Ancient Indian History

Ancient Indian History: India’s history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization.

The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization, more precisely known as Harappan Civilization. It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, what today is Pakistan and Western India. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. Nothing was known about this civilization till 1920s when the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. Mohenjodaro and Harappa were unearthed. The ruins of buildings and other things like household articles, weapons of war, gold and silver ornaments, seals, toys, pottery wares, etc., show that some four to five thousand years ago a highly developed Civilization flourished in this region.

The Indus valley civilization was basically an urban civilization and the people lived in well-planned and well-built towns, which were also the centers for trade. The ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa show that these were magnificent merchant cities-well planned, scientifically laid, and well looked after. They had wide roads and a well-developed drainage system. The houses were made of baked bricks and had two or more storeys.

The highly civilized Harappans knew the art of growing cereals, and wheat and barley constituted their staple food. They consumed vegetables and fruits and ate mutton, pork and eggs as well. Evidences also show that they wore cotton as well as woollen garments. By 1500 BC, the Harappan culture came to an end. Among various causes ascribed to the decay of Indus Valley Civilization are the recurrent floods and other natural causes like earthquake, etc.

The Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in the history of ancient India. It is named after the Vedas, the early literature of the Hindu people. The Vedic Civilization flourished along the river Saraswati, in a region that now consists of the modern Indian states of Haryana and Punjab. Vedic is synonymous with Hinduism, which is another name for religious and spiritual thought that has evolved from the Vedas.

The Ramayana and Mahabharata were the two great epics of this period.

During the life time of Lord Gautam Buddha, sixteen great powers (Mahajanpadas) existed in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC. Among the more important republics were the Sakyas of Kapilavastu and the Licchavis of Vaishali.

In 326 BC, Alexander invaded India, after crossing the river Indus he advanced towards Taxila. He then challenged king Porus , ruler of the kingdom between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab. The Indians were defeated in the fierce battle, even though they fought with elephants, which the Macedonians had never before seen. Alexander captured Porus and, like the other local rulers he had defeated, allowed him to continue to govern his territory.

After the Kushanas, the Guptas were the most important dynasty. The Gupta period has been described as the Golden Age of Indian history. The first famous king of the Gupta dynasty was Ghatotkacha’s son Chandragupta I. He married Kumaradevi, the daughter of the chief of the Licchavis. This marriage was a turning point in the life of Chandragupta I. He got Pataliputra in dowry from the Lichhavis. From Pataliputra, he laid the foundation of his empire and started conquering many neighbouring states with the help of the Licchavis. He ruled over Magadha (Bihar), Prayaga and Saketa (east Uttar Pradesh). His kingdom extended from the river Ganges to Allahabad. Chandragupta I also got the title of Maharajadhiraja (King of Kings) and ruled for about fifteen years.

With the commencement of the 7th century, Harshavardhana (606-647 A.D.) ascended the throne of Thaneshwar and Kannauj on the death of his brother, Rajyavardhana. By 612 Harshavardhana consolidated his kingdom in northern India.

In 620 A.D. Harshavardhana invaded the Chalukya kingdom in the Deccan, which was then ruled by Pulakesin II. But the Chalukya resistance proved tough for Harshavardhana and he was defeated. Harshavardhana is well known for his religious toleration, able administration and diplomatic relations. He maintained diplomatic relations with China and sent envoys, who exchanged ideas of the Chinese rulers and developed their knowledge about each other.

Ancient indian history for Civil Services Examination

Ancient indian history for Civil Services Examination. UPSC CSE IAS Prelims and Mains Exam Complete Study Material in PDF Download Free.

Indian history for UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims 2021 GS Paper 1

Indian history for UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims 2021 GS Paper 1: The General Studies paper of UPSC Civil services preliminary exam comprises of Polity, Geography, Economy, History, General Science and Current Affairs. Both Indian History and culture are correlated and vast subjects. The Indian History and culture are considered as the significant part of both …

Indian history for UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims 2021 GS Paper 1 Read More »

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020: Check Detailed Analysis of Paper I (History Section)

UPSC CSE IAS Prelims GS Paper 1: The UPSC Civil Services Prelims 2020 conducted on October 4 left many aspirants baffled with more questions asked from the Ancient History. In this article, we have provided an analysis of the UPSC Civil Services Prelims 2020 keeping History questions at the focus. UPSC IAS Prelims GS Paper: …

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020: Check Detailed Analysis of Paper I (History Section) Read More »

Buddhism and Jainism: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams

Buddhism and Jainism: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams: History is equally important for the IAS Prelims and IAS Mains Exam. Globally, History is divided under the three sub-sections i.e. Ancient History, Medieval History and Modern History. NCERT based MCQs of Indian History for IAS Prelims General Studies Paper-1. Buddhism and …

Buddhism and Jainism: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams Read More »

Vedic period: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams

Vedic period: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams: History is equally important for the IAS Prelims and IAS Mains Exam. Globally, History is divided under the three sub-sections i.e. Ancient History, Medieval History and Modern History. NCERT based MCQs of Indian History for IAS Prelims General Studies Paper-1. Vedic period: NCERT …

Vedic period: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams Read More »

Indus Valley Civilization: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams

Indus Valley Civilization: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams: History is equally important for the IAS Prelims and IAS Mains Exam. Globally, History is divided under the three sub-sections i.e. Ancient History, Medieval History and Modern History. NCERT based MCQs of Indian History for IAS Prelims General Studies Paper-1. Indian History …

Indus Valley Civilization: NCERT History MCQs for UPSC IAS/State PSC and other exams Read More »

NCERT Class 12 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 12 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 12 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for class 12. The NCERT Class 12th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 12 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 11 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 11 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 11 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 11. The NCERT Class 11th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 11 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 10 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 10 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 10 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 10. The NCERT Class 10th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 10 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 9 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 9 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 9 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 9. The NCERT Class 9th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 9 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 8 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 8 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 8 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 8. The NCERT Class 8th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 8 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 7 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 7 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 7 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 7. The NCERT Class 7th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 7 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 6 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download

NCERT Class 6 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download: NCERT Class 6 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 6. The NCERT Class 6th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest …

NCERT Class 6 History Books in English and Hindi Medium PDF Download Read More »

NCERT Class 6-12th History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 6-12 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for class 6-12. The NCERT Class 6-12th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 6-12th History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »

NCERT Class 12 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 12 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for class 12. The NCERT Class 12th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 12 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »

NCERT Class 11 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 11 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 11. The NCERT Class 11th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 11 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »

NCERT Class 10 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 10 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 10. The NCERT Class 10th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 10 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »

NCERT Class 9 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 9 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 9. The NCERT Class 9th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 9 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »

NCERT Class 8 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 8 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 8. The NCERT Class 8th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 8 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »

NCERT Class 7 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium

NCERT Class 7 History Books: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes history textbooks for Class 7. The NCERT Class 7th History textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. The NCERT History Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. NCERT has a good image when it …

NCERT Class 7 History Books PDF Download in English and Hindi Medium Read More »