Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics for UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

The Non – Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 1, 1920 was the first mass movement organized nationwide during India’s struggle for freedom. In this article, we will read in detail about the Non – Cooperation Movement’s causes, methods, impact, and end.

Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement: The Non – Cooperation Movement has had four main causes:

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances

2. Dissatisfaction with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms

3. Rowlatt Act

4. Khilafat Agitation

Let’s look in detail at every cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
On April 13, 1919, a large but unarmed crowd gathered at Amritsar in the Jallianwala Bagh to protest the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal. However, this unarmed crowd of women and children, among others, was fired mercilessly with rifles and machine guns on General Dyer’s orders. Thousands of people have been killed and injured. Martial law was proclaimed throughout Punjab after this massacre and the people were subjected to the most uncivilized atrocities.
In order to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh incident and the role of General Dyer, the British government set up the Inquiry Disorders Committee, popularly known as the Hunter Committee after its chairman Lord William Hunter. While the Hunter Committee held General Dyer responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, it upheld his reasons for ordering the firing on the unarmed crowd as well as for imposing martial law in Punjab.
The people of India, due to their clear biases, did not accept the recommendations of the Hunter Committee. There has been unrest among the masses to ensure justice for the wrongs of Punjab has been delivered. In protest, Mahatma Gandhi gave up the Kaiser – I – Hind title granted to him by the British government. 

2. Unhappiness with the reforms in Montagu – Chelmsford
The 1919 Government of India Act was enacted based on the 1918 Montagu – Chelmsford proposals recommendations. This Act introduced the ‘ Dyarchy ‘ system and divided topics into lists – Reserved and Transferred. The Legislative Assembly (lower house) was introduced with direct elections, but the right to vote was severely curtailed. In addition, there was no control over the Governor General and his Executive Council by the Legislative Assembly.
Indian nationalists, however, had gone far beyond such stopping concessions. The Indian National Congress met under Hasan Imam’s presidency at a special session in Bombay in August 1918 and condemned the reforms of Montagu – Chelmsford and instead called for effective self – government.
3. Rowlatt Act
The government enacted the 1919 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, popularly called the Rowlatt Act, based on the findings of the Rowlatt Committee. This act allowed the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism for a maximum period of two years without trial. The government passed Montagu Chelmsford Reforms and Rowlatt Act in succession, which were part of the British ‘ Carrot and Stick policy. This action gave the movement a new direction. At all levels of India, Gandhi organized a mass protest.
4. Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat Movement, which began in 1919, brought the Muslims and the Hindus on a common platform against the British rule, was the most important cause of the Non – Cooperation Movement.
Khilafat Movement in India
Turkey had aligned itself in the First World War with Germany – led Axis powers that were defeated by Great Britain – led Allied powers. The political – conscious Muslims were critical of British and their allies treatment of the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire that had divided it and properly removed Thrace from Turkey.
The Muslims also regarded the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims and they strongly felt that his position over the Muslim religious places should not be undermined.
Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani, and countrywide Khilafat agitation, a Khilafat Committee was soon formed. The All – India Khilafat Conference held in November 1919 in Delhi decided to withdraw all government cooperation if the government did not meet its demands.
Mahatma Gandhi saw the Khilafat agitation as “an opportunity not to unite Hindus and Muslims in a hundred years time.”Also, the Muslims League gave full support to the National Congress and its political agitation.
In early 1920, Gandhi declared that the Khilafat question overshadowed the constitutional reforms and the Jallianwala massacre and announced that he would lead a non – cooperation movement if the terms of peace with Turkey did not satisfy the Indian Muslims.
Who were the Leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
The Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement. Mahatma Gandhi later also became one of the leaders of the Khilafat Movement in India by strongly advocating the Khilafat cause.

The launch of the Non-Cooperation Movement
The above mentioned causes resulted in unrest among the masses anxious to take political action against the British government. Only added fuel to the fire was the economic hardship suffered by ordinary Indians. On August 1, 1920, the Non – Cooperation Movement was officially launched.
Congress Nagpur session in December 1920 defined the Non – Cooperation program clearly in detail. Following changes to the Indian National Congress Constitution at the December 1920 Nagpur Session:

1. The Congress goal has been shifted from achieving self – government through constitutional and legal means to achieving Swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means.

2. The Congress now had to have a 15-member Working Committee to look after its daily affairs.

3. Linguistically, Provincial Congress Committees were to be organized now.

4. The membership fee was reduced to 4 years per year to make it possible for the poor to join.

5. Congress was to use Hindi as far as possible.

The non – cooperation movement method and spread

  • Together with the Ali brothers, Mahatma Gandhi undertook a nationwide tour of numerous student and political worker rallies and meetings. This led to thousands of students leaving schools and colleges to join over 800 national schools and colleges throughout the country. 
  • The educational boycott in Bengal was especially successful. C.R Das played an important role in promoting the movement and Subhash Bose became the head of the Calcutta National Congress. The educational boycott was also very successful in Punjab, and Lala Lajpat Rai played the leading role here.
  • The other successful boycott observed was lawyers such as C.R Das, Motilal Nehru, M.R Jaykar, Saifuddin Kitchlew and others boycotting the law courts.
  • However, the Non – Cooperation Movement’s most successful item was the foreign cloth boycott. A major form of the boycott was also the picketing of shops selling foreign cloth. Liquor shops were also picketing.
  • Gandhi and Congress put a lot of stress on handspun Khadi in support of domestic textiles. Charkhas were widely popularized and khadi became the national movement’s uniform.
  • In July 1921, at the All India Khilafat Conference in Karachi, Mohammed Ali declared that continuing in the British Army was ‘ religiously unlawful for the Muslims. Gandhi repeated Mohammed Ali’s exhortation, adding that every civilian and army member should sever links with the repressive British government.
  • A movement against Union board taxes has been launched in Midnapore district of Bengal. No – tax movements were also organized in the Andhra district of Guntur in Chirala – Pirala and Pedanandipadu taluka.
  • In U.P, where a powerful Kisan Sabha movement was underway, Jawaharlal Nehru led the non – cooperation movement among others.
  • The Non – Cooperation and Khilafat propaganda in the Malabar region of Kerala helped to arouse Muslim tenants, called the Moplahs, against their renters, but the movement sometimes took on a common color.
  • In Assam, tea plantation laborers went on strike. While Andhra became popular with defiance of forest laws.
  • The Akali movement took place in Punjab as part of the Non – Cooperation Movement to wrest control of the gurudwaras from the corrupt mahants (priests)

End of the Non-Cooperation Movement
While in 1921 the Non – Cooperation Movement was in full steam, the masses were awakened from their slumber and the grass root workers of Congress, as well as the leadership, were asking Mahatma Gandhi to launch the next phase of mass civil disobedience.

Gandhi announced that massive civil disobedience would begin in the Bardoli Taluka district of Surat and that all other parts of the country should cooperate by maintaining total discipline and silence in order to concentrate the entire attention of the movement on Bardoli.

However, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred before mass civil disobedience could be launched.
Chauri Chaura Incident
A Congress – Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura in U.P. district of Gorakhpur on February 5, 1922. Irritated by some policemen’s behavior, they were attacked by a crowd section. The police opened fire on the unarmed procession in retaliation. Instigated by this, the whole procession attacked the police and the mob set fire to the building when the police hid inside the police station. The cops who were trying to escape were hacked into pieces and thrown into the fire. In the Chauri Chaura incident, 22 police officers were killed.

Gandhi was profoundly disturbed by the Chauri Chaura incident news. Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement because it violated the strict condition of non – violence that he had set for the launch of the civil disobedience phase and the continuation of the non – cooperation movement. Thus, the Non – Cooperation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922.
Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement
Despite the failure of the Non – Cooperation Movement to achieve its primary goal of Swaraj, it has succeeded on many other counts highlighted below:

1. The National Congress has shown that it represents the country’s majority opinion. It can not be charged with representing a ‘ microscopic minority ‘ anymore.’

2. The movement’s geographical spread was also nationwide. While some areas were more active than others, few areas, if any, remained entirely passive to the call for non – cooperation.

3. The Non – Cooperation Movement was the masses ‘ first opportunity to participate in politics and combat injustice and economic hardship caused by years of foreign rule.

4. Notwithstanding the incidents of Malabar, which were not seen later during the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was considerable involvement of Muslims in the movement and the maintenance of communal harmony.

History of India Free Books/Notes for UPSC IAS & State PSC Exams


Updated link Nitin Sangwan Complete Notes PDF Download

Vajiram and Ravi GS Handwritten Notes 2019 Free PDF

Vajiram and Ravi Medieval Indian History Printed Notes

Vajiram and Ravi Ancient India Printed Notes Download

Vision IAS GS Complete Notes PDF Download

Ancient Indian History Notes Free PDF Download

UPSC Topper Anudeep Durishetty Complete Notes Pdf Download

Indian History Subjective Download PDF

Indian History Objective Questions For all competitive Exams

Vision IAS Modern History English Printed Notes PDF

Medieval History Hand Written Notes (90 Pages) PDF
Ancient History Hand Written Notes 78 Pages PDF
Modern History Hand Written Notes (135 Pages) PDF
New NCERT Updated 2018 Hindi Complete PDF Download
Pratiyogita Darpan Modern History Extra Issue PDF
Vajiram and Ravi Modern India Printed Notes
आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास [Modern Indian History] Hand written Notes
Modern History by Abhishek Srivastava Unacademy PDF Download
Medieval History by Abhishek Srivastava Unacademy PDF Download
Ancient History by Abhishek Srivastava Unacademy PDF Download
World History Hand Written Notes (156 Pages) PDF
Tutorials Point Modern Indian History PDF Download
Tutorials Point Medieval Indian History PDF Download
Tutorials Point Ancient Indian History PDF Download

Download UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Complete Study Material

UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material


UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Solved Test 1-15 GS Paper-I

India Yearbook Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Practice Test 1-12

Indian History Question Bank

Indian Geography Question Bank

Indian Polity Topic Wise Question Bank

Science & Technology Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20 Updated

2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020

Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12th

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Test -10

Geography & Environment Current issues yearbook 2019

Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20

UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year Solved Paper 2010-19

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Practice Test 9

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-4 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-3 Complete Study Notes

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes

UPSC IAS Main exam GS Paper-1 Complete study notes

Art & Culture of India

Indian History Complete Study Notes

Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination

Physical Economic and Human Geography of India

Mahatma Gandhi: Biography and GK Questions PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Mahatma Gandhi Biography (1869–1948)

Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Until Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, his life and teachings inspired activists including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

Who Was Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi (October 2, 1869 to January 30, 1948) was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule and in South Africa who advocated for the civil rights of Indians. Born in Porbandar, India, Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948. Mahatma Gandhi leading the Salt March in protest against the government monopoly on salt production.

Early Life and Education

Indian nationalist leader Gandhi (born Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, which was then part of the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karmachand Gandhi, served as a chief minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putli bai, was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept with the lights on even as a teenager. In the ensuing years, the teenager rebelled by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household servants.

Although Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father hoped he would also become a government minister and steered him to enter the legal profession. In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The young Indian struggled with the transition to Western culture.

Upon returning to India in 1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just weeks earlier. He struggled to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom case, a nervous Gandhi blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees.

Gandhi’s Religion and Beliefs

Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous ancient Indian religion that espoused non-violence, fasting, meditation and vegetarianism.

During Gandhi’s first stay in London, from 1888 to 1891, he became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of sacred texts to learn more about world religions.

Living in South Africa, Gandhi continued to study world religions. “The religious spirit within me became a living force,” he wrote of his time there. He immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity, austerity, fasting and celibacy that was free of material goods.

Gandhi in South Africa

After struggling to find work as a lawyer in India, Gandhi obtained a one-year contract to perform legal services in South Africa. In April 1893, he sailed for Durban in the South African state of Natal.

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly appalled by the discrimination and racial segregation faced by Indian immigrants at the hands of white British and Boer authorities. Upon his first appearance in a Durban courtroom, Gandhi was asked to remove his turban. He refused and left the court instead. The Natal Advertiser mocked him in print as “an unwelcome visitor.”

Nonviolent Civil Disobedience

A seminal moment occurred on June 7, 1893, during a train trip to Pretoria, South Africa, when a white man objected to Gandhi’s presence in the first-class railway compartment, although he had a ticket. Refusing to move to the back of the train, Gandhi was forcibly removed and thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg.

Gandhi’s act of civil disobedience awoke in him a determination to devote himself to fighting the “deep disease of color prejudice.” He vowed that night to “try, if possible, to root out the disease and suffer hardships in the process.”

From that night forward, the small, unassuming man would grow into a giant force for civil rights. Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight discrimination.

Gandhi prepared to return to India at the end of his year-long contract until he learned, at his farewell party, of a bill before the Natal Legislative Assembly that would deprive Indians of the right to vote. Fellow immigrants convinced Gandhi to stay and lead the fight against the legislation. Although Gandhi could not prevent the law’s passage, he drew international attention to the injustice.

After a brief trip to India in late 1896 and early 1897, Gandhi returned to South Africa with his wife and children. Gandhi ran a thriving legal practice, and at the outbreak of the Boer War, he raised an all-Indian ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers to support the British cause, arguing that if Indians expected to have full rights of citizenship in the British Empire, they also needed to shoulder their responsibilities.


In 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he called “Satyagraha” (“truth and firmness”), in reaction to the South African Transvaal government’s new restrictions on the rights of Indians, including the refusal to recognize Hindu marriages.

After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in 1913, including Gandhi. Under pressure, the South African government accepted a compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts that included recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of a poll tax for Indians. 

Return to India 

When Gandhi sailed from South Africa in 1914 to return home, Smuts wrote, “The saint has left our shores, I sincerely hope forever.” At the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi spent several months in London.

In 1915 Gandhi founded an ashram in Ahmedabad, India, that was open to all castes. Wearing a simple loincloth and shawl, Gandhi lived an austere life devoted to prayer, fasting and meditation. He became known as “Mahatma,” which means “great soul.”

Opposition to British Rule in India

In 1919, with India still under the firm control of the British, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison people suspected of sedition without trial. In response, Gandhi called for a Satyagraha campaign of peaceful protests and strikes. 

Violence broke out instead, which culminated on April 13, 1919, in the Massacre of Amritsar. Troops led by British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators and killed nearly 400 people.

No longer able to pledge allegiance to the British government, Gandhi returned the medals he earned for his military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians to serve in World War I.

Gandhi became a leading figure in the Indian home-rule movement. Calling for mass boycotts, he urged government officials to stop working for the Crown, students to stop attending government schools, soldiers to leave their posts and citizens to stop paying taxes and purchasing British goods.

Rather than buy British-manufactured clothes, he began to use a portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth. The spinning wheel soon became a symbol of Indian independence and self-reliance.

Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violence and non-cooperation to achieve home rule.

After British authorities arrested Gandhi in 1922, he pleaded guilty to three counts of sedition. Although sentenced to a six-year imprisonment, Gandhi was released in February 1924 after appendicitis surgery.

He discovered upon his release that relations between India’s Hindus and Muslims devolved during his time in jail. When violence between the two religious groups flared again, Gandhi began a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924 to urge unity. He remained away from active politics during much of the latter 1920s.

Gandhi and the Salt March

Gandhi returned to active politics in 1930 to protest Britain’s Salt Acts, which not only prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt—a dietary staple—but imposed a heavy tax that hit the countries poorest particularly hard. Gandhi planned a new Satyagraha campaign, The Salt March that entailed a 390-kilometer/240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where he would collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly.

“My ambition is no less than to convert the British people through non-violence and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India,” he wrote days before the march to the British viceroy, Lord Irwin.

Wearing a homespun white shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, Gandhi set out from his religious retreat in Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with a few dozen followers. By the time he arrived 24 days later in the coastal town of Dandi, the ranks of the marchers swelled, and Gandhi broke the law by making salt from evaporated seawater.

The Salt March sparked similar protests, and mass civil disobedience swept across India. Approximately 60,000 Indians were jailed for breaking the Salt Acts, including Gandhi, who was imprisoned in May 1930.

Still, the protests against the Salt Acts elevated Gandhi into a transcendent figure around the world. He was named Time magazine’s “Man of the Year” for 1930.

Gandhi was released from prison in January 1931, and two months later he made an agreement with Lord Irwin to end the Salt Satyagraha in exchange for concessions that included the release of thousands of political prisoners. The agreement, however, largely kept the Salt Acts intact. But it did give those who lived on the coasts the right to harvest salt from the sea.

Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule, Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference, however, proved fruitless.

Protesting “Untouchables” Segregation

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932 during a crackdown by India’s new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. He embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to segregate the “untouchables,” those on the lowest rung of India’s caste system, by allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the proposal.

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and leadership passed to his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting India’s rural areas.

India’s Independence from Great Britain

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, Gandhi launched the “Quit India” movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day Pune.

“I have not become the King’s First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation of the British Empire,” Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of the crackdown.

With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment in 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchill’s Conservatives in the British general election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent states—predominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus, however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward Muslims.

Gandhi’s Wife and Kids

At the age of 13, Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage. She in Gandhi’s arms in February 1944 at the age of 74

In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby.

In 1888, Gandhi’s wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was born in India 1893. Kasturba gave birth to two more sons while living in South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

On January 30, 1948, 78-year-old Gandhi was shot and killed by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse, who was upset at Gandhi’s tolerance of Muslims.

Weakened from repeated hunger strikes, Gandhi clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living quarters in New Delhi’s Birla House to a late-afternoon prayer meeting. Godse knelt before the Mahatma before pulling out a semiautomatic pistol and shooting him three times at point-blank range. The violent act took the life of a pacifist who spent his life preaching nonviolence.

Godse and a co-conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949. Additional conspirators were sentenced to life in prison.


Even after Gandhi’s assassination, his commitment to nonviolence and his belief in simple living — making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest — have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

Questions on Gandhiji mostly asked in competitive exams

Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, politician, social activist, and writer who became the leader of the nationalist movement against the British rule of India. He is also called Bapu and known as the Father of the Nation.

Q.1. Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was born on

 (a) October 5, 1896    (b) October 3, 1840

 (c) October 2, 1869    (d) October 10, 1880

Q.2. At which place was Gandhiji born?

(a) Porbandar  (b) Rajkot

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Delhi

Q.3. what was Gandhiji’s age when he got married to Kasturba?

(a) 19 years      (b) 15 years

(c) 12 years      (d) 13 years

Q.4. Gandhiji confessed his guilt of stealing for the purpose of smoking in a letter, promising never to steal in future and asking for adequate punishment. To whom was this letter addressed?

 (a) Father        (b) Mother

(C) Elder Brother        (d) Friend

Q.5. About how old was Gandhiji when he reached London to become a barrister?

(a) 20 years      (b) 19 years

(c) 21 years      (d) 18 years

Q.6. to become a barrister in England, one had to join one of the Inns of Courts. After obtaining admission, Gandhiji joined the Inner Temple on

(a) October 5, 1870     (b) December 15, 1885

(c) November 6, 1888 (d) January 3, 1880

Q.7. Devadas was Gandhiji’s

(a) Only child  (b) Second child

(c) Eldest child            (d) youngest child

Q.8. Gandhiji, the votary of nonviolence was shot dead on January 30, 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi, shortly after 5 p.m. while going to the prayer meeting. Which was that fateful day of the week?

(a) Saturday    (b) Wednesday

(c) Friday        (d) Monday

Q.9. In which South African unit had most of the India emigrants taken up abode?

(a) Johannesburg         (b) Natal

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.10. While holding a first-class ticket Gandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to the van compartment. On his refusal to comply with the unjust order, a constable was called to push him out with bag and baggage. Identify the railway station where this incident took place.

(a) Natal          (b) Johannesburg

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.11. At which place was Gandhiji arrested for the first time by the British Government for sedition?

(a) Bombay     (b) Pune

(c) Calcutta     (d) Ahmedabad

Q.12. On which day of March 1930 Gandhiji started with a band of chosen volunteers on his famous Dandi March to break the law by manufacturing illegally, but openly, salt from the sea?

(a) Tenth          (b) Thirteenth

(c) Eleventh     (d) Twelfth

Q.13. When was the Gandhi – Irwin Pact signed?

(a) March 1, 1932        (b) March 5, 1931

(c) March 10, 1935      (d) March 7, 1937

Q.14. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected President of the Congress in 1938 with Gandhiji’s goodwill. He wanted a second term, but Gandhiji did not approve of it. Despite the disapproval, Bose fought the election and won it, defeating the official candidate by over 200 votes. Gandhiji took it as a personal defeat. Identify the candidate.

(a) Lala Lajpat rai        (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(C) Pattabhi Sitaramayya        (d) Sarojini Naidu

Q.15. On being arrested for his “Quit India” programme, where was Gandhiji detained?

(A) Yeravada Jail        (b) Byculla Prison

(C) Aga Khan Palace Jail        (d) Ahmedabad Prison

Q.16. Lord Mountbatten arrived in India on 22nd March 1947 as the new Viceroy in the place of Lord Wavell to finalise the process of the transfer of power. His first act was to invite Gandhiji to meet him in that connection. When did Gandhiji meet him for the first time?

 (a) March 29, 1947     (b) March 30, 1947

 (c) March 31, 1947     (d) March 23, 1947

Q.17. The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. Who was its author?

 (A) Ruskin Bond       (b) John Ruskin

 (C) Leo Tolstoy          (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 18. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

 (a) Infinite capacity for suffering      (b) Non-violence

 (c) Truth         (d) All the three

Q. 19. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati.

 (a) Magan lal Gandhi (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Pyarelal ji  (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q. 20. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

 (a) Light of India       (b) Hind Swaraj

 (c) My Experiments with Truth         (d) Both (b) & (c)

Q. 21. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government-run Gandhi museum.

 (a) 1960          (b) 1965

 (c) 1971          (d) 1976

Q. 22. Identify the leader who lass met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

 (A) Vallabhbhai Patel            (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vinoba Bhave

Q. 23. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti-untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

 (a) Bombay    (b) Ahmedabad

 (c) Poona        (d) Nasik

Q. 24. When on August 15, 1947 the transfer of power took place, the Congress President issued a message to the nation and saluted Mahatma Gandhi as “the maker of freedom achieved in a unique way.” He said “never before was so great an event consummated with such little bloodshed and violence.” Who was the Congress President?

 (a) J B Kripalani         (b) Vallabhbhai Patel

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Motilal Nehru

Q. 25. What did Gandhiji mean by ‘Swaraj’?

 (a) Freedom for the country   (b) Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

 (c) Self-Government  (d) complete independence

Q. 26. When did Gandhiji take the vow of brahmacharya or celibacy of life?

 (a) 1911          (b) 1906

 (c) 1900          (d) 1905

Q. 27. When did Gandhiji get his head shaved, discard his clothes and settle for a loin cloth?

 (a) 1930          (b) 1921

 (c) 1925          (d) 1930

Q. 28. Who worked as a Private Secretary to Mahatma Gandhi?

 (a) Pyarelal ji  (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Kishori lal Mashruwala     (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q.29. Who in South Africa gave Gandhiji ‘Unto This Last’ to read which proved to be one of the most decisive books of his life?

 (A) John Holmes Haynes       (b) H S Polak

 (C) Hermann Kallenbach       (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 30. To put the ideas of ‘Unto This Last’ into practice, Gandhiji founded the Phoenix Settlement near Durban which came into being in the middle of the year ________________.

 (a) 1903          (b) 1904

 (c) 1905          (d) 1906

Q.31. Who described Gandhi’s march to Dandi in the following words? “Like the historic march of Ramchandra to Lanka, the march of Gandhi will be memorable”.

 (a) Motilal Nehru       (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vallabhbhai Patel

Q. 32. The historic August session of the All-India Congress Committee, at which the Quit India Resolution was passed, was held at Gowalia Park in __________________.

 (a) Bombay    (b) Calcutta

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Amritsar

Q. 33. Gandhiji accorded very high priority to communal harmony in his programme of actions. At which place did he undertake his last fast for it on January 13, 1948?

 (a) Nasik         (b) Delhi

 (c) Calcutta    (d) Bombay

Q. 34. After the attainment of political independence in 1947, Gandhiji felt that the Congress, as a propaganda vehicle and a parliamentary machine, had outlived its usefulness. So to keep the Congress away from unhealthy competition with political parties and communal bodies, Gandhiji towards the end of January 1948 sketched a draft constitution for the Congress to transform itself into ______________.

 (A) Lok Samiti           (b) Lok Kalyan Sangh

 (C) Lok Sevak Sangh (d) People’s Forum

Q. 35. Which of the following did Gandhiji describes as his two lungs?

 (a) Ahimsa and peace (b) Ahimsa and truth

 (c) Truth and Peace    (d) Brahmacharya and Aparigraha

Q. 36. The differences with Gandhiji led Subhas Chandra Bose to resign the Presidentship of the India National Congress in 1939. Leaving the Congress he formed a new party called __________________.

 (a) Indian National Party       (b) Forward Bloc

 (c) Freedom Party      (d) Freedom Bloc

Q. 37. Identify the Viceroy who wrote home these words after his first meeting with Gandhiji:”Mr Gandhi’s religious and moral views are, I believe, admirable, but I confess that I find it difficult to understand the practice of them in politics.”

 (a) Lord Wavell          (b) Lord Irwin

 (C) Lord Reading      (d) Lord Mountbatten

Q. 38. What was the profession of Gandhiji’s father?

 (a) Farmer       (b) Diwan

 (c) Shop-keeper          (d) Tehsildar

Q. 39. How many children did Putli bai have?

 (a) Two sons and daughters   (b) One daughter and three sons

 (c) Four sons  (d) three sons

Q. 40. What was the name of Gandhi’s domestic help?

 (a) Titli ai        (b) Rambha ai

 (c) Ranabai     (d) Guardia

Q. 41. What was the name of Gandhiji’s sister?

 (a) Gauri         (b) Ralia

 (c) Rambha     (d) Meera

Q. 42. Who inspired Gandhi with ‘ Ram Nam’ in his childhood?

 (a) Kasturba   (b) Putli bai

 (C) Rambha Dai         (d) Lakshmi Das

Q. 43. What was Gandhiji’s nickname in childhood?

 (a) Monu        (b) Manu or Moniya

 (c) Sonu          (d) Mahu

Q. 44. Which spelling did Gandhiji spell wrong as a child when the school inspector gave dictation to the class?

 (a) School       (b) Kettle

 (c) Uniform    (d) Umbrella

Q. 45. Where did Gandhiji receive his primary education?

 (a) Sudamapuri           (b) Bikaner

 (c) Porbandar (d) Rajkot

Q. 46. Which mythological character impressed Gandhiji for life when he saw a play on his life?

 (a) Harishchandra       (b) Ashoka

 (c) Vikramaditya        (d) Krishna

Q. 47. Who asked Gandhiji to eat meat in order to become strong?

 (a) Sheikh Mehtab      (b) Karsan Das

 (c) Lakshmi Das         (d) Uka

Q. 48. How old was Gandhiji when his father died?

 (a) 15 years     (b) 17 years

 (c) 16 years     (d) 18 years

Q. 49. In which year did Gandhiji pass his matriculation in England?

 (a) 1889          (b) 1890

 (c) 1891          (d) 1892

Q. 50. What were the vows taken up by Gandhiji before he left for England?

 (a) Not to take alcohol           (b) Not to eat meat

 (c) Not to eye other women   (d) All the above

Q. 51. Which institution did Gandhiji join as a member during his stay in England?

 (a) Vegetarian Society           (b) Cricket Club

 (c) Church of England           (d) Film Institution

Q. 52. Which book influenced Gandhiji greatly, which he read in England?

 (a) Be Vegetarian       (b) Vegetables are good for health

 (c) Plea for Vegetarianism     (d) Use of Vegetables

Answer Key:

1. (c) 1869                  

2. (a) Porbandar                                 

3. (d) 13 years

4. (a) Father    

5. (b) 19 years            

6. (c) November 6, 1888

7. (d) Youngest Child

8. (c) Friday   

9. (b) Natal

10. (c) Maritz burg     

11.(d) Ahmedabad     

12. (d) Twelfth

13. (b) March5, 1931 

14. (c) Pattabhi Sitaramayya  

15. (c) Agakhan Palace Jail

16. (c) March 31, 1947           

17. (b) John Ruskin    

18. (d) All three

19. (b) Mahadev Desai           

20. (d) both (b) & (c) 

21. (c) 1971

22. (a) Vallabhbhai Patel        

23. (c) Poona  

24. (a) J B Kripalani

25. (b) freedom for the meanest of the countrymen  

26. (b) 1906    

27. (b) 1921

28. (b) Mahadev Desai           

29. (b) H S L Polak    

30. (b) 1904

31. (a) Motilal Nehru 

32. (a) Bombay          

33. (b) Delhi

34.(c) Lok Sevak Sangh         

35. (b) Ahimsa and Truth       

36. (b) Forward Bloc

37. (c) Lord Reading 

38. (b) Diwan 

39. (b) One daughter and three sons

40. (b) Rambha dai    

41. (b) Raliat  

42. (c) Rambha Dai

43. (b) Manu or Moniya         

44. (b) Kettle  

45. (d) Rajkot

46. (a) Harishchandra 

47. (a) Sheikh Mehtab

48. (c) 16years

49. (b) 1890    

50. (d) All the above  

51. (a) Vegetarian Society

52. (c) Plea for Vegetarianism               

Part – II                 

1. Who is the author of ‘Unto This Last’?

A. John Ruskin

B. Ruskin Bond

C. Hermann Kallenbach

D. Louis Fischer

Ans:  A

2. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

A. Infinite capacity for suffering

B. Non violence

C. Truth

D. All the three

Ans: D

3. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati. Who translated it into English?

A. Magan lal Gandhi

B. Mahadev Desai

C. Pyarelal ji

D. Sushila Nayyar

Ans: B

4. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

A. Light of India

B. Hind Swaraj

C. My Experiments with Truth

D. Both B & C

Ans: D

5. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government – run Gandhi museum.

A. 1960

B. 1965

C. 1971

D. 1976

Ans: C

6. Identify the leader who last met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

A. Vallabhbhai Patel

B. Sarojini Naidu

C. Jawaharlal Nehru

D. Vinoba Bhave

Ans: A

7. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti – untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

A. Bombay

B. Ahmedabad

C. Poona

D. Nasik

Ans: C

8. Book ‘The Satyagraha’ was originally written in?

A. English

B. Hindi

C. Gujarati

D. Bengali

Ans: C

9. As per Gandhiji, what is the mean of “Swaraj”?

A. Freedom for the country

B. Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

C. Self Government

D. Complete Independence

Ans: B

10. When had Gandhiji gone to London?

A. 1894

B. 1893

C. 1899

D. 1891

Ans:  D

11. Who said “Live as if you were to die tomorrow? Learn as if you were to live forever.”

A.  Mahatma Gandhi

B.  Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

C.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

D.  Sarojini Naidu

Ans: A

12. When is the International Day of Non-Violence celebrated?

A. 14th August

B. 16th May

C. 8th October

D. 2nd October

Ans: D

13. The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October, the birthday of ____________________.

A.  Jawaharlal Nehru

B.  Mahatma Gandhi

C.  Sarojini Naidu

D.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

Ans: B

14. What was the title given by MK Gandhi to his Gujarati translation of “Unto This Last”?

A.  Manavta

B.  Sadbhavna

C.  Sarvodaya

D.  Ahimsa

Ans: C

15. MK Gandhi was born in which place?

A.  Porbandar

B.  Madhya Pradesh

C.  Karnataka

D.  Andhra Pradesh

Ans: A

16. Which of the following slogans is associated with the name of Gandhiji?

A.  Do or Die

B.  Tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe Azaadi dunga

C.  Swaraj is my birth-right

D.  Jai Hind

Ans: A

17. How many days did Mahatma Gandhi and his volunteers took to cover 24 mile journey from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi?

A. 24

B. 20

C. 21

D. 17

Ans: A

18. Where is Sabarmati Ashram?

A.  Rajkot

B.  Ahmedabad

C.  Pathankot

D.  Baroda

Ans: B

19.  Which book did Mohandas Gandhi write?

A.  India – The National

B.  The Story of My Experiments with Truth

C.  Two States

D.  The Good Earth

Ans: B

20. Which of the following was the first movement of Mahatma Gandhi in India?

A. Champaran Satyagraha

B. Bardoli Satyagraha

C. Dandi March

D. Kheda Satyagraha

Ans: A


Best wishes!!

         Click here to download PDF

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Prelims-10 Year Solved Paper

Geography- Prelims Question Bank

Polity- Prelims Question Bank

History- Prelims Question Bank

Economy- Prelims Question Bank

Indian History Previous Year UPSC Prelims Question Bank

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination Practice Solved Papers: We are providing here the Previous year solved questions of History of India have been asked in Indian Administrative Services Preliminary exam, General Studies Paper-I. These Questions will help to understand the pattern and type of questions asked by UPSC. By Practice these MCQ, it will also help to boost both your preparation and score in actual exam.

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular updates

  • This is a one year test series package for aspiring to become an IAS, IFS, IPS and other services under central government.
  • Under this test series programme, you will be provided 100 objective questions of latest standard for UPSC Civil Services Examination for General Studies Paper-I.
  • General Study Prelims questions with detailed explanation will be sent to your e-mail in PDF format (weekly).
  • These 100 questions for preliminary examination will comprise from all sections of the General Studies -I paper (NCERT (6-12th), Current Affairs, Indian History, Geography, Indian polity, Economy, Art and Culture, Environment and Ecology, Government Schemes and Programmes, Science and Technology etc.)
  • Questions of the test series have been prepared from standard study materials such as The Hindu, NCERT, Standard Books, PIB, Annual Reports of the Government of India, Down to Earth etc.
  • You will also get our monthly current affairs study magazine free.
  • Objective questions will be based on the latest trends of the Civil Services Preliminary Examination conducted by the UPSC.
  • At the end of the programme you will be provided 10-Full length test covered whole syllabus, so that you can evaluate your complete preparation. 
  • A small investment from your side can have significant impact on your result. With this timetable you don’t have to plan by yourself and can save hundreds of hours. Completion of syllabus is a must to succeed in this exam. Our test series will help you here very much.
  • Don’t think about pricing too much. If you think you have paid or paying good amount, extract maximum from the test series. Do justice to the price you have paid. From our end, we will do justice to the price you have paid.
  • First Test (100 Solved MCQ) will be start from July 01, 2019. if you joined late, then we will provide the PDF you have missed.

Total Fee: Rs. 2400/-

Payment Method:Click Here

You can also pay through paytm/phonepe on +919610830576

History Previous Year Questions UPSC Prelims Exam

IAS Prelims 2019: Shubhra Ranjan Economy MCQ with Explanation

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of India-IAS Prelims 2019

History of India for UPSC/PSC Exams

Environment & Ecology Notes with MCQ for UPSC Exam

Art and Culture of India for UPSC/PSC/SSC

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Quiz-3

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 Quiz-2

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

All PDF which are provided here are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don’t make them Commercial. We request you to respect our Hard Work. We are Providing Free study notes here, Will Not Charge Any Cost for Any Service Here. these are already freely available on internet.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 and State PSC Exam Indian History Practice MCQ-1

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

IAS Prelims 2019: 2000 Solved MCQ for GS Paper

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Quiz-3

UPSC IAS Prelims 2019 Quiz-2

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Test-1

Indian Geography Question Bank 1000+

History of India Question Bank

Indian Polity Question Bank

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Geography of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

UPSC and State PSC Prelims Exam Indian History Question Bank

Q.1) in the context of the Indian history, ‘cartaz’ system refers to?

a) Portuguese introduced this system for the purpose of political activity in India

b) System refers to the permission for other European companies can do the trade with India

c) Anyone who passes the Portuguese territories must buy permits otherwise they supposed to be captured

d) This system responsible for spread the Christianity in India and Asia

Solution (c)

Q.2) Consider the following statements

1. Serampore Mission was founded by William Carey, and it is the India’s first Christian missionary organization.

2. Serampore Trio worked many years for the upliftment of Bengal society in educational, social and religious movement.

3. The first Catholic Church was built in Serampore 1800.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.3) Consider the Following statement about the Mahalwari System?

1. It was introduced in Central provinces, NWFP, Agra, and Punjab

2. It was introduced by William Bentick.

3. It declares 10/11 for the British and 1/11 as the revenue for farmers

4. It made village committee as the responsible for collection of taxes

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 4 Only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 1 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 4

Solution (d)

Q.4) which of the following were the causes of ‘The Battle of Buxar’?

1. Abolition of all duties on internal trade of British

2. Bringing the people of India together to fight against the supremacy of the British

3. Dastak misused by the British which challenged the Nawab authority.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) 1 and 2 Only

b) 2 and 3Only

c) 1 and 3 Only

d) All of the above

Solution (c)

Q.5) Consider the Following statements regarding ‘Doctrine of Lapse ‘?

 1. It is a policy to expand British territory in India on the basis of pre- imperialistic approach.

 2. According to this policy state must be hand over to British, if they have no heir or ruler.

 3. Adoptions of child were not accepted for heir.

 4. Continuation of the titles and pension for the kings.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 4 Only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 1 and 4 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 Solution (d)

Q.6)  which among the following changes were brought in the army after the revolt of 1857?

1. The proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army was decreased.

2. Communal, tribal and regional loyalties were encouraged amongst the soldiers.

3. Indians were excluded from the officer corps.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a) 1 and 2 Only

b) 1 and 3 Only

c) 2 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

Q.7) consider the following statements regarding the Charter Act of 1833

1. It made the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India.

2. It provided the legislative powers to the Bombay and Madras presidencies.

3. It Introduced an Open Competition system of selection and recruitment of civil servants.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 1 and 2 Only

c) 2 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (b)

Q.8) The Carnatic wars (1740-1763) were fought between which of the following European powers?

a) Dutch and Portuguese

b) English and French

c) French and Dutch

d) English and Dutch

Solution (b)

Q.9) With reference to Indian press, consider the following statements:

1. Charles Metcalfe was the first governor general to place restrictions on the press in India.

2. Vernacular Press Act in 1878 put restrictions on the freedom on both English and Indian language newspapers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (d)

Q.10) Consider the following statements regarding The Indian Council Act of 1909:

1. Another name of the Indian Council Act of 1909 is Minto-Morley reforms.

2. It introduces the parliamentary form of government in India.

3. It enlarged the deliberative functions for the association of Indian Councils; members were not allowed to ask supplementary questions.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 1 and 2 Only

c) 2 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (b)

Q.11) which of the following was/were reasons for the failure of the Revolt of 1857?

1. Limited territorial base

2. Lack of resources

3. Lack of a central and coordinated leadership

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 3 Only

c) 1 and 2 Only

d) 2 and 3 Only

Solution (a)

Q.12) In the context of Lord Macaulay’s Education Policy, 1835, which of the below statement is/are not correct?

a) It is the attempt by the British to create a system of education for the upper class.

b) Abolished the Persian language in the court and introduced English as the court language.

c) Engineering institute was established at Pusa (Bihar).

d) Printing of English book was free and available for the low cost.

Solution (c)

Q.13) which among the following were the economic impacts of British rule in India?

1. Deindustrialization

2. Deterioration of agriculture

3. Rise of bourgeoisie class in India

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 and 3 Only

c) 2 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (d)

Q.14) Which of the following was / were recommendations of the Saddler Commission?

1. Creation of Boards of Secondary Education in the Provinces

2. Making Education a Provincial subject

3. Separation of secondary education from University education

4. Establishment of university Grants Commission

Select the correct statements from the codes given below:

a) 1, 2 and 3 Only

b) 2, 3 and 4 Only

c) 1 and 2 Only

d) 1 and 3 Only

Solution (a)

Q.15) Consider the following pairs:

Europeans Centre of Influence

1. 1. French Chandernagore

2. 2. Portuguese Goa

3. 3. Dutch Pulicat

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

a) 1and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 1 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (d)

Q.16) With reference to Permanent Settlement System, consider the following statements:

1. It recognized zamindars as the owner of the land.

2. The revenue settled was revised every 20-30 years.

3. It was introduced in Orissa, Bengal and Bihar.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

a) 1and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 1 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

Q.17) which of the following act of British also known as Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919?

a) The Press Act of 1910 AD

b) Multi- fanged Defense of Indian Rules 1915 AD

c) Indian Criminal Law Amendment Act 1908 AD

d) Rowlatt Act 1919 AD

Solution (d)

Q.18) Assertion (A): Pitt’s India Act of 1784 distinguished between the commercial and political functions of the British East India Company.

Reason (R): Pitt’s India Act of 1784 allowed the Court of Directors to manage the commercial affairs but created a new body called Board of Control to manage the political affairs. Thus, it established a system of double government.

Select the code from following:

a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A

c) A is true but R is false

d) Both A & R is not true

Solution (a)

Q.19) under which reform/act, non-official majority was introduced in the provincial legislative councils?

a) Montague-Chelmsford reforms

b) Indian Councils Act, 1861

c) Government of India Act of 1935.

d) Morley-Minto reforms

Solution (d)

Q.20) which of the following initiatives taken by British contributed to the spread of communalism in India?

1. Partition of Bengal, 1905

2. McDonald Award, 1932

3. Indian Councils Act, 1909

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a) 1and 2 only

b) 1 and 3 Only

c) 2 and 3 Only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (d)

History of India Question Bank

Click Here to Download

History of India topic wise Question Bank from Ancient to Modern time-Useful for UPSC CSE IAS Prelims and State Public Service Commission Examinations.

Modern History of India Study Notes With MCQ

Click Here to Download


  • Maratha’s Administration
  • Peshwas and their administration
  • European powers
  • Chronological order of European powers in India
  • East India Company
  • Important Governor General and their contribution
  • British rule impact on India
  • Social and cultural developments/Awakening
  • Reform movements In detail
  • Founders and their contribution
  • Books
  • 1857 Revolt
  • Freedom Struggle
  • Formation of INC.
  • Moderates and Extremist
  • Partition Role of Bengal/Surat Split
  • Muslim league
  • Lucknow pact
  • Minto Morley/Montagu Chelmsford
  • Gandhian Era
  • Non Cooperation Movement
  • Civil dis-obedience movement
  • Gandhi – Irwin Pact
  • August Offer
  • Quit India Movement
  • Cripps mission
  • Cabinet Committee
  • Partition
  • MCQ

10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I

Indian Polity Test Series for IAS Prelims 2019

IAS Prelims 2019 Test Series: 10 Practice Set with 500+ Current Affairs MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019: Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Important Study Notes GS Paper-I

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Test Series-2019 Updated

Important Study Notes IAS Prelims 2019

History of India Study Notes with Practice MCQ part-1

Medieval History of India

India between 750-1200 AD

 The Medieval period is an important period in the history of India, because of the developments in the fields of arts, languages, culture and religion. The period witnessed the impact of other religions on Indian culture. This period is also referred to as the Postclassical Era.

The Medieval period lasted from the 8th to the 18th century CE with the early medieval period from the 8th to the 13th century, and the late medieval period from the 13th to the 18th century.

The early medieval period witnessed wars amongst the regional kingdoms from North and South India, whereas the late medieval period saw a number of invasions by the Mughals, Afghans and the Turks.

By the end of the fifteenth century, European traders started doing trade with India and around the mid-eighteenth century, they became a political force in India marking the end of the medieval period.

About 20 kingdoms succeeded in extending their sovereignty beyond a single mega region.  Two thirds of these were ruled by Hindu dynasties, but the most durable of these imperial states was the Muslim Mughal Empire, from about the middle of Akbar’s reign, around l580, to the reign of Muhammad Shah in 1730.

Dominance in more than one region by almost all of these states was usually the accomplishment of a single ruler, a great conquering warrior like Pulakesin II of the seventh century Chalukyan kingdom or the mid-tenth century Krishna-II of the Rashtrakutas, both of the Deccan.

There were numerous smaller kingdoms, the scale of whose authority was far more limited, but whose duration could nevertheless be considerable.  From inscriptions and literary sources we get information on over 40 royal dynasties who endured for a period in the mega regions.

The chronicles of temples, royal genealogical texts, and oral traditions tell of wealthy kings and local chiefs who attempted to achieve royal status.

The existence of so many rulers tells us that the early medieval period witnessed the emergence of new state forms, compared to the late Vedic and classical periods.  There is, however, little agreement among historians about the character of these states and their form.

Major dynasties of medieval time

1. The Pallavas

The Pallavas ruled in southern India, incorporating the modern regions of Andhra Pradesh, northern Tamil Nadu, and parts of southern Karnataka. Later on, they conquered vast areas of the sub-continent, expanding across much of it into what is now Afghanistan during the reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala.

The origins of the Pallavas have always been an issue of speculation. There have been claims that they were the former governors of the Satvahanas, while some claim they descend from the Cholas. In truth, they probably benefited from the collapse of both powers and emerged following their fall. There is also one theory which states that ‘Pallava’ is an adulteration of the word ‘Pahlava’ for the Parthians of Central Asia and Iran. In Sanskrit the word ‘Pallava’ actually means a ‘twig’ and their Tamil lineage is, by and large, accepted by all.

The Pallava rule can be categorised as early Pallava rule, up to around AD 550 and the arrival on the scene of Simhavishnu, their great king; and ‘Later Pallava Rule’, from Simhavishnu onwards.

The Pallavas gained prominence after the decline of the Satvahanas and the Cholas, as they gained a foothold in the territories of both former powers.

Later Pallavas

King Simhavishnu reigned around AD 550 (a reign of thirty-plus years), beginning the Pallava revival that defeated the Kalabhras. He recreated a strong Pallava kingdom by subduing many kings in the south (such as the Cheras, Cholas, the now-subdued Kalabhras, and the Pandyas). His kingdom extended beyond Kanchi, to as far as the River Kaveri).

Through his naval expeditions he subdued Malaya (Indo-Chin(a)and Sri Lanka.

Simhavishnu patronised literature and poetry. He was said to be a patron of the great Sanskrit poet, Bharavi, and was a Vaishnavite Hindu by religion.

Later, Mahendravarman warded off an attack on Kanchipuram by the Chalukya king Pulakeshin-II, though he had to cede areas of Vengi Province to the Chalukyas.

Pulakeshin II of the Badami Chalukyas conquered the eastern Deccan, taking territory corresponding to the coastal districts of the Vishnukundins kingdom, as well as territory from the Pallavas. He appointed his brother, Kubja Vishnuvardhana, as the viceroy whilst also conquering the Cheras and Cholas in the south.

The kingdoms of the south, the Cheras, Cholas and Pallavas, subsequently teamed up to form a coalition to defeat the Chalukyas, but that attempt ended in defeat.

Narasimhavarman I defeated the Chalukyas under Pulakeshin- II and wrests back the territories lost by his father. He also attacked and plundered Vatapi (Badami), the capital of the Chalukyas, killing Pulakeshin- II in the process.

He later subdued the Cholas and the Cheras, and was said to help the Ceylonese prince, Manavamma, in gaining his kingdom.

During the reign of Mahendravarman II, King Manavarma of Ceylon was deposed and driven into exile, going to the Pallava court. Mahendravarman was later killed in a collective attack by the Chalukyas, the Gangas and the Pandyas.

As soon as he gained the throne, Parameshvaravarman continued fighting the Chalukyas under the leadership of Vikramaditya- I. He captured Kanchi and advances south to the River Kaveri. In 674 he fights the Battle of Peruvalanallur, near Trichinopoly, and is victorious despite facing a huge coalition.

Parameshvaravarman occupied the Chalukyan territories from which he withdraws only after the Chalukyan rulers agree to pay a yearly tribute and accept Pallava overlordship, but not before the occupation army annihilates several Chalukyan princes, nobles and citizens. This victory enables the Pallavas to assert their hegemony over the subcontinent.

At his accession, Narasimhavarman was the ruler of the most powerful military force in the subcontinent. Rajasimha was a great militarist, exchanged ambassadors with China, and offered certain rulers assistance in their war against the Arabs. His reign was comparatively free from any political disturbance, so great progress was made in the direction of temple building.

The reign of Parameshvaravarman II signaled the turn of the tide in Pallava fortunes. Kanchi was invaded by the Chalukyas and Parameshvaravarman had to surrender and accept humiliating conditions. He attacked the Chalukyas but was defeated and killed, dying without an heir.

A war of succession was avoided as military leaders (danda nayakas), scholars, and representatives of the merchant class and the peasantry formed an entourage and undertakes ‘a long journey’ to reach the kingdom of Kambujadesa (modern Cambodia and Vietnam).

  • They were ruled by a certain Kadavesa Hari Varma, who was a sixth generation descendant of Bhimavarman, brother of the great Simhavishnu.
  • Of his sons, only the youngest, Nandivarman, accepted his request to return to the Deccan to govern the Pallava kingdom as successor to the deceased Parameshvaravarman.
  • During the absence of a ruler in the Deccan, the Pallava’s regional enemies had mobilised as if they were about to invade but, as the Pallavas waited and watched, nothing occurred.

The awaited Chalukya invasion took place later, with Vikramaditya II occupying Kanchi. The Pallavas soon recovered, having to fight the Cholas, Pandyas and Gangas in quick succession (with the Cheras as allies at least against the Pandyas).

During the reign of Dantivarman, the kingdom was in noticeable decline. The Pandyas and the Rashtrakutas defeated the Pallavas under his command. His successor, Nandivarman III, tried to regain the lost glory of the Pallavas but was also defeated by the Pandyas, who became the new enemy to be feared by the weakening Pallavas.

Nandivarman was a powerful monarch who tried to reverse the Pallava decline. He made an alliance with the Rashtrakutas and the Gangas, and defeated the Pandyas at Thellar, near Kanchi. He then pursued the retreating Pandyan army. The Pandyan ruler, Srimara Shrivallabh, however, recovered most of his territories and even defeated the Pallavas at Kumbakonam.

Upon Nandivarman’s death, differences arose between Nripatunga and his step-brother, Aparajita, probably owing to the latter’s ambition to rule the kingdom in his own right. Both sides looked for allies and for the time being, it was Nripatunga who ruled the kingdom. Nripatunga managed to turn the tables on the Pandyas and inflicted a defeat on them under their king, Srimara Shrivallabh, as one last salve to Pallava pride.

Practice Question Answer

History MCQ for IAS and State Prelims Exam

Q. 1 Consider the following statement about Harappan Agriculture system:

1.  The bull was known to the people of Harappan Civilization

2.  Evidence of plough field has been found at Harappan sites

3.  Harappan agriculture was dependent on monsoon and no irrigation facility was required

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1 and 2

(b)Only 2 and 3

(c)All 1, 2 and 3

(d)Only 1 and 3

Q. 2 Consider the following statement about Harappan culture:

1.  Harappans did not believe in life after death

2.  Harappan civilization was a classless society

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1

(b)Both 1 and 2

(c)Only 2

(d)None of the above

Q. 3 Consider the following about Mauryan Empire:

1.  There was a uniform administrative system throughout the length and breadth of the Mauryan Empire

2.  Asoka used the message of dhamma as a political tool to keep the large Mauryan Empire together

 Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1

(b)Both 1 and 2

(c)Only 2

(d)None of the above

Q. 4 Consider the following statement about Ashokan edict:

1.  Asoka was the first ruler to speak directly to his people through the inscriptions

2.  They are found only in India

3.  The inscription was written in Brahmi script, Kharoshti script and Greek script

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1 and 2

(b)Only 2 and 3

(c)All 1, 2 and 3

(d)Only 1 and 3

Q. 5 Which of the following are sites of Mesolithic Period?

1.  Langhnaj in Gujarat

2.  Bhimbetka and Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh

3.  Bagor in Rajasthan

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 2

(b)Only 1 and 3

(c)All 1, 2 and 3

(d)Only 2 and 3

Q. 6 The rigidity of Varna system was maintained by Brahmans by following which of these strategies:

1.  They asserted that Varna order was of divine origin

2.  They advised kings to ensure that the system is followed in his kingdom

3.  The system was reinforced by the stories told in religious text

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1 and 2

(b)Only 2

(c)Only 1

(d)All 1, 2 and 3

Q.7 Consider the following about Jain Philosophy:

1.  The principle of Ahimsa is derived from the Jain Philosophy

2.  Jain did not believe in the cycle of birth and death based on Karma

 Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1

(b)Both 1 and 2

(c)Only 2

(d)None of the above

Q. 8 Consider the following statement about Buddha’s teaching

1. The Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin

2. Buddha emphasized on the individual agency to attain Nirvana

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1

(b)Both 1 and 2

(c)Only 2

(d)None of the above

Q.9 Arrange the following in increasing order of hierarchy of administrative unit during Gupta period

1.  Bhuktis

2.  Vithis

3.  Vishaya

4.  Village

Choose the correct answer from the following code:





Q. 10 Consider the following about the status of women in Gupta period

1.  Women of higher Varna were free to earn a livelihood but not the women of lower Varna.

2.  Women of higher Varna were free to live an independent life without male subordination.

Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)Only 1

(b)Both 1 and 2

(c)Only 2

(d)None of the above

Q. 11 Which of the following Indian states have their own Flag?

1.  Sikkim

2.  Jammu and Kashmir

3.  Nagaland

4.  Mizoram

 Choose the correct answer from the following code:

(a)1 and 2 Only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 Only

(d)2 only

 Q. 12 Consider the following statements:

1.  Black Carbon particles strongly absorb solar and terrestrial radiation and heat up the atmosphere and it can upset the monsoon system.

2.  Brown Carbon is also known as organic carbon and it comes from complex organic reactions in the airborne atmospheric particles.

Which of the above statements is/are true?

(a)1 Only

(b)2 Only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

Q. 13 Which of the following state has become the first in the country to operationalise a law that makes the social audit of government programs and schemes a part of government practice?





14 Project MIDAS is associated with which of the following:

(a)It aims to deploy artificial reefs in Gulf of Mannar to save the sinking islands due to sea level rise and climate change

(b)It is a U.K.-based Antarctic research project that has been looking at the ice shelf for many years

(c)The project aims to develop a cost-effective forecast system using satellite-monitoring, collecting water samples and using special sensors to measure bacterial and chemical pollution in rivers

(d)The project aims to control desertification by involving local communities

15 Which of the following islands had recently imposed a Garbage emergency?


(b)New Guinea



Answer Key 1-a, 2-d, 3-c, 4-d, 5-c, 6-d, 7-a, 8-b, 9-a, 10-d, 11-d, 12-c, 13-a, 14-b, 15-c.

RAS Mains Exam Complete Study Notes

Download RAS Mains Study Notes

Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III Paper-IV
Rajasthan History Administrative Ethics   Rajasthan Current Affairs General Hindi & English
Art-Culture Rajasthan National Current Affairs
Indian History   International Current Affairs
Indian Culture
World History
Economy-Rajasthan Science & Technology Public Administration
Indian Economy Agriculture-Rajasthan Polity & Administration
Sociology Geography-Rajasthan Sports & Yoga
Management Geography-India Behaviour
Accounting & Auditing Geography-World Law
general studies of Rajasthan


1) Which of the following is/are correct about Hampi?

  1. It is located in Krishna-Cauvery basin
  2. It was the capital of Vijayanagara empire
  3. Cementing agent was excessively used by the kings for forts
  4. It is a part of HRIDAY programme
  5. a) Only 2
  6. b) Only 1, 2 and 3
  7. c) Only 1 and 2
  8. d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution: a

2) Consider the following statement

  1. The songs compilations of Nayanars are Tevaramand tiruvakam
  2. Andal is a famous woman Nayanar saint

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

              Solution: a 

 3) Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Sikhism has influences of Bhakti tradition
  2. It is a syncretic religion
  3. Guru Arjan gave it a militaristic outlook
  4. a) Only 1
  5. b) Only 2 and 3
  6. c) Only 1 and 2
  7. d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: c

4) Which of the following is/are NOT correct ?

  1. Lilatilakam a 14thcentury text dealt with grammar and politics
  2. It was composed in manipravalamlanguage
  3. Manipravalamwas a mixture of Sanskrit and tamil

Select the correct answer using codes below

  1. a) Only 1 and 2
  2. b) Only 2 and 3
  3. c) Only 3
  4. d) Only 1 and 3

               Solution: c

5) Jagannatha temple at Puri is a pilgrimage centre today. Which of the following is/are correct about it?

  1. It is a based on Vaishnavite cult
  2. The deity has a tribal inspiration
  3. The temple was built by King Anangabhima III

Select the correct answer using the code below.

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2 and 3
  3. c) Only 1 and 2
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

              Solution: c

  1. Which of the following is NOT correct about Kathak?
  2. a) It is hugely influenced by Bhakti movement
  3. b) It is a dance form which narrates stories
  4. c) It was disallowed in Mughal courts
  5. d) It is one of the Classical dances today

  Solution: c

7) Which of the following is/are responsible for the downfall of Hindu states during medieval India?

  1. Lack of unity among them.
  2. Outdated military methods used by them.
  3. Work division based on Varna system.
  4. a) Only 2
  5. b) Only 1 and 2
  6. c) 1, 2 and 3
  7. d) Only 1 and 3

  Solution: c

8) Consider the following statements

  1. Iltumish patronized the great scholar Hasan Nizami
  2. Qutbuddin Aibak was called Lakh Bakshby the Muslim writer

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

  1. Who was the first Sultan to impose irrigation tax?
  1. Match the following

a) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

b) Firoz Shah Tughlaq

c) Allauddin Khilji

d) Iltumish

Solution: b                                                                                 

  1. Ariz-i-mumalikheaded the military department under the Delhi Sultana technology.

Which of the following is /are correct about him?

  1. He was responsible for recruiting the soldiers and administering the military department.
  2. He was commander in chief of the Army

Select the correct answers using code below

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

11)Which of the following is /are correct about Jiziya?

  1. Jiziyawas not a separate tax since beginning under Muslim rule
  2. At times Brahmins were exempted from paying Jiziya
  3. Firoz Tughlaq made it a part of Land Tax

Select the correct answers using the codes below

  1. a) Only 1 and 2
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Only 2 and 3
  4. d) Only 1

Solution: a

 12) Consider the following statements

  1. Tughlaq   architecture combined both arch and dome features
  2. They mostly used red sand stone for their building.
  3. Muhammad bin Tughlaq built the city Tughlaqabad.

Which of the above statements is /are NOT correct?

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Only 2 and 3
  4. d) Only 3

Solution: c

  1. Which of the following is NOT correct about Vishishtadvaitaphilosophy propounded by Ramanujacharya?

a) God is a Saguna Brahman

b) Self-surrender to God is the way to achieve him

c) Soul and matter are not Real

d) His philosophy was rooted in Vaishnavism


14) Which of the following is/are feature/features of Swadeshi movement?

  1. Emphasis on self-reliance
  2. Extensive participation of the peasantry
  3. Cultural revivalism

a) Only 3

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 3

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: c

15) Consider the following statements

  1. The first session of Indian National Congress was presided by W.C Banerjee.
  2. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay addressed the session in 1885

Which of the above statement is/are NOT correct?

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

  1. Who started the newspaper Al Hilal?

a) Maulana Azad

b) Mohammmad Ali

c) Hasrat Mohani

d) Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Solution: a

 17) Which of the following was/were a part of Vivekananda’s ideas ?

  1. Fundamental oneness of God.
  2. Social action along with knowledge.
  3. Usage of Modern science and technology for the development of the nation

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 2

c) Only 1 and 3

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

18) Consider the following statements

  1. Servants of Indian Society were founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  2. Sudharakwas the periodical which projected the views of the Society
  3. Gopal Ganesh Aaykar started the periodical Sudharak

Which of the above statements is /are correct?

  1. a) Only 1 and 3
  2. b) 1,2 and 3
  3. c) Only 1 and 2
  4. d) Only 1

Solution: a

 19) Which of the following statements is/are correct ?

  1. Social service league was founded by Narayan Malhar Joshi
  2. He was one of the founding members of All India Trade Union Congress.

Select the correct answer using the code below

  1. a) Only 1
  2. b) Only 2
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Women’s Organisations                                                     Founder

  1. Bharat Stree Mahamandal                                  Mehribai Tata
  2. Bharat Mahila Parishad                                      Sarala Devi Chaudhurani
  3. Arya Mahila Samaj                                             Pandita Ramabai
  4. National Council of women in India           Ramabai Ranade

1             2            3            4

  1. a) D          B           C           A
  2. b) B            D          C            A
  3. c) B            D          A            C
  4. d) D           B          A            C

Solution: b

 21) Which of the following ideas was/were supported by Dayanand Saraswati?

  1. A classless and casteless society
  2. Vedic nation of Chaturvana system
  3. Infallibility of Vedas and Puranas

1.a) Only 2 and 3

b) Only 2

c) 1,2 and 3

d) Only 1 and 2

 Solution: d