCM are considered ―economically exploitable at 50% dependability. The state is allocated in addition, some 17.88 BCM in trans-boundary or inter-state river waters. The renewable groundwater resource (fresh, dynamic component) is placed at 10.61 BCM per year (10.79 BCM as of March 2009). The static reserve of fresh and saline groundwater reserves have been reported to be 32.9 BCM and 29.7 BCM respectively.

There are six major river basins in the State. Banas basin which is the largest drains out 45,833 Sq km. Luni basin, which comes next, drains out 37,363 Sq km. Chambal Basin, drains out 31,360 Sq km; Mahi basin drains out 16,985 Sq km, Banganga basin drains out 8,878 Sq km and Sabarmati drains out 4,164 sq km. There are more rivers like Sahibi, Ruparel and Ghaggar which have smaller catchment areas besides several streams which feed the bigger rivers. (Source: Water Resources Department, Rajasthan)

Five of these rivers can be further divided into sub-basins as given below:

  1. Luni Basin –Luni, Sukri, Redeye, Mithari, Bandi, Khari, Jawai, Guhiya and Sagi, and Jojari.
  2. Banas Basin – Banas, Berach, Dain, Gudia, Kalisil, Khari, Kothari, Mashi, Morel, Sudra. Indravati, Sabari, Pranhita, Lower Godavari, and Wainganga sub basin;
  3. Chambal Basin – Banas, Chakan, Chambal Downstream, Chambal Upstream, Kalisindh, Kunnu, Mej and Parwati.
  4. Mahi Basin- Anas, Bhadar, Jakham, Moran, Som and Mahi.
  5. Sabarmati Basin- Sabarmati, Sei, Vatrak and Wakal

Source: Study On Planning Of Water Resources Of Rajasthan

Physiographic features of Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

State of Rajasthan is located in the north-western part of the subcontinent. Pakistan lies on its west and northwest, while it is bounded by the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh on the north and northeast. Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh form the east and southeast boundary and Gujarat lies on the southwest side.

The Aravalli range of hills and mountains, from where most rivers originate, divides the state into two major parts, southeast and northwest. The Range does not intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea, as it lies in a direction parallel to that of the coming monsoon winds, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow.

This makes western Rajasthan relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the south-western part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile.

Around two third of the northwest is covered by sand dunes while the floodplains of Mahi, Banas and Chambal river systems form the southeastern part.

Around 67 per cent of the state‘s area is affected due to desertification / and land degradation where the wind erosion (44.2%) is the maximum contributor followed by water (11.2%), vegetal degradation (6.25%) and salinization (1.07%) (ISRO, 2007).

The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. These expand from Western India – Pakistan boundary and steadily combine with the parched deciduous forests of Aravalli hills as well as the South East plateau. These forests are found in the districts of Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer, Jalore, Churu, Bikaner and Nagaur.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are home to the Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia, and other trees. Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur districts, are enclosed with this kind of forests. Intermittent expansion of definite species of parched deciduous forests is found beside the arid river beds of Nagaur, Jalore, Bikaner and Ganganagar districts. The Central Indian sub – tropical hill forests are found in Sirohi, Rajasthan, frequently on the hills near Mount Abu. These forests have some evergreen and partially evergreen species of trees. Mixed Miscellaneous forests are also found in the South-Eastern and Eastern region of Rajasthan including Kota, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara, Jhalawar and Baran districts.

Rajasthan: State Profile

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the largest state of India by area and forms North West end of the country sharing its border with Pakistan.

  1. Area: The total area of Rajasthan state is 342,239 sq km
  2. Administrative units: The state has been divided into 33 districts.
  3. Population: The total human population of the state is 68.54 million. (Census 2011)
  4. Total forest cover: 32,627 sq km
  5. Climate: The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district.

In the west, Rajasthan is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the south-eastern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile. The climate varies throughout Rajasthan. On average winter temperatures range from 8° to 28° C (46° to 82° F) and summer temperatures range from 25° to 46° C (77° to 115° F). Average rainfall also varies; the western deserts accumulate about 100 mm (about 4 in) annually, while the southeastern part of the state receives 650 mm (26 in) annually, most of which falls from July through September during the monsoon season.

(Source: www.rajasthan.gov.in )

General Science Question Bank for all exams- PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

1. Electron beam therapy is a kind of radiation therapy to treat?

(a) Enlarged prostate gland

(b) Gall bladder stones

(c) Certain types of cancer

(d) Kidney stones

2. Cobalt (60) isotope is used in the treatment of?

(a) Heart diseases

(b) Skin diseases

(c) Diabetes

(d) Cancer

3. Which of the following is an ant diabetic drug?

(a) Insulin

(b) Penicillin

(c) Chloroquin

(d) Aspirin

4. The organ of the human body directly affected by the disease of hepatitis is

(a) Liver

(b) Lungs

(c) Heart

(d) Brain

5. Which one of the following disease is not caused by virus?

(a) Polio

(b) Rabies

(c) Small pox

(d) Diphtheria

6. Of the following, ELISA test is performed to test

(a) Diabetes

(b) Tuberculosis

(c) AIDS

(d) Syphilis

7. The radio-isotope used to detect blood-clots in the Circulatory system is

(a) Arsenic-74

(b) Cobalt-60

(c) I-131

(d) Sodium-24

8. Keeping pigs away from human settlements helps in the Eradication of

(a) Malaria

(b) Japanese encephalitis

(c) Elephantiasis

(d) Polio

9. Which one of the following human organs is less susceptible to harmful radiations?

(a) Eyes

(b) Heart

(c) Brain

(d) Lungs

10. Artemisinin, a drug to cure malaria is obtained from a

(A) Seed plant

 (b) Fungus

(c) Bacterium

(d) Moss

11. The Minamata disease of Japan in 1953 was caused by eating fish contaminated with

(a) Nickel

(b) Lead

(c) Mercury

(d) Cadmium

12. The disease caused by swelling of the membrane over Spinal cord and brain is

(a) Leukaemia

(b) Paralysis

(c) Sclerosis

(d) Meningitis

13. Emphysema is a disease caused by environmental pollution in which the affected organ of the body is

(a) Liver

(b) Kidney

(c) Lungs

(d) Brain

14. The mad cow disease is caused by

(a) Bacteria

(b) Viruses

(c) Fungus

 (d) Prisons

15. Which of the following decrease in number in the human body due to Dengue fever?

(a) Platelets

(b) Haemoglobin

(c) Sugar

(d) Water

16. What is MRI?

(a) Magnetic Record of Intestines

(b) Magnetic Recording of Investigations

(c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(d) Magnetic Resonance in Intestines

17. Which of the following disease is caused by Vitamin B3?

(a) Beri – beri

(b) Night blindness

(c) Rickets

(d) Pellagra

18. Salk’s vaccine is connected with which one of the following diseases?

(a) Small pox

(b) Tetanus

(c) T.B.

(d) Polio

19. Which of the following is a substance available in small quantity in the sea and administered in a certain deficiency disease?

(a) Iron

(b) Vitamin A

(c) Fluorine

(d) Iodine

20. In countries where polished rice is the main cereal in their diet, people suffer from

(a) Pellagra

(b) Beri-beri

(c) Scurvy

(d) Osteomalacia

Click Here to Download Full Solved Question Bank PDF

Mahatma Gandhi: Biography and GK Questions PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Mahatma Gandhi Biography (1869–1948)

Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Until Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, his life and teachings inspired activists including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

Who Was Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi (October 2, 1869 to January 30, 1948) was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule and in South Africa who advocated for the civil rights of Indians. Born in Porbandar, India, Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948. Mahatma Gandhi leading the Salt March in protest against the government monopoly on salt production.

Early Life and Education

Indian nationalist leader Gandhi (born Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, which was then part of the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karmachand Gandhi, served as a chief minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putli bai, was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept with the lights on even as a teenager. In the ensuing years, the teenager rebelled by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household servants.

Although Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father hoped he would also become a government minister and steered him to enter the legal profession. In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The young Indian struggled with the transition to Western culture.

Upon returning to India in 1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just weeks earlier. He struggled to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom case, a nervous Gandhi blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees.

Gandhi’s Religion and Beliefs

Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous ancient Indian religion that espoused non-violence, fasting, meditation and vegetarianism.

During Gandhi’s first stay in London, from 1888 to 1891, he became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of sacred texts to learn more about world religions.

Living in South Africa, Gandhi continued to study world religions. “The religious spirit within me became a living force,” he wrote of his time there. He immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity, austerity, fasting and celibacy that was free of material goods.

Gandhi in South Africa

After struggling to find work as a lawyer in India, Gandhi obtained a one-year contract to perform legal services in South Africa. In April 1893, he sailed for Durban in the South African state of Natal.

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly appalled by the discrimination and racial segregation faced by Indian immigrants at the hands of white British and Boer authorities. Upon his first appearance in a Durban courtroom, Gandhi was asked to remove his turban. He refused and left the court instead. The Natal Advertiser mocked him in print as “an unwelcome visitor.”

Nonviolent Civil Disobedience

A seminal moment occurred on June 7, 1893, during a train trip to Pretoria, South Africa, when a white man objected to Gandhi’s presence in the first-class railway compartment, although he had a ticket. Refusing to move to the back of the train, Gandhi was forcibly removed and thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg.

Gandhi’s act of civil disobedience awoke in him a determination to devote himself to fighting the “deep disease of color prejudice.” He vowed that night to “try, if possible, to root out the disease and suffer hardships in the process.”

From that night forward, the small, unassuming man would grow into a giant force for civil rights. Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight discrimination.

Gandhi prepared to return to India at the end of his year-long contract until he learned, at his farewell party, of a bill before the Natal Legislative Assembly that would deprive Indians of the right to vote. Fellow immigrants convinced Gandhi to stay and lead the fight against the legislation. Although Gandhi could not prevent the law’s passage, he drew international attention to the injustice.

After a brief trip to India in late 1896 and early 1897, Gandhi returned to South Africa with his wife and children. Gandhi ran a thriving legal practice, and at the outbreak of the Boer War, he raised an all-Indian ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers to support the British cause, arguing that if Indians expected to have full rights of citizenship in the British Empire, they also needed to shoulder their responsibilities.

Satyagraha

In 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he called “Satyagraha” (“truth and firmness”), in reaction to the South African Transvaal government’s new restrictions on the rights of Indians, including the refusal to recognize Hindu marriages.

After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in 1913, including Gandhi. Under pressure, the South African government accepted a compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts that included recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of a poll tax for Indians. 

Return to India 

When Gandhi sailed from South Africa in 1914 to return home, Smuts wrote, “The saint has left our shores, I sincerely hope forever.” At the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi spent several months in London.

In 1915 Gandhi founded an ashram in Ahmedabad, India, that was open to all castes. Wearing a simple loincloth and shawl, Gandhi lived an austere life devoted to prayer, fasting and meditation. He became known as “Mahatma,” which means “great soul.”

Opposition to British Rule in India

In 1919, with India still under the firm control of the British, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison people suspected of sedition without trial. In response, Gandhi called for a Satyagraha campaign of peaceful protests and strikes. 

Violence broke out instead, which culminated on April 13, 1919, in the Massacre of Amritsar. Troops led by British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators and killed nearly 400 people.

No longer able to pledge allegiance to the British government, Gandhi returned the medals he earned for his military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians to serve in World War I.

Gandhi became a leading figure in the Indian home-rule movement. Calling for mass boycotts, he urged government officials to stop working for the Crown, students to stop attending government schools, soldiers to leave their posts and citizens to stop paying taxes and purchasing British goods.

Rather than buy British-manufactured clothes, he began to use a portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth. The spinning wheel soon became a symbol of Indian independence and self-reliance.

Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violence and non-cooperation to achieve home rule.

After British authorities arrested Gandhi in 1922, he pleaded guilty to three counts of sedition. Although sentenced to a six-year imprisonment, Gandhi was released in February 1924 after appendicitis surgery.

He discovered upon his release that relations between India’s Hindus and Muslims devolved during his time in jail. When violence between the two religious groups flared again, Gandhi began a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924 to urge unity. He remained away from active politics during much of the latter 1920s.

Gandhi and the Salt March

Gandhi returned to active politics in 1930 to protest Britain’s Salt Acts, which not only prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt—a dietary staple—but imposed a heavy tax that hit the countries poorest particularly hard. Gandhi planned a new Satyagraha campaign, The Salt March that entailed a 390-kilometer/240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where he would collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly.

“My ambition is no less than to convert the British people through non-violence and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India,” he wrote days before the march to the British viceroy, Lord Irwin.

Wearing a homespun white shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, Gandhi set out from his religious retreat in Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with a few dozen followers. By the time he arrived 24 days later in the coastal town of Dandi, the ranks of the marchers swelled, and Gandhi broke the law by making salt from evaporated seawater.

The Salt March sparked similar protests, and mass civil disobedience swept across India. Approximately 60,000 Indians were jailed for breaking the Salt Acts, including Gandhi, who was imprisoned in May 1930.

Still, the protests against the Salt Acts elevated Gandhi into a transcendent figure around the world. He was named Time magazine’s “Man of the Year” for 1930.

Gandhi was released from prison in January 1931, and two months later he made an agreement with Lord Irwin to end the Salt Satyagraha in exchange for concessions that included the release of thousands of political prisoners. The agreement, however, largely kept the Salt Acts intact. But it did give those who lived on the coasts the right to harvest salt from the sea.

Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule, Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference, however, proved fruitless.

Protesting “Untouchables” Segregation

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932 during a crackdown by India’s new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. He embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to segregate the “untouchables,” those on the lowest rung of India’s caste system, by allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the proposal.

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and leadership passed to his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting India’s rural areas.

India’s Independence from Great Britain

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, Gandhi launched the “Quit India” movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day Pune.

“I have not become the King’s First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation of the British Empire,” Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of the crackdown.

With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment in 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchill’s Conservatives in the British general election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent states—predominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus, however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward Muslims.

Gandhi’s Wife and Kids

At the age of 13, Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage. She in Gandhi’s arms in February 1944 at the age of 74

In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby.

In 1888, Gandhi’s wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was born in India 1893. Kasturba gave birth to two more sons while living in South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

On January 30, 1948, 78-year-old Gandhi was shot and killed by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse, who was upset at Gandhi’s tolerance of Muslims.

Weakened from repeated hunger strikes, Gandhi clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living quarters in New Delhi’s Birla House to a late-afternoon prayer meeting. Godse knelt before the Mahatma before pulling out a semiautomatic pistol and shooting him three times at point-blank range. The violent act took the life of a pacifist who spent his life preaching nonviolence.

Godse and a co-conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949. Additional conspirators were sentenced to life in prison.

Legacy

Even after Gandhi’s assassination, his commitment to nonviolence and his belief in simple living — making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest — have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

Questions on Gandhiji mostly asked in competitive exams

Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, politician, social activist, and writer who became the leader of the nationalist movement against the British rule of India. He is also called Bapu and known as the Father of the Nation.

Q.1. Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was born on

 (a) October 5, 1896    (b) October 3, 1840

 (c) October 2, 1869    (d) October 10, 1880

Q.2. At which place was Gandhiji born?

(a) Porbandar  (b) Rajkot

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Delhi

Q.3. what was Gandhiji’s age when he got married to Kasturba?

(a) 19 years      (b) 15 years

(c) 12 years      (d) 13 years

Q.4. Gandhiji confessed his guilt of stealing for the purpose of smoking in a letter, promising never to steal in future and asking for adequate punishment. To whom was this letter addressed?

 (a) Father        (b) Mother

(C) Elder Brother        (d) Friend

Q.5. About how old was Gandhiji when he reached London to become a barrister?

(a) 20 years      (b) 19 years

(c) 21 years      (d) 18 years

Q.6. to become a barrister in England, one had to join one of the Inns of Courts. After obtaining admission, Gandhiji joined the Inner Temple on

(a) October 5, 1870     (b) December 15, 1885

(c) November 6, 1888 (d) January 3, 1880

Q.7. Devadas was Gandhiji’s

(a) Only child  (b) Second child

(c) Eldest child            (d) youngest child

Q.8. Gandhiji, the votary of nonviolence was shot dead on January 30, 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi, shortly after 5 p.m. while going to the prayer meeting. Which was that fateful day of the week?

(a) Saturday    (b) Wednesday

(c) Friday        (d) Monday

Q.9. In which South African unit had most of the India emigrants taken up abode?

(a) Johannesburg         (b) Natal

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.10. While holding a first-class ticket Gandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to the van compartment. On his refusal to comply with the unjust order, a constable was called to push him out with bag and baggage. Identify the railway station where this incident took place.

(a) Natal          (b) Johannesburg

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.11. At which place was Gandhiji arrested for the first time by the British Government for sedition?

(a) Bombay     (b) Pune

(c) Calcutta     (d) Ahmedabad

Q.12. On which day of March 1930 Gandhiji started with a band of chosen volunteers on his famous Dandi March to break the law by manufacturing illegally, but openly, salt from the sea?

(a) Tenth          (b) Thirteenth

(c) Eleventh     (d) Twelfth

Q.13. When was the Gandhi – Irwin Pact signed?

(a) March 1, 1932        (b) March 5, 1931

(c) March 10, 1935      (d) March 7, 1937

Q.14. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected President of the Congress in 1938 with Gandhiji’s goodwill. He wanted a second term, but Gandhiji did not approve of it. Despite the disapproval, Bose fought the election and won it, defeating the official candidate by over 200 votes. Gandhiji took it as a personal defeat. Identify the candidate.

(a) Lala Lajpat rai        (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(C) Pattabhi Sitaramayya        (d) Sarojini Naidu

Q.15. On being arrested for his “Quit India” programme, where was Gandhiji detained?

(A) Yeravada Jail        (b) Byculla Prison

(C) Aga Khan Palace Jail        (d) Ahmedabad Prison

Q.16. Lord Mountbatten arrived in India on 22nd March 1947 as the new Viceroy in the place of Lord Wavell to finalise the process of the transfer of power. His first act was to invite Gandhiji to meet him in that connection. When did Gandhiji meet him for the first time?

 (a) March 29, 1947     (b) March 30, 1947

 (c) March 31, 1947     (d) March 23, 1947

Q.17. The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. Who was its author?

 (A) Ruskin Bond       (b) John Ruskin

 (C) Leo Tolstoy          (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 18. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

 (a) Infinite capacity for suffering      (b) Non-violence

 (c) Truth         (d) All the three

Q. 19. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati.

 (a) Magan lal Gandhi (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Pyarelal ji  (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q. 20. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

 (a) Light of India       (b) Hind Swaraj

 (c) My Experiments with Truth         (d) Both (b) & (c)

Q. 21. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government-run Gandhi museum.

 (a) 1960          (b) 1965

 (c) 1971          (d) 1976

Q. 22. Identify the leader who lass met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

 (A) Vallabhbhai Patel            (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vinoba Bhave

Q. 23. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti-untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

 (a) Bombay    (b) Ahmedabad

 (c) Poona        (d) Nasik

Q. 24. When on August 15, 1947 the transfer of power took place, the Congress President issued a message to the nation and saluted Mahatma Gandhi as “the maker of freedom achieved in a unique way.” He said “never before was so great an event consummated with such little bloodshed and violence.” Who was the Congress President?

 (a) J B Kripalani         (b) Vallabhbhai Patel

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Motilal Nehru

Q. 25. What did Gandhiji mean by ‘Swaraj’?

 (a) Freedom for the country   (b) Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

 (c) Self-Government  (d) complete independence

Q. 26. When did Gandhiji take the vow of brahmacharya or celibacy of life?

 (a) 1911          (b) 1906

 (c) 1900          (d) 1905

Q. 27. When did Gandhiji get his head shaved, discard his clothes and settle for a loin cloth?

 (a) 1930          (b) 1921

 (c) 1925          (d) 1930

Q. 28. Who worked as a Private Secretary to Mahatma Gandhi?

 (a) Pyarelal ji  (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Kishori lal Mashruwala     (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q.29. Who in South Africa gave Gandhiji ‘Unto This Last’ to read which proved to be one of the most decisive books of his life?

 (A) John Holmes Haynes       (b) H S Polak

 (C) Hermann Kallenbach       (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 30. To put the ideas of ‘Unto This Last’ into practice, Gandhiji founded the Phoenix Settlement near Durban which came into being in the middle of the year ________________.

 (a) 1903          (b) 1904

 (c) 1905          (d) 1906

Q.31. Who described Gandhi’s march to Dandi in the following words? “Like the historic march of Ramchandra to Lanka, the march of Gandhi will be memorable”.

 (a) Motilal Nehru       (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vallabhbhai Patel

Q. 32. The historic August session of the All-India Congress Committee, at which the Quit India Resolution was passed, was held at Gowalia Park in __________________.

 (a) Bombay    (b) Calcutta

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Amritsar

Q. 33. Gandhiji accorded very high priority to communal harmony in his programme of actions. At which place did he undertake his last fast for it on January 13, 1948?

 (a) Nasik         (b) Delhi

 (c) Calcutta    (d) Bombay

Q. 34. After the attainment of political independence in 1947, Gandhiji felt that the Congress, as a propaganda vehicle and a parliamentary machine, had outlived its usefulness. So to keep the Congress away from unhealthy competition with political parties and communal bodies, Gandhiji towards the end of January 1948 sketched a draft constitution for the Congress to transform itself into ______________.

 (A) Lok Samiti           (b) Lok Kalyan Sangh

 (C) Lok Sevak Sangh (d) People’s Forum

Q. 35. Which of the following did Gandhiji describes as his two lungs?

 (a) Ahimsa and peace (b) Ahimsa and truth

 (c) Truth and Peace    (d) Brahmacharya and Aparigraha

Q. 36. The differences with Gandhiji led Subhas Chandra Bose to resign the Presidentship of the India National Congress in 1939. Leaving the Congress he formed a new party called __________________.

 (a) Indian National Party       (b) Forward Bloc

 (c) Freedom Party      (d) Freedom Bloc

Q. 37. Identify the Viceroy who wrote home these words after his first meeting with Gandhiji:”Mr Gandhi’s religious and moral views are, I believe, admirable, but I confess that I find it difficult to understand the practice of them in politics.”

 (a) Lord Wavell          (b) Lord Irwin

 (C) Lord Reading      (d) Lord Mountbatten

Q. 38. What was the profession of Gandhiji’s father?

 (a) Farmer       (b) Diwan

 (c) Shop-keeper          (d) Tehsildar

Q. 39. How many children did Putli bai have?

 (a) Two sons and daughters   (b) One daughter and three sons

 (c) Four sons  (d) three sons

Q. 40. What was the name of Gandhi’s domestic help?

 (a) Titli ai        (b) Rambha ai

 (c) Ranabai     (d) Guardia

Q. 41. What was the name of Gandhiji’s sister?

 (a) Gauri         (b) Ralia

 (c) Rambha     (d) Meera

Q. 42. Who inspired Gandhi with ‘ Ram Nam’ in his childhood?

 (a) Kasturba   (b) Putli bai

 (C) Rambha Dai         (d) Lakshmi Das

Q. 43. What was Gandhiji’s nickname in childhood?

 (a) Monu        (b) Manu or Moniya

 (c) Sonu          (d) Mahu

Q. 44. Which spelling did Gandhiji spell wrong as a child when the school inspector gave dictation to the class?

 (a) School       (b) Kettle

 (c) Uniform    (d) Umbrella

Q. 45. Where did Gandhiji receive his primary education?

 (a) Sudamapuri           (b) Bikaner

 (c) Porbandar (d) Rajkot

Q. 46. Which mythological character impressed Gandhiji for life when he saw a play on his life?

 (a) Harishchandra       (b) Ashoka

 (c) Vikramaditya        (d) Krishna

Q. 47. Who asked Gandhiji to eat meat in order to become strong?

 (a) Sheikh Mehtab      (b) Karsan Das

 (c) Lakshmi Das         (d) Uka

Q. 48. How old was Gandhiji when his father died?

 (a) 15 years     (b) 17 years

 (c) 16 years     (d) 18 years

Q. 49. In which year did Gandhiji pass his matriculation in England?

 (a) 1889          (b) 1890

 (c) 1891          (d) 1892

Q. 50. What were the vows taken up by Gandhiji before he left for England?

 (a) Not to take alcohol           (b) Not to eat meat

 (c) Not to eye other women   (d) All the above

Q. 51. Which institution did Gandhiji join as a member during his stay in England?

 (a) Vegetarian Society           (b) Cricket Club

 (c) Church of England           (d) Film Institution

Q. 52. Which book influenced Gandhiji greatly, which he read in England?

 (a) Be Vegetarian       (b) Vegetables are good for health

 (c) Plea for Vegetarianism     (d) Use of Vegetables

Answer Key:

1. (c) 1869                  

2. (a) Porbandar                                 

3. (d) 13 years

4. (a) Father    

5. (b) 19 years            

6. (c) November 6, 1888

7. (d) Youngest Child

8. (c) Friday   

9. (b) Natal

10. (c) Maritz burg     

11.(d) Ahmedabad     

12. (d) Twelfth

13. (b) March5, 1931 

14. (c) Pattabhi Sitaramayya  

15. (c) Agakhan Palace Jail

16. (c) March 31, 1947           

17. (b) John Ruskin    

18. (d) All three

19. (b) Mahadev Desai           

20. (d) both (b) & (c) 

21. (c) 1971

22. (a) Vallabhbhai Patel        

23. (c) Poona  

24. (a) J B Kripalani

25. (b) freedom for the meanest of the countrymen  

26. (b) 1906    

27. (b) 1921

28. (b) Mahadev Desai           

29. (b) H S L Polak    

30. (b) 1904

31. (a) Motilal Nehru 

32. (a) Bombay          

33. (b) Delhi

34.(c) Lok Sevak Sangh         

35. (b) Ahimsa and Truth       

36. (b) Forward Bloc

37. (c) Lord Reading 

38. (b) Diwan 

39. (b) One daughter and three sons

40. (b) Rambha dai    

41. (b) Raliat  

42. (c) Rambha Dai

43. (b) Manu or Moniya         

44. (b) Kettle  

45. (d) Rajkot

46. (a) Harishchandra 

47. (a) Sheikh Mehtab

48. (c) 16years

49. (b) 1890    

50. (d) All the above  

51. (a) Vegetarian Society

52. (c) Plea for Vegetarianism               

Part – II                 

1. Who is the author of ‘Unto This Last’?

A. John Ruskin

B. Ruskin Bond

C. Hermann Kallenbach

D. Louis Fischer

Ans:  A

2. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

A. Infinite capacity for suffering

B. Non violence

C. Truth

D. All the three

Ans: D

3. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati. Who translated it into English?

A. Magan lal Gandhi

B. Mahadev Desai

C. Pyarelal ji

D. Sushila Nayyar

Ans: B

4. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

A. Light of India

B. Hind Swaraj

C. My Experiments with Truth

D. Both B & C

Ans: D

5. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government – run Gandhi museum.

A. 1960

B. 1965

C. 1971

D. 1976

Ans: C

6. Identify the leader who last met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

A. Vallabhbhai Patel

B. Sarojini Naidu

C. Jawaharlal Nehru

D. Vinoba Bhave

Ans: A

7. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti – untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

A. Bombay

B. Ahmedabad

C. Poona

D. Nasik

Ans: C

8. Book ‘The Satyagraha’ was originally written in?

A. English

B. Hindi

C. Gujarati

D. Bengali

Ans: C

9. As per Gandhiji, what is the mean of “Swaraj”?

A. Freedom for the country

B. Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

C. Self Government

D. Complete Independence

Ans: B

10. When had Gandhiji gone to London?

A. 1894

B. 1893

C. 1899

D. 1891

Ans:  D

11. Who said “Live as if you were to die tomorrow? Learn as if you were to live forever.”

A.  Mahatma Gandhi

B.  Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

C.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

D.  Sarojini Naidu

Ans: A

12. When is the International Day of Non-Violence celebrated?

A. 14th August

B. 16th May

C. 8th October

D. 2nd October

Ans: D

13. The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October, the birthday of ____________________.

A.  Jawaharlal Nehru

B.  Mahatma Gandhi

C.  Sarojini Naidu

D.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

Ans: B

14. What was the title given by MK Gandhi to his Gujarati translation of “Unto This Last”?

A.  Manavta

B.  Sadbhavna

C.  Sarvodaya

D.  Ahimsa

Ans: C

15. MK Gandhi was born in which place?

A.  Porbandar

B.  Madhya Pradesh

C.  Karnataka

D.  Andhra Pradesh

Ans: A

16. Which of the following slogans is associated with the name of Gandhiji?

A.  Do or Die

B.  Tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe Azaadi dunga

C.  Swaraj is my birth-right

D.  Jai Hind

Ans: A

17. How many days did Mahatma Gandhi and his volunteers took to cover 24 mile journey from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi?

A. 24

B. 20

C. 21

D. 17

Ans: A

18. Where is Sabarmati Ashram?

A.  Rajkot

B.  Ahmedabad

C.  Pathankot

D.  Baroda

Ans: B

19.  Which book did Mohandas Gandhi write?

A.  India – The National

B.  The Story of My Experiments with Truth

C.  Two States

D.  The Good Earth

Ans: B

20. Which of the following was the first movement of Mahatma Gandhi in India?

A. Champaran Satyagraha

B. Bardoli Satyagraha

C. Dandi March

D. Kheda Satyagraha

Ans: A

Source: mkgandhi.org

Best wishes!!

         Click here to download PDF

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Prelims-10 Year Solved Paper

Geography- Prelims Question Bank

Polity- Prelims Question Bank

History- Prelims Question Bank

Economy- Prelims Question Bank

Current Affairs Question (1-15) July 2019 Free Download

Current Affairs is the most important, as well as the trickiest part of Civil Services Exam. Making your own notes from any standard national newspaper consumes much of your time, especially if you are a beginner.

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

IAS Prelims Test Series

India & World Geography

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

Indian Geography Question Bank Based on 6-12th NCERT

Art & Culture

History of India

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity

Indian Polity Question Bank

Indian Polity 35+Practice Set

Environment & Ecology

Science & Technology

NCERT Book

Click here to download Question Bank PDF

(Free) Current Affairs Question Bank June-July 2019 PDF download

Current Affairs is the most important, as well as the trickiest part of Civil Services Exam. Making your own notes from any standard national newspaper consumes much of your time, especially if you are a beginner.

This is because the news articles that appear in the newspaper generally miss certain essential facts, lack the logical flow of content and are complexly worded.

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

IAS Prelims Test Series

India & World Geography

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

Indian Geography Question Bank Based on 6-12th NCERT

Art & Culture

History of India

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity

Indian Polity Question Bank

Indian Polity 35+Practice Set

Environment & Ecology

Science & Technology

NCERT Book

Current Affairs Question Bank June- July 2019

1) Indrasaurus wangi sometimes seen in the news recently is a/an

a.  Paravian Dinosaur

b.  Ancient Lizard species

c.  Dolphin native to River Indus

d.  None of the above

Answer : b

A team of researchers has recently discovered a new specimen of a microraptor — volant dromaeosaurid Microraptor zhaoianus — with the remains of a nearly complete lizard preserved in its stomach. The researchers have named the lizard after Lord Indra. The lizard is unlike any previously known from the Cretaceous and represents a new species- Indrasaurus wangi. The name Indrasaurus was inspired by a Vedic legend in which the god Indra was swallowed by a dragon during a great battle (the dragon here referring to Microraptor).

2) Consider the following statements with respect to Blue Flag Programme

1. It is an eco-label awarded to beaches, marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.

2. It is jointly operated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organisation and UN-Oceans.

3. Shivrajpur and Bhogave beaches are the only beaches in India that have attained the Blue Flag. 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  1 and 2 only

c.  1 and 3 only

d.  1, 2 and 3

Answer : a

The iconic Blue Flag is one of the world’s most recognised voluntary eco-labels awarded to beaches, marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.

The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas is run by the international, non-governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental Education).

In order to qualify for the Blue Flag, a series of stringent environmental, educational, safety, and accessibility criteria must be met and maintained.

Japan and South Korea are the only countries in South and South-Eastern Asia to have Blue Flag beaches.

The Union Environment Ministry has recently selected 12 beaches in India to vie for a ‘Blue Flag’ certification.

3) Which of the following tribe(s) is/are not belonging to the state of Sikkim?

1.       Bhutia

2.       Lepcha

3.       Limboo

4.       Tamang

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a.  4 only

b.  1 and 4 only

c.  1, 2 and 4 only

d.  None of the above

Answer : d

List of Tribes in Sikkim:

1.       Bhutia (including Chumbipa, Dopthapa, Dukpa, Kagatey, Sherpa, Tibetan, Tromopa, Yolmo)

2.       Lepcha

3.       Limboo

4.       Tamang

A proposal for reservation of seats for Limboo and Tamang communities in Sikkim Legislative Assembly is under consideration of the Government of India.

4) Consider the following statements with respect to Van Mitra Portal

1.       It is an online portal launched by the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs.

2.       It acts as a platform for citizens to report poaching and illegal trade of forest resources.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c.  Both 1 and 2

d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : d

The Madhya Pradesh government has recently began organising gram sabhas in villages to consider afresh rejected claims of Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers to forest land rights under the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.

To streamline the application process and deal with the bulk of claims, the State has also launched an online application system, Van Mitra, in the Hoshangabad district on a pilot basis.

5) FinSpy sometimes seen in the news recently is a

a.  Bio capsule

b.  Spyware virus

c.  Vaccine for TB

d.  Disinfectant resistant Pathogen

Answer : b

FinSpy is the latest version of spyware virus designed to track nearly every interaction on a mobile device.

FinSpy collects data from instant messengers—even if they are using encryption programs—such as Russian developed messaging app Telegram, Facebook’s WhatsApp, Skype, Signal, China’s WeChat and BlackBerry Messenger.

It can work both on iOS and Android devices.

Click Here to download full PDF

Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019

Important for All Competitive Exams-1500+MCQ

Half Yearly MCQ Book: Current Affairs Solved Multiple Choice Question Bank from January – July 2019 for all competitive exams 2019. we have designed the questions for UPSC, State PSC, SSC, Banking and other exams.

Click Here – Download

General Studies Test – 3

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

1.       With reference to the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC), consider the following statements.

1.       It is the world’s largest international maritime exercise.

2.       Only Pacific Ocean littoral countries participate in this exercise.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only 4

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

2.       Which of the following laws are the legacies of British rule in India?

1.       Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code

2.       Section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code

3.       Armed Forces Special Power Act

4.       Section 499 and 500 of the Indian Penal

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 and 3 only

(b)     2 and 4 only

(c)     1, 2 and 4 only

(d)     2 and 3 only

3.       Which of the following were the reasons for French decline in India?

1.       French army was no match for British army

2.       French monarchy had no stakes in the French company

3.       French were engaged in continental expansion in Europe

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 only

(d)     All of these

4.       Consider the following with reference to “Coral reefs”.

1.       Coral reefs are symbiotic association of coral polyps and algae.

2.       Muddy waters are more suitable for the growth of coral reefs.

3.       Coral reefs are equivalent to marine of tropical rain forest.

4.       Lakshadweep islands are of coral origin.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a)     1 and 4 only

(b)     1,3 and 4 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1,2,3 and 4

5.       With reference to the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI), which of the following statements is/are not correct?

1.       BCSBI defines the benchmarks for banking services in India.

2.       It oversees the Scheme of Banking Ombudsman.

3.       It is a statutory body under the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     1 and 2 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

6.       Which one of the following statements about the provisions of the Constitution of India is correct?

(a)     Minorities can establish and administer educational institutions of their choice

(b)     Only linguistic, ethnic and religious minorities find mention under Article 30

(c)     Every religious denomination has unfettered right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes.

(d)     An educational institution established by a religious minority loses its minority status on receiving financial aid from the Government.

7.       The Peshwa accepted the Subsidiary Alliance with the British via which among the following treaties?

(a)     Treaty of Purandhar

(b)     Treaty of Bassein

(c)     Treaty of Salbai

(d)     Treaty of Surji Arjunagaon

8.       Consider the following statements in the context of Peruvian current.

1.       It is cold current

2.       It is responsible for fishing productivity in Peruvian coast.

3.       It cases dryness in Atacama Desert. Which of the statements given above is / are correct

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 and 3 Only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

9. Match the Following

(a)           (b)           (c)          (d)

(a) 2 3 4 1

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 3 1 2 4

(d) 2 4 1 3

(a)     (b)     (c)     (d)

(a) 2 3 4 1

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 3 1 2 4

(d) 2 4 1 3

10.     With reference to the fish production in India, consider the following statements.

1.       In terms of fish production, the inland fisheries sector contributes more than that of the marine sector.

2.       India’s marine fisheries production is more in Gujarat as compared to other States.

3.       In India is the second largest fish producing country in the World. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1, 2 and 3 only

(d)     None of the above statements are correct

11.     With reference to the Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), consider the following statements.

1.       It is an initiative under the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP) for trade expansion among developing country members of the Asia Pacific Region.

2.       India and Pakistan are among the founding members of this Preferential Trade Agreement.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

12.     Which among the following is correct with regards to the Constituent assembly of India?

(a)     Constituent assembly was democratically elected by the people of India.

(b)     The representatives of each community were elected by the members of that community itself.

(c)     Each province/princely states were allocated seats based on their geographical area.

(d)     Mahatma Gandhi was a member of the constituent assembly until he was assassinated in 1948.

13.     Who among the following signed the Treaty of Bassein in 1802 with the British East India Company?

(a)     Baji Rao II

(b)     Baji Rao I

(c)     Sultan Bahadur

(d)     None of the above

14.     Which of the following is not correct in the context of “Wildfires”?

(a)     These are controlled blazes fuelled by weather, wind, and dry underbrush etc.

(b)     They return nutrients to the soil

(c)     They act as a disinfectant.

(d)     They allow sunlight to reach the forest floor, enabling a new generation of seedlings to grow.

15.     In which of the following states, the indigenous beliefs “Donyi-Polo” and “Rangfra” are practiced?

(a)     Arunachal Pradesh

(b)     Mizoram

(c)     Manipur

(d)     Assam

16.     Which of the following functions were performed by the Constituent Assembly of India?

1.       Enactment of the ordinary laws

2.       Adoption of National Flag and National Anthem.

3.       Election of the First President of India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 and 2 only

(b)     1 and 3 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

17.     In the tenure of which Governor-General an attempt was made for the first time to codify Hindu and Muslim customary laws?

(a)     Lord Cornwallis

(b)     Warren Hastings

(c)     William Bentinck

(d)     Charles Metcalfe

18.     Which of the following factors is / are responsible for tides formation?

1.       Earth’s gravitational pull

2.       Moon’s gravitational pull

3.       Sun’s gravitational pull

4.       Centrifugal force due to earth’s rotation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a)     2 and 3 only

(b)     1,2 and 3 only

(c)     2,3 and 4 only

(d)     1,2,3 and 4

19.     Consider the following statements regarding the Aral Sea

1.       The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake

2.       It lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

Which of the above given statements are incorrect?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

20.     Consider the following statements about the Lokpal in India.

1.       The institution of Lokpal was first recommended by the first Administrative Reforms Commission.

2.       Under the Lokpal Act (2013), Jurisdiction of Lokpal includes Prime Minister, Ministers, and Members of Parliament.

3. As per the Lokpal Act of 2013, Lokpal can take Suo Motu actions against any public servant.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 and 3 only

(c)     1 and 2 only

(d)     1 and 3 only

21.     With reference to the recently launched “cVIGIL” mobile App, consider the following statements.

1.       The App enables the employees of public sector undertakings to report any instances of corruption in their organization.

2.       The application was launched by the department of personnel and training. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

22.     Consider the following statements about the “Preamble” of the Indian Constitution

1.       It has been amended only once since its inception.

2.       It is not a part of the constitution.

3. It is justifiable in nature

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)     1 only

(b)     1 and 2 only

(c)     2 and 3 only

(d)     1, 2 and 3

23.     Which among the following was the first municipal corporation set up in India in the year 1687?

(a)     Madras Municipal Corporation

(b)     Bombay Municipal Corporation

(c)     Delhi Municipal Corporation

(d)     None of the above

24.     Which of the following statements is / are correct?

1.       Britain has no climate, only weather.

2.       Egypt has no weather, only climate. Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 Only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

25.     With reference to the SAARC development fund (SDF), which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.       SDF was setup by the World Bank to accelerate economic growth, social progress and poverty alleviation in the SAARC region.

2.       The headquarters of the SDF is located at the Thimpu, Bhutan. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

Answer:

1.A ,2.C ,3.B ,4.B ,5.C ,6.A ,7.B ,8.A ,9.B ,10.C ,11.A ,12.B ,13.A ,14.A ,15.A ,16.D ,17.B ,18.C ,19.D ,20.C ,21.D ,22.A ,23.A ,24.C ,25.B

Rajasthan GK – Test 3

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

Daily Practice Multiple Choice Question Answer for RPSC, RAS, RSMSSB, Lecturer, SI and all other competitive exams of Rajasthan.

1. Which article of constitution mentioned “Appointment of Chief Minister”?

1. Article 154

2. Article 161

3. Article 164

4. Article 158

2. Which of the following statement is false about the Chief Minister?

1.  There is no special provision for appointment and election of Chief Minister in the constitution

2.  Article 154 states that the Governor will appoint the Chief Minister

3.  The Governor is free to appoint any person as Chief Minister

4.  There is no such system in the Constitution that the Chief Minister should prove a majority before his appointment

3. What is the minimum age to be appointed as the Chief Minister of a state?

1.  25 years

2.  30 years

3.  35 years

4.  18 years

4. Which of the following post is hold by the Chief Minister?

1.  Chairman of the State Planning Board

2.  Member of National Development Council

3.  Chief Spokesperson of the State Government

4.  All of the above

5. Which of the following is not matched correctly?

1.  Article 167: Duties of the Chief Minister

2.  Article 163: sworn in of the Chief Minister

3.  Article 164: Provisions related to State Ministers

4.  Article 166:  Operations by the State Government

6. Who determines the salary and allowances of the Chief Minister?

1.  Governor

2.  State Legislature

3.  President

4.  Parliament

7. Which of the following statements is false?

1.  Chief Minister’s tenure is not fixed (with some conditions)

2.  If the Chief Minister resigns from his post then the entire Council of Ministers has to resign

3.  The Governor is the President of the Inter-state Council

4.  The collective responsibility of the Council of Ministers is to the State Legislature

8. Which of the following power is not enjoyed by the Chief Minister?

1.  The Governor appoints ministers only to those people who are recommended by the Chief Minister

2.  Chief Minister shifts all the ministers’ departments

3.  Chief Minister can ask the governor to disassociate the Legislative assembly

4.  Chief Minister appoints judges of the state’s high court

9. The State Council is responsible to whom?

1.   to the Governor

2.   to the Legislative Assembly

3.   to the Legislative Council

4.  to the State Legislature

10. Who provide oath to other ministers of the state other than the Chief Minister?

1.   Chief Minister

2.   Speaker of the assembly

3.   Chief Justice of the High Court

4.   Governor

11. The Advocate General of the State is responsible to whom?

1.   Governor

2.   Chief Minister

3.   Speaker of the Assembly

4.   None of these

12. Udaipur, South-eastern margin of Pali & Dungarpur districts are part of which Aravali Region?

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range             2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range                     4. None of the above

13. According to GSHAP data, the state of Rajasthan falls in a region of which seismic hazard?

1. High seismic zone     2.Moderate seismic zone

3. High to Moderate     4. Moderate to High

14. Rajasthan has divided into different climatic regions, the climatic regions of Rajasthan are based on which of the following parameter?

1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity.

2. Koeppen’s Classification

3. Thornthwaite’s classification

4. All of the above

15. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1.         Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.

2.         The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 34degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16DegC.

3.         The region includes Jaisalmer district, Barmer, Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and southern parts of Ganganagar district.

1. Semi-Arid Region          2. Arid Region

3. Sub-Humid                            4. Humid Region

16. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Ajmer, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali, Jalore and Sirohi districts are included in which of the following category?

1.         Semi-Arid Region         2. Arid Region

3. Sub-Humid                             4. Humid Region

17. Consider the following features and identify the wildlife sanctuary:

1. This Sanctuary is situated in the Banaskantha district in Gujarat at the Gujarat-Rajasthan border.

2. The complete area between Mount Abu and Jessore wildlife sanctuary is home to them.

3. Apart from sloth bear, other fauna reported in the sanctuary are leopard, sambar, blue bull, wild boar, porcupine, and a variety of birds.

1. Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary

2. Jessore Wildlife Sanctuary

3.  Daroji bear sanctuary

4. Rajasthan Wildlife Sanctuary

18. Sloth Bear is found in which of the following place?

1. Sawai Madhopur   2 -Alwar

3. Mount Abu                       4- Udaipur

19. Great Indian Bustard is not found in which of the following states of India?

1. Gujarat                            2. Tamil Nadu

3.  Karnataka                     4. Andhra Pradesh

5. Rajasthan                       6. Maharashtra

20. Mahaseer fish is found only in which lake of Rajasthan?

1. Anasagar Lake Ajmer                  2- Fateh Sagar Udaipur

3. Lake Badi Udaipur                      4- Sambhar Lake

21. Find the incorrect matched:

1. Bisalpur Conservation Reserve        Tonk

2. Jodbeed Gadhwala Reserve                         Sirohi

3.  Sundhamata Conservation Reserve      Jodhpur

4.  Gudha Vishnoiyan Reserve                      Jalore

22. Parbati River flows in which of the following districts?

1. Sawai Madhopur             2 Tonk

3. Dholpur                            4.Karauli

1. 1,2,3,4

2. 1, 2, 3

3. 1, 3

4. 1, 3, 4

23.  Berach River is not flow through which of the following District?

1. Udaipur                       2. Chittorgarh

3. Rajsamand                  4- Bhilwara

24. Gogelav and Rotu Conservation Reserve are located in which district of Rajasthan?

1. Udaipur                        2. Jaipur

3. Nagaur                          4. Sariska

25. Find out the incorrect match:

Wildlife Sanctuary                           District

1. Kesarbagh WLS                             Dholpur

2. Phulwari ki Nal WLS                   Udaipur, Pali

3. Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS                      Barmer

4. Sitamata WLS                                         Pratapgarh

26. Which among the following is largest wildlife sanctuary as per their area?

1.  Kailadevi WLS                            2- Kumbhalgarh WLS

3. Phulwari ki Nal WLS                   4. Todgarh Raoli WLS

27. Match the following:

National Park                             District

1.         Ranthambore NP              A. Bharatpur

2.         Keoladeo Ghana NP               B. Alwar

3.         Sariska NP                                C.  Jaisalmer, Barmer

4.         DesertNP                                D. Sawai Madhopur

1.1-A 2-B 3- C 4-D

2. 1-B 2-C 3-D 4-A

3. 1-C 2-D 3-A 4-B

4. 1-D 2-A 3- B 4-C

28. White Rumped Vulture Found in which places of Rajasthan?

1. Udaipur                                       2. Kota

3. All Rajasthan                                4. Mount Abu

29. Which of the following is matching incorrect?

District                           Mascot

1. Bikaner                     Sand grouse

2. Nagaur                       Rajhans

3. Pratapgarh                  wolf

4. Bhilwara                   Peacock

5.  Bundi                         Golden Pheasant

30. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. These forests which are most abundant in central India, as in Madhya Pradesh, parts of Gujarat and Maharashtra, are found in Sirohi district of Rajasthan.

2. These forests have semi-evergreen and some evergreen species of trees.

3. The vegetation consists of many plants which are similar to Himalayas.

4. They are well represented between 700 to 800 m altitudes.

1. Tropical Dry Deciduous (Dhol) Forests

2. Bamboo Forests

3. Sub-Tropical Forests

4. Tropical Rain Forests

31.  Method of Abolition or Creation of a State Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) mentioned in which article of Indian constitution?

1. Article 168

2. Article 169

3. Article 176

4. Article 179

Answer:

  1. 3
  2. 2
  3. 1
  4. 4
  5. 2
  6. 2
  7. 3
  8. 4
  9. 2
  10. 4
  11. 1
  12. 3
  13. 4
  14. 4
  15. 2
  16. 3
  17. 2
  18. 3
  19. 2
  20. 3
  21. 2
  22. 3
  23. 3
  24. 3
  25. 4
  26. 3
  27. 4
  28. 3
  29. 3
  30. 3
  31. 3

Rajasthan GK – Test 2

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

Daily Practice Multiple Choice Question Answer for RPSC, RAS, RSMSSB, Lecturer, SI and all other competitive exams of Rajasthan.

1.         In which of the following states Aravalli Range extends in India:

1.         Rajasthan                   2.  Haryana

3.         Delhi                          4. Punjab

5.         Gujarat

Choose the correct pair.

1.         1,2,3,4

2.         2,3,4,5

3.         1,2,3,5

4.         1,2,4,5

2. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is India’s oldest fold mountains.

2. The north end of it continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana

3. It is the source of the Mithari, Luni, and Jawai River.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range

4. Aravali Range

3. Luni Basin, Shekhawati Region, Nagaur Upland, and Ghaggar Plain are considered in which region/plain?

1.  Semi-Arid Basin               2. Sandy Arid Plain

3. Mewar Rocky region       4 The Sambhar Basin

4. Chambal Basin, Banas Basin and Mahi Basin are the example of which plain?

1. Eastern Plain                     2. Western Plain

3. Northern Plain                  4. Southern Plain

5. States in which Thar Desert is not extends in India?

1. Rajasthan                     2. Haryana

3. Punjab                        4.  Gujarat

5. Madhya Pradesh

6. Special Industrial Complexes are being built up in Rajasthan to meet the necessities of industries. Match the following pairs correctly.

1. Hosiery Chopanki                                A. Bhiwadi

2. Gems & Jewellery and Gem Park      B. Bikaner

3. Ceramics Khara                                   C. Jaipur

4. Dimensional Stone                              D. Chittorgarh

1. 1-A 2-B 3-C 4-D

2. 1-B 2-A 3-D 4-C

3. 1-A 2-C 3-B 4-D

4. 1-C 2-D 3-A 4-B

7. Arrange the following peaks of Aravali as per their height in descending order:

1. Kamalnath           2. Bhairach

3. Taragarh                       4. Khoh

1. 1-2-3-4

2. 2-3-1-4

3. 3-4-1-2

4. 1-4-3-2

8. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1.         Stretches from Delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.

2.         Average elevation of 300-670 meters.

3.         To North & East it merges with Ganga-Yamuna Plains.

1. Shekhawati hills               2. Marwar Hills

3. Alwar Hills                                  4. Girwa hills

9.  Malkhet, Khetri Group of hills, Torawati Hills & Alwar hills is part of which Aravali range?

1.  North-Eastern Aravalli Range

2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range

4. All of the above

10. Consider the following statements and choose the right answer:

1. Includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur.

2. It Surround on North by Alwar Hills

3. It Surround on East by Karauli table-land South by Banas plains.

4. West by Sambhar basin

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range             2. Central Aravalli Range

3. Southern Aravalli Range                     4. None of the above

11. Who became the first women governor of Rajasthan?

1. Smt. Vijya Laxmi

2. Smt. Pratibha Patil      

3. Smt. Sudha Srivastava

4. None of the above

12. Which is the state game of Rajasthan?

1. Basketball

2. Kabbadi

3. Hockey

4. Football

13. Rajasthan Revenue Board Headquarter is located at which place?

1. Jaipur

2. Jodhpur

3. Ajmer

4. Kota

14. Which is not a part of Rajasthan Union?       

1. Banswara

2. Bundi

3. Kishangarh

4. Bharatpur

15. Matsya Union merged in Greater Rajasthan and became which of the following?

1. United State of Rajasthan

2. Greater Rajasthan

3. United State of Greater Rajasthan

4. United Rajasthan

16. Who was appointed as the Deputy Head of Rajasthan Union?

1. Bhim singh

2. Manikya Lal Verma

3. Heeralal Shastri

4. Bhadursingh

17. Who said the statement while signing the accession documents, “I am signing on my death warrant”.

1. Banswara State Maharawal, Chandra Veer Singh

2. The ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh

3. The Maharana Bhupal Singh of Udaipur

4. None of the above

18.  Which of the following appointed by Governor of Rajasthan?

1. Advocate general of state.

2. State election commissioner

3.  Chairman & members of RPSC.

4. All the above

19. Who wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha?

1. Sidhha Rishi                                 2- Vigrah Raj

3. Somdeva                                        4. Kumbha

20. Who wrote drama named Harkaili?

1. Sidhha Rishi                                  2- Vigrah Raj Chauhan

3. Kumbha                                         4. Somdeva

21. Who wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay?

1. Kumbha                 2. Somdeva

3. Jayanak                  4. Sidhha Rishi

22. Who wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj?

1. Kumbha                 2. Jayanak

3. Sanga                      4. Somdeva

23. Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by

1. Vijrasen Suri                        2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri                 4.Hemraj

24. Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by?

1. Vijrasen Suri              2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri   4.Hemraj

25. Jiyadarya Raas by

1. Vijrasen Suri                      2- Asig

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

26. Padmavati Chaupai by

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

27. Stulibhadra Phag written by

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri               4.Hemraj

28. Who wrote Gyan Manjari?

1. Vijhana                               2.  Jinprabha Suri

3. Shalibhadra Suri              4.Hemraj

Answer:

  1. 3
  2. 4
  3. 1
  4. 1
  5. 5
  6. 3
  7. 4
  8. 3
  9. 1
  10. 2
  11. 2
  12. 1
  13. 3
  14. 4
  15. 1
  16. 4
  17. 1
  18. 4
  19. 1
  20. 2
  21. 3
  22. 1
  23. 1
  24. 3
  25. 2
  26. 4
  27. 2
  28. 1

Rajasthan Gk Test-1

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims, Lecturer, Sub-Inspector, Teachers and Other Govt Exams daily Practice MCQ.

1. When did Rajasthan came in to existence?

1. 20th march 1948                 2. 30th march 1949

3. 25th April 1949                  4- 26th Jan 1951    

 

Q.2 Total geographical area of Rajasthan State is?

1. 2, 90, 932 sq km                2. 3, 39, 293 sq km

3. 3, 32, 392 sq km                4.  3, 42, 239 sq km

Q.3 The area of Rajasthan is which percentage of Indian Territory?

1. 9.76%                                  2. 10.47%

3. 10.74%                                4. 11.05%

Q.4 Rajasthan is placed in which division of India?

1. North-western                  2. Western

3. North-eastern                    4. Northern

Q.5 The Tropic of Cancer passes through which district in Rajasthan?

1. Banswara               2. Sirohi

3. Jhalawar                 4. Dholpur

6. Who was the first governor of Rajasthan?

1. Gurumukh Nihal Singh

2. Sardar Hukum Singh

3. Basant Rao Patil

4. None of the above

7. Who was the first chairman of Rajasthan Assembley (Vidhan Sabha)?

1. Ramniwas Mirdha

2. Narottam Joshi

3. Lal Singh Shaktawat

4. None of the above

8. Who was the first chief justice of Rajasthan High Court?

1. K. N. Vanchu

2. K. K. Verma

3. 2. N. Jha

4. None of the above

9. Which one of the following was first implemented in Rajasthan?

1. Cooperative society

2. Public distribution system

3. President Rule

4. Panchayati Raj

10. Rajasthan state Archives is located at which place?

1. Bikaner

2. Jaipur

3. Jodhpur

4. Bharatpur

11. Which one of the following date, Rajasthan Public Service Commission Established?

1. 15-08-1950

2. 16-08-1949

3. 20-12-1952

4. 17-08-1952

12. Ajmer and Abu was the part of which Stage of the integration of Rajasthan?

1. First

2. Third

3. Fifth

4. Seventh

13. On March 25, 1948 which Princely state became part of Rajasthan Union?

1. Sirohi

2. Bharatpur

3. Pratapgarh

4. Alwar

14. Match the following:

Paleolithic Sites                                         Place

1 Lidder River                                    a   Rajasthan

2. Sohan valley                                       b. Punjab

3. Chittorgarh and Kota                       c.   Rajasthan

4. River Wagoon, Kadamli basins       d.  Kashmir

  1. 1-a 2-b 3-c 4-d                        

  2. 1-b 2-c 3-d 4-a

 3. 1-d 2-b 3-c 4-a

 4. 1-c 2-a 3-b 4-d

15. Mesolithic human burials have been found at?

Identify the incorrect answer:

 1. Bagor                   Rajasthan

 2. Langhnaj             Gujarat

 3. Bhimbetka          Madhya Pradesh

 4. Mauda                 Haryana

16. The rock painting of Mesolithic period is found at?

Identify the incorrect answer:

1. Lakhudiyar         Uttarakhand

2. Tekkalkotta        Karnataka

3. Bhimbetka         Madhya Pradesh

 4. Adamagarh       Madhya Pradesh

 5. Pratapgarh        Rajasthan

6.  Mirzapur          Haryana

17. Mehrgarh is located on the bank of which River?

1. Indus                       2. Bolan

3. Saraswati                4. Mahi

18. Which is not the Indus Valley Site in Rajasthan?

   1. Kalibangan           2. Baror

   3. Karanpura            4. Rangpur

19. Identify the Place/Site which has the following features?

1. Most noteworthy is a cylindrical seal, depicting a female figure between two male figures, fighting or threatening with spears.

2. The best terracotta figure is that a charging bull which is considered to signify the “realistic and powerful folk art.

3. The cemetery was located to the west-southwest of the citadel.

4. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist.

Which is the correct answer?

1.  Lothal (Gujarat)                       2.Kalibangan (Rajasthan)

3. Diamabad (Maharashtra)       4.Alamgirpur (U.P.)

20. Match The Following:

1. Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP)      a. Ganga valley

2. Narhan culture                                   b. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan

 3. Ahar culture                                 c. Mewar region of Rajasthan

4. Kayatha and Malwa cultures       d. Maharashtra

5. The Jorwe culture                         e. western Madhya Pradesh

1. 1-a 2-b 3-c 4-d 5-e

2.1-b 2-a 3-c 4-e 5-d

3. 1-c 2-b 3-d 4-a 5-e

4. 1-d 2-c 3-b 4-e 5-a

21. Identify the Place/Site/Culture name which has following features?

1. People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses.

2. Its Pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it

3. Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are its prominent sites.

Which is the correct answer?

1. Ahar-Banas Culture       2.OCP Culture

3. Kalibangan                         4. Dholavira

22. Match the following:

                 Districts                                 Mahajanapads

1.   Jaipur, Alwar & Bharatpur             Matsya Mahajanapads

2.   Bharatpur, Dholpur & Karauli         Kuru Mahajanapads

3.   Northern Alwar region              Saurasena Mahajanapads

Which is the correct answer?

1.   1-a 2-b 3-c

2.   1-a 2-c 3-b

3.   1-b 2-a 3-c

23. Match the Following:

       Capital                          Mahajanapads

1. Viratanagari           Saurasena Mahajanapads

2. near modern day Mathura      Kuru Mahajanapads

3. Indrapath                                 Matsya Mahajanapads

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

1.   1-a 2-b 3-c

2.   1-a 2-c 3-b

3.   1-b 2-a 3-c

4.   1-c 2-a 3-b

24. Where/who acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas?

1. Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi                  2. Ganapatha

3. Junagarh rock inscription          4.All

  • The region surrounding modern districts of Bikaner & Jodhpur was referred to as Jangaldesh during Mahajanpadas period.

25. Consider the following Statements and choose the right answer:

1. Maan Mori, of the Maurya dynasty was killed by him.

2. He belonged to Guhilot clan.

3. Born as Kalbhoj, was the founder of a dynasty, which later comes to rule Mewar.

1. Vyaghramukh               2. Nayachandra Suri

3. Bappa Rawal                4 Bahar Deo                

26. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district.

2. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach.

3. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds.

4. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture.

1. Balathal            2. Pachamta

3. Gilund             4. Ojiyana

27. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. It is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Rajasthan.

2. It is located on banks of Katar River.

3. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63.

4. This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.

1. Gilund                      2. Ahar

3. Ojiyana                    4.  Balathal

28. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. Recently excavation was carried out at a village in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

2. It belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture.

3. Art facts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

1. Balathal          2. Pachamta

3. Gilund             4. Ojiyana

29. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. The site is located at source of river Kantali, which used to join river Drishadwati, near Soni-Bhadra on the north.

2. Historian R.L. Mishra wrote that, Red pottery with black portraiture was found which is estimated to be belonging to 2500–2000 BC was found when it was excavated in 1977.

3. It mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

1. Ganeshwar (Sikar)        2.  Jodhpura (Jaipur)

3. Noh (Bharatpur)          4. Sanari (Jhunjhunu)

30. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. This Kingdom played a great part in history of Northern India nearly for 500 years.

2. The King Nagabhatt I from this kingdom won Kannauj and established rule over most of Rajasthan.

3. The capital of their Kingdom was shreemal, which is old name of Bhinmal in Jalore.

Identify the Kingdom?

1. Western Satraps                               2. Rajput Kingdom

3. Vardhana                                            4. Gurjara Kingdom

31. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

 1. These people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas as per theory of James Todd.

 2. This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that it is a mixed race.

3. This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that those are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama.

4. This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, those are the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu.

1. Origin of Pratiharas               2. Origin of Rajputs

3. Origin of Rathores                 4. Origin of Chauhans

32. Arrange these Pratihars Kings as Historical in descending order

1. Harichandra           2. Kakka

3. Jhota                        4. Narabhatta

1.   1-2-3-4

2.   1-3-2-4

3.   1-4-3-2

4.   1-4-2-3

33. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara.

 2. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

3. He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.

4. He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country.

1. Raja Nagabhatt I                     2. Raja Nagabhatt II

3. Raja Mihir Bhoj                      4. Raja Mahendrapal

34. Who Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar?

1.   Durlabha-raja I

2.   Govinda-raja I

3.   Chandra-raja II

4.   Govindaraja II

35. Consider the following statement and choose the right answer:

1. He captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions.

2. He suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II.

3. He attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions.

4. He proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

1. Qutub ud-din-Aibak          2. Mahmud Gazni

3. Mohd. Ghori                       4 Iltutmish

Answer Key: 

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 3
  4. 1
  5. 1
  6. 1
  7. 2
  8. 2
  9. 4
  10. 1
  11. 2
  12. 4
  13. 3
  14. 3
  15. 4
  16. 6
  17. 2
  18. 4
  19. 2
  20. 2
  21. 1
  22. 2
  23. 4
  24. 4
  25. 3
  26. 3
  27. 4
  28. 2
  29. 1
  30.  4
  31. 2
  32. 3
  33. 1
  34. 2
  35. 3

National Parks in Rajasthan

National Parks of Rajasthan

S. No. Name of National Park Year of Notification Total Area (Sq.Km)
1 Mukundra Hills (Darrah)   2006 200.54
2 Desert National Park   1992 3162
3 Keoladeo Ghana National Park 1981 28.73
4 Ranthambhore National Park 1980 282
5 Sariska National Park   1982 273.8

Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park

Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.

Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955andvisitors now require seeking permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 sq. km.

In past, Darrah sanctuary was the royal hunting ground of the Maharaja of Kota. This place is located at a distance of about 50 km from Kota. It is located on the eastern bank of Chambal River and is drained by its tributaries.

The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 sq. km. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.

The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve.

The name Darrah is taken as the ‘Pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.

The park is situated between two parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gagrola which run across a length of about 80 km (from Murlipura to Rawatbhata). The four rivers which form the boundary of this valley are Ramzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.

The densely wooded Darrah Sanctuary is spread all over the hilly terrain. The forest of the sanctuary is very thick and dense.

Ranthambore National Park

Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.

Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957andcame under the “Project Tiger “as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 sq. km.

The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 sq. km.

Ranthambore was a hunting reserve of the Maharajas of Jaipur, the park at Ranthambore was once the scene of royal hunting parties in the past.

Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.

  • Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
  •  It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from the gentle to the steep slopes; from flat topped hills of the Vindhayas to the conical hillocks and the sharp ridges of the Aravallis.
  • An important geological feature the ‘Great Boundary Fault’ where the Vindhayas plateaus meet the Aravalli hill ranges.

The Rivers Chambal in the South and the Banas in the North bound the National Park. Pure stands of the Dhok interspersed with open grasslands of the plateaus, six large lakes – Gilai Sagar, Mansarovar, Malik talao, Raj Bagh and Padam Talao with in the National Park.

The rugged park terrain alternates between dry deciduous forest, open grassy meadow, dotted by several lakes and rivers that are only made passable by rough roads built and maintained by the Forest Service.

There are many water bodies located all over the park, which provide perfect relief during the extremely hot summer months for the forest inhabitants.

A huge fort, after which the park is named, towers over the park atop a hill. There are many ruins of bygone eras scattered all over the jungle, which give it a unique, wonderful and mixed flavour of nature, history and wildlife.

Tigers at Ranthambore National park have been known to even hunt in full view of human visitors. These tigers are famous for being seen in the daytime too, due to their lack of fear of human presence in vehicles. This lack of fear of humans is excellent for tourists, as they get to see the tigers often.

Desert National Park

Desert National Park is a beautiful place located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.

The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert.

  1. Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and fauna species.
  2. It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
  3. It also has fossil evidences dating back to the Jurassic Period indicating hot and humid climate characterized by dense forests. 180 million years old fossils of animals and plants are preserved at Wood Fossil Park at Akal, situated 17 km away from Jaisalmer.
  4. The Desert National Park is a unique and fragile ecosystem. More than 60 per cent of it is simply semi-arid desert.
  5. The seemingly barren lands gradually dissolve at the horizon touching Pakistan.
  6. But the warm sands of the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer form a fertile micro broth hiding an astounding variety of animals and birds.
  7. Desert National Park is an excellent example of the desert ecosystem.
  8. The landform primarily comprises rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
  9. The topography of Desert National Park supports sandy, gravelly, rocky and compact salt lake bottoms. Sandy areas dominate the western parts of Jaisalmer district, while gravelly and rocky areas are scattered throughout central, southern and eastern areas.
  10. The Desert National Park is barren with several sand dunes and a few hills in the north-western region. The Park forms a vast sandy and undulating terrain.

Dominant fauna

Birds – Great Indian Bustard, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, Bee-Eaters, Shrikes, Larks, Demoiselle Crane, Macqueen’s Bustard, Sand grouse, Long-Legged, Honey Buzzards, chats, babblers, kites etc.

Mammals – Camel, Desert Fox, Bengal Fox, Chinkara, Wolf, Desert Cat, Blackbuck, Hedgehog, Nilgai

Reptiles – Russell’s viper, Saw Scaled Viper, Monitor Lizard, Spiny tailed lizard, Saw scaled viper, Common Krait, Spiny Tailed Lizard, Gecko, Persian Gecko etc.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park

Detail:

 Bird Sanctuary-1971   

National Park-1981           

Ramsar site Oct-1981

World Heritage Site-1985                 

 Reserve forest

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
  2. Keoladeo was declared a Bird Sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981.
  3. Total area of the National park is about 28.7 sq. km.
  4. Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
  5. Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO.
  6.  It is a Reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
  7. The park was a hunting ground for the maharaja of Bharatpur, who turned his personal hunting domain into a bird sanctuary in 1956.
  8. Maharaja of Bharatpur setting up the sanctuary, building a dam and an artificial lake to store the rains that would fall in torrents during the monsoons.
  9. Duck shoots were organized yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, about 4,250 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972.
  10. Grazing of village cattle was banned in this area in 1982, which led to clashes between government and local farmers.

Sariska National Park

Detail:

Wildlife Reserve-1955                                      

Wildlife Sanctuary-1958   

(1979) Sariska Tiger Reserve        

National Park-1982

  1. Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
  2. The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range.
  3. Sariska was declared a wildlife Reserve in 1955.
  4. The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979.
  5. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 sq. km.
  6. The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 sq. km.
  7. The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
  8. The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
  9. The area of Sariska is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
  10. Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991.
  11.  Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.

Sariska was a hunting reserve for royal families in past. Its plentiful tiger population supported by large herds of Sambhar and Nilgai was the ideal place for the royals of the state as well as their visiting guests to go on shikaars. The broad range of wildlife here is a wonderful example of ecological adoption and tolerance, for the climate here is variable as well as erratic.

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Wildlife and its Conservation in Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

Wildlife and its Conservation

Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.

Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden and allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife Sanctuary as the name suggests, is the place that is reserved exclusively for the use of wildlife, which includes animals, reptiles, insects, birds etc. Otherwise called as wildlife refuges it provides habitat and safe & healthy living conditions to the wild animals especially to the endangered and rare ones so that they can live peacefully for their entire life and maintain their viable population.

For proper management of the sanctuary the rangers or guards are appointed to patrol the region. They ensure the safety of animals from poaching, predating or harassing.

  • International Union of Conservation of Nature, shortly called as IUCN has grouped wildlife sanctuaries in Category IV of protected areas.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.

Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.

Definition of National Park: National Park implies an area that is exclusively designated by the government for the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity due to its natural, cultural and historical significance. It is home to millions of animals, birds, insects, microorganisms, etc. of different genes and species, which provides a healthy and safe environment to them.

National Parks, not only conserve wildlife, but it also provides an amusement of the environmental and scenic heritage, in a way and by those means that does not cause harm to it, so as to provide enjoyment to the future generations. The plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting and predating of animals, destruction of flowers are highly prohibited.

Key Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park:

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

Difference between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park

Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a consecrated place where sacred species are kept. It is not open for general public, unlike zoo. In other words, it tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries.

Characteristics of Wildlife Sanctuary

1. It is natural area which is reserve by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species.

2. Area is designated for the protection of wild animals.

3. Only animals are conserved, Could be private property also, outside activities allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has defined its Category IV type of protected areas.

National Parks: It is a home to many species of birds and animals which is established by central and state government for the conservation.

Characteristics of National Park

1. Reserve area of land, owned by the government.

2. Area is protected from human exploitation, industrialization and pollution.

3. There is no cutting or Grazing allowed and no any Outside Species Allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. Conservation of ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.

6. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas has defined its Category II type of protected areas.

Biosphere Reserve: The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO designated of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas from November, 1971.

Characteristics of Biosphere Reserve:

1. Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well.

2. Areas are meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.

3. Three areas: Core, Buffer & Marginal. No outside Species allowed Conservation & research purpose.

4. It is internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.

5. The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage.

Wildlife Sanctuary of Rajasthan

S.No. Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) Established Year Area  (In km²)
1 Bandh Baratha WLS 1985 199.5
2 Bassi WLS 1988 138.69
3 Bhensrodgarh WLS 1983 229.14
4 Darrah WLS 1955 80.75
5 Jaisamand WLS 1955 52
6 Jamwa Ramgarh WLS 1982 300
7 Jawahar Sagar WLS 1975 153.41
8 Kailadevi WLS 1983 676.38
9 Kesarbagh WLS 1955 14.76
10 Kumbhalgarh WLS 1971 608.58
11 Mount Abu WLS 1960 112.98
12 Nahargarh WLS 1980 50
13 National Chambal WLS 1979 274.75
14 Phulwari Ki Nal WLS 1983 692.68
15 Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS 1982 252.79
16 Ramsagar WLS 1955 34.4
17 Sajjangarh WLS 1987 5.19
18 Sariska WLS 1955 219
19 Sawaimadhopur WLS 1955 131.3
20 Sawai Man Singh WLS 1984 103.25
21 Shergarh WLS 1983 98.71
22 Sitamata WLS 1979 422.94
23 Tal Chhapper WLS 1971 7.19
24 Todgarh Raoli WLS 1983 495.27
25 Van Vihar WLS 1955 25.6

Source – Wildlife Institute of India

Main wildlife found in Protected Areas

Protected Area           Main Wild Life
DamDamp-baretha Resident and migratory Birds
Sariska  Tiger, Panther, Chital, Sambhar, Porcupine 
Sariska ‘A’  Sambhar, Chital, Panther
Desert National Park  Chinkara, Desert Cat, Fox, Great Indian Bustard 
Ramgarh- Vishdhari  Panther, hyena, Sloth Bear, jackal, Fox, Chital 
Kesar Bagh  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital
Ram Sagar  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital 
Van Vihar  Bear, Wolf, Chital, hyena, Fox, Wild Cat
Keoladevi  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Bear, hyena, Wild Boar, Wolf 
Sitamata  Flying Squirrel, Panther, Wild Cat, Sambhar, hyena, Civet 
Bhensrodgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Four horned antelope, Chinkara, hyena, Fox 
Shergarh  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar 
Darrah  Panther, Wolf, Jackal, Chital, Fox, Sambhar, Sloth Bear, Porcupine 
Jawahar Sagar  Panther, Bear, Wolf, Ghariyal, Crocodile, Chital, Hyena, Fox, Jackal 
National Chambal Ghariyal  Ghariyal, Crocodile, Tortoise, Dolphin, Bear, Chinkara, Otter 
Bassi  Chital, Chinkara, Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat
Tal-Chapar  Black Buck, Resident birds, 
Nahar-Garh  Hyena, Jackal, Fox, Hare 
Jamwa-Ramgarh  Panther, Chital, Wild Boar, Hyena, Jackal 
Sajjan-Garh  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Phulwari- ki- Naal  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Tatgarh Ravli  Panther, Hyena, Wolf, Green Pigeon, Jungle fowl 
Jaisamand  Resident Birds, Hyena, Jackal, Chinkara 
Kumbhalgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Hyena, wild boar, Four Horned antelope, Sambhar
Mount Abu  Panther, Bear, Hyena, Wolf, Porcupine
Sawai Man Singh  Tiger, Panther, Hyena, Fox, Bear, Chital, Sambhar

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

BREEDS OF GOAT LIVESTOCK IN RAJASTHAN

Join our telegram channel for Regular Updates

BREEDS OF GOAT IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Goat          Distribution Area
  1.   Sirohi Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat.
  2.   Marwari Marwar region of Rajasthan, comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Barmer districts. The breed also extends into certain areas of Gujarat, especially Mehsana district.
  3.   Jhakrana Jhakrana and a few surrounding villages near Behror, in the Alwar district of Rajasthan.
  4.   Barbary Etah, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Breeds of Cow – Livestock in Rajasthan

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

BREEDS of COWS IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Cow Area (Mainly Found)
  1.   Nagauri 1. Origin from Suhalak area Nagaur 2. This species gives less milk.
  2.   Kankrej 1. Found in Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore. 2. Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk 3. The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.
3. Tharparkar Breed 1. Origin from Malani (barmer) 2. Cows excellent production of milk
4. Rathi Breed  Sri Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer. Good at milk production, males lack draught power.
5.   Gir Breed Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. In Rajasthan it is found in Southeastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi and Kota

  • .
Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon

Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Cattle and Buffalo Breeds of Rajasthan-Livestock

1. Gir

  • This breed is otherwise known as Bhadawari, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi and Surati.
  • Originated in Gir forests of South Kathiawar in Gujarat also found in Maharashtra and adjacent Rajasthan.
  • Basic colours of skin are white with dark red or chocolate-brown patches or sometimes black or purely red.
  • Horns are peculiarly curved, giving a ‘half moon’ appearance.
  • Milk yield ranges from 1200-1800 kgs per lactation.
  • Age at first calving 45-54 months and inter calving period from 515 to 600 days.
  • This is known for its hardiness and disease resistance.

2. Sahiwal

  • Originated in Montgomery region of undivided India.
  • This breed otherwise known as Lola (loose skin), Lambi Bar, Montgomery, Multani and Teli.
  • The best indigenous dairy breed.
  • The colour is reddish dun or pale red, sometimes flashed with white patches.
  • Heavy breed with symmetrical body having loose skin.
  • The average milk yield of this breed is between 1400 and 2500 kg per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 37 to 48 months and the calving interval is 430 to 580 days.

3. Tharparkar

  • Originated in Tharparkar district (Pakistan) of undivided India and also found in Rajasthan.
  • Otherwise known as White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi and Thari.
  • They are medium sized, compact and have lyre-shaped horn and Body colour is white or light grey.
  • The bullocks are quite suitable for ploughing and casting and the cows yield 1800 to 2600 kg of milk per lactation.
  • Age at first calving ranges from 38 to 42 months and inter calving period from 430 to 460 days.

4. Hariana

• It was originated from Rohtak, Hisar, Jind and Gurgaon districts of Haryana and also popular in Punjab, UP and parts of MP.

• Horns are small and the bullocks are powerful work animals.

• Hariana cows are fair Milkers yielding 600 to 800 kg of milk in lactation.

• The age at first calving is 40 to 60 months and calving interval is 480 to 630 days.

5. Kankrej

  • It is otherwise called as Wadad or Waged, Wadhiar.
  • Originated from Southeast Rann of Kutch of Gujarat and adjoining Rajasthan (Barmer and Jodhpur district).
  • The horns are lyre-shaped.
  • Colour of the animal varies from silver-grey to iron-grey or steel black.
  • The gait of Kankrej is peculiar called as 1 ¼ paces (sawai chal).
  • Kankrej is valued for fast, powerful, draught cattle.
  • Useful in ploughing and carting.
  • The cows are good milkers, yielding about 1400 kg per lactation.

6. Rathi

  • Mostly found in Lunkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar & Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan and also found in Fazilka & Abhor district of Punjab, adjoining to Rajasthan.
  • Usually brown with white patches all over the body but animals having complete brown or black with white patches are often encountered.
  • Horn: Short and generally do not exceed 3-4 inches
  • Forehead: Medium size & lean
  • Ear- Medium size
  • Body- Medium size & symmetrical

7. Malvi

  • Mostly found in Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh and Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type: Draught and the Colour –White, Males: Grey dark in neck, shoulders, hump quarters, Head: Short, dished forehead.
  • Horns: Strong pointed emerge from outer angles from poll.
  • Tail: Switch is black.

8. Nagauri

  • Mostly found in Nagaur districts of Rajasthan.
  • Type –Draught and the Colour – White, light Grey.
  • Eyes-White eyelids, heavy and over hanging
  • Horns-Black, emerging from outer angles.
  • Ears-Medium size, inside is pinkish.

9. Murrah

  • Most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Sind of Haryana, Nabha and Patiala districts  of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state. It is also called as Delhi, Kundi and Kali.
  • The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities sometimes found.
  • Tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
  • Most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
  • Butter fat content is 7.83%. Average lactation yield is varying from 1500 to 2500 kgs per lactation and also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes.

10. Surti

  • It is also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.
  • The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat. Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey.
  • The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
  • The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket region.
  • The milk yield ranges from 1000 to 1300 kgs per lactation and the peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12 %).

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

Click Here to download -instamojo

Click Here to download -Easebuzz

Click Here to download -Amazon