Daily News Prescription – 20 January 2020

Daily News Prescription – 20 January 2020 / Daily current affairs January 2020 for competitive exams. Myupsc.com : is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. Daily News Prescription-20 January 2020. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

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Daily Current Affairs for Competitive Exams 2020

GS2: Governance

Centre for tougher law against sexual harassment at work (TH) Group of Ministers finalises recommendations, which will be put up for public comments.

A net verdict that falls short of expectations (TH) If one were to merely consider its proclamation of the law, it is difficult to quibble with the ruling of the Supreme Court of India delivered recently.

INDIAN CONSTITUTION, IN NUMBERS (Mint) Nearly 70 years after it first came into effect on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India—which is a 146,385-word tome—has outlived most peers

Simply put: Understanding the Bru settlement (IE) Centre, Tripura, and Mizoram have signed an agreement with the Bru/Reang community that promises to end their 23-year-old internal conflict. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

For Brus, a permanent home (TH) The decision to settle displaced Brus in Tripura is humanitarian, but could lead … living in Tripura as refugees since 1997, to settle permanently in Tripura.

GS3: Science and Technology

Ahead of holiday, China gears up to contain virus outbreak (TH) China will step up efforts to contain the coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan ahead of the Lunar New Year holidays. With 17 new cases of the virus …

Coronavirus outbreak puts spotlight on India’s level of preparedness (Mint) India is not well-equipped to identify disease-carrying people at its ports of entry, says a health expert

Health Ministry reviews preparedness for Novel Corona Virus(nCoV) (PIB) Dr. HarshVardhan, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfarehas been closely monitoring the situation after the reports of 41 confirmed cases of novel Corona virus (nCoV) including one death from Wuhan

GS3: Economy

Shri DV Sadananda Gowda launches the “APNA UREA – SonaUgle” brand of HURL (PIB) The Union Minister for Chemicals and Fertilizers, Shri D.V. Sadananda Gowda launched the “APNA UREA – SonaUgle” brand of Hindustan Urvarak&Rasayan Limited (HURL) at a function here today. On the occasion, he also unveiled the Company’s logo.

Why ‘Make in India’ has failed (TH) On September 25, 2014, the Indian government announced the ‘Make in India’ initiative to encourage manufacturing in India and galvanize. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

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Daily News Prescription – 20 January 2020 / Daily current affairs January 2020 for competitive exams. UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material

Goa Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Goa Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Goa Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Goa based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Goa General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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Introduction of Goa

Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th state of the Union states of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was a part of Union Territory of Goa, Daman & Diu till 30th May 1987 when it was carved out of form a separate state. Goa covers an area of 3702 square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa. Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Tere Khol River which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and West by Arabian Sea. Goa lies in Western Coast of India and is 594 Kms (by road) away from Mumbai city.

A brief summary of the 2011 census: Goa’s population is 1458545 with 739140 Males and 719405 Females. The growth of 14.8 per cent, during 1991 to 2000, is lower than the 16.08 per cent recorded during 1981 to 1990.

The sex-ratio (number of females per thousand males) in Goa is 973 in 2011 compared to 967 in 1991. The density of population per sq km in Goa is 364 in 2001 as compared to 316 in 1991. North Goa has a much higher density (437) as compared to South Goa (300). The national figure is 324. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa was a former state of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.

Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Agriculture is one of the important economic activities in Goa. The total agricultural area is approximately 1400 sq km from which 1200 sq km is owned by the govt and remaining 200 sq km is owned privately. Rice and coconut are the staple produce of Goa. Paddy is cultivated during the monsoon from the months of June to September.

In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silaharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom’s grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Goa General Knowledge 2020

In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961. The Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, and was finally abolished in 1812.

In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India’s twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa General Knowledge 2020

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India UNSC Permanent Member P-5 Case Study

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. India UNSC Permanent Member

The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization’s objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the vast majority of the world’s sovereign states.

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The organization’s mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. UN membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization beginning in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories that had been monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s, the UN’s budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks. India UNSC Permanent Member

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The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System includes a multitude of specialized agencies, such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. Additionally, non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN’s work. The UN’s chief administrative officer is the Secretary-General, currently Portuguese politician and diplomat Antonio Guterres since 1 January 2017. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states.

The UN, its officers, and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes, though other evaluations of its effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called it ineffective, biased, or corrupt.

Background

In the century prior to the UN’s creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife. In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months later, the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies. The League of Nations was approved, and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification. On 10 January 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria. It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But all of them realized that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia. When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees. India UNSC Permanent Member

How does a country become a Member of the United Nations?

Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, “is open to all peace-loving States that accept the obligations contained in the United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able to carry out these obligations”. States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council (P-5).

How does a new State or Government obtain recognition by the United Nations?

The recognition of a new State or Government is an act that only other States and Governments may grant or withhold. It generally implies readiness to assume diplomatic relations. The United Nations is neither a State nor a Government, and therefore does not possess any authority to recognize either a State or a Government. As an organization of independent States, it may admit a new State to its membership or accept the credentials of the representatives of a new Government.

The procedure is briefly as follows:

The State submits an application to the Secretary-General and a letter formally stating that it accepts the obligations under the Charter.

The Security Council considers the application. Any recommendation for admission must receive the affirmative votes of 9 of the 15 members of the Council, provided that none of its five permanent members — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America — have voted against the application.

If the Council recommends admission, the recommendation is presented to the General Assembly for consideration. A two-thirds majority vote is necessary in the Assembly for admission of a new State.

Membership becomes effective the date the resolution for admission is adopted.

At each session, the General Assembly considers the credentials of all representatives of Member States participating in that session. During such consideration, which routinely takes place first in the nine-member Credentials Committee but can also arise at other times, the issue can be raised whether a particular representative has been accredited by the Government actually in power. This issue is ultimately decided by a majority vote in the Assembly. It should be noted that the normal change of Governments, as through a democratic election, does not raise any issues concerning the credentials of the representative of the State concerned.

Current Members

The Council is composed of 15 Members:

Five permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly (with end of term year):

Belgium (2020)

Dominican Republic (2020)

Estonia (2021)

Germany (2020)

Indonesia (2020)

Niger (2021)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2021)

South Africa (2020)

Tunisia (2021)

Viet Nam (2021)

Non-Council Member States;

More than 50 United Nations Member States have never been Members of the Security Council.

A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that country’s interests are affected. Both Members and non-members of the United Nations, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, may be invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council’s discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State. India UNSC Permanent Member

Why isn’t India a permanent member of the UN Security Council?

At the time the United Nations was formed, it simply wasn’t an independent nation, nor was it anywhere near powerful or influential enough even if it had been. The point of having permanent membership on the UN Security Council is to give the Security Council some sort of foundation that provided for both the ability to act and the ability to maintain order. While there is no requirement for a permanent member of the Security Council nuclear weapons, there is a requirement, albeit an implicit one, that the permanent members are to a certain extent strong (in a militaristic sense), economically vibrant, and capable of displays international influence. During the 1940’s India would not have met any of these criteria. India UNSC Permanent Member

The UNSC, even with five permanent members, manages to pass resolutions on very few important things. Having a sixth country will only worsen the problem.

Why will the five countries want to share power with the sixth? The privilege is like a dinner table with a cake. One additional member means less space and less cake for all.

The permanent members have a veto power over all the decisions of the UNSC. What does this imply?  This ensures that no big decision is taken which will make a powerful country unhappy. This veto power serves well to the five members as it helps them protect their interests. China uses its veto power and opposes India.

Why should India be on UN Security Council?

The current P5 were among the strongest nations at the time of the creation of the UNSC. Germany and Japan were in shambles, and much of the world was still colonized. It made sense for nations like the US and USSR to become permanent members, as well as their major allies. However, the UN is a global organization, and it needs to have diversity that reflects the globe, in its most powerful body. This isn’t just to appear to be a more diverse body. The more different countries you have, the more perspectives you see brought to the table.

India is a major player on the world stage currently. It’s strategically located, and has warm relations with most of the P5. India could bring perspectives to the table that would differ greatly from those of the Western countries, China and Russia. That is because the issues India faces are different from the issues these nations face, and a fresh perspective would be refreshing to say the least.

India has a GDP of about 2 Trillion dollars and has been on an upward curve as far as the economy goes ever since the early 1990s. It’s also one of the fastest growing major economies of the world, and has even overtaken China in the rate of growth of the economy per year. It’s the 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). There’s also the elephant in the room: the elephant that consists of 1.2 billion people. India could give representation to a vast number of these people. India UNSC Permanent Member

India: Statement by the Mission to the UN

Reform and improvements are an intrinsic part of any organization which has to serve the needs of a changing environment. The United Nations is no exception. India supports a strengthened and revitalized United Nations with its various organs functioning within their mandates in accordance with the UN Charter. India supports an enhanced role for the United Nations in development and development cooperation dialogue. India firmly believes that development should be central to UN’s agenda and be pursued in its own right. It is an indispensable prerequisite to the maintenance of international peace and security.

India has actively participated in all reforms and restructuring exercises that could enhance the capacity of the UN in the fulfillment of its primary tasks. India actively supported the establishment of UNICEF on a permanent basis, the creation of the UN Development Programme, establishment of UNEP and restructuring of the UN in the economic and social fields. It was also represented in the High Level Expert Group established by the UN Secretary-General in the mid-nineties on the financing of the UN. It participated constructively in the discussions on the Agenda for Peace and the Agenda for Development. India was also one of the co-chairs of the Working Group on Strengthening of the United Nations.

India has been supportive of the UN Secretary-General Mr. Kofi Annan’s reform proposals. While some of these have been agreed and implemented, discussions continue on others. An important proposal is the holding of the Millennium Assembly. India believes that the Millennium Assembly must identify concrete goals for the promotion of development cooperation and disarmament and must also provide the United Nations with the required resources to effectively tackle these challenges. India UNSC Permanent Member

India shares the concerns for improving efficiency, avoidance of duplication, and the minimization of waste in the functioning of the entire UN system. While efforts for these objectives need to be intensified, India believes that the Member States should pay their contributions unconditionally, in full and on time, as delays in payments have caused an unprecedented financial crisis in the UN system. Contributions of the Member States should have, as their fundamental underpinning, the capacity to pay principle. Financial reforms hold the key to the future of the world body. Without sufficient resources, the UN’s activities and role would suffer.

The United Nations as a universal forum should have as its guiding principles transparency, non-discrimination, consensus, and equal respect for the dignity of all individuals, societies and nations. Be it world trade, environment and development, resolution of the global debt crisis, or economic assistance for the poorest members of the world community, these values have to be the touchstone of global initiatives and actions.

The composition of the Security Council has remained largely static, while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded considerably. This has undermined the representative character of the Council. An expanded Council, which is more representative, will also enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy. India UNSC Permanent Member

In 1965, the membership of the Security Council was expanded from 11 to 15. There was no change in the number of permanent members. Since then, the size of the Council has remained frozen. Even more dramatic than the increase in the number of Member States of the UN, is the change in composition of the General Assembly. The overwhelming majority of the UN General Assembly members today are developing countries. They are also, most often the objects of the Council’s actions. They must have a role in shaping those decisions which affect them. The present composition of the Security Council, particularly the permanent members’ category, is weighted heavily in favour of industrialized countries. This imbalance must be redressed in an expansion of the Council, by enhancing the representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent members’ categories. India UNSC Permanent Member

Activities of the Security Council have greatly expanded in the past few years. The success of Security Council’s actions depends upon political support of the international community. Any package for restructuring of the Security Council should, therefore, be broad-based. In particular, adequate presence of developing countries is needed in the Security Council. Nations of the world must feel that their stakes in global peace and prosperity are factored into the UN’s decision making.

Any expansion of permanent members’ category must be based on an agreed criteria, rather than be a pre-determined selection. There must be an inclusive approach based on transparent consultations. India supports expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members’ category. The latter is the only avenue for the vast majority of Member States to serve on the Security Council. Reform and expansion must be an integral part of a common package.

PM Modi to inaugurate ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ – India’s gift to the UN Headquarters

At a contribution of about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193 UN Member State.

In a first of its kind symbolic effort by India at the UN, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate a 50KW ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ next week during his visit to the world organisation, a gesture that highlights India’s willingness to go beyond the talk on climate change.

At a contribution of about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193 UN Member State.

PM Modi will remotely inaugurate the solar park at the UN Headquarters and the ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ during a special commemorative event on September 24, 2019 marking Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary. On the occasion, a special UN Postage on Gandhi’s 150 years will also be released.

The ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ is an innovative initiative under which the Consulate General of India in New York, Long Island-based NGO Shanti Fund and the State University of New York – Old Westbury have entered into an agreement to plant 150 trees. India UNSC Permanent Member

India UNSC Permanent Member

What are the chances of India for getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council?

What are the chances of India for getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council?

Why doesn’t Brazil have a permanent seat in the UN’ Security Council?

Is it true that Nehru rejected a permanent seat offered to India in the UN Security Council by The US, and if so, why did Nehru do so, and if …

United Nations in India

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MAHABALIPURAM’S CHINA CONNECTION

Mahabalipuram-china-india-summit-Prime minister modi meet xi jinping.

Mahabalipuram or Mamallapuram where PM Modi will meet China’s President Xi Jinping on October 11 & 12 in an informal Wuhan-style summit had ancient links with Buddhism and China through the maritime outreach of the Pallava dynasty. #mahabalipuram’s china connection

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The Pallavas:

  • The name Mamallapuram derives from Mamallan, or “great warrior”, a title by which the Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (630-668 AD) was known.
  • It was during his reign that Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese Buddhist monk-traveller, visited the Pallava capital at Kanchipuram.
  • Narasimhavarman II (c.700-728 AD) aka Rajasimhan built on the work of earlier Pallava kings to consolidate maritime mercantile links with Southeast Asia.
  • The Descent of the Ganga/Arjuna’s Penance, a rock carving commissioned by Narasimhavarman I, with its depiction of the Bhagirathi flowing from the Himalayas, may serve as a reminder of the geography of India-China relations, and their shared resources.
  • Tamil-Chinese links continued after the Pallavas, flourishing under the Cholas as the Coromandel coast became the entrepot between China and the Middle East.

Overseas Mission:

  • He sent a mission to the Tang court in 720 with a request that would seem unusual in the context of India-China relations today.
  • The emissaries of the Pallava king sought the permission of Emperor Xuangzong to fight back Arab and Tibetan intrusions in South Asia.
  • Pleased with the Indian king’s offer to form a coalition against the Arabs and Tibetans, the Chinese emperor bestowed the title of ‘huaide jun’ (the Army that Cherishes Virtue) to Narayansimha II’s troops.
  • The offer of help by the Pallava ruler, Sen noted, may have had more to do with furthering trade and for the prestige of association with the Chinese emperor, rather than any real prospect of helping him to fight off enemies in the faraway north.

Continuing Connections:

  • In later centuries, the Coromandel coast retained its importance for trade between China and the west.
  • In the 17th and 18th centuries, it was a staging post for the Dutch, French and British for control of the seas between South Asia and SE Asia, as the Europeans fought to protect their trade routes with China and other countries in the region.
  • The ancient port city of Pondicherry, 80 km south of Mahabalipuram, was a French colony famous for its Chinese exports known as “Coromandel goods”, including crepe de chine.
  • Today the UT, with its French legacy, Tamil residents, Bengali and international devotees of Sri Aurobindo, is among the most diverse and cosmopolitan of cities in South India.

Some Important Study Notes for UPSC Exam 2020

Indian Economy Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian and World Geography Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian Polity Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian History: Latest Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

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Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

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Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

The Non – Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 1, 1920 was the first mass movement organized nationwide during India’s struggle for freedom. In this article, we will read in detail about the Non – Cooperation Movement’s causes, methods, impact, and end.

Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement: The Non – Cooperation Movement has had four main causes:
 

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
 

2. Dissatisfaction with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
 

3. Rowlatt Act
 

4. Khilafat Agitation
 

Let’s look in detail at every cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
On April 13, 1919, a large but unarmed crowd gathered at Amritsar in the Jallianwala Bagh to protest the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal. However, this unarmed crowd of women and children, among others, was fired mercilessly with rifles and machine guns on General Dyer’s orders. Thousands of people have been killed and injured. Martial law was proclaimed throughout Punjab after this massacre and the people were subjected to the most uncivilized atrocities.
 
In order to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh incident and the role of General Dyer, the British government set up the Inquiry Disorders Committee, popularly known as the Hunter Committee after its chairman Lord William Hunter. While the Hunter Committee held General Dyer responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, it upheld his reasons for ordering the firing on the unarmed crowd as well as for imposing martial law in Punjab.
 
The people of India, due to their clear biases, did not accept the recommendations of the Hunter Committee. There has been unrest among the masses to ensure justice for the wrongs of Punjab has been delivered. In protest, Mahatma Gandhi gave up the Kaiser – I – Hind title granted to him by the British government. 

2. Unhappiness with the reforms in Montagu – Chelmsford
The 1919 Government of India Act was enacted based on the 1918 Montagu – Chelmsford proposals recommendations. This Act introduced the ‘ Dyarchy ‘ system and divided topics into lists – Reserved and Transferred. The Legislative Assembly (lower house) was introduced with direct elections, but the right to vote was severely curtailed. In addition, there was no control over the Governor General and his Executive Council by the Legislative Assembly.
 
Indian nationalists, however, had gone far beyond such stopping concessions. The Indian National Congress met under Hasan Imam’s presidency at a special session in Bombay in August 1918 and condemned the reforms of Montagu – Chelmsford and instead called for effective self – government.
 
3. Rowlatt Act
The government enacted the 1919 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, popularly called the Rowlatt Act, based on the findings of the Rowlatt Committee. This act allowed the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism for a maximum period of two years without trial. The government passed Montagu Chelmsford Reforms and Rowlatt Act in succession, which were part of the British ‘ Carrot and Stick policy. This action gave the movement a new direction. At all levels of India, Gandhi organized a mass protest.
 
4. Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat Movement, which began in 1919, brought the Muslims and the Hindus on a common platform against the British rule, was the most important cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.
 
Khilafat Movement in India
Turkey had aligned itself in the First World War with Germany – led Axis powers that were defeated by Great Britain – led Allied powers. The political – conscious Muslims were critical of British and their allies treatment of the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire that had divided it and properly removed Thrace from Turkey.
 
The Muslims also regarded the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims and they strongly felt that his position over the Muslim religious places should not be undermined.
 
Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani, and countrywide Khilafat agitation, a Khilafat Committee was soon formed. The All – India Khilafat Conference held in November 1919 in Delhi decided to withdraw all government cooperation if the government did not meet its demands.
 
Mahatma Gandhi saw the Khilafat agitation as “an opportunity not to unite Hindus and Muslims in a hundred years time.”Also, the Muslims League gave full support to the National Congress and its political agitation.
 
In early 1920, Gandhi declared that the Khilafat question overshadowed the constitutional reforms and the Jallianwala massacre and announced that he would lead a non – cooperation movement if the terms of peace with Turkey did not satisfy the Indian Muslims.
 
Who were the Leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
The Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement. Mahatma Gandhi later also became one of the leaders of the Khilafat Movement in India by strongly advocating the Khilafat cause.

The launch of the Non-Cooperation Movement
The above mentioned causes resulted in unrest among the masses anxious to take political action against the British government. Only added fuel to the fire was the economic hardship suffered by ordinary Indians. On August 1, 1920, the Non – Cooperation Movement was officially launched.
 
Congress Nagpur session in December 1920 defined the Non – Cooperation program clearly in detail. Following changes to the Indian National Congress Constitution at the December 1920 Nagpur Session:
 

1. The Congress goal has been shifted from achieving self – government through constitutional and legal means to achieving Swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means.
 

2. The Congress now had to have a 15-member Working Committee to look after its daily affairs.
 

3. Linguistically, Provincial Congress Committees were to be organized now.
 

4. The membership fee was reduced to 4 years per year to make it possible for the poor to join.
 

5. Congress was to use Hindi as far as possible.

 
The non – cooperation movement method and spread

  • Together with the Ali brothers, Mahatma Gandhi undertook a nationwide tour of numerous student and political worker rallies and meetings. This led to thousands of students leaving schools and colleges to join over 800 national schools and colleges throughout the country. 
  • The educational boycott in Bengal was especially successful. C.R Das played an important role in promoting the movement and Subhash Bose became the head of the Calcutta National Congress. The educational boycott was also very successful in Punjab, and Lala Lajpat Rai played the leading role here.
  • The other successful boycott observed was lawyers such as C.R Das, Motilal Nehru, M.R Jaykar, Saifuddin Kitchlew and others boycotting the law courts.
  • However, the Non – Cooperation Movement’s most successful item was the foreign cloth boycott. A major form of the boycott was also the picketing of shops selling foreign cloth. Liquor shops were also picketing.
  • Gandhi and Congress put a lot of stress on handspun Khadi in support of domestic textiles. Charkhas were widely popularized and khadi became the national movement’s uniform.
  • In July 1921, at the All India Khilafat Conference in Karachi, Mohammed Ali declared that continuing in the British Army was ‘ religiously unlawful for the Muslims. Gandhi repeated Mohammed Ali’s exhortation, adding that every civilian and army member should sever links with the repressive British government.
  • A movement against Union board taxes has been launched in Midnapore district of Bengal. No – tax movements were also organized in the Andhra district of Guntur in Chirala – Pirala and Pedanandipadu taluka.
  • In U.P, where a powerful Kisan Sabha movement was underway, Jawaharlal Nehru led the non – cooperation movement among others.
  • The Non – Cooperation and Khilafat propaganda in the Malabar region of Kerala helped to arouse Muslim tenants, called the Moplahs, against their renters, but the movement sometimes took on a common color.
  • In Assam, tea plantation laborers went on strike. While Andhra became popular with defiance of forest laws.
  • The Akali movement took place in Punjab as part of the Non – Cooperation Movement to wrest control of the gurudwaras from the corrupt mahants (priests)

 
End of the Non-Cooperation Movement
While in 1921 the Non – Cooperation Movement was in full steam, the masses were awakened from their slumber and the grass root workers of Congress, as well as the leadership, were asking Mahatma Gandhi to launch the next phase of mass civil disobedience.

Gandhi announced that massive civil disobedience would begin in the Bardoli Taluka district of Surat and that all other parts of the country should cooperate by maintaining total discipline and silence in order to concentrate the entire attention of the movement on Bardoli.

However, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred before mass civil disobedience could be launched.
 
 
Chauri Chaura Incident
A Congress – Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura in U.P. district of Gorakhpur on February 5, 1922. Irritated by some policemen’s behavior, they were attacked by a crowd section. The police opened fire on the unarmed procession in retaliation. Instigated by this, the whole procession attacked the police and the mob set fire to the building when the police hid inside the police station. The cops who were trying to escape were hacked into pieces and thrown into the fire. In the Chauri Chaura incident, 22 police officers were killed.


Gandhi was profoundly disturbed by the Chauri Chaura incident news. Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement because it violated the strict condition of non – violence that he had set for the launch of the civil disobedience phase and the continuation of the non – cooperation movement. Thus, the Non – Cooperation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922.
 
Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement
Despite the failure of the Non – Cooperation Movement to achieve its primary goal of Swaraj, it has succeeded on many other counts highlighted below:
 

1. The National Congress has shown that it represents the country’s majority opinion. It can not be charged with representing a ‘ microscopic minority ‘ anymore.’
 

2. The movement’s geographical spread was also nationwide. While some areas were more active than others, few areas, if any, remained entirely passive to the call for non – cooperation.
 

3. The Non – Cooperation Movement was the masses ‘ first opportunity to participate in politics and combat injustice and economic hardship caused by years of foreign rule.
 

4. Notwithstanding the incidents of Malabar, which were not seen later during the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was considerable involvement of Muslims in the movement and the maintenance of communal harmony.

Current Affairs Half Yearly July-December for Civil Services Examination 2020

Current Affairs Half Yearly Study Notes for UPSC IAS & State PSC Preliminary Examination 2020. We have covered current affairs from July – December 2019 for competitive exams only.

Topic Covered: Current Affairs trending topics in detail from the following subjects.

1. Geography of India and World

2. History of India and World

3. Polity and Governance

4. Science and Technology

5. Economy of India

6. Art and Culture

7. Environment and Ecology

This is must read book for Civil Services Preliminary Exam – 2020

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Content

  1. Article 142, Invoked by Supreme Court
  2. Contributions of Homi J. Bhabha
  3. Cyclone Bulbul
  4. Climate change is already damaging health of children, says Lancet report
  5. Global Population Summit in Nairobi
  6. Emperor Penguins would be extinct if climate goals are not met
  7. How successful is cloud seeding technology?
  8. Merging Assam Rifles with ITBP
  9. Kalapani, a small area on the India map that bothers Nepal
  10. Suranga Bawadi on World Monument Watch list
  11. Wifi Access Network Interface (WANI)
  12. OECD tax proposal (BEPS 2.0)
  13. Falling Index of Industrial Production
  14. National grid of ports
  15. Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs
  16. National Register of Citizens (NRC)
  17. EPFO to restore commutation of pension
  18. Oxytocin Ban
  19. SEBI’s norms for FPIs
  20. Sabka Vishwas Scheme
  21. Money Laundering in India
  22. Press Council of India
  23. WorldSkills Kazan
  24. ‘Angikaar campaign’
  25. child well-being index
  26. Desertification
  27. 18 endangered sharks and rays afforded protection
  28. Gravitational Lensing
  29. Great Barrier Reef
  30. Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP)
  31. RBI annual report
  32. Food fortification
  33. Security cover of VIPs
  34. Water management practices dismal in states: Niti Aayog
  35. WorldSkills Kazan
  36. Government releases Rs 47,436 crore funds for afforestation
  37. Antibiotic resistance
  38. 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and report on Soil Organic Carbon (SOC)
  39. Appointment of the Supreme Court judges
  40. Eastern Economic Forum
  41. Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs
  42. National Register of Citizens (NRC)
  43. EPFO to restore commutation of pension
  44. Oxytocin Ban
  45. SEBI’s norms for FPIs
  46. Sabka Vishwas Scheme
  47. Money Laundering in India
  48. Press Council of India
  49. WorldSkills Kazan
  50. ‘Angikaar campaign’
  51. child well-being index
  52. Desertification
  53. 18 endangered sharks and rays afforded protection
  54. Gravitational Lensing
  55. Great Barrier Reef
  56. Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP)
  57. RBI annual report
  58. Food fortification
  59. Security cover of VIPs
  60. Water management practices dismal in states: Niti Aayog
  61. WorldSkills Kazan
  62. Government releases Rs 47,436 crore fund for afforestation
  63. Antibiotic resistance
  64. Five states to get new Governors
  65. Hurricane Dorian
  66. Project Miniature Sun
  67. Jurisdiction of High Court
  68. Artificial Intelligence Based Solutions to Combat TB
  69. Automatic Exchange of Information
  70. ‘Build for Digital India’ programme
  71. Ethanol blending
  72. Global Liveability Index 2019
  73. Dalits welfare
  74. Mudra loan
  75. Rising Electronics Exports as Bright Spot amid Economic Slowdown
  76. Samudrayaan Project
  77. Poshan Abhiyaan
  78. Inner Line Permit
  79. K2-18b — a potentially ‘habitable’ planet
  80. National Animal Disease Control Programme
  81. Anaemia
  82. Participatory Notes
  83. National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons
  84. September 21 Revolution
  85. World Ozone Day
  86. Hog technology in Railways
  87. India’s Red Corridor
  88. What Is the Rome Statute?
  89. India joins global research hub on antimicrobial resistance
  90. NGOs foreign contribution financing
  91. Gharial conservation in India
  92. International migrants and Indian diaspora
  93. Jan Soochna Portal
  94. Marginal Cost of Funds-based Lending Rate (MCLR)
  95. Global spread of measles infection
  96. MGNREGA Wages Linked with Inflation
  97. Particulate matter emissions trading
  98. Public Safety Act
  99. Sant Ravidas–the mystic Guru of Bhakti movement
  100. Critically Endangered Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus)
  101. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)
  102. Climate and Clean Air Coalition
  103. Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya
  104. Zonal Councils
  105. Digital Census
  106. KEELADI – An Urban Settlement of Sangam Age
  107. All India Survey on Higher Education
  108. Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)
  109. Coastal Regulation Zone
  110. Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
  111. Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent
  112. Shifting of tigers
  113. Sagittarius A
  114. Endosulfan
  115. Analgesic
  116. Ganga data collector app
  117. New species of frog discovered in Arunachal
  118. Soay sheep
  119. MOSAIC Mission
  120. Global Goalkeeper Award 2019
  121. World Digital competitiveness ranking 2019
  122. Pollinator Sanctuary: A new sustainable solution model from Canada
  123. Quad Grouping
  124. Prescription for plant-based diet overlooks vitamin B12 deficiency
  125. Double burden of malnutrition
  126. UMMID initiative
  127. The ancient port town of Mamallapuram
  128. Delayed Withdrawal of Monsoon
  129. China’s Continuing Rare Earth Dominance
  130. Dip in growth of core sectors
  131. EC Powers to Reduce/remove Disqualification of MLAs and MPs under RPA
  132. India is now Open Defecation Free
  133. New IPCC report warns of dire threat to ocean
  134. Press Freedom in India
  135. Madhya Pradesh set to get its seventh tiger reserve – Ratapani Tiger Reserve
  136. School Education Quality Index
  137. World Hindu Economic Forum
  138. What is Goldschmidtite?
  139. A peep into the lives of Galo Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh
  140. Bathukamma Festival
  141. INS Nilgiri
  142. Elephant Endotheliotropic herpes virus
  143. National Nutrition Survey
  144. Why Onion prices often shoots up in India?
  145. Mass extinctions
  146. Advanced air pollution warning system
  147. Chalukyas
  148. Electoral Bond Scheme
  149. Guru Nanak Dev
  150. E-Waste Clinic in Madhya Pradesh
  151. Prakash portal
  152. E-Waste Clinic in Madhya Pradesh
  153. Rajasthan has announced the creation of a Pneumoconiosis Fund
  154. Reinventing Border Management: Drone Threat in Border Areas
  155. Semi-presidential system
  156. Strategic Disinvestment
  157. Water management
  158. Interconnect Usage Charge (IUC)
  159. Ramachandran Plot
  160. C40 Cities
  161. 51 Pegasi b
  162. Extinction Rebellion
  163. Military exercises
  164. Kamini Roy
  165. Global Hunger Index
  166. Jayaprakash Narayan
  167. Chenani-Nashri tunnel
  168. Ayushman Bharat scheme empowering several Indians
  169. Chinese President’s Mamallapuram Visit (informal) to India
  170. Food Safety Mitra (FSM) scheme
  171. Geo-engineering
  172. Implications of Nepal-China road connectivity deal
  173. Indus Waters Treaty
  174. Livestock census
  175. National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey
  176. One Nation One FASTag: Govt’s RFID solution for digital payment of highway toll
  177. Blue Flag Challenge
  178. Chandipura Virus
  179. International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  180. Prevention of tuberculosis
  181. Kaziranga National Park
  182. Mahila Samridhi Yojana
  183. State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019 report
  184. Paramarsh
  185. Polavaram Irrigation Project
  186. Ramanujan Machine
  187. Orchids of India: A Pictorial Guide
  188. Tigers under high stress
  189. Delay in establishment of Human Rights Court
  190. CAG Report on Preparedness for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals
  191. 5G Debate
  192. Article 35 A
  193. ‘PM Awas Yojana and PRAGATI Platform’
  194. Bio fuel
  195. e-cigarettes
  196. Essential medicines
  197. Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS)
  198. Facial recognition
  199. ‘Genome Sequencing’
  200. Global Innovation Index (GII) 2019
  201. India-South Korea
  202. ‘Strength of Supreme Court Judges’
  203. LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)
  204. ‘Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019’
  205. Kala azar
  206. Tesla-style giga factories
  207. Tiger census
  208. Zero budget natural farming (ZBNF)
  209. Jai Bhim Mukhyamantri Pratibha Vikas Yojana
  210. UN Convention on International Settlement Agreements resulting
  211. Economic Census
  212. Disqualification under Anti-Defection Law
  213. Khanij Bidesh India Ltd
  214. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
  215. ASAT missile
  216. Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) Program
  217. BrahMos cruise missiles
  218. Corporate Social Responsibility
  219. ‘Deforestation in the Amazon rainforest’
  220. Eugenics
  221. ‘Female foeticide’
  222. Global Coalition of the Willing on Pollinators
  223. Indus Valley inscriptions
  224. Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  225. ‘Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill 2019’
  226. ‘One Nation One Ration Card Scheme’
  227. Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019
  228. ‘Soil health card’
  229. Tiger census
  230. Triple talaq
  231. Diabetes
  232. Relevance of Wholesale Price Index (WPI)
  233. The State of the World’s Children 2019
  234. BHIM 2.0
  235. Carcinogen Aflatoxin detected in FSSAI milk survey samples
  236. Inter-Parliamentary Union
  237. Jal Jeevan Mission
  238. Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs
  239. Reviving exports
  240. Storm quake
  241. TechSagar
  242. Pegasus Spyware
  243. Annual fishing ban to protect Olive Ridleys in Gahirmatha
  244. Parliamentary reforms
  245. Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Program (GSLEP)
  246. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)
  247. Kerala on alert as Maha intensifies into super cyclone off its coast
  248. Stages of Economic Integration
  249. Targeted PMKVY and Skills Framework
  250. Top five largest Ramsar sites in India
  251. Danakil Depression
  252. Deforestation, agriculture triggered soil erosion 4,000 years ago
  253. Enhancing Insurance Coverage for Bank Deposits
  254. ICEDASH AND ATITHI
  255. India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019: Experts advise sustainable, climate-smart, diverse farming
  256. India, Uzbekistan sign three defence MoUs
  257. Moody’s cut India’s rating from stable to negative
  258. National Health Profile
  259. Quantum computing
  260. Steel Scrap Recycling Policy
  261. Wastelands Atlas – 2019
  262. What the toxic air did to Delhiites
  263. Why more measles patients die of other infections
  264. Bru refugees of Mizoram
  265. What is a constitution bench?
  266. Basel Ban Amendment
  267. eSIM
  268. Avian Influenza (H5N1)
  269. Uyghur community
  270. Bonn Challenge
  271. What is Cryodrakon Boreas?
  272. 2 new ginger species
  273. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and Eurasian Economic Union
  274. Gig Economy
  275. Nilgiri Tahr’
  276. Logistics Index Chart
  277. Market Intervention Scheme for Apples of J&K

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Rajasthan GK Complete Study Material in English

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam General Studies Study Material in English. Rajasthan General Knowledge for RPSC RAS and all other competitive exams. we are providing you complete study notes/eBook here.

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You will get set of 6-PDF:

  1. Geography of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  2. History of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  3. Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  4. Rajasthan Polity and Administration with Practice MCQ
  5. Economy of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  6. Rajasthan Current Affairs Year Book 2019

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UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 GS Paper Study Material

UPSC IAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper 1,2,3,4 Complete Study Material in English.

You will get the following Books:

1. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1 – Indian Heritage and Culture and History and Geography of the World and Society

2. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2 – Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations

3. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 3 – Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

4. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 4 – Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

Click Here to download the Complete Study Notes for UPSC Mains Exam GS Paper 1-4.

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts IAS Mains Examinations with an aim to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of understanding of the candidates aspiring to be a part of the coveted Indian Civil Services. The IAS Mains Examinations test much more that the mere range of information and memory of the aspirants. These 2020 completely revised editions of study guides for General Studies Papers consist of in-depth coverage of all the topics in the syllabi at one place with the conceptual clarity to fulfill the needs and demands of the aspirants.

The present box set contains books for IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 3 and IAS Mains General Studies Paper 4.These books have been designed according to the syllabus for IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 3 and IAS Mains General Studies Paper 4. The books have been designed with a special exam-oriented structure in accordance with the UPSC syllabus. We have have designed on the lines of questions asked in previous years’ IAS Mains General Studies exams. As the combination contains in-depth coverage of the various aspects of Indian Heritage and Culture and History and Geography of the World and Society, Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations, Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management and Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude along with a freebie to help the aspirants master their essay writing skills, it for sure will prove to be an impeccable resource for the upcoming IAS Mains Exam General Studies Papers 2020.

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 GS Paper-1 Complete Study Material

UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material in PDF Format

Date of Notification for Civil Service Prelims and Indian Forest Service Prelims: February 12, 2020

Last date to apply for Civil Service Prelims and Indian Forest Service Prelims: March 03, 2020

Date of UPSC CSE Prelims 2020 and IFS Prelims 2020: May 31, 2020

Date of UPSC CSE Mains 2020: September 18, 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Syllabus:

Current events of national and international importance

History of India and Indian National Movement

Indian Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India

Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc

General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization

General Science

We are providing here the study material for UPSC IAS Prelims 2020

What You Will Get?

You will get Set of 18 PDF

  1. Ancient and Medieval History of India
  2. Modern History of India
  3. Indian Art and Culture
  4. Indian Polity and Constitution
  5. Physical, Economic and Human Geography of India
  6. Environment and Ecology
  7. Indian Economy
  8. Science and Technology
  9. Current Affairs Year Book 2020 Volume-1
  10. Current Affairs Year Book 2020 Volume -2
  11. NCERT Geography Class 6-12th MCQ Compilation
  12. NCERT Polity Class 6-12th MCQ Compilation
  13. Geography and Environment Current Affairs issue
  14. Science and Technology Current Affairs issue
  15. Polity and Governance Current Affairs issue
  16. Indian Year Book 2020 MCQ
  17. UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year (10 Year-2010 to 2019)Solved Paper
  18. UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Test Series (15 Practice Solved/Model Test Paper)

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Ethics Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao PDF

Certificate Physical and Human Geography by Goh Cheng Leong PDF

What is the Best Study Material for IAS Exam Preparation?

Shankar IAS Environment 6th Edition PDF

24 Years Previous Papers Solved MCQ by Disha Publication 9th Edition PDF

A New Look at Modern Indian History by B.L Grover PDF

Indian Economy Key Concepts by Shankar Ganesh PDF

Political Theory by OP Gauba PDF

Shankar IAS Environment 3rd Edition PDF

A Brief History of Modern India by Rajiv Ahir (Spectrum) New Edition PDF

General Science for UPSC by TMH PDF

Bharat Ki Rajvayvastha by M Laxmikanth 5th Edition [Hindi] Latest PDF

International Relations by Pavneet Singh PDF

Sriram IAS Indian Economy 2018 PDF

Plassey to Partition by Sekhar Bandyopadhyay PDF

Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh 10th edition Available for Buying

Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh 10th Edition Updated PDF

India Year Book 2018 PDF

UPSC Prelims Gs Paper 2 CSAT Practice MCQ by Disha Publication

UPSC Prelims Gs Paper 1 Practice MCQ by Disha Publication

22 Years Previous Papers Solved MCQ by Disha Publication 7th Edition PDF

Indian Geography by Majid Husain 5th Edition PDF

UPSC Prelims Previous Papers Solved PDF

ICSE Class 9 Environment PDF

ICSE Class 10 Environment PDF

4100+ Solved MCQ’S From Prelims Previous Papers (1979-2016)

Early History of INDIA Penguin Books

Challenge and Strategy Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy by Rajiv Sikri PDF

Governance in India by Lakshmikanth

India After Gandhi by Ramachandra Guha

India after Independence by Bipan Chandra

Handbook of India’s International Relations by David Scott

Indian Society by SC Dubey

Makers of Modern India by Ramachandra Guha

Pax Indica by Shashi Tharoor

Some other important links

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Solved Test 1-15 GS Paper-I

India Yearbook Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2020

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Indian Geography Question Bank

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Science & Technology Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20 Updated

2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020

Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12th

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Test -10

Geography & Environment Current issues yearbook 2019

Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20

UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year Solved Paper 2010-19

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Practice Test 9

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-4 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-3 Complete Study Notes

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes

UPSC IAS Main exam GS Paper-1 Complete study notes

Art & Culture of India

Indian History Complete Study Notes

Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination

Physical Economic and Human Geography of India

Art Culture & Heritage of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ

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FINE ART

Class Book Title Link
11 An Introduction to Indian Art Part-I English     

HERITAGE CRAFT

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11 Living Craft Tradition – India English     
12 Craft Tradition of India English 

HISTORY

Class Book Title Link
6 History-Our Past Life English      Hindi
7 Our Past- I English     Hindi
8 Our Past- II English      Hindi
8  Our Past- III English      Hindi
9 India & Contemporary World- I English      Hindi
10 Indian & Contemporary World- II English 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
11 Themes in World History English      Hindi
12 Themes in Indian History- I English      Hindi
12 Themes in Indian History- II English      Hindi
12  Themes in Indian History- III English      Hindi

GEOGRAPHY

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 6  The Earth Our Habitat    English      Hindi
 8  Resource and Development    English      Hindi
 9  Contemporary India-I    English      Hindi
 10  Contemporary India-II    English      1 2 3 4 5 6 7
 11 Fundamental of Physical Geography    English      Hindi
 11 Practical work in Geography-I    English      Hindi
 11 India Physical Environment    English      Hindi
 12 Fundamental of Human Geography    English      Hindi
 12 Practical work Geography-II   English      Hindi
 12  India-People and Economy    English     

ECONOMICS

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9 Economics English       Hindi
10 Understanding Economic Development English       Hindi
11 India Economic Development English       Hindi
12 Introductory Microeconomics English      
12 Introductory Microeconomics English       Hindi

ENVIRONMENT

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5 Looking Around English   Hindi
7 Our Environment English   Hindi

SCIENCE

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6  Science English
7  Science English
8  Science English
9  Science English
10  Science English
10  Exemplar Problems English

MATHEMATICS

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5 Math-Magic English       Hindi
6 Mathematics English       Hindi
7 Mathematics English       Hindi
8 Mathematics English       Hindi
9 Mathematics English       Hindi
9 Exemplar Problems English       Hindi 
10 Mathematics English       Hindi
10 Exemplar Problems English       Hindi
11 Mathematics English       Hindi
11 Exemplar Problems English       Hindi
12 Mathematics-I English       Hindi
12 Mathematics-II English       Hindi

POLITICAL SCIENCE

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11 Political Theory English       Hindi
11 Indian Constitution at Work English       Hindi
12 Contemporary World Politics English       Hindi
12 Political Science English       Hindi

PHYSICS

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11 Physics Part-I English        Hindi
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CHEMISTRY

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11 Chemistry Part-I English       Hindi
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12 Chemistry Part-I English       Hindi
12 Chemistry Part-II English       Hindi

PSYCHOLOGY

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11 Introduction to Psychology English    Hindi
12 Psychology English    Hindi

SOCIOLOGY

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11 Introducing Sociology English       Hindi
11 Understanding Society English       Hindi
12 Indian Society English       Hindi
12 Social Change and Development in India English       Hindi

BIOLOGY

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11 Biology English       Hindi
11 Exemplar Problems English       Hindi
12 Biology English       Hindi

ACCOUNTING

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11 Financial Accounting-I English       Hindi
11 Accountancy-II English       Hindi
12 Accountancy-I English       Hindi
12 Accountancy-II English       Hindi

BUSINESS STUDIES

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11 Business Studies English       Hindi
12 Business Studies-I English       Hindi
12 Business Studies-II English       Hindi

GS Score PIB Compilation – 1st August to 15th August 2019 for UPSC Civil Services Exam

UPSC IAS Civil Services and State Public Services Commission Examination 2019-20. PIB magazine is must read magazine for all the aspirants preparing for competitive examinations. GS Score compile it and everyone who is preparing for UPSC known very well about GS Score Study Centre, which is one of the best institute. GS Score PIB

The Press Information Bureau (PIB) is a nodal agency of the Government of India. PIB disseminates information to the print, electronic and new media on government plans, policies, programme initiatives and achievements.

Is PIB important for UPSC exam?

The articles published by the Press Information Bureau or PIB have authentic information relating to the government policies, plans, achievements etc. A serious UPSC aspirant should read PIB selectively to gather relevant information to enrich his/her content both for prelims and mains.  Benefits of taking information from PIB fortnightly updates:

  • Authentic information directly from the government
  • Relevant for current affairs section of the UPSC civil services
  • All schemes of the government
  • Our compilations will help you to segregate the topics according to General Studies Papers

Must Read Books for Competitive Exams

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General Knowledge

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

राजस्थान सामान्य अध्ययन:नोट्स एवं अभ्यास 1000+प्रश्नोत्तर

Important/Useful Press Information Bureau (PIB) Compilation for All Competitive Examinations 2019-20

Important Topics of Magazine

  • Environment -Army Launches E Car to Combat Pollution
  • Economy -Kabil set up to Ensure Supply of Critical Minerals
  • Education -20 Institution Recommended for Status of ‘Institutions of Eminence
  • Security -DRDO Successfully Flight-Tests State-of the-Art Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air
  • Missiles against Live Aerial Targets from Itr, Chandipur
  • Polity -Landmark Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 Gets Parliamentary Approval
  • Energy -Unido and National Institute of Solar Energy to Partner for Skill Development Program
  • Economy -E-Rozgar Samachar Launched to Spread Awareness about Job Opportunities
  • Social Issues -Niti Aayog to Launch the Fourth Edition of Women Transforming India Awards
  • Defence -INS Tarkash at Bergen, Norway
  • Governance -RPF Launches “Operation Number Plate” Across Indian Railways- a Drive against Unattended/Unclaimed Vehicles in all Railway Premises
  • Social Issues- India’s Largest Rural Sanitation Survey Launched
PIB-Compilation-General-Studies-Civil-services-state-psc-exams

Source

GS Score PIB Compilation – 16th July to 31st July for UPSC Prelims & Mains

The Press Information Bureau (PIB) is a nodal agency of the Government of India. PIB disseminates information to the print, electronic and new media on government plans, policies, programme initiatives and achievements.

Is PIB important for UPSC exam?

The articles published by the Press Information Bureau or PIB have authentic information relating to the government policies, plans, achievements etc. A serious UPSC aspirant should read PIB selectively to gather relevant information to enrich his/her content both for prelims and mains.  Benefits of taking information from PIB fortnightly updates:

  • Authentic information directly from the government
  • Relevant for current affairs section of the UPSC civil services
  • All schemes of the government
  • Our compilations will help you to segregate the topics according to General Studies Papers

Must Read Books for Competitive Exams

Some Other Useful Links:-

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PROJECT 75 INDIA

Defence Ministry has begun the process to shortlist potential Indian shipyards for the construction of six new-generation conventional stealth submarines for the Indian Navy.

The Ministry of Defence has issued the “Expression of Interest” (EoI) to shortlist potential Indian Strategic Partners (SPs) under the strategic partnership model (SP Model) for the construction of six conventional submarines under Project 75 India of the Indian Navy in collaboration with the selected manufacturer.

  • Under the SP model, government will also nominate the foreign original equipment manufacturer (OEM) under the umbrella of ‘Make in India’.
  • This is a step towards opening a second production line for diesel electric submarines in India. The first was the procurement of 111 Naval Utility Helicopters (NUH).
  • Four foreign firms have so far responded to the Indian government’s request for proposal for the project. These are French firm Naval Group, Russia’s Rosoboronexport Rubin Design Bureau, Germany’s ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems and Sweden’s Saab.

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in OneCurrent Affairs Quarterly (June-August) 2019 Study Magazine in HindiCurrent Affairs Yearbook 2019-Polity and Governance Special Issue 
Geography and Environment-Current Affairs 2019 Yearbook Special Issue  Current Affairs Rajasthan Yearbook 2019 For RPSC and RSMSSB ExamsCurrent Affairs Question Bank March-July 2019
Current Affairs Study Notes January-August 2019HSSC Haryana Police Constable 2019-20 Solved Test PaperHSSC Clerk Recruitment Exam 2019-20 Practice Solved Test Paper  
Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019Electrical Engineering Objective Question Bank for All Competitive Exams500+ Current Affairs MCQ for All Competitive Exams 2019  
UPSC IAS Prelims last 10 years solved questions GS Paper-IEconomy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQAdministrative Ethics-RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2  
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-IV Ethics Integrity and Aptitude Complete Study Notes  RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study NotesRPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes
UPSC IAS Mains GS Paper-3 Study Notes with Practice QuestionsRevision Notes: Environment and EcologyIAS Prelims 2020: Art and Culture Revision Notes    
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes  Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes- HindiRPSC RAS Mains Art and Culture Practice Solved Question
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Complete Study Notes with Practice Questions  Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Complete Study NotesHistory of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes
Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes Geography of Rajasthan Study notes with MCQ2000 Solved MCQ for IAS Preliminary Exam 2020:GS Paper-I
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History Of India Practice Question Bank  Indian Polity Question Bank eBookGeography of India Question Bank

UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC)

On a request from China, consultations on Kashmir were scheduled by United Nations Security Council (UNSC) recently to discuss Kashmir (India’s abrogation of Article 370).

Abrogation of Article 370

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

  • It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN).
  • Like the UN as a whole, it was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace.
  • The council held its first session in 1946.
  • It is the only body of the UN with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
  • The Security Council consists of fifteen members:
    • The great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union (now represented by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, Republic of China (now represented by the People’s Republic of China), and the United States – serve as the body’s five permanent members.
    • These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General.
    • In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years.
    • The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.
  • Resolutions of the Security Council are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget.
  • Unlike the General Assembly, the Security Council meets year-round. Each Security Council member must have a representative available at UN Headquarters at all times in case an emergency meeting becomes necessary.
  • Due to the public scrutiny of the Security Council Chamber, all of the real work of the Security Council is conducted behind closed doors in “informal consultations”.

Functions and Powers of UNSC

  • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
  • to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;
  • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
  • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
  • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
  • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
  • to take military action against an aggressor;
  • to recommend the admission of new Members;
  • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”;
  • to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and,
  • to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in OneCurrent Affairs Quarterly (June-August) 2019 Study Magazine in HindiCurrent Affairs Yearbook 2019-Polity and Governance Special Issue 
Geography and Environment-Current Affairs 2019 Yearbook Special Issue  Current Affairs Rajasthan Yearbook 2019 For RPSC and RSMSSB ExamsCurrent Affairs Question Bank March-July 2019
Current Affairs Study Notes January-August 2019HSSC Haryana Police Constable 2019-20 Solved Test PaperHSSC Clerk Recruitment Exam 2019-20 Practice Solved Test Paper  
Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019Electrical Engineering Objective Question Bank for All Competitive Exams500+ Current Affairs MCQ for All Competitive Exams 2019  
UPSC IAS Prelims last 10 years solved questions GS Paper-IEconomy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQAdministrative Ethics-RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2  
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-IV Ethics Integrity and Aptitude Complete Study Notes  RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study NotesRPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes
UPSC IAS Mains GS Paper-3 Study Notes with Practice QuestionsRevision Notes: Environment and EcologyIAS Prelims 2020: Art and Culture Revision Notes    
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes  Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes- HindiRPSC RAS Mains Art and Culture Practice Solved Question
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Complete Study Notes with Practice Questions  Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Complete Study NotesHistory of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes
Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes Geography of Rajasthan Study notes with MCQ2000 Solved MCQ for IAS Preliminary Exam 2020:GS Paper-I
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Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question  RAS MAINS EXAM ECONOMY SOLVED QUESTIONSGeography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RPSC RAS Mains Exam
History Of India Practice Question Bank  Indian Polity Question Bank eBookGeography of India Question Bank

Must Read Books for Competitive Exams

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

Important Books for UPSC RPSC and Other Competitive Exams

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One Current Affairs Quarterly (June-August) 2019 Study Magazine in Hindi Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-Polity and Governance Special Issue  
Geography and Environment-Current Affairs 2019 Yearbook Special Issue   Current Affairs Rajasthan Yearbook 2019 For RPSC and RSMSSB Exams Current Affairs Question Bank March-July 2019
Current Affairs Study Notes January-August 2019 HSSC Haryana Police Constable 2019-20 Solved Test Paper HSSC Clerk Recruitment Exam 2019-20 Practice Solved Test Paper  
Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019 Electrical Engineering Objective Question Bank for All Competitive Exams 500+ Current Affairs MCQ for All Competitive Exams 2019  
UPSC IAS Prelims last 10 years solved questions GS Paper-I Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ Administrative Ethics-RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2  
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-IV Ethics Integrity and Aptitude Complete Study Notes   RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes
UPSC IAS Mains GS Paper-3 Study Notes with Practice Questions Revision Notes: Environment and Ecology IAS Prelims 2020: Art and Culture Revision Notes    
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general studies of Rajasthan

POLAVARAM IRRIGATION PROJECT

The Ministry of Jal Shakti has constituted a committee to examine the cost escalation of the Polavaram irrigation project under the instructions of the Ministry of Finance.

  • Revised Cost Committee has been formed to rework the cost of Polavaram Irrigation Project (PIP) in Andhra Pradesh, under the chairmanship of a joint secretary of the Finance Ministry.
  • The revised cost estimates is being assessed by the Technical Advisory Committee.
  • Ministry of Finance has also asked the state government to soon send an audit of Rs 5,000 crore spent prior to 2014, as an audit of Rs 3,000 crore spent has been held so far.

Compensation to affected people

  • Compensation package of Rs. 6, 36,000 has been fixed for per affected family and those whose cattle is also affected, they will get another Rs. 25,000, as per the package decided.
  • There is no complaint pending with the Government of India. To ensure rehabilitation and resettlement of those affected by the project, committees have been formed by state governments and are headed by collectors to look into grievances. Even, a committee has also been set up under the Secretary of Ministry of Tribal Affairs to redress the grievances of tribal people.

Funding Issue of PIP

  • The Government of Andhra Pradesh submitted Revised Cost Estimates (RCE) for Rs 57,297.42 crore at 2017-18 price level to Central Water Commission (CWC) in January, 2018.
  • The Advisory Committee on Irrigation, Flood Control & Multipurpose Projects of the Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti in its 141st meeting held in February, 2019 accepted the RCE of the PIP for Rs 55,548.87 crore at 2017-18 Price level (PL) of which cost of irrigation component is Rs.50,987.96 crore
  • The approved RCE has reduced mainly on account of reconciliation in estimated cost of certain land under submergence, land for which compensation is payable, cost of remaining works as per relevant schedule of rates.

Polavaram Irrigation Project (PIP)

  • This project is located in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, which will also interlink several rivers in the state.
  • It has been accorded national project status by the Centre. Its implementation is monitored by the Central Water Commission.
  • The project involves relocation of about 50,000 families especially in Khammam, East Godavari and West Godavari districts in Andhra Pradesh, besides 2,000 families in Odisha and Chhattisgarh.

Aim of the Project

  • Purpose of this multi-purpose project is to facilitate irrigation and it will also help in the supply of drinking water to Visakhapatnam and water for industrial purposes.
  • It also endeavors hydropower to regions of East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, Krishna and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It seeks to address the challenges of flooding and droughts witnessed in the respective basins.
  • The project also aims to help the Rayalaseema region (comprising Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapah and Kurnool districts out of the total 13 districts) get more water.

Issues with the project

  • Displacement: The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the project says 276 villages will be affected. The Polavaram Project Environmental Impact Appraisal Report of 1985 expected 150,697 people to be displaced in 226 villages. Of the displaced population, tribals constitute 50%. With inadequate resettlement and rehabilitation measures, this has severe implications on the socio-economic life of the displaced populations.
  • Changes to the ecology of the region: Environmental activists argue that the project will submerge forests, wildlife sanctuaries and as a result disturb the ecology.
  • Too costly: The project will heavily burden the exchequer and low-cost alternatives for flood and drought prevention should be explored.

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Current Affairs Study Notes January-August 2019 HSSC Haryana Police Constable 2019-20 Solved Test Paper HSSC Clerk Recruitment Exam 2019-20 Practice Solved Test Paper  
Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019 Electrical Engineering Objective Question Bank for All Competitive Exams 500+ Current Affairs MCQ for All Competitive Exams 2019  
UPSC IAS Prelims last 10 years solved questions GS Paper-I Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ Administrative Ethics-RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2  
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-IV Ethics Integrity and Aptitude Complete Study Notes   RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes
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KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK

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Four people lost their lives and two one-horned rhinos drowned in Kaziranga National Park (KNP) on Tuesday as Assam continued to reel under floods and rain-induced landslides.

  • Kaziranga National park’s 430 square kilometer area sprinkled with elephant-grass meadows, swampy lagoons, and dense forests is home to more than 2200 Indian one-horned rhinoceros, approximately 2/3rd of their total world population.
  • Formed in 1908 on the recommendation of Mary Curzon, the park is located in the edge of the Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspots – Golaghat and Nagaon district in Assam
  • In the year 1985, the park was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
  • Along with the iconic Greater one-horned rhinoceros, the park is the breeding ground of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer.
  • Over the time, the tiger population has also increased in Kaziranga, and that’s the reason why Kaziranga was declared as Tiger Reserve in 2006.
  • Also, the park is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for the conservation of avifaunal species. Birds like lesser white-fronted goose, ferruginous duck, Baer’s pochard duck and lesser adjutant, greater adjutant, black-necked stork, and Asian Openbill stork specially migrate from the Central Asia during the winter season.
  • The park has successfully managed to grow the population of Greater one-horned rhinoceros, an endangered species.
  • The vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests undoubtedly makes the park look beautiful but it’s the presence of Brahmaputra river, which makes it look enigmatic.
  • Due to the difference in altitude between the eastern and western areas of the park, here one can see mainly four types of vegetation’ like alluvial inundated grasslands, alluvial savanna woodlands, tropical moist mixed deciduous forests, and tropical semi-evergreen forests.
  • Kumbhi, Indian gooseberry, the cotton tree, and elephant Apple are amongst the famous trees that can be seen in the park.

About Asian one-horned Rhinoceros

  • The Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is also called Greater One-horned Rhinoceros and Asian One-horned Rhinoceros and belongs to the Rhinocerotidae family.
  • Primarily found in parts of north-eastern India and in protected areas in the Terai of Nepal, where populations are confined to the riverine grasslands in the foothills of the Himalayas.
  • Weighing between 2260 kg and 3000 kg, it is the fourth largest land animal and has a single horn.
  • These Rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain but excessive hunting reduced their natural habitat drastically. Today, about 3,000 Rhinos live in the wild, 2000 of which are found in Assam’s Kaziranga alone.
  • These Rhinoceros can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h for short periods of time and is also an excellent swimmer.
  • It has excellent senses of hearing and smell but relatively poor eyesight.

Current situation and mitigation efforts in Kaziranga National park

  • Incessant rain in the region over the past few days has resulted in most of the water bodies overflowing and the animals moving to higher reaches.
  • At present water has entered the park through natural channels which is normal but the situation becomes extremely critical once water flows over the Brahmaputra embankment.
  • Apart from the Brahmaputra, water from the Dhansiri, which is a tributary of the Brahmaputra, also entered the park.
  • Series of measures to mitigate flood impact such as pressing seven new speedboats into service, several rounds of awareness drives among the fringe villages, seeking their cooperation and support and repairing the highland inside the park so that these can provide shelter to the animals during flood.
  • The anti-poaching camps have been repaired for use by the mobile anti-poaching teams that will patrol the park 24X7 during floods
  • Besides, staff members, including divisional forest officers, forest guards, home guards, boatmen and commandos of the elite Assam Forest Protection Force (AFPF) are currently deployed at the park.
  • Time cards are being provided to vehicles coming from both sides of the Kaziranga National Park to provide utmost security to animals from being hunted.
  • Troops of Indian Army along with SDRF and Civil Administration conducted rescue operations and evacuated around 150 villagers who were stranded.

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Current Affairs Monthly Magazine August – 2019

This Current Affairs PDF is ideal for UPSC, State PSC, SSC, LIC ADO 2019 Recruitment, SBI PO/Clerk 2019, NABARD Grade A/B, IBPS RRB, IBPS PO/ Clerk, LIC ADO, EPFO Assistant, Bank of Baroda PGDBF, Syndicate Bank, Railway RRB JE/ NTPC 2019-20 exams etc.

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It is the best way to consume important current affairs/ general awareness right before the exam or prepare current GK in a short period of time. Here, we will provide you weekly/monthly/half-yearly current affairs PDF for you to prepare better for upcoming UPSC CSE IAS and State PSC and other government exams. Current Affairs is an important part of General-Studies section in all competitive exams.

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Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

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Current Affairs Quiz-5

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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Current Affairs

Myupsc.com brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs August 2019 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz questions from our daily current affairs 2019 latest updates.

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela

Preface

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the syllabus of RPSC and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the shop in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. Very soon it will be available on Amazon, Flip-kart etc.
General Studies of Rajasthan

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The Strait of Magellan

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The Strait of Magellan is located near southern Chile along the southern edges of the South American continent and links the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

It is named after the Portuguese adventurer, Ferdinand Magellan, the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe.

Sheltered by mainland South America and the islands of Tierra Del Fuego archipelago, this route was considered much safer than the Drake Passage, a more violent stretch of chaotic water between Antarctica and South America.

Located on the Strait of Magellan, Chile’s port city, Punta Arenas was once one of the most important supply stops for mariners, until the Panama Canal opened in 1914.

Ferdinand Magellan

He set off from Spain 500 years ago on an audacious voyage to sail all the way around the globe for the first time, a landmark in the history of exploration.

While crossing the strait, the explorer and his crew observed two galaxies visible to the naked eye from the southern hemisphere, now known as the Magellanic Clouds.

The voyage also contributed to Europeans’ knowledge of the universe.

Magellanic Clouds

  1. They are comprised of two irregular galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), which orbit the Milky Way once every 1,500 million years and each other once every 900 million years.
  2. Lying only about 200,000 light years away, they were the closest known galaxies to the Milky Way until recently, when the Sagittarius and Canis Major dwarf galaxies were discovered and found to be even closer.
  3. Although very close to us, the Magellanic Clouds have played a significant role in our understanding of the distant Universe.

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One Current Affairs Quarterly (June-August) 2019 Study Magazine in Hindi Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-Polity and Governance Special Issue  
Geography and Environment-Current Affairs 2019 Yearbook Special Issue   Current Affairs Rajasthan Yearbook 2019 For RPSC and RSMSSB Exams Current Affairs Question Bank March-July 2019
Current Affairs Study Notes January-August 2019 HSSC Haryana Police Constable 2019-20 Solved Test Paper HSSC Clerk Recruitment Exam 2019-20 Practice Solved Test Paper  
Half Yearly Current Affairs Question Bank: January – July 2019 Electrical Engineering Objective Question Bank for All Competitive Exams 500+ Current Affairs MCQ for All Competitive Exams 2019  
UPSC IAS Prelims last 10 years solved questions GS Paper-I Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ Administrative Ethics-RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2  
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-IV Ethics Integrity and Aptitude Complete Study Notes   RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Study Notes
UPSC IAS Mains GS Paper-3 Study Notes with Practice Questions Revision Notes: Environment and Ecology IAS Prelims 2020: Art and Culture Revision Notes    
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes   Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes- Hindi RPSC RAS Mains Art and Culture Practice Solved Question
UPSC IAS Mains Exam GS Paper-I Complete Study Notes with Practice Questions   Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes
Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes   Geography of Rajasthan Study notes with MCQ 2000 Solved MCQ for IAS Preliminary Exam 2020:GS Paper-I
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-3   RAS MAIN EXAM PRACTICE  TEST-2 RPSC RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-1
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question   RAS MAINS EXAM ECONOMY SOLVED QUESTIONS Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RPSC RAS Mains Exam
History Of India Practice Question Bank   Indian Polity Question Bank eBook Geography of India Question Bank

Draft E-Commerce Norms- 2019: Ministry of Consumer Affairs

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Ministry of Consumer Affairs has released the draft guidelines on e-commerce for consumer protection.

  • The e-Commerce guidelines for Consumer Protection, 2019 will be applicable on all business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce platforms.
  • E-Commerce norms will act as the guiding principles for e-commerce business for preventing fraud, unfair trade practices and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.
  • The key areas that have been covered in the rules include preventing price influencing, addressing counterfeit, improving integrity of reviews as well as increasing transparency of terms e-commerce have with sellers and disclosure of seller information.

Key Guidelines

Compulsory Return Policy: It is mandatory for e-commerce entities to accept returns in the event the products delivered are defective, wrong or spurious or if they do not have the characteristics or features advertised.

Seller Details: E-commerce companies will also have to display details about the sellers on their website, especially the type of business furnished by the seller entity.

Transparent Contract: The draft guidelines propose to increase transparency in contracts signed between e-commerce entities and the sellers, directing them to display terms of their contracts relating to aspects like return, refund, exchange, warranties and guarantees, delivery and shipment, mode of payments and redressing grievances.

Grievance Redressal: The draft has also sought transparency on the procedure followed to address complaints, directing e-commerce companies to publish contact details of their grievance officers on their websites and setting a one-month timeline for them to redress issues from the time the complaint is registered.

Fair Pricing Policy: E-commerce platforms will not be allowed to directly or indirectly influence the price of the products and services they offer.

Unfair Trade Practice: E-commerce platforms cannot adopt any trade practice for the purpose of promoting the sale, use or supply of any goods or services or use unfair and deceptive methods and practices that may influence the consumer’s transactional decisions.

False Reviews: Guidelines aim to restrict sellers from falsely representing themselves as consumers or posting reviews as well as misrepresenting and exaggerating the quality and features of products on their sites.

Indian E-commerce Market

  1. According to Morgan Stanley report- 2019, India is adding one Internet user every three seconds.
  2. The e-commerce sector in India is estimated to reach USD 230 billion by 2028 (accounting for 10% of India’s retail).
  3. The e-commerce sector in India has been witnessing an explosive growth fuelled by the increase in the number of online users, growing penetration of smartphones and the rising popularity of social media platforms.
  4. The Indian e-commerce industry is expected to surpass the US to become the second largest e-commerce market in the world by 2034.

Online shoppers in India are expected to reach 120 million in 2018 and eventually 220 million by 2025.

Article 371

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While Article 370, which limited purchase and inheritance of property to permanent residents, was scrapped for J&K, similar provisions are also provided under Article 371 in many states.

Article 371A prohibits anyone who is not a resident from buying land in Nagaland, which may only be bought by tribals who are residents of the state.

Article 371F bestows on Sikkim government the right of ownership of all land in the state, even if it was owned by private individuals prior to the state’s merger with India. 

  • The same Constitutional provision mandates a four-year term for the Sikkim state assembly, though assembly elections in the state have violated that clause as they have been held every 5 years.
  • Moreover, Article 371F states that “neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have jurisdiction in respect of any dispute or other matter arising out of any treaty, agreement, engagement or other similar instrument relating to Sikkim”, however, a specific condition allows the President to step in if the need arises related to constitutional law.

Article 371G is similar to Article 371A, as it limits the ownership of land to Mizoram’s tribals except for setting up of industries by the private sector, land can now be acquired by the state government as per the provisions of Mizoram (Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement) Act, 2016.

Both Articles 371A and Article 371G limit the Parliament’s authority to enact any law that interferes with tribal religious laws, customs, including their justice system.

Moreover, under Article 371 non-residents are still not allowed to buy agriculture land in Himachal Pradesh.

Source: PIB

The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill -2019

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The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill -2019 after receiving Presidents nod became an Act.

The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act, 2019 has replaced an Ordinance promulgated on triple talaq.

Key Provisions

Declaration of Talaq: The Act makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal.

  • The Act defines talaq as talaq-e-biddat or any other similar form of talaq pronounced by a Muslim man resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce.

Offence and Penalty: The Act makes a declaration of talaq a cognizable offence, attracting up to three years imprisonment with a fine.

  • A cognizable offence is one for which a police officer may arrest an accused person without warrant.

Cognizable Offence: The offence will be cognizable only if information relating to the offence is given by married woman (against whom talaq has been declared), or any person related to her by blood or marriage.

Bail: The Act provides that the Magistrate may grant bail to the accused. 

  • The bail may be granted only after hearing the woman (against whom talaq has been pronounced), and if the Magistrate is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for granting bail.

Compounding Offence: The offence may be compounded (i.e. the parties may arrive at a compromise) by the Magistrate upon the request of the woman (against whom talaq has been declared). 

  • The terms and conditions of the compounding of the offence will be determined by the Magistrate.

Allowance: A Muslim woman, against whom talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children. 

  • The amount of the allowance will be determined by the Magistrate.

Custody: A Muslim woman, against whom such talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek custody of her minor children. 

  • The manner of custody will be determined by the Magistrate.

Source: PIB

Article 370 and 35(A) Revoked

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On 5th of August 2019, the President of India promulgated the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019. 

  • The order effectively abrogates the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under the provision of Article 370 – whereby provisions of the Constitution which were applicable to other states were not applicable to Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).
  • According to the Order, provisions of the Indian Constitution are now applicable in the State.
  • This Order comes into force “at once”, and shall “supersede the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.”
  • A separate Bill – the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill 2019 – was introduced to bifurcate the State into two separate union territories of Jammu and Kashmir (with legislature), and Ladakh (without legislature).
  • Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019 was also introduced to extend the reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) in educational institutions and government jobs in Jammu and Kashmir.

History

  • J&K acceded to the Dominion of India after the Instrument of Accession was signed by Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.
  • Article 370 of the Indian Constitution provided that only Articles 1 and 370 itself would apply to J&K. The application of other Articles was to be determined by the President in consultation with the government of the state.
  • The Constitution Order of 1950 specified the matters on which the Union Parliament would be competent to make laws for J&K, in concurrence with the Instrument of Accession – 38 Subjects from the Union List were added.
  • The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 settled the constitutional relationship of J&K and the Union of India. It made the following provisions –
    • Indian citizenship and all related benefits (fundamental rights) were extended to the ‘permanent residents’ of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Article 35A was added to the Constitution (empowering the state legislature to legislate on the privileges of permanent residents with regard to immovable property, settlement in the state and employment)
    • The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India was extended to the State.
    • Central Government was given the power to declare a national emergency in the event of external aggression. The power in case of internal disturbances could be exercised only with the concurrence of the State Government.
    • Normalized the financial relations between the Centre and J&K

Article 370 – Features and Provisions

  • Present in part XXI of the Indian Constitution which comprises of Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions with rest to various states of India.
  • Forms the basis of the “Special Status” of J&K.
  • Provides for a separate Constitution of J&K.
  • Limits the Union Parliament’s power to make laws for J&K to those subjects mentioned in the Instrument of Accession (defense, foreign affairs, and communications) and others as and when declared by the Presidential Orders with the concurrence of the Government of the State.
  • Specified the mechanism by which the Article shall cease to be operative. That is, on the recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State before the President issues such a notification. However, this provision has been amended by the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019.

Was it Temporary?

  • The Article was introduced to accommodate the apprehensions of Maharaja Hari Singh who would not have acceded to India without certain concessions.
  • Territorial integrity was of paramount importance to India post-independence, thus, such a special provision was inducted in the constitution.
  • The provision, however, is part of the “Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions” of our constitution.
  • Moreover, Article 370 could be interpreted as temporary in the sense that the J&K Constituent Assembly had a right to modify/delete/retain it; it decided to retain it.
  • Another interpretation was that accession was temporary until a plebiscite.

Issues in Revoking

  • Article 370 is the bedrock of the constitutional relationship between Jammu and Kashmir and the rest of India.
  • It has been described as a tunnel through which the Constitution is applied to J&K.
  • India has used Article 370 at least 45 times to extend provisions of the Indian Constitution to J&K. This is the only way through which, by mere Presidential Orders, India has almost nullified the effect of J&K’s special status.
  • By the 1954 order, almost the entire Constitution was extended to J&K including most Constitutional amendments.
  • However, abrogating the article altogether may threaten the peace in the state which is already a hotspot of conflicts and militancy.
  • It will completely change the relationship between the state and the rest of India.
  • It will also clear the path for abrogating Article 35A which would allow Indian citizens to purchase land and settle permanently in J&K.
  • Thus, the move is bound to have a significant impact on the demography, culture, and politics of J&K.

Current Affairs Practice Question Bank Free PDF-2

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In the last 5-6 years, the weightage and hence, the importance of current affairs in the UPSC CSE and State Public Services Exams has increased substantially. That Current Affairs is important in all the three stages of the examination speaks volumes of the key role it plays in helping an aspirant to get selected and also be a better individual. The enhanced importance to current affairs has further strengthened the dynamicity and unpredictability of the questions in the examination which has led to a fear in the minds of all kinds of aspirants- be it fresheres or repeaters. The undefined nature and unlimited scope of the current affairs related happenings/events poses a dilemma to the aspirants as to what to read? From where to read? How to read? And this leads to many aspirants getting depressed and not able to do full justice to their preparation.

We are providing here the Current Affairs Practice Question Bank for UPSC / State PSC Prelims Exams 2019-20 covered from The Hindu, Yojna, PIB, Indian Express and other Government sources.

1. Consider the following statements about Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes:

1. ENDS is a non-carcinogenic alternative for smoking.

2. E-cigarette use adversely affects the cardiovascular system, impairs respiratory immune cell function and airways in a way similar to cigarette smoking.

Select the correct answer using the given below code:

(a) 1 only                      (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following statements about Jal Shakti Ministry:

1. Ministries of Water Resources and Drinking Water and Sanitation have been merged

2. Jal Shakti Ministry will encompass issues ranging from international and inter-State water disputes, the Namami Gange project etc.

Select the correct code:

(a) 1 only                  (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2      (d) neither 1 nor 2

3. Consider the following statements about Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM- KISAN):

1. It extends the ₹6000 per annum income support scheme to all land-owning farm families.

2. Cash transfer scheme under PM-KISAN can be substituted for subsidies and other institutional support systems.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                     (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements about project called REPLAN (Reducing Plastic in Nature):

1. Under this project the waste plastic from nature is collected, de-structured and de- gradated and then mixed with paper pulp in a ratio of 80 is to 20.

2. It‘s an initiative of Ministry of Environment, forests and climate change.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                     (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

5. Consider the following statements about Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

1. It is a statutory body.

2. It is an apex organisation under the Ministry of Rural development.

Which of the above-mentioned statements are correct?

(a) 1 only                      (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

6. Which of the following best describe the term “Bajada”?

(a) A large mass of subsurface intrusive igneous rock that has its origins from mantle magma.

(b) Zone in the Earth’s mantle that exhibits plastic properties

(c) A roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity

(d) A Consecutive series of alluvial fans

7. Which of the following country has coastline with both Caspian Sea and Black Sea?

(a) Turkey

(b) Russia

(c) Iran

(d) Georgia

8. Democracy Index report is released by which of the following organization

(a) World Intellectual property organization

(b) The Economist Intelligence Unit

(c) UNESCO

(d) World Economic Forum

9. Which of the following is related to “Windhoek declaration”?

(a) Human Rights

(b) Freedom of Press

(c) Status of women in society

(d) None of these

10. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding earth quakes waves?

1. Propagation of S waves tells us about internal structure of core.

2. Primary (P) waves do not travel through liquid medium.

3. Primary waves (P-waves) are faster than S- waves.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1Only

Total Number of Questions-69 (July-2019)

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Current Affairs Practice Questions Free PDF

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UPSC/PSC Prelims Practise Questions

1. Consider the following statements

1. Japan declared ‘Reiwa’ as the name of its new imperial era that will begin on May 1, 2019 once the new Crown Prince Naruhito, son of Akihito, ascends the Chrysanthemum Throne.

2. It is likely to be the first time that the Japanese era name (gengo) has been drawn from a Japanese document, depicting a break from over 1,300 years old custom of choosing the name from Chinese classics.

3. The current Japanese era is known as ‘Heisei’ which means achieving peace. The era began on January 8, 1989, a day after the death of the Emperor Hirohito, when Emperor Hirohito’s son Emperor Akihito acceded to the throne as the 125th Emperor of Japan.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) All

2. Consider the following statements

1. Uttar Pradesh is the largest wheat producing state in India followed by Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.

2. India is the second largest producer of wheat in the world. China is world’s largest producer, followed by India, Russia, and the United states.

3. It is a statutory non-profit organization founded and run by Government of India and also run by state Governments.

4. It was created in 1965 under Food Corporations Act 1964, to implement objectives of National Food Policy.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 2 3 and 4 (d) All

3. Consider the following statements

1. The National Clean Air Programme (NCAP is a time-bound national level strategy for pan India implementation to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner.

2. The main objective of the programme is comprehensive mitigation actions for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution besides augmenting the air quality monitoring network across the country and strengthening the awareness and capacity building activities.

3. The National Clean Air Program (NCAP) aims to cut pollution in the 102 worst affected cities by 20-30 percent by 2024, taking 2019 as the base year for the comparison of PM concentration.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3

4. Consider the following statement about Arms trade treaty

1. The 2013 Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) came into effect in December 2014 after over 65 countries of the world signed it on June 3, 2013.

2. The treaty seeks to regulate the flow of weapons into conflicted zones. It requires member countries to keep records of international transfers of weapons and to prohibit cross-border shipments that can be used in human rights violations or attacks on civilians.

3. So far, while 130 countries have originally signed the treaty, only 101 ratified and joined it.

4. The world’s largest arms traders including the United States, China and Russia have recently joined the treaty.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 2 and 3 (b) 3 and 4 (c) 1 3 and 4 (d) 2 and 4

5. Consider the following statements

1. Recently a law was passed that will allow Chinese authorities to isolate the country’s internet from the rest of the world and create a new national network.

2. The ‘sovereign internet’ bill aims to expand government control over the Internet.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) None (d) Both

6. Consider the following open trading border posts between India and China and find the correct one

1. Nathu La in Sikkim

2. Shipkila in Himachal Pradesh

3. Lipulekh (or Lipulech) in Uttarakhand

Find which of the following posts are correctly located

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 2 and 3 (d) None

7. Consider the following statements regarding section 498 A of IPC

1. The Supreme Court in its recent judgement ruled that any relative of a woman, who is undergoing cruelty and dowry harassment by her husband or in laws, can file a complaint against them.

2. The bench stated that Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code does not contemplate that complaint should be filed only by women, who is subjected to cruelty by husband or his relative.

3. The section 498A of the Indian Penal Code was passed by the Indian Parliament in 1983. It was introduced to protect all women from being subjected to matrimonial cruelty.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) All

8. Consider the following statements about Chandrayan-2

1. It is India’s first lunar mission. It would be launched using India’s most powerful rocket PSLV -DL from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

2. Its payloads will collect scientific information on lunar (moon) topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxyl and water-ice.

3. It has three modules (a detachable self-contained unit of a spacecraft) namely namely Orbiter, Lander named Vikram and Rover named Pragyan.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 1 2 and 3 (d) None

9. Consider the following statements regarding Pre-Paid Payment Instrument (PPIs)

1. PPIs are instruments which come with a preloaded value and in even with pre-defined purpose of payment.

2. PPIs facilitate financial services, inter-personal remittance transactions (like sending money to friend or a family member), purchase of goods and services (G&S), etc., against amount stored on such instruments.

3. There are generally three types of PPIs issued in India i.e Closed System PPIs, Semi-closed System PPIs and Open System PPIs

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 2 and 3 (d) None

10. Consider the following statements about the Scorpene Class Submarine

1. The Scorpene Class Submarines are designed by French naval defence company ‘DCNS’ and are being manufactured by Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai.

2. India purchased five submarines for USD 3 billion under Project 75 in 2005.

3. The Scorpene class submarines have the capability to fire Exocet anti-ship missiles.

3. INS Kalvari, the first of the Scorpene-class submarines, was commissioned by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on December 14, 2017.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 2 and 4 (d) All

11. Consider the following statements about Unnat Bharat Abhiyan

1. Unnat Bharat Abhiyan (UBA) is an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD).

2. Its first edition was launched in the year 2018.

3. The Mission of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan is to enable higher educational institutions to work with the people of rural India in identifying development challenges and evolving appropriate solutions for accelerating sustainable growth.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 2 (d) All

12. Consider the following statements regarding Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)

1. It is a premier food research laboratory under Ministry of Science and Technology (MoS&T), Government of India.

2. It is also the Constituent laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research’s (CSIR)

3. It was established in 1950 and is headquartered in Mysore, Karnataka. Its resource centers are in Hyderabad, Lucknow and Mumbai.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1 2 and 3

13. Consider the following statements about The Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)

1. GRIHA Council is a registered society for the interaction on scientific and administrative issues related to sustainable habitats

2. GRIHA was founded by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) with support from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

3. GRIHA Council promotes GRIHA- the National Rating System as a design and evaluation tool for green buildings and habitats.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 2 and 3 (d) None

14. Consider the following statements about Arctic Council

1. The Arctic Council is the leading non-governmental forum that promotes cooperation and interaction among the Arctic States, Arctic indigenous communities and inhabitants of Arctic region on issues pertaining to sustainable development and environmental protection.

2. The Members of the Arctic Council are – the United States, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both (d) None

15. Consider the following statements about NIOS

1. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) was established in November 1989 as an attached body of the Human Resource Development Ministry

2. The key aim of the institute is to enable sustainable inclusive learning with universal and flexible access to quality school and higher education and skill development.

Find the correct statement from the options given below

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both (d) None

16. Consider the following statements about road accidents

1. The first ever Fifth road safety week is being celebrated between May -06 to 12, 2019 with the theme of “Leadership for road safety”

2. United Nation Development Program has released a report during road safety week.

3. This report highlights that road accidents are the major concern for death among people age group between 5 to 29 years.

4. Low income countries have more risk of a road accident death than high income countries.

Find the correct statements from the options given below

(a) 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 2 and 4 (d) All

17. Consider the following statements

1. The mediation panel consists of the chairman of the mediation panel, Retired SC judge, Justice F M Khalifullaj

2. The other members of the panel include spiritual leader Sri Sri Ravi Sankar and senior advocate Sriram Panchu.

3. The Supreme Court had formed the five-member panel to find a solution to the long-standing dispute, which is acceptable by all parties.

Find the correct statement from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) All

18. Consider the following statements

1. The specially-raised squad of women is known as ‘Danteshwari Ladake’, or fighters of Goddess Danteshwari, which was inducted recently in the state’s Naxal-hit Dantewada district of Odisha.

2. Of the 30 recruits, 10 are surrendered women Naxals, while 10 others are assistant constables who were part of the erstwhile Salwa Judum (anti-Naxal militia) movement

Find the correct statement from the options given below

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both (d) None

19. Consider the following statements regarding the pit viper species that are found in India

1. With the new discovery India now has four pit viper species.

2. Arunachal Pradesh the only state to have a pit viper named after it

3. Malabar, Horseshoe, Hump Nosed, Himalayan are some of the species of pit viper

Find the correct statements from the option given below

(a) Only 3 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 2 and 3 (d) None

20. Consider the following statements about Apache Helicopter

1. The Indian Army has received the first Apache Guardian helicopter from US aircraft manufacturer, Boeing.

2. India had signed a multi-billion dollar contract with the France in September 2015, for 22 of these helicopters.

3. The AH-64E Apache is primarily a multi-role attack helicopter, which is flown by the US Army.

4. The helicopter has the capability to control unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), full IFR capability, and improved landing gear.

Find the correct statements from the options given below

(a) 3 and 4 (b) 1 2 and 4 (c) 2 3 and 4 (d) All

21. Consider the following pair of Joint Exercise

1. Exercise MITRA SHAKTI – India-Srilanka.

2. Military Exercise Sampriti – India-Bangladesh.

3. Naval Exercise TROPEX – India-Japan-USA

4. ADMM plus – India – ASEAN

Find correct pairs of Joint Military Exercises from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) All of the above

22. Consider the following statements about MANAV initiative

1. The Ministry of Human Resource and Development has recently launched human tissue mapping project called MANAV: Human Atlas Initiative.

2. The Objective of this initiative is to map every single tissue of human body to find out deepest information and roles of tissues and cells linked to a variety of ailments.

3. This project is funded by Department of Biotechnology (DBT) that would make a database network of all human body tissues.

Find the correct statements from the option given below

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) All

Answer Keys

1 d 2 d 3 a 4 a 5 b 6 c 7 a 8 a 9 c 10 a

11 a 12 d 13 c 14 b 15 d 16 a 17 a 18 b 19 c 20 a

21 a 22 b

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Current Affairs of Rajasthan from September-2018 to August-2019 for RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims & Mains, RSMSSB and Other Competitive Examinations conducted by government and Public sector undertakings.

The Importance of Current Affairs in competitive examinations is immense. This is the most critical part of Prelims as well as Mains or we can say objective or descriptive Exam. Aspirants should study in depth to understand the significance of current affairs for UPSC/PSC. In fact, all the questions in exams are drafted around current affairs.

UPSC/PSC usually does not ask direct and static questions from current affairs in Mains. Questions are written by combining current affairs with conventional knowledge. One interesting reason behind this type of strategy is to check the ability of correlation a candidate has.

The best part with current affairs questions asked in UPSC/PSC exams is that they can be solved without wasting time. One can score maximum marks in less time in this section of exam. Current affairs preparation for IAS/RAS keeps the aspirant updated and helps in having a balanced view about different issues.

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World Press Freedom Index

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

India Ranks 140th in World Press Freedom Index

  • India ranked 140th out of 180 countries in the World Press Freedom Index 2019.
  • Index is released by Reporters without Borders.
  • The index is topped by Norway followed by Finland and Sweden.

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

  • India was ranked 19th out of 28 countries in the Index.
  • Index is released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
  • Top 3 countries are Australia (1st), Netherlands (2nd) and Germany (3rd).
  • Bottom three are Saudi Arabia (28th), Romania (27th) and Egypt (26th)

Current Affairs Study Magazine January-August 2019

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We have covered current affairs from January to August 2019 for competitive exams:

The Current affair of the following topics:

  1. ART AND CULTURE
  2. SOCIAL ISSUES
    a) Education
    b) Health and Sanitation
    c) Women and Child
    d) Vulnerable Groups
  3. POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
  4. ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    a) Indian Economy
    b) Banking and Finance
    c) Agriculture
    d) Industry
    e) Infrastructure
    f) Human Resource Development
  5. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND BILATERAL ISSUES
  6. DEFENCE AND SECURITY
  7. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
  8. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    a) Space
    b) Biotechnology
    c) Meets and programs
    d) IT and ICT
    e) Health, Medicine and Diseases
  9. MISCELLANEOUS
  10. General Budget 2019-20

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Rajasthan at a Glance

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Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

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River Inter-linking Project in Rajasthan

The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is studying the preliminary level of the feasibility of the three river inter-linking projects in Rajasthan. The proposed links are Parwati – Kalisindh -Chambal Link, Yamuna-Rajasthan Link Project and Rajasthan – Sabarmati Link Project.

There‘s also a plan to divert water of Chambal to Bisalpur dam by linking its tributary, Brahmani river, to Banas river upstream of Bisalpur.

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

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Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

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UPSC IAS Mains Previous Year Papers

2. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India.

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Reconstruction of Indian history of the ancient and medieval era is a daunting task owing to lack of chronological records, and subjectivity in the interpretation of archaeological and literary sources.

In this context, accounts of foreign travellers, who were eye witnesses to the events that occurred at that time, become an important source to corroborate other sources of history.

Chinese Accounts

Accounts of Fa-hien, Hsuan Tsang, and I-tsing have proved to be a valuable source of information on the Gupta period and the years following the end of Gupta rule. They provided vital information about:

Socio-economic conditions in India – For example, Fa-hien mentions about the Chandalas (untouchables) living outside the village. This shows that untouchablility was prevalent in the society as early as 5th Century AD.

Existing political conditions – For example, Hsuan Tsang’s account shows that during Harsha’s reign (7th Century AD), Pataliputra was in a state of decline and on the other hand, Prayag and Kannauj in the doab had emerged important.

Nature of Buddhist doctrines, rituals, and monastic institutions in India – For example – Hsuan Tsang and I-tsing provided vivid accounts of Nalanda.

Arab Accounts

Arab travellers such as the merchants – Sulayman, Abu Zaid, etc. provided vivid accounts on Indian culture and science, which are valuable sources for the study of early medieval Indian history.

Abu Zaid noted that most Indian princes while holding court, allowed their women to be seen unveiled – highlighting that there was no system of purdah (veiling) in upper class women in early medieval India.

Arab travellers also provide information about the socio-economic condition through their description of trade contacts and the wealth which was exclusively derived from the trade with India.

Arab travellers of the period like Al-Beruni and Ibn Battuta had direct personal contacts with the people of Indian subcontinent which enabled them to give detailed first hand information in their accounts about the economic, social and other activities of the people.

Though there are issues associated with the reliability of the accounts provided by these travellers owing to their personal biases, still they are key sources for finding out the missing links in the reconstruction of Indian history.

1. Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Discuss

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

India has a vast basket of diverse art and cultural heritage which need institutional support and encouragement to address areas critical for their survival and preservation.

We need to preserve our art heritage because of the following reasons.

  1. Presently, many Indian art forms are on the verge of extinction such as Manjusha painting of Bihar, traditional art of Puppetry, Parsi embroidery, Naga craft, Dhokra handicraft, etc., which need protection and preservation.
  2. India has a unique identity in the world for its art and culture which represents Indian civilization on world platform and if it vanishes the uniqueness of India will get affected.
  3. For many tribal communities, art and craft is the source of income.
  4. This is also the source of attraction for tourism which contributes to economic development of the country.
  5. Art heritage also represents “unity in diversity” of India and builds a bridge between people living abroad to get connected with their native country.
  6. Art and culture is also a part of soft power in world politics.

Government has started many initiatives to preserve the rich art heritage of the country, such as, Scheme for Conservation of Wall Painting (1996-97), Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programe, Tribal haats, GI tag to the local products, e-haat, etc. Apart from strict implementation of such programmes, Government should provide financial assistance to strengthen regional and local museums, preserve art heritage through virtual media, and promote local paintings on products like wallet, mobile cover, pillow cover, etc.

IAS Prelims 2020: GS Paper Test-4

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Indian Polity & Constitution

1.       By “Rule of Law”, we mean who among the following are subject to the law of the land?

1.       Every subject of the law of the land only

2.       Every subject of the law of the land including the lawmakers

3.       Every subject of the law of the land, lawmakers, law enforcement officials and judges Choose the correct statements

(a)     1 only

(b)     Both 1 and 2

(c)      2 only

(d)     Both 1 and 2

2. Which of the following could not be construed as apart of concept of “Rule of Law”?

(a) Law must be publicly declared and is established or adopted through popular consent

(b) Prospective application (punishments)

(c) Characteristics of generality equality and protection of individual rights

(d) Requirements with regard to the content of the law

3. Consider the following statements.

1. In the Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narayan case, the Apex Court held that Rule of Law embodied in Article 14 of the Constitution is the “basic feature” of the Indian Constitution.

2. In the Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India case, the Supreme Court held that Indian Constitution is based on the American system of ‘Due Process of Law

Correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements.

1. Constitutionalism can be established in a country even without a written Constitution.

2. Written Constitution in a country would not qualify a country automatically to be a Constitutionalised one

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

5. Consider the following statements.

1. While in case of Written Constitutions there is clear distinction between constitutional laws and other laws (like statutory laws and bylaws), in case of unwritten Constitutions there is no such marked difference as every law

Passed by the parliament becomes constitutional.

2. While in case of Written Constitutions, the structure of government can be federal or unitary, in case of unwritten Constitutions, the structure of government is necessarily unitary because the parliament is considered supreme

The correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

6. Consider the following statements regarding the Parliamentary form of the government and choose the INCORRECT feature.

(a)     Existence of a Titular or Constitutional Ruler

(b)     Absence of clear principle of separation of powers

(c)      Ministry formed from the popular chamber of the legislature

(d)     None of the above

7. Which of the following is NOT considered as an essential nature of Democratic government?

(a)     A belief in the fundamental importance of the individual.

(b)     Equality of All Persons

(c)      Majority Rule but recognition of Minority Rights

(d)     Freedom of the individuals rather than the rights of society

8. Consider the following statements.

1. Fundamental rights acts as a limitation on the authority of the state

2. Directive Principles authorises the state to carry out certain functions The correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

9. Consider the following statements with regard to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

1. Preamble contains the philosophical part of the Constitution, the principles which are essentially uncodified.

2. The principles contained in the Preamble can be altered through an amendment, but without altering the basic features contained in it.

The correct statement/s is/are

(a)     1 only

(b)     2 only

(c)      Both 1 and 2

(d)     Neither 1 nor 2

10. Objective Resolution was silent as to the concept of …..? Which was inserted into the Preamble by the Constituent Assembly?

(a)     Republic

(b)     Sovereignty

(c)      Democratic

(d)     Justice

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Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+
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Environment & Ecology
Science & Technology
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General Science Question Bank for all exams- PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

1. Electron beam therapy is a kind of radiation therapy to treat?

(a) Enlarged prostate gland

(b) Gall bladder stones

(c) Certain types of cancer

(d) Kidney stones

2. Cobalt (60) isotope is used in the treatment of?

(a) Heart diseases

(b) Skin diseases

(c) Diabetes

(d) Cancer

3. Which of the following is an ant diabetic drug?

(a) Insulin

(b) Penicillin

(c) Chloroquin

(d) Aspirin

4. The organ of the human body directly affected by the disease of hepatitis is

(a) Liver

(b) Lungs

(c) Heart

(d) Brain

5. Which one of the following disease is not caused by virus?

(a) Polio

(b) Rabies

(c) Small pox

(d) Diphtheria

6. Of the following, ELISA test is performed to test

(a) Diabetes

(b) Tuberculosis

(c) AIDS

(d) Syphilis

7. The radio-isotope used to detect blood-clots in the Circulatory system is

(a) Arsenic-74

(b) Cobalt-60

(c) I-131

(d) Sodium-24

8. Keeping pigs away from human settlements helps in the Eradication of

(a) Malaria

(b) Japanese encephalitis

(c) Elephantiasis

(d) Polio

9. Which one of the following human organs is less susceptible to harmful radiations?

(a) Eyes

(b) Heart

(c) Brain

(d) Lungs

10. Artemisinin, a drug to cure malaria is obtained from a

(A) Seed plant

 (b) Fungus

(c) Bacterium

(d) Moss

11. The Minamata disease of Japan in 1953 was caused by eating fish contaminated with

(a) Nickel

(b) Lead

(c) Mercury

(d) Cadmium

12. The disease caused by swelling of the membrane over Spinal cord and brain is

(a) Leukaemia

(b) Paralysis

(c) Sclerosis

(d) Meningitis

13. Emphysema is a disease caused by environmental pollution in which the affected organ of the body is

(a) Liver

(b) Kidney

(c) Lungs

(d) Brain

14. The mad cow disease is caused by

(a) Bacteria

(b) Viruses

(c) Fungus

 (d) Prisons

15. Which of the following decrease in number in the human body due to Dengue fever?

(a) Platelets

(b) Haemoglobin

(c) Sugar

(d) Water

16. What is MRI?

(a) Magnetic Record of Intestines

(b) Magnetic Recording of Investigations

(c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(d) Magnetic Resonance in Intestines

17. Which of the following disease is caused by Vitamin B3?

(a) Beri – beri

(b) Night blindness

(c) Rickets

(d) Pellagra

18. Salk’s vaccine is connected with which one of the following diseases?

(a) Small pox

(b) Tetanus

(c) T.B.

(d) Polio

19. Which of the following is a substance available in small quantity in the sea and administered in a certain deficiency disease?

(a) Iron

(b) Vitamin A

(c) Fluorine

(d) Iodine

20. In countries where polished rice is the main cereal in their diet, people suffer from

(a) Pellagra

(b) Beri-beri

(c) Scurvy

(d) Osteomalacia

Click Here to Download Full Solved Question Bank PDF

Current Affairs Question (1-15) July 2019 Free Download

Current Affairs is the most important, as well as the trickiest part of Civil Services Exam. Making your own notes from any standard national newspaper consumes much of your time, especially if you are a beginner.

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

IAS Prelims Test Series

India & World Geography

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

Indian Geography Question Bank Based on 6-12th NCERT

Art & Culture

History of India

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity

Indian Polity Question Bank

Indian Polity 35+Practice Set

Environment & Ecology

Science & Technology

NCERT Book

Click here to download Question Bank PDF

(Free) Current Affairs Question Bank June-July 2019 PDF download

Current Affairs is the most important, as well as the trickiest part of Civil Services Exam. Making your own notes from any standard national newspaper consumes much of your time, especially if you are a beginner.

This is because the news articles that appear in the newspaper generally miss certain essential facts, lack the logical flow of content and are complexly worded.

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Myupsc.com is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

IAS Prelims Test Series

India & World Geography

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

Indian Geography Question Bank Based on 6-12th NCERT

Art & Culture

History of India

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity

Indian Polity Question Bank

Indian Polity 35+Practice Set

Environment & Ecology

Science & Technology

NCERT Book

Current Affairs Question Bank June- July 2019

1) Indrasaurus wangi sometimes seen in the news recently is a/an

a.  Paravian Dinosaur

b.  Ancient Lizard species

c.  Dolphin native to River Indus

d.  None of the above

Answer : b

A team of researchers has recently discovered a new specimen of a microraptor — volant dromaeosaurid Microraptor zhaoianus — with the remains of a nearly complete lizard preserved in its stomach. The researchers have named the lizard after Lord Indra. The lizard is unlike any previously known from the Cretaceous and represents a new species- Indrasaurus wangi. The name Indrasaurus was inspired by a Vedic legend in which the god Indra was swallowed by a dragon during a great battle (the dragon here referring to Microraptor).

2) Consider the following statements with respect to Blue Flag Programme

1. It is an eco-label awarded to beaches, marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.

2. It is jointly operated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organisation and UN-Oceans.

3. Shivrajpur and Bhogave beaches are the only beaches in India that have attained the Blue Flag. 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  1 and 2 only

c.  1 and 3 only

d.  1, 2 and 3

Answer : a

The iconic Blue Flag is one of the world’s most recognised voluntary eco-labels awarded to beaches, marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.

The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas is run by the international, non-governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental Education).

In order to qualify for the Blue Flag, a series of stringent environmental, educational, safety, and accessibility criteria must be met and maintained.

Japan and South Korea are the only countries in South and South-Eastern Asia to have Blue Flag beaches.

The Union Environment Ministry has recently selected 12 beaches in India to vie for a ‘Blue Flag’ certification.

3) Which of the following tribe(s) is/are not belonging to the state of Sikkim?

1.       Bhutia

2.       Lepcha

3.       Limboo

4.       Tamang

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a.  4 only

b.  1 and 4 only

c.  1, 2 and 4 only

d.  None of the above

Answer : d

List of Tribes in Sikkim:

1.       Bhutia (including Chumbipa, Dopthapa, Dukpa, Kagatey, Sherpa, Tibetan, Tromopa, Yolmo)

2.       Lepcha

3.       Limboo

4.       Tamang

A proposal for reservation of seats for Limboo and Tamang communities in Sikkim Legislative Assembly is under consideration of the Government of India.

4) Consider the following statements with respect to Van Mitra Portal

1.       It is an online portal launched by the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs.

2.       It acts as a platform for citizens to report poaching and illegal trade of forest resources.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c.  Both 1 and 2

d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : d

The Madhya Pradesh government has recently began organising gram sabhas in villages to consider afresh rejected claims of Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers to forest land rights under the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.

To streamline the application process and deal with the bulk of claims, the State has also launched an online application system, Van Mitra, in the Hoshangabad district on a pilot basis.

5) FinSpy sometimes seen in the news recently is a

a.  Bio capsule

b.  Spyware virus

c.  Vaccine for TB

d.  Disinfectant resistant Pathogen

Answer : b

FinSpy is the latest version of spyware virus designed to track nearly every interaction on a mobile device.

FinSpy collects data from instant messengers—even if they are using encryption programs—such as Russian developed messaging app Telegram, Facebook’s WhatsApp, Skype, Signal, China’s WeChat and BlackBerry Messenger.

It can work both on iOS and Android devices.

Click Here to download full PDF

RPSC RAS Mains Exam 2018-19 Question Paper

RAS Mains Test Series

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Examination 2018-19 General Studies Paper

Rajasthan Public Service Commission Ajmer (RPSC) has conducted the Rajasthan State and Subordinate Services Combined (RAS / RTS) Examination which is successfully held on June 25 and June 26, 2019. Tremendous contenders have appeared in the examination and they are now searching to get Answer Key of RPSC RAS Mains Examination 2019.

Rajasthan RAS Solved Question Paper Sheet

The first shift of the examination will be held from 09:00 to 12:00 in the morning and the second shift will be held from 02:00 to 05:00, in the Sato divisional headquarters of Rajasthan (Ajmer, Jaipur, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Kota, Bharatpur and Udaipur).

The RAS Mains Exam is of descriptive type. There is of 4(four) Papers in the exam and total marks for each paper are 200 marks as per RPSC RAS Mains Exam Pattern 2019. Time of duration to complete the exam is 3-Hours.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-I

  1. History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan
  2. Indian History & Culture
  3. History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)
  4. World Economy
  5. Indian Economy
  6. Economy of Rajasthan
  7. Sociology, Management & Business Administration

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-II

  1. Administrative Ethics
  2. General Science & Technology
  3. Earth Science (Geography & Geology)World Geography, Geography of India, Rajasthan Geography

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-III

  1. Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs
  2. Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management
  3.  Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-IV

  1. General English & Hindi

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

UPSC IAS Mains: Natural Resources in India & World

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

Natural resources are highly valued because human beings are dependent on them to fulfil their fundamental needs that changes with time. While natural resources are distributed in all through the world, specific resources often require particular conditions and so not all natural resources are spread equally. Consequently, nations trade their natural resources to make certain that their needs can be fulfilled.

Definition of Natural Resources

In simple term, natural resources are material and constituent formed within environment or any matter or energy that are resulting from environment, used by living things that humans use for food, fuel, clothing, and shelter. These comprise of water, soil, minerals, vegetation, animals, air, and sunlight. People require resources to survive and succeed. Everything which happens naturally on earth are natural resources that is minerals, land, water, soil, wind that can be used in many ways by human being. It can be explained by several environmentalist scholars that a natural resources is any kind of substance in its natural form which is needed by humans.

Classification of Natural Resources

The general classifications of natural resources are minerals for example as gold and tin and energy resources such as coal and oil. The air, forests and oceans can also be categorised as natural resources. Theoretical studies have documented that Land and water are the natural resources, which include Biological resources, such as flower, trees, birds, wild animals, fish etc., Mineral resources, such as metals, oil, coal, building stones and sand, and other resources, like air, sunshine and climate (UNEP, 1987). Natural Resources are used to make food fuel and raw materials for the production of finished goods (Adriaanse, 1993). Natural resources change in value over time, depending on what a society most needs or considers most valuable.

Resource distribution is defined as the geographic occurrence or spatial arrangement of resources on earth. In other words, where resources are located, Any one place may be rich in the resources for people desire and poor in other. The availability of natural resources is based on two functions that include the physical characteristics of the resources themselves and human economic and technological conditions. The physical processes that govern the formation, distribution, and occurrence of natural resources are determined by physical laws over which people have no direct control. We take what nature gives us. To be considered a resource, however, a given substance must be understood to be a resource. This is cultural, not purely a physical circumstance.

Types of natural resources

The various types of natural resources are often categorizes as renewable and non-renewable resources.

Renewable resources

Renewable can be described by scientists as a resource that can be replenished or reformed either naturally or by systemic recycling of used resources. Renewable is resource or source of energy that is replaced naturally or controlled carefully and can therefore be used without the risk of finishing it all (Oxford dictionary). Another way to define is a resource that is able to be renewed and be capable of being begun or done again. Renewable resources are usually living resources such as plants and animals and they also include air and water. These resources are termed as ‘renewable’ because they can usually reproduce or restock themselves. Renewable resources are significant aspect of sustainability. Renewable resources are valuable because they provide green energy. Renewable natural resources include those resources beneficial to human economies that demonstrate growth, maintenance, and recovery from exploitation over an economic planning horizon. The natural environment, with soil, water, forests, plants and animals are all renewable resource. In the case of air and water, they are renewable elements because they exist as part of a cycle which allows them to be reused. Renewable resources can only exist as long as they are not being used at a greater rate than they can replenish themselves.

Non-renewable resources

Non-renewable resources cannot be re-produced or re-grown and are, therefore, they are available in limited supply. Scholars affirmed that Non-renewable resource is a natural resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human timeframes. Non-renewable resources are resources for which there is a limited supply. The supply comes from the Earth itself and, as it typically takes millions of years to develop, is finite. Non-renewable resources can generally be separated into two main categories; it includes Fossil fuels, nuclear fuels. Coal is considered a non-renewable resource because even though it is continually being formed, it is incapable to refill its stock at a rate which is sustainable (David Waugh, 2002). A non-renewable resource cannot maintain the demands for current human needs while still preserving the ecosystem for future generations.

How are natural resources distributed throughout the world?


Distribution of resources is varied. Since the formation of earth, it has experienced numerous physical processes which have resulted in great variations between different areas. Since natural resources often need specific conditions in which to form, they are not distributed evenly across the world. For instance, Coal is usually found in areas which were originally swampland during the greatest coal-forming era in history, the Carboniferous Period. It has been observed that as the distribution of natural resources is varied, it is not unusual for some nations to have one type of natural resource in plentiful quantity and for other countries to have many different types but with only a small supply. This indicates that the nations which are rich in some kind of natural resources do not necessarily use them all themselves. As an alternative, countries often export the natural resources that they have plenty of and import those which they require.

It has been observed that generally populace tends to settle and cluster in places that have the resources they need to survive and prosper. The geographic factors that most influence where humans settle are water, soil, vegetation, climate, and landscape. Because South America, Africa, and Australia have fewer of these geographic benefits, there is less population as compared to North America, Europe, and Asia.

Due to uneven resource distribution, human beings migrate to other regions where plenty of resources are available. Majority of people often migrate to a place that has the resources they need or want and migrate away from a place that lacks the resources they need. Lively examples in historical migrations are The Trail of Tears, Westward Movement, and the Gold Rush related to the desire for land and mineral resources. Economic activities in a region relate to the resources in that region. Economic activities that are directly associated with resources include farming, fishing, ranching, timber processing, oil and gas production, mining, and tourism. Many business scholars have affirmed that nations may not have the resources that are important to them, but business movement enables them to acquire those resources from places that have. For example, Japan has very limited natural resources but it is one of the wealthiest in Asia. Sony, Nintendo, Canon, Toyota, Honda, Sharp, Sanyo, Nissan are prosperous Japanese corporations that make products that are highly-desired in other countries. As a result of trade, Japan has enough wealth to buy the resources it needs.

Distribution of Key Natural Resources in the World

It has been seen that most of the countries in the world are having natural resources. Some have fewer amounts while other countries are rich in particular natural resource. Economists stated that natural resources add wealth to nations.

When it is evaluated for resource distribution around the world, Australia has many natural resources. These resources include mineral resources, such as copper, gold and diamonds, energy resources, such as coal, oil, and uranium, and land resources that are used for farming and logging. These resources are financially important to Australia. Many people consider that the monetary system of Australia is resource dependent, which means that if these resources were to be depleted, Australia’s economy would suffer. Australia has more coal than is needed and so exports it to countries like Japan which are lacking in it. Australia does not, however, produce enough oil to meet the demands of consumption and it is forced to import it. Some countries, especially developing nations, have the availability of natural resources but they do not use them fully. Sometimes countries do not have a great demand for the resource or simply lack the technology to develop or extract it. Rich transnational corporations (TNCs) often pay a fee to do the mining or extraction of the natural resources and then export them to developed countries.

Mineral resources: Australia is major producer of minerals at global scale. The most important mineral resources in Australia are bauxite, gold and iron ore. Other mineral deposits in Australia include copper, lead, zinc, diamonds and mineral sands. A majority of Australia’s minerals are excavated in Western Australia and Queensland. The minerals mined in Australia are exported, or shipped abroad.

Energy resources: Australia has huge deposits of coal. Coal is generally found in the eastern part of the country in the Sydney and Bowen basins. Majority of Australian coal is exported to nations like Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Western Europe. The rest of the coal mines in Australia are burned for electricity within Australia.

Natural gas is also plentiful in Australia. Natural gas is used to heat homes and power certain types of vehicles. Natural gas reserves in Australia are mostly found in Western Australia and central Australia. Since most of these reserves are far away from metropolitan centres, gas pipelines have been built to transport natural gas to cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. Some of this natural gas is exported from where it is collected. Natural gas collected in Western Australia is exported directly to Japan in liquid form.

Australia is also rich in uranium and supply at global level. Uranium is used to produce nuclear power. Nuclear power and uranium mining are both highly contentious, as people are concerned for their environmental impact, because uranium can produce toxic energy.

Lastly, Australia has many land resources. Australian soil is used to grow food in the form of crops and to produce food for raising livestock, such as cattle. Australian forests are used as a source of wood for building and making paper.

When discussing about natural resources in Africa, It is revealed in reports that Africa is rich in natural resources including diamonds, salt, gold, iron, cobalt, uranium, copper, bauxite, silver, petroleum and cocoa beans, but also woods and tropical fruits. Russia is excessively capable of natural resources, but industrial development was hindered until the twentieth century by their Siberian inaccessibility. Russia now produces 20 per cent of the world’s natural gas, and oil is also a valuable commodity. Russia is self-sufficient in all major industrial raw materials, and contains reserves of less essential, but significant natural resources, including diamonds and gold.

Industrialized nations have benefit over poor countries because if they do not have the quantity or type of natural resources which they require, they can afford to import them. Developed countries need to import natural resources because they depend on them for the development of their economy. Their use of natural resources is considered as a well-planned and constructive industry. It has been recommended that developed nations use more of the natural resources of world as compared to other developing nations. Reports have signified that while developed countries account for 25 percent of the world’s population, they use 75 percent of the world’s natural resources.

Geographical Distribution of Oil and Natural Gas Deposits: It was documented in reports that about 70 % of global conventional oil and natural gas reserves are concentrated inside a so called Strategic Ellipse stretching from Middle East to the North of West Siberia. Main consuming regions in 2004 were North America, Austral-Asia, and Europe, for natural gas North America, CIS and Europe.

Development of primary energy consumption worldwide and projections of IEA until 2030 (Sources: BP and IEA, 2015)

When appraising the distribution of natural gas, it is found in reports that about 41 % of global reserves are in the Middle East, about 32 % in the CIS countries and about 8 % in Africa.

Regarding iron core resource in the world, USA is rich in this resource. Ore is mined in the red mountains and Birmingham Valley. Northern New Jersey, the states of Utah, Nevada and California also are rich in iron core. In Canada, there are three main areas where iron core is mined that include Ontario, Quebec and new found land. In Europe, Germany, France, Sweden and UK are large producer of Iron ore. Ukraine has the sixth position in the world in producing iron ore and it produced 4.32 per cent of the world production in 2006. Krivoi Rog of Ukraine possesses best iron ore having 68.5 per cent metallic percentage. It contributes 75 per cent production of Ukraine. The estimated reserves of the region are more than 200 million tons. Other regions of Ukraine are Zaporozhe, Zdanow, Lipetsk and Kerch Peninsula.

South Africa is also major iron ore producing country of the African continent and ranks 8th in the world iron ore production. In South Africa Transvaal is the main iron ore-producing centre. Transvaal is having high-grade ore with 60 to 65 per cent iron content. The total reserves have been estimated at 10 billion tons in South Africa. The average annual production of South Africa is 4 million metric tons.

Distribution of key natural resources in South Asia: 
When appraising the regions of South Asia, it has been found that these provinces have enormous natural resource and ecological and biological diversity. Many researchers have recognized that The Southeast Asian states today are rich in natural resources and are major world producers of rubber, tin, copra, palm oil, petroleum and timber (Chia 1999). However population growth and economic development are intimidating the region’s rich heritage through the expansion and intensification of agriculture, the unrestrained growth of industrialization, the destruction of natural homes and urban extension. Southeast Asia has lavish source of hydrocarbon resources natural gas and petroleum.

Natural resources

Traditional government accounting systems do not consider the significance of these natural resources. The South Asia’s nation governments have recognised several areas for growth that include nature-based tourism, mining, ecosystem, biodiversity and agriculture which will concurrently help diversity the economic and decrease poverty. In order to fulfil all development goals, the governments need to optimize use of natural resources. The main concentration of South Asia is to understand the value of natural resources that leads to better decisions for development. Valuing the environment and incorporating natural resources into national accounts, it can support better to nation’s economy.

Distribution of Natural Resources in India

India is gifted with various types of natural Resources such as fertile soil, forests, minerals and water. These resources are unevenly distributed. The Indian continent covers a multitude of biotic and abiotic resource. As India has rapid population growth therefore there is overconsumption of resources, such as uncontrolled logging or overfishing and many valuable natural resources are rapidly being exhausted. India has huge watered fertile lands. In the sedimentary soil of the Northern Great Plains of the Sutlej-Ganga plains and Brahmaputra Valley wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, jute, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, sesame, linseed, are grown in plentiful. India’s land area includes regions with high rainfall to dry deserts, Coast line to Alpine regions.

India also has a variety of natural vegetation since the country has a varied relief and climate. These forests are narrowed to the plateaus and hilly mountainous areas. India has a great variety of wildlife. There are many national parks and hundreds of wild life sanctuaries. Around 21 percent of the total geographical area include Forests. Because India’s whether conditions are changing frequently and differences in altitude, different types of Forest are present in India including Tropical, Swamps, Mangrove and Alpine. Variety of forest vegetation is large. Forests are the main source of Fire woods, Paper, Spices, Drugs, Herbs, Gums and more. Forests have great contribution to nation’s GDP.

India has more marine and inland water resources. Reports signify that India has an 8129 km long coastline. Inland fishery is performed in Rivers, Reservoirs and Lakes. Reports of EIA estimate for 2009 indicated that in Indian rivers more than 400 species of fish are found and many species are economically important.

India had about 125 Million metric tonne of proven oil reserves as on April 2010 or 5.62 billion barrels. Most of India’s crude oil reserves are located in the western coast (Mumbai High) and in the north-eastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also found in the offshore Bay of Bengal and in the state of Rajasthan.

Statistical data have revealed that India has 1,437 billion cubic metres (50.7×1012 cu ft) of confirmed natural gas reserves as of April 2010. An enormous mass of India’s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the Mumbai High complex. The onshore fields in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat states are also main producers of natural gas. Reports of EIA revealed that India produced 996 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2004. India imports small amounts of natural gas.

Mineral Resource in India are also in large amount such as iron, coal, mineral oil, manganese, bauxite, Chromite, copper, tungsten, gypsum, lime­stone, mica. When evaluating the Livestock Resource, it is found that Hills, mountains and less fertile lands are put under pasture. Scientific methods are followed in rearing cattle. India maintains rich domestic animal diversity. India has large number of animals like goat, sheep, poultry, cattle, and buffalo. Indian livestock has imperative role in improving the socio-economic status of the rural masses. In the area of Horticulture, India has various agro-climatic conditions which facilitates cultivation of a large number of horticulture crops such as vegetables, fruits, flower, medicinal and aromatic plant, mushroom, etc. and plantation corps like tea, coffee and rubber.

Non-renewable resources are also plentiful in different parts of India: Coal is the mainly used energy in India and occupies the leading position. In India, coal is obtained mostly from Andra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Meghalaya, Jammu and Kashmir. Natural gas in India is available in Tripura State, Krishna Godavari field and gas associates in petroleum products. Petroleum product has become a vital source of energy in India. In India, Petroleum products can be obtained from Digboi, Assam, around the Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat, off shore in Arabian Sea, spread out from Mumbai up to 100miles.

India has fourth rank in producing iron ore in the world. On an average, India produces about 7 per cent of the world production. It has about 2.6 per cent iron ore reserves of the world. Main states that produce iron ore are Chhattisgarh (Arindogi, Raoghat and Bailadia (Bastar), Dhalli, Rajbara (Durg), Odisha ( Keonjbar, Mayurbhanj and Diringburi districts), Karnataka ( Babudan hill, Hospet, Chitradurg, Tumkur, Sandur and Bellary districts). Jharkhand ( Noamundi, Notaburu, Pansiraburu, Budaburu, Guo, Barajamada, Meghahataburu in Singhblim district ), Andhra Pradesh (Anantpur, Kurmool, Adilabed, Karimnegct), Goa ( Bicholim, Sirigao, Mapusa, Netarlim ), Maharashtra (Pipalagoon, Asola, Lohara in Chandrapura district).

Recently, in has been observed that The Indian mining industry is passing through a perilous phase, witnessing negative growth.

Distribution of Natural Resources in China

China has a cosmic territory, with plentiful natural resources and diverse types of land resources. China’s land resources are large in absolute terms but small on a per-capita basis. There are more mountains than plains, with sophisticated land and forests constituting small proportions. Numerous land resources are haphazardly distributed among different regions. The cultivated land is mostly in plains and basins in the monsoon regions of east China, while forests are mostly found in the remote mountainous areas in the northeast and the southwest. Grasslands are chiefly distributed on inland plateaus and in mountains. The Agricultural Census in 1996 have shown that China has 130.04 million hectares of cultivated land and 35.35 million hectares of land suitable for agricultural uses. The cultivated land is mainly distributed in the Northeast China, North China and Middle-Lower Yangtze plains, the Pearl River Delta and the Sichuan Basin. It is established in research studies that China’s total forest area was 175 million hectares, and its forest coverage rate was 18.21 percent. The total standing stock volume of China was 13.62 billion cubic meters (The sixth national enumeration of forest resources, 1999-2003). The stock volume of its forests stood at 12.46 billion cubic meters.

Natural forests are concentrated focused in the northeast and the southwest, but uncommon in the densely populated and economically developed eastern plains and the vast north-western district. When considering regional distribution, China’s forests are found mainly in the Northeast China Forest Zone, the Southwest China Forest Zone and the Southeast China Forest Zone. Grassland in China is extensive. China has 400 million hectares of grassland. It is found in statistical report that China is one of the countries with the largest area of grassland in the world. Natural grassland is mainly distributed in areas west and north of the Greater Hinggan Mountains, the Yinshan Mountain and the eastern foot of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, while artificial grassland is concentrated in southeast China where it lies amid cultivated land and forests.

Mineral Resource in China are plenteous. A total of 171 kinds of minerals have so far been discovered, of which 158 have proven reserves. These include 10 kinds of energy mineral resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal and uranium; 54 kinds of metallic mineral resources such as iron, manganese, copper, aluminium, lead and zinc; 91 kinds of non-metallic mineral resources such as graphite, phosphorus, sulphur and sylvine; and three kinds of water and gas mineral resources such as underground water and mineral water. Presently, the supply of over 92 percent of China’s primary energy, 80 percent of its industrial raw materials and more than 70 percent of its agricultural means of production come from mineral resources.

Energy Mineral Resources in China are also in huge quantity but the structure of these types of resources is not perfect, with coal making up a large proportion while petroleum and natural gas constituting comparatively small proportions. Coal resources has huge reserves and complete varieties but uneven distribution among different grades, with small reserves of high-quality coking coal and anthracite coal; wide distribution but a great difference in wealth for different deposit locations, with large reserves in western and northern regions and small reserves in eastern and southern regions; a small number of surface coalmines, most of which are lignite mines; and great varieties of associated minerals existing in coal seams.

There are large oil reserves in China and it ranks as one of the 10 countries in the world with more than 15 billion tons of exploitable oil reserves; low proven rate, with verified onshore reserves accounting for only one fifth of the total and the proven rate for offshore reserves being even lower; and concentrated distribution, with 73 percent of the total oil resources distributed in 14 basins each covering an area of 100,000 square km and more than 50 percent of the nation’s total natural gas resources distributed in central and western regions.

China is lavish in metallic mineral resources. It has proven reserves, more or less, of all kinds of metallic mineral resources that have so far been discovered at international level. Among these resources, the proven reserves of tungsten, tin, antimony, rare earth, tantalum and titanium rank first in the world; those of vanadium, molybdenum, niobium, beryllium and lithium rank second; those of zinc rank fourth; and those of iron, lead, gold and silver rank fifth.

China’s metallic minerals such as tungsten, tin, molybdenum, antimony and rare earth have large reserves, and are of superior quality and competitive in world markets. However, many important metallic minerals such as iron, manganese, aluminium and copper are of poor quality, with ores lean and difficult to smelt. Most of the metallic mineral deposits are small or medium-sized, whereas large and super-large deposits account for a small proportion.

China has full range of non-metallic mineral resources and it is one of the few countries in the world that have a relatively non-metallic mineral resources. Currently, there are more than 5,000 non-metallic mineral ore production bases with proven reserves in China.

Regarding water and Gas Mineral Resources, there are proven natural underground water resources in China amount to 870 billion cubic meters per year, of which 290 billion cubic meters are exploitable. The natural underground salty water resources in China stand at 20 billion cubic meters per year. Though, China’s underground water resources are not equally distributed, with the southern region rich, and northern and western regions poor. Underground water aquifer types vary from region to region. North China has a widespread distribution of underground water resources through pore aquifers, while its south-western region has wide distribution of Karst water resources. Marine resources in China are in huge quantity and scattered in the offshore waters which are sedimentation basins, with a total area of nearly 700,000 square km, estimated to contain about 24 billion tons of oil reserves and 14 trillion cubic meters of natural gas.

Distribution of Natural Resources in Bangladesh

India’s neighbouring country, Bangladesh has lavishly natural gas as natural resource and ranked 7th position in the Asia. Among the natural resources of Bangladesh are its arable land, timber, coal and natural gas. The most lucrative of these resources is the fertile sedimentary soil in the delta region largely moulded by the country’s physical geography. Bangladesh also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year.

To summarize, Natural resources such as different materials, water, energy and fertile land, are the basis for humans on Earth. Besides resources such as water, air, sunlight, forest area or agricultural land, which exist as separate entities, other resources like metals, ores and primary energy resources have to be extracted from the soil to make them usable. Their value is mainly determined by the relative shortage of the resource in combination with its exploitability for industrial use.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Political philosophies like communism capitalism and socialism

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society

Political Philosophy is a broad foreword to the major intellectuals and themes in political philosophy. It discovers the philosophical beliefs which have formed and continue to inform political judgements of people. Dudley Knowles introduces the ideas of major political thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx and Mill and dominant modern philosophers such as Berlin, Rawls and Nozick. Basically, Political philosophy is concerned with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion.

Communism

Communism is considered as vital framework in political philosophy. It is a socio-economic scaffold that assists in supporting the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. It boosts the formation of a democratic state in order to overcome the class structures and alienation of labour that characterize capitalistic societies and their inheritance of imperialism and nationalism. According to the principle of communism, main process of resolving problems of classless and other favoritism in society for the working class is to replace the prosperous ruling class, through radical action, in order to establish a diplomatic, free society, without classes or government. Communism, basically, is the idea of a free society with no division or estrangement, where humankind is free from oppression and insufficiency, and where there is no need for governments or countries and no class divisions. It imagines a world in which each person gives according to their abilities, and receives according to their needs. It is usually deliberated as a division of extensive Socialist movement. The main forms of Communism, such as Leninism, Trotskyism and Luxemburgish, are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of Communism (such as Christian Communism and Anarchist Communism).

In the era of late 19th Century, major philosophical terms like socialism and communism were often used simultaneously. Communism was considered as an economic-political philosophy which was evolved by famous philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels during this period. Marx and Engels wrote and published “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848. They had a wish to stop thinking a capitalism feeling that it was the social class system which led to the mistreatment of labours. The workers that were treated badly had developed class awareness and it resulted in a fundamental process of class conflict. In this conflict, the public may rise up against the bourgeoisie and establish a communist society. Marx and Engels supposed of the proletariat as the individuals with labour power, and the bourgeoisie as those who own the means of production in a capitalist society. The state would pass through a phase, often thought of as socialism, and ultimately developed a pure communist society. In a communist society, all private ownership would be obliterated, and the ways of production would belong to the whole community. In the communist movement, a popular motto was that everyone contributes according to their competence and received according to their requirements. Therefore, the needs of a society would be put above and beyond the specific needs of an individual. Though, there are numerous arguments for Marxist theory such as communism would not emerge from Capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a first phase (Socialism) in which most productive property was owned in common, but there were some class differences. This would finally develop into a “higher phase” that was termed as Communism in which class differences were abolished, and a state was no longer needed and would wither away. It was argued by many philosophers that radical activity by the working classes was required to bring about these changes.

History of Communism: It was documented in historical records that initially, Communist philosophy was the history of Socialism. In its modern version, Communism evolved of the Socialist movements of 19th Century Europe and the critics of Capitalism during the Industrial Rebellion. Main critics were the German philosopher Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels (1820 – 1895), and their pioneering “Communist Manifesto” of 1848, the defining document of the movement, presented a novel explanation of Communism and promoted the phrase communism. The practice of the terms “communism” and “socialism” changed after the Russian Revolution of 1917, when the admittedly Marxist Bolshevik Party in Russia changed their name to the Communist Party and formed a single party regime that was dedicated to the implementation of socialist policies under Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924). Lenin created the Third International (or Communist International or Comintern) in 1919 and set the twenty-one conditions (including democratic centralism) for any European socialist parties willing to join. With awareness of the Russian Civil War, the Union of Soviet Socialist was established in 1922.

Other communism movement related to Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) which was lasted until 1928, when Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953) party leader under the banner of “socialism in one country” and proceeded down the way of isolationism and Totalitarianism with the first of many Five Year Plans. Remarkably Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940) Marxist critics of the Soviet Union, referred to the Soviet system as a “degenerated” or “deformed” workers’ state, argued that it fell far short of Marx’s communist model, and claimed that the working class was politically expelled. Post World War II, the Warsaw Pact saw Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania joined the Soviet Union in an economic and military coalition under firm Soviet Control. However, relations were very tough, and the Soviet Union was forced into military interventions to supress popular rebellions in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968), and Albania withdrew from the Pact in 1968 due to philosophical dissimilarities.

In the decade of 1070s, although never officially unified as a single political entity, almost one-third of the world’s populace lived in Communist states, including the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe, as well Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Angola, and Mozambique. However, the Warsaw Pact countries had all abandoned Communist rule by 1990, and in 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved, leaving China, Cuba and some isolated states in Asia and Africa as the remaining bastions of Communism. In most cases significantly dampened down and changed from its original philosophy.

Types of Communism: Marxism is the main theoretical-practical structure on which dogmas of Socialism and Communism are based.
Marxism: Marxism is a perspective that involves a number of differing “sub-perspectives” that is, whilst there tends to be a general agreement about the need to construct a critique of Capitalist society, there are major differences between theorists working within this viewpoint. Main Marxist ideas can be explained in the following terms:

  1. Marxism stresses the notion that social life is based upon “conflicts of interest”. Most significant and basic conflict is that between the Bourgeoisie, those who own and control the means of production in society and the Proletariat, those who simply sell their labour power in the market place of Capitalism.
  2. Dissimilar of the Functionalist version of Structuralist sociology, the idea of social class is more than an evocative category, social class is used to clarify how and why societies change. Class conflict signifies a process whereby change comes about through the opposition of social classes as they follow what they see to be their (different and opposed) collective interests in society.
  3. Marxism is a political philosophy whose main concern is to expose the political and economic contradictions in-built in Capitalism such as the fact that while people co-operate to produce goods, a Capitalist class appropriates these goods for its private profit and to point the way towards the establishment of a future Communist society.

Marxism-Leninism is the Communist philosophical field that emerged as the conventional tendency amongst Communist parties in the 1920’s as it was accepted as the conceptual foundation of the Communist International during the era of Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953), with whom it is mainly associated. The term “Marxism-Leninism” is mostly used by those who consider that Lenin’s legacy was effectively carried forward by Stalin; although it is arguable to what extent it actually follows the principles of either Marx or Lenin.

Philosophy of Leninism was built upon and extended the ideas of Marxism, and served as the theoretical foundation for the ideology of Soviet Communism after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924) argued in his leaflet “What is to be Done?” of 1902 that the proletariat can only realise a successful radical consciousness through the efforts of a “vanguard party” composed of full-time professional revolutionaries and through a form of controlled organization generally called “democratic centralism” (whereby decisions are made with internal democracy but then all party members must externally support and actively promote that decision). It maintains that Capitalism can only be conquered by innovatory ways and any attempts to improve Capitalism from within are destined to fail. The objective of a Leninist party is to coordinate the overthrow of the existing government by force and grab power on behalf of the proletariat, and then implement a autocracy of the proletariat, a kind of direct equality in which workers hold political power through local councils known as soviets.

Stalinism is a more judgmental phrase for Joseph Stalin’s vision of Communism. Supporters of this ideology argue that it includes widespread use of publicity to establish a personality cult around an absolute ruler, as well as extensive use of a secret police to maintain social proposal and silence political opposition, all of which are trappings of Totalitarianism.

Trotskyism is the philosophical model of Marxism that was supported by Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940), who considered himself a conformist Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, and squabbled for the establishment of a frontline party. His politics differed sharply from the Marxism-Leninism of Joseph Stalin, with respect to declare the need for an international proletarian revolution and firm support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on direct autonomous ideologies. Most dominant characteristics of Trotskyism is the theory of permanent uprising to explain how socialist revolutions could happen in societies that had not yet attained advanced Capitalism. Marx explained it as a prerequisite for socialist revolution.

Luxemburgish is a particular innovative theoretical model under the category of Communism, which is based on the texts of Rosa Luxemburg (1870 – 1919). Her politics deviated from those of Lenin and Trotsky mainly in her discrepancy with their concept of “democratic centralism”, which she visualized as unsatisfactorily democratic. Luxemburgish looks like Anarchism in its averting of an authoritarian society by relying on the people themselves as opposed to their leaders. However, it also sees the significance of a revolutionary party and the centrality of the working class in the radical struggle. It resembles Trotskyism in its resistance to the Totalitarianism of Stalin and to the crusader politics of modern social classlessness, but differs in arguing that Lenin and Trotsky also made inequitable mistakes.

Thoughts of Maoism are different of Communism derived from the teachings of the Chinese leader Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung) (1893 – 1976), and practised in the People’s Republic of China after the Chinese Revolution of 1949. Maoism evolved from the Marxism-Leninism of Stalin, but introduced new ideas such as Social-Imperialism (Mao accused the Soviet Union of dominating and exploiting the smaller countries in its scope to the point of organising their economies around Soviet, not domestic, needs), the Mass Line (a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political headship in the concerns and conditions of the masses – “from the masses, to the masses”), people’s war and new democracy.

Left Communism is a range of Communist perspectives held by the Communist Left, which asserts to be more truly Marxist and proletarian than the views of Leninism and its successors. Left Communists advocated the Russian Revolution, but did not agree to the methods of the Bolsheviks. The Russian, Dutch-German and the Italian traditions of Left Communism all share an opposition to nationalism, all kinds of national liberation movements, frontism parliamentary systems.

Council Communism is a far-reaching left movement that emanated in Germany and the Netherlands in the decade of 1920s, and continues today as a theoretic and activist position within both left-wing Marxism and Libertarian Socialism. It visualized workers’ councils, arising in factories and municipalities, as the natural form of working class organization and governmental power. This philosophical viewpoint opposes the notion of a “revolutionary party” on the basis that a revolution led by a party unavoidably produces a party despotism.

Anarchist Communism promotes the complete elimination of the state and Capitalism in favour of a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers’ councils and/or commons through which everyone is free to satisfy their needs. The movement was led by the Russians Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876) and Peter Kropotkin (1842 – 1921).

Euro communism was flourished in the decades of1970’s and 1980’s within various Western European Communist parties to develop a philosophy and practice of social change that was more applicable in a Western European egalitarianism and less allied to the party line of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Religious Communism is a type of Communism that focus centred on religious attitudes, such as Christian, Taoist, Jain, Hindu or Buddhist. It usually denotes to a number of classless and utopian religious societies practicing the voluntary dissolution of private property, so that society’s benefits are distributed according to a person’s needs, and every person performs labour according to their abilities.

Benefit of communism: Communism philosophy upkeeps extensive universal social welfare, such as enhancements in public health and education. Its theoretical dogmas are beneficial to build equality and strong social communities. Communist ideology promotes universal education with a focus on developing the proletariat with knowledge, class realisation, and historical understanding. Communism also supports the liberation of women and to end their exploitation. Communist philosophy emphasizes the development of a “New Man”a class-conscious, knowledgeable, daring, democratic person dedicated to work and social consistency in contrast to the antithetic “bourgeois individualist” related with cultural backwardness and social atomization.

Criticisms of Communism: There are numerous criticisms of Communism.

Many philosophers have argued that Communism offers an idea of unattainable perfect future, and keeps its subjects in thrall to it by devaluing the past and the present. It asserts to represent a universal truth which explains everything and can cure every ill and any apparent deviations or under-performance are explained away by casuistry and emotional appeals.

Philosophy of communism is incomplete. Marx and Engels never devoted much work to show how exactly a Communist economy would function in practice, leaving Socialism a “negative ideology”. The supposition that human nature is totally determined by the environment; Some Communists, such as Trotsky, believed that all the social, political and intellectual life processes in general are conditioned by the socio-economic base and the mode of production of material life, which rather devalues humanity and the importance of the lives and rights of human beings.

Many Anarchists and Libertarian Socialists throwaway the need for a transitory state phase and often disapprove Marxism and Communism for being too authoritarian. Some Anarcho-Primitivists reject left wing politics in general, seeing it as unethical and claiming that civilization is unreformable.

Some opponents have argued that Marx’s concept of freedom is really just a defence of dictatorship and oppression, and not an expansion of liberties as he claimed.

Some critics have construed many of Marx’s pronouncements on Jews as being anti-Semitic, claiming that he saw Jews as the embodiment of Capitalism and the creators of all its evils. Others, however, hotly dispute this interpretation.

Many Socialist reformists take issue with the Marxist requirement for a fierce proletarian revolution and argued that Capitalism can be reformed by steady democratic changes. Some theorists criticized communism philosophy on the ground that the concept of Historical Materialism which underlies much of Marxist theory is faulty, or that such a method can be twisted into trying to force the course of history in a particular direction, or that in practice it leads to Nihilism. In short, Historical Materialism is the notion that for human beings to survive, they need to produce and reproduce the material requirements of life, and this production is carried out through a division of labour based on very definite production relations between people. These relations form the financial base of society, and are themselves determined by the mode of production which is in force such as tribal society, ancient society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and societies, and their cultural and institutional superstructures, naturally move from stage to stage as the foremost class is displaced by a new developing class in a social and political turmoil.

Other critics disapproved the ideology of Marxist class and argued that class is not the most important inequality in history, and that thorough analysis of many historical periods fails to find support for class or social development as used by Marxists. Some critics have argued that the growing spread of liberal democracy around the world, and the apparent lack of major revolutionary movements developing in them, suggest that Capitalism or social democracy is likely to be the effective form of human government instead of Marxism, which claims to be an “end of history” philosophy. According to Pope Pius XI, “Communism is intrinsically evil, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever”.

Effect of communism on society: 
The main objective of Communism is to develop society without rulers, a society where the people oversee themselves. But until this is accomplished, a superior government has absolute power. The people do not have any private belongings and all assets belong to the government.

Therefore it has some disastrous effect on society. It can be illustrated from one of communism’s effects was in 1933. Cruel ruler, Hitler was a communist dictator. Under his instructions, the holocaust began. Reports indicated that approximately, six million Jewish people died. Communists consider their goal, their party, and the state more vital than the rights and autonomy of individual. In communist nations, there are usually huge gaps between official claims of freedom and conditions in which they actually exist.

To summarize, Communism is an economic system where the government owns most of the factors of production and decides the allocation of resources and what products and services will be provided. The most significant theorists who evolved the ideologies of communism were Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. They wanted to end the exploitation of the masses by the few. The capitalist system at that time required workers to work under harsh and dangerous conditions for little pay. According to economic scholars, communism is concept, in that ownership of land, capital and industry cannot be owned or controlled by the individual. However, under Communism the control of these things is not by a local community but by the State Government. Under this system, the government has total control of everything produced and control what is made, and who will receive the goods and services produced. The end goal of communism was to eradicate class distinctions among people, where everyone shared equally in the proceeds of society, when government would no longer be needed. In basic form, Communism is an ideology and a political and economic system to manage economies and countries. The core dogmas of communism are that all capital or means of production are owned and operated by the society or the government rather than by individuals as their private property. It is documented in theories that Communism is one of the most far-reaching political concepts but became popular throughout the world. It provided answer to the problems of capitalist and to establish a classless stateless society on a rational basis, where there is no exploitation and all live in peace, comfort and harmony getting full opportunity to develop their personality.

Capitalism

Capitalism is a type of social system that follows the belief of individual rights. From political perspective, capitalism is the system of laissez-faire (freedom). Lawfully, it is a system of objective laws that is rule of law in contrast to rule of man. In financial terms, when such freedom is applied to the domain of production its result is the free-market. Earlier, this notion was not clearly explained. Several economists and theorists assumed that capitalism has existed for most of human history. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the phrase Capitalism was first used by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, in 1854 in his novel ‘The Newcomes’, where he described capitalism as “having ownership of capital and not as a system of production”. During 19th century, capitalism was described by numerous theorists as “an economic system characterized by private or corporation ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control, and by prices, production and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly in free market” Capitalism is commonly elucidated as an economic system where private actors are permitted to own and control the use of property according to their own interests, and where the invisible hand of the pricing mechanism coordinates supply and demand in markets in a way that is automatically in the best interests of civilisation. In this system, Government is responsible for peace, justice, and tolerable taxes.

Basically, Capitalism is a private ownership based on the ways of production and distribution of goods categorised by a free competitive market and incentive by profit. It can be said that it is an economics system based on survival of the fittest.

Historical review of Capitalism: In theoretical review, it has been described by numerous theorists that there are three periods of Capitalism such as early, middle and late periods, while others academicians consider capitalism to be a social characteristic that cannot be confined by historical period, but rather by the recognition of unending elements of the human condition. Earlier, capitalism was originated in the fourteenth century emergency, a conflict that developed between the land-owning aristocracy (the lords) and the agricultural producers (the serfs). Feudalism subdued the development of capitalism in numerous ways. The serfs were forced to produce sufficient food for the lords as a result of this the lords had no interest in the advancement of technology, but rather expanded their power and wealth through military means. There was no competitive pressure for them to revolutionize because they were not producing to sell on the market. The changeover from feudalism to capitalism was mainly driven by the mechanic of war and not by the politics of prosperity and production methods. Conversely, in current period, modern capitalism ascended in the early middle ages, between the 16th and 18th century, when mercantilism was established. Mercantilism is described as a distribution of goods that are bought at a certain price and sold at a higher price in order to generate profits. It provided the basic principles of capitalism in that it was the “large-scale realization of a profit by acquiring goods for lower prices than to the sell them”. During the period of 18th century, mercantilism weakened when a group of economic theorists led by Adam Smith challenged mercantilist principles. They supposed that a state could only escalate its wealth at the expense of another state’s wealth while the amount of the world’s wealth remained constant. After the decline in mercantilism, Industrial capitalism emerged in the mid-18th century due to the huge accretion of capital under the period of merchant capitalism and its investment in machinery. Industrial capitalism marked development of manufacturing factory system and led to the global supremacy of capitalist mode of production. In the 19th century, capitalism allowed great increase in efficiency. It generated great social changes, which remained in place during the twentieth century where it was established as the world’s most predominant financial model after the failure of the USSR. In the twenty-first century, capitalism had become an extensively universal economic system at global scale.

It is commonly visualized that capitalism broadly corresponds to that developed by the classical economists and by Marx. In this view, capitalism is an economic system in which control of production and the allocation of real and financial resources are based on private ownership of the means of production. It is a theory expounded through observation of the economic system prevailing in Great Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Capitalism is an indirect system of governance based on a multifarious and continually evolving political bargain in which private actors are endowed by a political authority to own and control the use of property for private gain under definite laws and regulations. Workforces are free to work for incomes, capital is free to earn a return, and both labour and capital are allowed to enter and exit from various business. Capitalism depends upon the pricing mechanism to balance supply and demand in market. It relies on the profit motivation to assign opportunities and resources among contending suppliers and it relies upon a political authority to establish the rules and regulations so that they include all applicable societal costs and benefits. Government and its representatives are responsible to deliver physical security for persons and property as well as the laws and regulations. Capitalist development is built from investment in advanced technologies that enable to enhance productivity, where various initiatives are selected through a Darwinian process that favours productive uses of those resources, and from the periodic modernization of the legal and regulatory framework as specified by altering market conditions and societal urgencies.

To develop capitalism, government must have to perform many roles such as administrative role, in which providing and maintaining the institutions that support capitalism. Capitalism contrasts with previous economic systems characterized by forced labour, self-sufficiency, barter, and/or reciprocal relationships based upon family, tribe, or locally known relationships. It is also dissimilar with modern systems where governments have acted directly through ownership and/or central planning to control of the use of resources. Government’s approach of intervention in a capitalist system is mainly indirectly. It creates, legitimates, administers and intermittently updates the various market frameworks that elucidate the conditions in which the economic factors may obtain and employ capital and labour to produce, distribute, and sell goods and services. Consequently, economic players receive the right to use their power in competition with others, subject to predominant laws and regulations.

The market structures can have quite dissimilar policy priorities, from protecting the status quo to the advancement of growth and development, from protecting consumers to protecting producers, and from protecting labour to protecting capital. Governments identify the responsibilities of the various participants in these transactions such as for the safety and serviceability of the products, as well as the conditions under which they are produced and distributed. Therefore, this indirect system of governance certainly exemplifies a strategy, though this strategy is often largely implicit rather than overt and created progressively over time instead of huge plan. While positive capitalism depends upon the granting of power to private companies to enter, compete in, and exit from markets, it also depends upon the state’s power to confine the private actors so that they do not abuse these powers. To be authentic as well as productive, private economic actors must be bound by the rule of law, and this rule of law must be backed by the coercive powers of the state. The powers of the state are engaged to confine the private players from breaking the rules and, if need be, to settle clashes. Efficacious capitalism is reliant upon a state control of forced powers. Capitalist systems typically rely on the state to make direct provision of certain public goods, such as highways, schools and law enforcement, as well as to refrain from the temptation to own, operate, or directly control the economic actors. If the state does become a direct economic player, it becomes a player as well as a referee. This puts state agents in roles that conflict for example, as a regulator and as player that need not be subject to the discipline of the markets.

Capitalism as a three level system: Capitalism has three level systems. On the first level, the markets, firms compete to secure their labour and capital as well as to serve their customers. In second level, there is basic institutional foundations, including physical and social infrastructure; physical infrastructure includes, among other things, transportation and communications, and social infrastructure includes the educational, public health, and legal systems. Additionally, the second level consists of the agents of the state who enforce the rules and regulations, including specialized regulators who oversee behaviour in certain industries, such as those that deal with food and drugs or transportation, and those who protect societal resources such as the physical environment or safety in the workplace. The third level comprises of a political authority typically one with specialized functions such as executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In turn, a set of political institutions connect the political authority to the political markets and ultimately to civil society, to which such an authority is finally responsible.

Level of capitalism

Capitalism is planned to uphold the industrious use of public resources in order fulfil consumer needs in the short period and to enhance living style of people through time. As a result, its supervisory frameworks give priority to promoting productivity instead of equalizing competitive resources on a given day or during a given season. Same time, it is established that capitalism is controlled after the fact, and not in real time the way organized sports are. The regulators do not stop the play to assess a foul, nor halt the competition to scrutinize a controversial event via “instant replay.” The economy moves on and disputes are settled after the fact, in court if need be.

Types of capitalism: 
There are many alternatives of capitalism that differ according to country and region. They vary in their institutional character and by their economic policies. The common features among all the dissimilar forms of capitalism is that they are based on the production of merchandises and services for profit, predominately market-based allocation of resources, and they are structured upon the accretion of capital. The major types of capitalism are mentioned below.

Mercantilism: Mercantilism is a nationalist system of initial capitalism that was practiced in the later phase of 16th century. It is characterized by the interweaving of national business interests to state-interest and imperialism, and subsequently, the state apparatus is utilized to improve national business interests abroad. Mercantilism was determined by the conviction that the prosperity of a nation is increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations. It relates to the phase of capitalist development and sometimes called the Primitive accumulation of capital. Mercantilist arguments for protectionist policies and their central concept of profit upon alienation, obtained in circulation, often tied to unstable transitory and immature character of capitalist economy of their age (Makoto Ito, 1988). Mercantilist capitalism involves more cooperation and coordination between government and economic entities including large cooperation and sometimes whole sectors of economy.

Free-market economy: Free-market economy is described as a capitalist economic system where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without interference by government plan. It characteristically involves in support for highly competitive markets, private ownership of productive enterprises. Laissez-faire is a more extensive form of free-market economy where the role of the state is limited to protecting property rights.

Social market and Nordic model: A social-market economy is a supposedly free-market system where government involvement in price formation is kept to a minimum but the state provides substantial services in the area of social security, unemployment benefits and recognition of labour rights through national collective bargaining arrangements. The social market economy forms an essential part of free and open society, which is also characterised by solidarity. It has proven itself as an economic system that allows for prosperity and full employment whilst also providing welfare and promoting a strong social system. This model is conspicuous in Western and Northern European countries, and Japan, although in slightly different configurations. The huge majority of enterprises are privately owned in this economic model.

Rhine capitalism: It is described as the modern model of capitalism and adaptation of the social market model that exists in continental Western Europe today. State capitalism: State capitalism includes state ownership of the means of production within a state, and the organization of state enterprises as commercial, profit-seeking businesses. The argument between proponents of private versus state capitalism is focused on issues of managerial efficacy, productive efficiency, and fair distribution of wealth.

Aldo Musacchio, leading expert stated that state capitalism is a system in which governments, whether democratic or autocratic, exercise an extensive influence on the economy, through either direct ownership or various subsidies. Musacchio also said that there is a significant difference between today’s state capitalism and its predecessors. In his views, earlier, governments appointed bureaucrats to run companies but in present situation, the world’s largest state-owned enterprises are now traded on the public markets and kept in good health by large institutional investors.

Corporate capitalism: Corporate capitalism refers to a free or mixed-market economy categorised by the supremacy of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations.

Mixed economy: Mixed economy is a mainly market-based economy consisting of both private and public ownership of the means of production and economic interventionism through macroeconomic policies intended to correct market failures, reduce unemployment and keep inflation low. The degree of involvement in markets differs among different countries. Some mixed economies, such as France under dirigisme, also featured a degree of indirect economic planning over a largely capitalist-based economy. Contemporary capitalist economies are described as “mixed economies”.

Characteristics of Capitalism: 
Capitalism, generally referred to a free enterprise economy, is considered as an economic system distinguished by some traits, whose development is condition by still other elements. The main characteristics of capitalism are mentioned below.

  1. Private Ownership: Private individuals are the owners of the means of production, which is, land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship (as opposed to state ownership and communist ownership). These owners decide what to produce, in what quantities, how it is going to be produced, and the rewards of labour. It is demand and supply that determines the price of the finished good (s).
  2. Decentralized Decision Making: In a capitalist economy, the process of decision making takes the structure of devious decentralization. Individuals, make the decision with their self-interest. However, the government controls these decisions by manipulating its respective environment that is, affecting prices, taxes, subsides.
  3. Freedom of Choice: Capitalism also referred to as a market economy, which highlights on the freedom of the individual, both as a consumer and as an owner of the factors of production. Principally, an individual can work wherever he or she wants, while entrepreneurs are also free to set up enterprises of their own choice. Within a market economy, decisions or choices are mainly determined by material encouragements.

It is found in vast literature that Capitalism is an economic system in which each individual in his capacity as a consumer, producer and resource owner is engaged in economic activity with a great degree of economic freedom. The factors of production are privately owned and managed by individuals. The main purpose of the capitalist system is the profit motive. The entrepreneurs initiate production with a view to maximize profits. Income is received in financial form through the sale of services of the factors of production and from profits of private enterprise. Capitalist economy is not planned, controlled or regulated by the government. In this system, economic decisions and activities are guided by price mechanism which operates automatically without any direction and control by the central authorities. In capitalist economy, competition is the most important element. It means the existence of large number of buyers and sellers in the market who are motivated by their self-interest but cannot influence market decisions by their individual actions.

Benefits of Capitalism: Capitalist economic system has many benefits.

This is an economic growth through open competitive market that provides individuals with far better opportunities of raising their own income. Capitalism results in a decentralized economic system which is major advantages of capitalism where individuals are exposed to various options which can lead to competition hence leading to firms producing only the best, and a capitalist economy is believed to encourage innovations in technology and industry. The advantages of capitalism entail;

Consumer choice where Individuals choose what to consume, and this choice leads to more competition and better products and services.
Efficiency of economics in which Goods and services produced based on demand creates incentives to cut costs and avoid waste.

General Drawbacks of Capitalism: Besides numerous advantages, capitalistic economy has several disadvantages.

  1. Inequality: There tends to be a rise in disparity as benefits of capitalism are not fairly distributed. As wealth tends to redound to a small percentage of the population, the demand for luxury goods is often limited to a small percentage of the workforce, one of the main capitalism disadvantages.
  2. Irrational Behaviour: People tend to get caught up in hypothetical suds but disregard economic fundamentals, leading to illogical behaviour.
  3. Monopoly Behaviour: Other major drawback of capitalism is that companies gain monopoly over power in a free market allows and exploit customers by charging higher prices. They often pay lower salaries to labours.
  4. Immobility: Main issue of capitalism is that a free market is supposed to be able to easily move factors of from an unprofitable sector to a new profitable industry. However, this is much more difficult practically.

Other drawbacks are that there is extravagant competition which does not confer any corresponding social benefit.

Effect of capitalism on society: Capitalism has some good consequences on habitants.
High Standard of Living: Capitalism is the artefact of industrialization. Industrialization has amplified production. 
Economic Progress: Capitalism encourages society to utilize the natural resources more and more. The people exert themselves maximum for earning money. This had led to many inventions in the field of industry, agriculture and business which have contributed to economic growth.
Exchange of Culture: Capitalism intends to encourage all people to partake in activities that appear beneficial to them. Capitalism facilitates international trade and exchange of know-how. People of different countries have come close to each other. The development of the means of transport and communication has facilitated contacts among the peoples of the world thus leading to exchange of ideas and culture.
Progress of Civilization: Capitalism is tool to explore new machines and increasing the production of material goods. Man is today more civilized than his ancestors.

Decreasing of Racial Differences: Capitalism has also led to diminish the differences based on race, doctrine, caste and nationality. 
Major effect of capitalism includes, profit for owners of production/business, industrial vs agricultural economies, market competition, increased supply of “things”/goods and focus on personal responsibility.

To summarize, the capitalist system is reflection of the aspirations of human nature. Actually, capitalism can be described as a system that identifies and protects private property, free enterprise, freedom of choice for the human person, the authority of consumers over the objectives of production through free markets of the products chosen or ordered by the consumers, guide the programs of production. Capitalism makes economy money oriented. Businesses look at the economy with a materialistic point of view. Huge business companies take over smaller companies. Employment rights are compensated with the aim of higher productivity and some believe that because of fierce competition in capitalist economies it can give rise to unfair competition.

There are different views about capitalism. Some experts believe in its strengths, while others criticise about the unfair distribution of wealth it may lead to. The opposition of capitalism is Marxian Economics, named after Karl Marx. He believes that capitalism brings about class segregation i.e. there are two classes the capitalist class and the working class. Under capitalism, economic personal property, such as commodities or the means of production may be withheld from others by its owners. This is done so as to yield higher profit margins. Reviewing major facts about capitalism, it is found that in Capitalism economy, individuals own and control land, capital, and production of industry. Individuals are free to purchase and own their own homes, cars, furniture, and other goods People have liberty to live where they want and what type of job field they want to pursue.

Socialism: Socialism is political philosophy considered by public ownership and centralized planning of all major industries which include manufacturing, services, and energy, banks and insurance companies, agribusiness, transportation, the media, and medical facilities. In capitalism, these huge enterprises control the economy but are privately owned and operated to create wealth for their owners by extracting it from working people who are paid only a small fraction of what their labour produces. Socialism turns this around so that the class that produces the wealth can jointly decide how it will be used for the benefit of all. Real socialism is characterized as democratic. It is economic as well as political democracy. Many capitalist countries claim of their democratic institutions, but this is a deception because all the political power is in control of officers who hold the wealth. Socialism prioritizes human needs and eliminates the profit motive that drives war, ecological destruction, and inequalities based on gender, race, nationality and sexuality. Simply, socialism is social ownership of means of production, impartiality of income and opportunities for all members. Under social and political system, Socialism depends altogether upon the history of mankind for a record of its growth in the past, and bases its future upon knowledge of that history in so far as it can be accurately traced up to the present time. The basis of the whole theory is that since ancient period of their existence, human beings have been channelled by the power they possessed over the forces of nature to supply the wants arising as individual members of any society. Thus, Socialism depends upon political economy in its broadest sense. It is dependent upon the manner in which wealth is produced and distributed by those who form part of society at a given time.

Socialism initiated in the late 18th-century from an knowledgeable and working class political movement that disapproved the effects of industrialization and private ownership on civilisation

Theoretical framework of socialism: Vast literature is available to describe nature of socialism as a political philosophy. Theorist D. Dickinson stated that “Socialism is an economic organisation of society in which the material means of production are owned by the whole community and operated by organs representative of and responsible to the community according to a general economic plan, all members of the community being entitled to benefit from the results of such socialized planned production on the basis of equal rights.” According to Loucks, “Socialism refers to that movement which aims to vest in society as a whole, rather than in individuals, the ownership and management of all nature-made and man-made producers goods used in large-scale production, to the end that an increased national income may be more equally distributed without materially destroying the individuals economic motivation or his freedom of occupation.”

Other experts like Pious explained the term socialism as “A socialized industry is one in which the material instruments of production are owned by a public authority or voluntary association, and operated not with a view to profit by sale to other people, but for the direct service of those whom the authority or association represents. A socialized system is one the main part of whose resources are engaged in socialized industries,” Paul M. Sweeny asserted that “In its primary meaning is a complete social system which differs from capitalism not only in the absence of private ownership of the means of production but also in its basic structure and mode of functioning.” Shuffle also elaborated principles of socialism and stated that, “The Alfa and omega of socialism is the transformation of private competing capital into a united collective capital.” G.D.H. Cole perceived that “Socialism means four closely connected things of a human fellowship which denies and expels distinction of class, a social system in which no one is so much richer or poorer than his neighbours as to be unable to mix with them on equal term, the common ownership and use of all the vital instruments of production and an obligation on all citizens to serve one another according to their capacities in promoting the common wellbeing.”

Similar to capitalism, socialism must be worldwide so that global resources can be shared. To attain the objectives of socialism, it is necessary to any country being able to determine its own intention.

Features of Socialism: The main features of this system are described as under.

  1. Public Ownership: First prominent characteristic is socialist economy which is determined by public ownership of the means of production and distribution. There is shared ownership whereby all mines, farms, factories, financial institutions, distributing agencies, means of transport and communications, are owned, controlled, and regulated by government departments and state corporations. A small private sector also exists as small business units which are carried on in the villages by local artistes for local consumption.
  2. Central Planning: Second feature of socialism is centrally planned which functions under the direction of a central planning authority. It develops various objectives and targets to be realized during the plan period. Central economic planning means the making of major economic decisions what and how much is to be produced, how, when and where it is to be produced, and to whom it is to be allocated by the mindful decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. The central planning authority organises and operates the financial resources by deliberate direction and control of the economy in order to accomplish certain objectives and targets laid down in the plan during a specified period of time.
  3. Definite Objectives: Another characteristic of socialism is that a socialist economy operates within definite socio-economic objectives. These objectives may concern aggregate demand, full employment, and satisfaction of communal demand, allocation of factors of production, distribution of the national income, the amount of capital accumulation, economic development and so forth.
  4. Freedom of Consumption: In socialism system, consumer’s dominance infers that production in state owned industries is generally governed by the likings of consumers, and the available merchandises are distributed to the customers at fixed prices through the state-run department stores. Consumer’s dominion under socialism is limited to the choice of socially beneficial commodities.
  5. Equality of Income Distribution: In a socialist system, there is great impartiality of income distribution in comparison a free market economy. The removal of private ownership in the means of production, private capital accumulation, and profit motive under socialism avert the accrual of large wealth in the hands of a few wealthy persons. The unearned incomes in the form of rent, interest and profit go to the state which utilises them in providing free education, public health facilities, and social security to the masses.
  6. Planning and the Pricing Process: Other feature of socialism is that the pricing process under socialism does not operate spontaneously but works under the control and regulation of the central planning authority. There are administered prices which are fixed by the central planning authority. There are also the market prices at which consumer goods are sold. There are also the accountings prices on the basis of which the managers decide about the production of consumer goods and investment goods, and also about the choice of production methods. Theoretical studies have documented that socialism aims at establishing a classless society, free from exploitation. It presupposes public ownership of means of production (Lay bourn, 1988). Majority of socialists recognise their philosophy of socialism as Marxists in acknowledgement of Karl Marx, who revealed the economic laws of capitalism. Marx and his co-worker Frederick Engels evolved the foundation of Marxist economics, the philosophical thought of dialectical materialism, and the method of social analysis known as historical materialism. Leninism signifies the concepts of a disciplined, radical party and the principled, intransigent vision of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, key leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution. Lenin’s contribution on imperialism, the nature of the state, and the rights of national minorities are vital components of the socialist practice. Another form of socialism, Socialist feminism was developed in the decades of late 1960s and early 1970s by originators of the Freedom Socialist Party and Radical Women. It is a Marxist, Leninist, and Trotskyism tendency. These philosophers recognised that the most oppressed sector of the current working class is composed of women, particularly women of colour, whose life experience of exploitation gives them the strength and determination to carry through a revolution against all forms of oppression. Socialist feminists identified the activist leadership of working-class women, people of colour, and queers, and others multiply plagued by capitalism. Socialist feminists orient to common, rank-and-file women and men instead of the predominantly white male aristocrats of labour who make up the union bureaucracy.

Types of Socialism: There are many types of socialism.
Democratic Socialism promotes the principles of Socialism as an economic principle which signifies that the means of production should be in the hands of ordinary working people and equality as a governing principle. It attempts to bring about Socialism through nonviolent democratic means as opposed to violent insurgence, and represents the improver practice of Socialism. Democratic Socialism infers a philosophy that is more left-wing and supportive of a fully socialist system, established either by progressively reforming Capitalism from within, or by some form of revolutionary transformation.

Marxian socialism: In theoretical framework of Marxism, socialism denotes to a particular historical phase of financial development and its corresponding set of social relations that ultimately overtake capitalism in the plan of historical materialism. From this perspective, socialism is described as a mode of production where the principle for production is use-value, where production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning and the law of value no longer directs economic activity. The Marxian idea of socialism was against other early forms of socialism, most remarkably early forms of market socialism based on classical economics including Mutualism and Ricardian socialism, which is dissimilar to the Marxian conception, retained commodity exchange and markets for labour and the means of production. The Marxian conception also contradicted Utopian socialism.

Another type of socialism is revolutionary Socialism which supports the need for essential social change through revolution or revolution instead of gradual reform as a strategy to attain a socialist society. Trotskyism is the continuance of the Marxist and Leninist. When the Stalinist bureaucracy rose to power in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s, Trotsky rallied an international Left Opposition against the unfaithfulness of the revolution’s goals. Trotskyism means Permanent Revolution, internationalism, and the strategy of the united front against fascism. . Luxemburgish is another Revolutionary Socialist custom, based on the works of Rosa Luxemburg (1970 – 1919). It is analogous to Trotskyism in its opposition to the Totalitarianism of Stalin, while simultaneously avoiding the reformist politics of modern Social Egalitarianism.

Utopian Socialism describes the first streams of modern socialist thought in the first quarter of the 19th Century. Usually, it was used by later socialist thinkers to define early socialist, or quasi-socialist, intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained. They disallowed all political and especially all revolutionary action, and wished to achieve their ends by nonviolent means and small experiments, which was observed by famous socialist, Karl Marx as necessarily doomed to failure.

The objective of Libertarian Socialism is to develop a society without political, economic or social hierarchies, in which every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production. This would be accomplished through the eradication of authoritarian institutions and private property, so that direct control of the means of production and resources is gained by the working class and society as a whole. Most Libertarian Socialists supports abolishing the state altogether, in much the same way as Utopian Socialists and Anarchism.

Market Socialism is a type of an economic system in which there is a market economy directed and guided by socialist developers, and where prices would be set through trial and error rather than relying on a free price tool.

Eco-Socialism is philosophies combine aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics, ecology and the anti-globalization movement. They promote the non-violent dismantling of Capitalism and the State, focusing on collective ownership of the means of production, in order to alleviate the social barring, poverty and environmental deprivation brought about by the capitalist system, globalization and colonialism.

Christian socialism: It is a form of religious socialism which is based on the traditions of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists consider capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a worldly evil. Christian socialists recognise the cause of unfairness to be associated with the greed that they associate with capitalism.

Guild Socialism: This type of socialism was basically an English movement that fascinated a modest during the first two decades of the 20th century. An association of craftsmen motivated by the medieval guild, determined their own working conditions and activities. Theorists, Samuel G. Hobson and G.D.H. Cole supported the public ownership of industries and their organization into guilds, each of which would be under the autonomous control of its trade union. The role of the state was less clear. Some guild socialists envisioned it as a coordinator of the guilds’ activities, while other theorists held that its functions should be restricted to protection or policing. In general, however, the guild socialists were less inclined to invest power in the state than were their Fabian compatriots.

Fabian socialism: In this form of socialism, the Society adopted the name Fabian as a representation of a plan formulated to infiltrate civic and social units and to find means to spread contemporary social ideas, concentrating on concrete objectives rather than on principles. The Fabians did not constitute themselves as a political party as such but developed the technique of “socialistic ‘permeation’ of existing political institutions” (Fabian Society,” Columbia Encyclopedia, 2nd Ed.). According to theorists, The Fabians were more realistic as compared to the Marxian socialists. They understood that it is much easier to overthrow sons, daughters and wives of the prominent and well-to-do than it is to impress the labouring classes. They also understood, that socialist movement’s spring from the middle and upper classes and not from the proletariat (Sidney Webb, 1989). A major belief of Fabianism is to collect a Brain Trust as an elite class to plan and direct all of society. Shaw designated briefly that “The Fabian Society succeeded because it addressed itself to its own class in order that it might set about doing the necessary brain work of planning socialist organization for all classes, meanwhile accepting, instead of trying to supersede, the existing political organizations which it intended to permeate with the Socialist conception of human society”.

Merits of Socialism: Socialism has many benefits for society. Prof. Schumpeter was supported of this thought and gave four arguments to promote socialism that include greater economic efficiency, welfare due to less inequality, absence of monopolistic practices and absence of business fluctuations.

  1. Greater Economic Efficiency: It has been established through theoretical studies that Economic competence under socialism system is better as compared to capitalism system. The means of production are controlled and regulated by the central planning authority towards chosen ends. The central planning authority makes comprehensive survey of resources and utilises them in the most efficient manner. Increased productivity is secured by avoiding the wastes of competition and by undertaking expensive research and production processes in a coordinated manner. Economic efficiency is also realized by utilising resources in producing socially useful goods and services which satisfy the basic wants of the people such as cheap food, cloth, and housing.
  2. Greater Welfare due to Less Inequality of Income: In a socialist economy, it is observed that there is less disparity of income as compared with a capitalist economy because of the absence of private ownership of the means of production, private capital accumulation, and private profit. All inhabitants work for the wellbeing of the state and each is compensated his payment according to his capability, education and training. All rents, interests and profits from various sources go to the state which spends them for public welfare in providing free education, cheap and congenial housing, free public health amenities, and social security to the people.
  3. Absence of Monopolistic Practices: Main benefit of socialism is that it is free from monopolistic practices which are to be found in a capitalist society. Since under socialism, all means of production are owned by the state, both competition and monopoly are eradicated. The misuse by the monopolistic is absent. Instead of private monopoly, there is the state monopoly of the productive system but this is operated for the welfare of the people. In the state-owned factories, socially useful commodities are produced which are of high quality and are also reasonably priced.
  4. Absence of Business Fluctuations: A socialist system is free from business variations. There is economic constancy because production and consumption of goods and services are controlled by the central planning authority according to the objectives, targets and priorities of the plan. Thus there is neither overproduction nor joblessness.

Demerits of Socialism: A socialist economy has several drawbacks:

  1. Loss of Consumers’ Dominance: Researchers have observed that there is loss of consumer’s dominion in a socialist approach. Consumers do not have the liberty to buy whatever commodities they want. They can consume only those commodities which are available in department stores. Often the quantities which they can buy are fixed by the state.
  2. No Freedom of Occupation: It is also found that people do not have liberty of occupation in such a society. Every person is provided job by the state. But he cannot leave or change it. Even the place of work is allotted by the state. All occupational movements are sanctioned by the state.
  3. Malallocation of Resources: In socialist, there is random allocation of resources. The central planning authority often commits mistakes in resource allocation because the entire work is done on trial and error basis.
  4. Bureaucratic: A socialist economy is considered as rigid economy. It is operated like a machine. Therefore, it does not provide the necessary initiative to the people to work hard. People work due to the fear of higher authorities and not for any personal gain or self-interest.

In current circumstances, socialism has become the most popular, economic philosophy. During the decades succeeding the Second World War, the worldwide progression of socialism has been quite theatrical and unparalleled. Socialism is a standard of expediency which accommodates politicians of all hues. It incorporates all types of political system, detector ships, democracies, republics and monarchies. It holds such dissimilar systems as an Islamic socialism practiced by Libya and Algeria, democratic socialism of Norway or Sweden, the Bathes Socialism of Syria and Iraq, the ‘Ujamaa’ socialism of Tanzania. It is observed that various nations around the world have adopted socialist philosophy in the light of their peculiar conditions. Sometimes even within a country, different political parties interpreted the socialist philosophies to fit into their own political viewpoint. Socialist ideas have considerably influenced the formulation of the means and objectives of Indian economic policies. This has happened in different ways such as through the impact of external, socialist ideologies on the economic and political notions held by Blite groups influencing policy-making in India.

To summarize, Socialism is a thought that individuals should not have ownership of land, capital, or industry, but rather the whole community jointly owns and controls property, goods, and production. Preferably, in this system all share correspondingly in work and the results of their labour. After thorough appraisal of principles of socialism, it is established that Socialism is a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the workforce, either directly through popular collectives or indirectly exercised on behalf of the people by the state, and in which Classlessness is an important objective.

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