RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam Rajasthan GK Complete Study Material in English

RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims Exam General Studies Study Material in English. Rajasthan General Knowledge for RPSC RAS and all other competitive exams. we are providing you complete study notes/eBook here.

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  1. Geography of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  2. History of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  3. Art Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  4. Rajasthan Polity and Administration with Practice MCQ
  5. Economy of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ
  6. Rajasthan Current Affairs Year Book 2019

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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Preface

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the syllabus of RPSC and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the shop in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. Very soon it will be available on Amazon, Flip-kart etc.
General Studies of Rajasthan

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Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D) Study Notes

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D)

  1. Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal
  2. Guhil Dynasty of Mewar
  3. Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
  4. Rathod Dynasty of Marwar
  5. Rathod of Bikaner
  6. Kachwaha of Amber
  7. Chauhan Dynasty
  8. Chauhan of Ranthambore
  9. Chauhan of Jalore
  10. Hada Chauhan of Bundi
  11. Hada Chauhan of Kota
  12. Parmar of Abu

Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  Raja Nagbhatta I

  • Founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihar.
  • Made triple alliance with Bappa Rawal and Jaisimha to defeat Arabs.

 Raja Watsaraj

  • First Pratihar king to occupy Kannauj.
  • He defeated Dharmapala of Gaud Dynasty and defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 Raja Nagbhatta II

  • Occupied Kannauj.
  • Defeated Dharmapala in the battle of Mudgagiri.
  • Defeated by Govinda of Rashtrakuta.

    Raja Mihir Bhoj

  • Defeated Devpala of Bengal.
  • Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court in 851 A.D.

    Raja Yashpal

  • Last ruler of this dynasty.
  • His rule came to an end due to emerging of Gazni power.

Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

    Guhil

  • In 566 A.D. Guhil established this dynasty.
  • He established independent city Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

  • Original Name was Kaalbhoj
  • In 734, he defeated Maan Mori and took Chittorgarh under his control and made Nagada his capital.
  • At first, started gold coin in Rajasthan.
  • He built Eklingji Temple in Udaipur.

    Allat (943 A.D. to 953 A.D.)

  • Original Name is  Alu Rawal
  • Built Varah Temple of Ahar.
  • Married Hun Princess Hariyadevi.
  • Established bureaucracy in Mewar.

    Jaitra Singh (1213-1253 A.D.)

  • Fought battle of Bhutala and defeated the army of Iltutmish.
  • He made Chittor his new capital.
  • His reign is called Golden Age of Medieval Mewar.

    Ratan Singh (1302-1303 A.D.)

  • AllauddinKhilji defeated him and he was killed.
  • After his death, his wife Padmavati committed Jauhar.
  • This was biggest Saka of Chittor and first Saka of Rajasthan.
  • Gora and Badal, two commanders showed courage during the battle.
  • In 1540 A.D. Malik Mohammed Jayasi wrote Padmavat in which he mentioned the beauty of Queen Padmavati.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

Rana Hammir (1326-1364)

Khetri Singh (1364-82)

  • He captured Zafar Khan, Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Son of Hammir

 Rana Lakha (1382-1421)

  • He married Hansa Bai, princess of Marwar.
  • His son Rana Choonda took the oath that not to come on the throne. Thus he is also called Bhishmapitamah of Mewar.

    Rana Mokul Singh (1421-33)

  • He reconstructed Samidheshwar Temple in Chittoor.
  • In 1433, he was murdered in Zilwada.

    Rana Kumha (1433-68)

  • Defeated Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Malwa, in battle of Sarangpur (Mandalgarh).
  • He erected Vijay Stambh (sign of Rajasthan police) after this victory which is 37 meters tall and 10 meter in width having 9 floors.
  • It is compared with Qutub Minar.
  • Rana Kumbha defeated the joint army of Mahmud Khilji and Qutbuddin of Gujarat in 1456.
  • Important fort built by Kumbha- (1) Kumbhalgarh (2) Achalgarh (3) Basantgarh
  • Important books written by Kumbha- (1) Rasik Priya (2) Sudha Prabhandh (3) Sangeet Raj (5 part) (6) Sangeet Sudha (7) Kamaraj Ratisaar
  • He gave patronage to many scholars in his court. Important are- (a) Mandan (b) Kanh Vyas (c) Ramabai (d) Muni Sundar Suri etc.
  • He was a musician as well.
  • He was killed by his son Ooda Singh or Udai Singh.

  Rana Udai Singh (1468-73)

  • He killed his father Rana Kumbha and came to the throne.
  • Ramuel, his brother, defeated him and ascended the throne.

  Rana Sanga (1508-1528)

  • In 1517 and 1519, he fought the battle of Khatoli and Bari respectively with Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in both the battles.
  • In 1519, he defeated MehmudKhilji in the battle of Gagron.
  • In 1527, he was defeated in the battle of Khanwa by Babur.
  • The important king who took part in the battle of Khanwa (Maldev- Marwar, Medini Rai- Chanderi, Mahmood Lodhi (small brother of Ibrahim Lodhi)
  • He died at Kalpi (M.P.)

   Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572)

  • Saved by Panna Dhai in the childhood
  • In 1557, fought the battle of Harmada with Haji Khan Pathan who was governor of Ajmer.
  • In 1559, he founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake.
  • In 1568 Akbar attacked and Jaimal and Fatta was killed

    Maharana Pratap (1572-1597)

  • In 1576, He fought the battle of Haldighati with Akbar and was defeated by Akbar. Akbar deputed Man Singh against Maharana Pratap.
  • Thermopylae of Rajasthan – James Tod
  • Kumbhalgarh war (1577, 1578, 1579) between (Sahbaz v/s Pratap)
  • His horse’s name was Chetak who was injured in this battle and later died. Chetak’s cremation is in Balicha Village.
  • In 1582, he fought Battle of Diver.
  • In 1597. He died in Chawand.

  Karan Singh (1620-1628)

  • He started construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.

 Jagjit Singh I (1628-52)

  • He finished the construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  • He constructed Jagdish Temple of Udaipur.

Raj Singh (1652-80)

  • He protested against Jajiya Tax by Aurangzeb
  • Supported Aurangzeb in the fight of Successor

Jai Singh (1680-98)

  • He built Jaisamand Lake.

Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

    Rao Siyaji

  • He founded this dynasty.
  • In 1273, he died protecting cows in Bithu village.

    Rao Chunda

  • The real founder of Rathod dynasty in Mewar.
  • He was killed in a battle with Salim Shah of Multan.

 Rao Jodha (1438-89)

  • He established city Jodhpur.
  • He constructed Mehrgarh Fort.
  • His 5th son Bika established Bikaner.

    Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)

  • He killed his father and ascended the throne.
  • In 1541, he defeated Jaitasi of Bikaner.
  • In 1543, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in Battle of Sumail.

    Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)

  • He was defeated by the Mughal but still denied to form an alliance with them.
  • He is called Pratap of Marwar.

    Raja Udai Singh (1583-1595)

  • He established a marital relation with Mughals.
  • His daughter Mani Bai was married to Jahangir.

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)

  • He wrote BhasaBhusan, Anand Vilas, Prabodh Chandrodaya and AparokshaSidhanta Saar.

Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)

Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)

Rathod of Bikaner

Rao Bika (1465-1504)

  • In 1465, he established Rathod dynasty in Bikaner region.
  • In 1488, established Bikaner.

   Rao Naroji (1504-05)

   Rao Lunkaran (1505-1526)

    Rao Jait Singh (1526-1542)

    Rao Kalyan Singh (1542-1571)

    Raja Raj Singh I (1571-1611)

Maharaja Rao Anup Singh (1669-1698)

  • He wrote ‘Anup Vivek’, ‘Kaam Prabodh’,’ ShraddhPrayog Chintamani’, ‘Anupodaya.’

    Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh (1698-1700)

    Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh (1943-1950)

  • He was the last ruler of Bikaner and merged in present Rajasthan state and signed the instrument of accession to the dominion of India.

Kachwaha of Amber

    Prithviraj

  • He was feudal of Rana Sanga; therefore, he fought Battle with Babur in the Battle of Khanwa.

Bharamal

  • The accepted sovereignty of Akbar.
  • The first king of Rajasthan to accept sovereignty and establish a marital relation with Mughal.

Bhagwantdas

  • Suppress Mirza revolt in Sarnal Battle. Thus he was given Nagada and Parcham by Akbar as the award.
  • His daughter was married to Jahangir.

    Maan Singh

  • He was made Subedar of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal.
  • Established Maanpur city in Bihar
  • He established Akbarnagar city in Bengal.
  • Began the construction of forts of Amber
  • Constructed Radha Govind Temple in Vrindavan

Mirza Raja Jaisingh

  • Ruled for the maximum period in Jaipur (46 Years)
  • Shah Jahan titled him ‘Mirza Raja’.
  • On 11 June 1665, Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh.
  • He constructed Jaigarh Fort in Jaipur.

    Sawai Jai Singh

  • He saw the reign of seven Mughal Badshah.
  • Changed the name of Amber to Islamabad.
  • His Purohit was ‘PundarikRatnagar’.

    Ishwari Singh

  • In 1747, he defeated Madho Singh in the Battle of Rajmahal on the bank of river Banas.
  • 1748, he was defeated by Madho Singh in the Battle of Bagru.
  • After this defeat, he committed suicide.

Chauhan Dynasty

    Vasudev

  • In 551 A.D. he established Chauhan dynasty.
  • According to Bijoliya inscription, he constructed Sambhar Lake.

    Ajayraj

  • In 1113 he established Ajmer city.
  • He built Ajmer fort.

    Arnoraj

  • He constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Also constructed Varah Temple in Pushkar.

    Vigraharaj IV

  • He took away Delhi from Tomar dynasty.
  • He constructed a school later QutubuddinAibak built Dhai Din Ka Jhopda in place of this school.

    Prithviraj III

  • In 1182, he defeated Chandel ruler Parmarardidev in Battle of Mahoba.
  • 1191, he defeated Mohammad Ghori in First Battle of Panipat.
  • 1192, he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in Second Battle of Panipat.
  • Moinuddin Chisti came to India during his reign.
  • He constructed Pithoragarh near Delhi.
  • Kaimash and Bhuvanmalla were his two ministers.

Chauhan of Ranthambore

  • After the death of Prithviraj III, his son Govindraj established his rule in Ranthambore.

    Hammir Dev

  • In 1299, he defeated the army of Alauddin Khilji led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan.
  • Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle.
  • After that Allauddin Khilji raids the Ranthambore fort with his army and defeats them.
  • 1301, first Siege of Ranthambore took place. This was the first Siege of Rajasthan.
  • He fought 17 battle in his life in which he only lost the last one.

Chauhan of Jalore

  • Founder of this branch of Chauhan was Kirtipal.
  • In inscriptions, Jalore is mentioned as Jabalipur.
  • Allauddin Khilji changed the name of Siwana to Khairabad.

Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • In 1241, Deva Hada defeated Jait Meena and occupied Bundi.
  • 1354, Barsingh constructed Taragarh fort of Bundi.
  • Rao Surjan constructed Ranchhod Temple in Dwarika.
  • Budhhasingh wrote ‘Nehtarang’.
  • Maratha interference took place during the reign of Budhhasingh.

Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • In 1631, Madho Singh founded this state.
  • Mukund Singh constructed AbaliMeeni Palace in Kota.

Battles of Rajasthan

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

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Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD

The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles), taken place in 738 A.D., somewhere on borders on modern Sind-Rajasthan. In this battle, the Gurjar-Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India.

The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were:

  • Gurjara-Pratihara King Nagabhatt I
  •  Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire
  • Bappa Rawal of Hindu Kingdom of Mewar

Background:

By the end of 7th century A.D Islam had become a powerful religion and Arabs a power force. Muhammad Ibn Qasim captured Iran & Afghanistan. . His successor, Junayd Ibn Abd al- Rahman al-Murri, led a large army into the Hindustan region in early 730 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat.

Realizing the power of Arab forces, Pratihara king, Nagabhatta appealed for showing a united front with Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire. Jaysimha acknowledged and sent his son Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin to support Nagabhatta. The two forces, united with the already fighting Rajput forces under Bappa Rawal, at the border of Rajasthan.

The final battle of Rajasthan & Result: The battle was fought between 5,000-6,000 Rajput-Gurjar Infantry and cavalry facing more than 30,000 Arabs. The Rajputs under Bappa Rawal managed to kill the Arab leader Emir Junaid during the war. In the words of the Arab chronicler Suleiman, “a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found.”

The Arabs took a long time to recover from their defeat. Junayd’s successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi organized fresh campaigns against Rajasthan but failed to get hold of any territories. Thus, the triple alliance of Indian Kingdoms saved Hindustan from Arab invaders, at-least for next 200 years.

  • Khumar (753 – 773 )
  • Mattat (773 – 793 )
  • Bhratrabhat (773 – 813 )
  • Sinha (813 – 828)
  •  Khuman II (828 – 853)
  • Repelled up to 24 Muslim attacks.
  •  Ruled a Golden Age in Mewar.
  • Mahayak (853 – 878)
  •  Khuman III (878 – 942)
  •  Bhratrabhat II (942 – 943)
  • Allat (943 – 953)

 Possibly near start of his reign, Allat is driven from Chittor by the Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja, who then rules Chittor and is succeeded by his nephew, Raja Bhoj. Allat establishes a new capital at ancient Ahar.

  • (953 – 971)

 The death of Allat leaves a gap in the succession, and there is no Guhilot leader at all for a total of eight years while the Paramara attack Ahar. The Paramara king, Vakpati Raj of Malwa, rules Chittor. It takes until 971 for a new Guhilot king to reign.

  • Naravan / Narvahan (971 – 973)
  •  Shalivahan (973 – 977)
  • Shakti kumar (977 – 993 )
  •  Amba Prasad (993 – 1007)
  • Fought against Mahmud Ghazni (Yamin-ud-Dawlah Mahmud).
  • Suchivarma (1007 – 1021)
  • Narvarma (1021 – 1035)
  •  Kirtivarma (1035 – 1051)
  • Yograj (1051 – 1068)
  • Bairat / Vairat(1068 – 1088)
  •  Hans pal (1088 – 1103)
  • Vairi Singh (1103 – 1107)
  • Vijay Singh (1107 – 1127)
  • Ari Singh I (1127 – 1138)
  • Chittor is again captured by Malwa.
  • Chaur Singh (1138 – 1148)
  • The Western Chalukyas attack the Parmaras who hold Chittor.
  • Vikram Singh / Vikramaditya I (1148 – 1158)
  • Karan Singh (1158 – 1168)
  • The royal family divides, possibly near the end of Karan Singh’s reign. His son Rahap establishes the Sisodia branch of the family while another son, Mahap, establishes the Dungarpur kingdom.
  • Kshem Singh (1168 – 1172)
  • Samant Singh (1172 – 1179)
  • Samant Singh occupies Bagar (in the Dungarpur area) during his reign. After seven years on the throne he is slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadole in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
  • Kumar Singh(1179 – 1191)
  • Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at end of his reign.
  • Mathan Singh (1191 – 1211)
  • 1191 – 1192 – Mathan Singh fights in the Battles of Tarain, in which the Chauhan ruler, Prithviraj III, and the Rajput confederation which includes Mewar (the Hindu League) are defeated by the Ghurid Sultan Mohammed Ghuri.
  • 1207 – Chittor is taken and ruled by the Western Chalukyas just as they are facing their own terminal decline.
  • Padam Singh (1211 – 1213)
  • Jait Singh / Jaitra Singh (1213 – 1253)
  • During his reign, Jait Singh defeats the Malwa Rajputs who rule Chittor, reinstating its fort as the capital of Mewar. This probably occurs shortly after Sultan Iltumish of Delhi has destroyed Nagda.
  •  1234 – Sultan Iltumish of Delhi is defeated by Mewar when he invades the region.
  • 1253 – 1261
  • There is an apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, although the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. The relation of the next known ruler of Mewar to his predecessor is also unknown.
  • Tej Singh (1261 – 1267)
  • 1267 – 1273
  • There is a second apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, and the fate of Tej Singh is unknown, as are the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. It takes six years for Tej Singh’s son to ascend the throne.
  • Samar Singh (1273 – 1302)
  • Samar Singh builds wall around Mahasati in Chittor. His son, Kumbh Karan, migrates to Nepal (where his descendants become the Nepalese royal family).
  • Ratan Singh (1302 – 1303)
  • Last Guhilot king to rule.
  • 1303 – 1st Jauhar of Chittor
  • Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her.
  • After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre).
  • Administration of the captured state is handed to the ruler of the Neighboring state of Jalore, Maldeo.

List of battles of Rajasthan

Several significant battles are recorded to have taken place in what is now known as Rajasthan.

  1. Battle of Rajasthan (738) – Triple alliance of Nagabhata I, Jaysimha Varman and Bappa Rawal defeated Arabs on modern Rajasthan-Sind Border.
  2. The First Battle of Tarain (1191) – Prithviraj Chauhan of Ajmer defeated Mohammad Gori.
  3. Second Battle of Tarain (1192) – Muhammad Gori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
  4. Battle of Ranthambore (1299) – Hammir deo defeated a Khilji army under Nusrat Khan.
  5. Siege of Ranthombore (1301) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Hammir deo.
  6. Siege of Chittor (1303) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Rawal Ratan Singh (Rani Padmini and other ladies committed Jauhar)
  7. Battle of Jalore (1310–14) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Kanhad deo after a long and bloody war.
  8. Battle of Siwana (1308) – Malik Kamaluddin a general of Alauddin Khilji defeated Sheetal deo.
  9. Battle of Mandalgarh and Banas (1442-1446) – A series of battles that took place between Mahmud Khilji of Malwa and Rana Kumbha of Mewar. Bloodied by these engagements the Sultan did not attack Mewar for another ten years.
  10. Battle of Nagaur (1456) – Rana Kumbha defeated the combined armies of Shams Khan (sultan of Nagaur) and Qutbuddin (Sultan of Gujarat) and captured Nagaur, Kasili, Khandela and shakambhari.
  11. Battle of Khatoli (1517) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  12. Battle of Dholpur (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  13. Battle of Gagron (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Mahmud Khilji of Malwa.
  14. Invasion of Mewar (1520) – Sultan Muzaffar Shah II sent an army under Malik Ayaz but failed and retreated to Gujarat.
  15. Battle of Khanwa (1527) – Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
  16. Battle of Sammel (1544) – Sher Shah Suri’s Pyrrhic victory against the army of Jaita and Kumpa.
  17. Siege of Ranthambore (1558) – Mughal Emperor Akbar besieged Ranthambore Fort but failed due to Rajput rebellions in Gwalior.
  18. Battle of Merta (1562) – Akbar with the help of princes from Bikaner and Amer defeated Rao Chandra Sen and advanced towards Jodhpur.
  19. First Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1562-1583) – Akbar invaded Marwar and occupied Jodhpur. The ruler Rao Chandra Sen continued his struggle until his death in 1581 after which Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583.
  20. Siege of Chittorgarh (1567) – Emperor Akbar defeated Rao Jaimal and Patta (Udai Singh II escaped with his family to Udaipur)
  21. Siege of Ranthambore (1568) – A successful siege by Mughal Emperor Akbar causes the Rajput leader Rao Surjan Hada to surrender Ranthambore Fort.
  22. Battle of Haldighati (1576) – Man Singh (the commander of Akbar) defeated Maharana Pratap.
  23. Battle of Dewair (1582) – Maharana Pratap attacked a Mughal stronghold this resulted in the flight of the Mughal soldiers and the closing of all the 36 Mughal posts in Mewar.
  24. Second Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1679-1707) – Aurangzeb took Marwar under his direct control after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. The Rathore army under Durgadas Rathore carried out a relentless struggle against the occupying forces. In 1707 after the death of Aurangzeb Durgadas defeated the local Mughal force and reoccupied Jodhpur and their lost territories.
  25. Battle of Aravalli hills (1680) – Three separate armies, under Aurangzeb’s sons Akbar, Azam and Muazzam, penetrated the Aravalli hills from different directions but Akbar defected to the Rajputs resulting in the defeat of the Mughals by the armies of Rana Raj Singh I and Durgadas Rathore.
  26. Battle of Maonda and Mandholi (1767) – Jaipur forces defeat the forces of Bharatpur.
  27. Battle of Tunga or Battle of Lalsot (1787) – Combined forces of Jaipur and Jodhpur result in a stalemate with the Maratha forces of Mahadaji Shinde.
  28. Battle of Malpura (1800) – Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh defeated Daulat Rao Sindhia

Guhils of Chittorgarh: History of Rajasthan

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Guhils of Chittorgarh

Guhil

He is known as the founder of Guhil dynasty.

Originally he was born in Anandnagar, Gujarat but in 565 C.E, he established independent city at Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

Born as Kalbhoj

 Is said to have defeated Maan Mori and laid foundation of Guhilot Dynasty rule in Mewar.

Formed triple alliance with Nagabhatta & Jaysimha to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan.

The Kingdom of Mewar: History of Rajasthan

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Economy of Rajasthan

 The Kingdom of Mewar

The kingdom of Mewar includes present day districts of Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara. The region was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, the Name Medhpaat became Mewar.

The creators of Mewar’s ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation Stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the Seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.

The Guhilot had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested. The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud. According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

The Chauhan Dynasty: History of Rajasthan

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The Chauhan Dynasty

The Raja Saheb of Mainpuri, Head of all Chauhan clans

1. Songara Chauhan: Kuldevi is Chandi Devi. They are descended from the Rajas of Jalore, and had one branch, viz. Bhadoria

2. Khichi Chauhan: Kuldevi is Bhagwati. They are descended from Raja Bhagwat rai, Raja Gugalsingh and Raja Jaisingh of Khinchipur.

3. Hada Chauhan: Kuldevi is Ashapura. They are descended from Raja Manik Rai of Sambhar, and have the following branches, Udawat, Devra, Devre, Jaitawat and Chandrawat.

4. Bhadauria Chauhan: Their Kingdom was Bhadawar and are said to be a branch of the Songara Chauhan.

5. Bachgoti: Their name is derived from Vatsa Gotri and has two branches viz. Rajkumar and Rajwar.

The word Chauhan is the vernacular form of the Sanskrit term Chahamana. While the earlier versions of Chandbardai work Prithviraj Raso does not mention Chauhan as born from Agnikunda, the later versions do.

The 15th-century Hammira Mahakavya of Nayachandra Suri & Jayanayak’s Prithviraj Vijay considers Chauhans as Suryavanshi. Pandit Gaurishankar Ojha seconds this opinion.

Based on Bijloia Inscription (1170 CE), Dr. Dasrath Sharma considers that early ancestor of Chauhan was born at Ahichchhatrapura in the gotra of sage Vatsa. Ahichchhatrapura can be identified with modern Nagaur.

Chahamanas probably started out as petty rulers of Ahichchhatrapura. As the Chahamana territory expanded, the entire region ruled by them came to be known as Sapadalaksha. In course of time Chauhans formed ruling dynasties at various places.

Major Chauhan dynasties include:

  • Chauhans of Shakambhari
  • Chauhans of Ranthambore
  • Chauhans of Jalore

Apart from these, there are other ruling dynasties that claim Chauhan descent including:

  • Haras of Hadoti

Chauhans of Shakambhari:

Raja Guvaka I, 1st Raja of the Chahamana Dynasty at Harsha from 809 to 836, also known as Govindraj I, his predecessors were rulers at their capital of Purnatallakapura, initially he was the Samanta of Raja Nagabhata II of Kannauj, who had married his sister Kalavati Devi; he took part in a battle against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata II, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa; at some time he probably declared himself independent, and made his capital at Harsha, married and had issue. He lived around 815.

 Vasu-deva (c. 6th century CE)

  • Considered as founder of Shakambhari branch of Chauhans around 551 CE
  •  According to a mythical account in Prithviraja Vijaya, he received the Sambhar Salt Lake as a gift from a vidyadhara (a supernatural being).
  • Samanta-raja (c. 684-709 CE); identified as the legendary Manik Rai by R. B. Singh
  • Nara-deva (c. 709-721 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja I (c. 721-734 CE), alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala
  • Vigraha-raja I (c. 734-759 CE)
  • Chandra-raja I (c. 759-771 CE)
  • Gopendra-raja (c. 771-784 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja I (c. 784-809 CE)
  • Govinda-raja I (c. 809-836 CE), alias Guvaka-I: Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar
  • Chandra-raja II (c. 836-863 CE)
  • Govindaraja II (c. 863-890 CE), alias Guvaka II
  • Chandana-raja (c. 890-917 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja (c. 917-944 CE)
  • Simha-raja (c. 944-971 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja II (c. 971-998 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja II (c. 998-1012 CE)
  •  Govinda-raja III (c. 1012-1026 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja II (c. 1026-1040 CE)
  • Viryarama (c. 1040 CE)
  • Chamunda-raja (c. 1040-1065 CE)
  •  Durlabha-raja III (c. 1065-1070 CE), alias Duśala
  • Vigraha-raja III (c. 1070-1090 CE), alias Visala
  • Prithvi-raja I (c. 1090-1110 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja II (c. 1110-1135 CE): Moved the capital to Ajayameru (Ajmer) and Repulsed a Ghaznavid attack, and also defeated the Paramara king Naravarman.
  • Arno-raja (c. 1135-1150 CE), alias Ana: Defeated Turkish invaders and Constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Jagad-deva (c. 1150 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja IV (c. 1150-1164 CE), alias Visala deva: Expanded the Chauhan territories, and captured Delhi from The Tomaras.
  • Apara-gangeya (c. 1164-1165 CE)
  • Prithvi-raja II (c. 1165-1169 CE)
  •  Someshvara (c. 1169-1178 CE)
  •  Prithvi-raja III (c. 1178-1192 CE): Better known as Prithviraj Chauhan and Defeated Mohd. Ghori in first Battle of Tarain in 1191

Battles of Tarain: 1191 & 1192 :-The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were series of two battles fought in 1191 and 1192 A.D between Prithviraj Chauhan III of Ajmer and Ghurid ruler Mu’izz al-Din Muhammad or Mohammed  Ghori. The battles were fought near the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana.

  1. To extend the boundaries of his empire Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori entered into India in 1175 CE.
  2. He advanced to Gujarat in 1178 CE and advanced further by seizing Peshawar and Lahore and he ended the rule of Ghaznavid in Punjab with the help of the ruler of Jammu.
  3. As a result of successive conquests the boundaries of Ghori’s kingdom extended to the border of Prithviraj’s kingdom. In 1191, Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. Prithviraj’s along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. This is how the First war of Tarain began.
  4. Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.
  5. In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhammad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhammad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him.
  6. Prithviraj Chauhan cease-fired.  Muhammad Ghori deceived Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput arm mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious.
  7. About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi. 

Muhammad Ghori: Muhammad Ghazni established the Ghaznavid Empire with capital at Ghazni. After his death, Ghazni was Oghuz Turks. Ghori defeated the Turks and laid foundation of Ghurid Empire. After having made his position strong and secure at Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori turned his attention to India.

In 1175, Muhammad Ghori captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions. He turned south across the desert towards Anhilwara (modern day Patan, in Gujarat). In 1178, suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). As a result, Ghori retreated back to Multan.

In 1186 he attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions. Ghori returned back to Ghanzi to help his brother, only to return in 1191.

The first Battle of Tarain (1191): In 1191, Ghori proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

This brought him on northwestern frontier of Prithviraj Chauhans kingdom. Realizing their grave situation, the Hindu princes of north India formed a confederacy under the command of Prithiviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj’s army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai marched on to Bathinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori).

Ghori was wounded in personal battle with Govind Tai and so Ghori’s army retreated, giving victory to Prithviraj Chauhan. However, Prithviraj did not pursue Ghori’s army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori’s ambition, instead electing to retake the fortress of Bathinda.

Alternatively it has also been mentioned that, Ghori’s army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner.

Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him. Hence, Prithviraj Chauhan won the First Battle of Tarain, held in 1191.

After the First Battle:

Ghori return to Ghazni, and started preparations to avenge the defeat. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to Prithviraj to demand his submission, but the Chauhan ruler refused to comply.

The Second Battle of Tarain (1192): In 1192, Ghori challenged Prithviraj and a battle ensued at the same place (Tarain). Both Ghori and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. But Ghori changed his tactics as he did not want to engage in melee combat with disciplined Rajput warriors. He divided his huge troop into 5 parts and four units were sent to attack the Rajput flanks and rear. Hoping for Rajput attack, Ghori ordered his fifth unit to fast retreat. As Ghori expected, the Rajput’s charged the fleeing Ghurid unit. The Ghurids then sent a fresh cavalry unit of 12,000 and they managed to throw back the Rajput advance. Muhammad Ghori won the second Battle of Tarain.

Regarding, fate of Prthiviraj after second battle, two stories emerge.

  • The first story says that Prthivraj Chauhan was captured in the battle field and executed.
  • The second story, the more famous one in Rajasthan, is based on poem written by Prithviraj’s court poet Chandbardai. The story says that Mohammad Ghori attacked Prithviraj Chauhan unfairly at night, defeated his armies and captured him. Later Chauhan was taken to Ghor and presented in the court. Ghori ordered Prithvi to lower his eyes to which Prithvi retorted that the eyelids of Rajputs are lowered only on his death. Feeling insulted, Ghori blinded the Rajput prince.
  • Chandbardai entered the court of Mahmud of Ghori in a disguise. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was a very skilled archer, and he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look at his target. Ghori disdained to believe this and asked for the display.

When Prithviraj was given a bow and arrows into his hand and asked to take aim. Sighting opportunity, Chandbardai recited in a poetic stanza the location where Ghori sat. The stanza is: “Char bans, Chaubis Gaj, angul ashta Praman, Ta Upar sultan hai, Chuke mat Chauhan.” (Four measures ahead of you and twenty four yards away as measured with eight finger measurement, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).

  • Getting the direction and location Prithviraj shot his arrow through Ghori and killed him.

Consequences of Second Battle of Tarain on India: The second battle of Tarain was a decisive battle. It was a major disaster for the Rajputs and their political prestige suffered a serious setback. In 1193, Ghori’s general Qutub-Din Aibak took over Ajmer and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. Son of Prithviraj was moved to Ranthambore (laid foundation of Chauhan kingdom there). Further, in 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place, in which Aibak defeated Gahadavala ruler Jayachandra. In conlusion, the Battles of Tarain and Chandwar laid the foundation for establishment of Turkish rule in India.

Bakhtiyar Khilji extended the domain of empire to Bihar destroying Universities of Nalanda & Vikramsila in the process. Later in 1202, his army completed the occupation of Hindustan by taking the province of Bengal.

Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms: The most important cause for the downfall of Hindu Kingdoms was that the lack unity. They were divided by factions and Rajput Kingdoms were engaged in eternal mutual conflicts. It was the result of these conflicts that Jai Chandra did not help, Prithvi Raj Chauhan in putting up a united front against invaders.

Secondly, the military methods of Indian Kingdoms were also out of date and inferior to those of Muslims. Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry. More importantly, Ghori had spent the time carefully planning his campaign and his tactics proved a major winner in war.

1. Govinda-raja IV (c. 1192 CE): Banished by Hari-raja for accepting Muslim suzerainty and established the Chauhan branch of Ranthambore

2. Hari-raja (c. 1193-1194 CE): Hewas a king from the Shakambhari Chahamana dynasty of north-western India. After the Ghurid invaders defeated his brother Prithviraja III in 1192 CE, he dethroned his nephew Govindaraja IV, who had been appointed as a vassal ruler by the Ghurids. He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the Ghurids in 1194 CE.

Hariraja was a son of the Chahamana king Someshvara and Queen Karpura Devi. He and his elder brother Prithviraja III were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chalukya court by his maternal relatives. Prithviraja ascended the Chahamana throne after Someshvara death, but his reign ended in 1192 CE with a Ghurid conquest of the kingdom. The Ghurids appointed Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV as a vassal ruler in return for a heavy tribute.

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chauhan lost Ranthambore as a result of defeat of Prithviraja III in battle of Tarain 1192. By Mahmud of Ghori But, Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV accepted the Ghurid suzerainty, and ruled Ranthambore as his vassal.

  • Govinda-raja
  • Son of Prthvi Raja Chauhan III
  • Balhana-deva or Balhan
  • Prahlada or Prahlad,
  •  Viranarayana or Vir Narayan,
  • Vagabhata, son of Balhana;
  • Known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles
  • Jaitra-simha or Jaitra Singh
  •  Hammira-deva or Hammir Dev

In 1299, he defeated Allauddin Khilji’s army led by Ulugh Khan & Nusrat Khan.

  • In 1301, Allauddin Khilji again invaded his kingdom, which resulted in his defeat and death.

The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Delhi Sultans: After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja Chauhans son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja rule over Ajmer was not favoured by Hariraja, probably due to his acting as a Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by Prithviraj’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-installed on the throne of Ajmer.

  1. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan (Jaitra – perhaps his general) towards Delhi. The second attempt to failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja immolated himself.
  2. By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an independent kingdom.
  3. The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin strategy and farsightedness won the day in battle and the Rajputs forces were completely routed. After the victory, Aibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too was completely sacked. The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms, notably, the Chalukyas, Chandellas and Gahadavalas.
  4. In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to his policy of non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly bring any significant change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.

Chauhans of Jalore: Prathihar king VatsaRaja was the ruler of Jalore during 8th century. Towards the end of 12th Century, Parmars ruled here. Historians believe that the Jalore fort was built by Parmar rulers. It is known from a stone inscription of 1238 A.D. of fort that Parmar King Biral’s-queen Maludevi Powered Gold wins on Sindhu King.

Nadole king, Arhan’s, youngest son Kirtipala started Chouhan tradition in Jalore. The Chauhan lineage of Jalore is as under:

  • Kirtipala (c. 1160-1182 CE)
  • Samara-Simha (c. 1182-1204 CE)
  • Udaya-Simha (c. 1204-1257 CE)
  • Chachiga-deva (c. 1257-1282 CE)
  • Samanta-Simha (c. 1282-1305 CE)
  • Kanhada-deva (c. 1292-1311 CE)
  • Wrote Kanha-Prabhandha: Epic elaborating war between Kanha Dev & Alaudin Khilji.

Subsequent Rulers:

  • Rathore king Rao Maldev ruled the fort of Jalore in 15th Century.
  •  During Akbar’s rule, Abdul Rahim Khan Khana took it infinitely from Gazni Khan.
  • Jahangir built the walls of the fort.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb it permanently became a part of Jodhpur.

The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is credited with having taken possession of several adjoining territories (in possession of the Chalukyas and the Paramaras).

  • The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert capital.
  • According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being hard pressed sued for peace.
  • The terms included the offer of one hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did not yield the desired result, probably because of its geographical position.
  • Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the Guhilot of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an encounter.
  • The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.

Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore): History of Rajasthan

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Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore)

The strongest of the Gurjara-Prathira branch was the one at Bhinmal, under king Vyaghramukh. The Gurjar clan, which ruled at Bhinmal, was known as Chapas (this name is a short version of Chapotkrisht, Sanskrit word which means excelled in archery or strong bowmen). As per the records of Heun Tsang, the famous astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta was in the court of Vyaghramukh.

Kings of Bhinmal branch of Gurjara- Pratihara:

1. Raja Nagabhatt I Pratihara: He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

2. Raja Yashovardhana Pratihara

3. Raja Watsraj Pratihara: He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country but he was defeated in the hands of Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 4. Raja Nagabhatt II Pratihara: He got victory over Kannauj.He was defeated in the hands of Govinda of Rashtrakuta dynasty.He defeated Dharmapala and Chakrayudha in the battle of Mudgagiri.

 5. Raja Mihir Bhoj Pratihara: During the period of Mihir Bhoja Kanauj was restored to its former glory.Mihir Bhoja defeated Devapala of Bengal.Suleiman, Arab traveller visited the court of Mihir Bhoja in 851 A.D.

6. Raja Mahendrapal Pratihara

7. Raja Mahipal Pratihara

8. Raja Vinayakpal Pratihara

9. Raja Mahendrapal II Pratihara

10. Raja Vijay pal Pratihara

 11. Raja Rajyapal Pratihara

 12. Raja Trilochnpal Pratihara

 13. Raja YashPal Pratihara: He was the last ruler of the dynasty. He ruled from 1027 to 1036. Prathihara dynasty came to end with the invasion of Muhammad of Ghazni.

After the downfall of Prathiharas, their capital Kannauj was occupied by Gahadwalas (Rathores). Chandradeva, who belonged to Rathore clan of Rajput warriors, defeated Gopala and established the Gahadavala dynasty.

  • After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad of Ghuri attacked Jaychand. In 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place in which Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaychand. Soon the kingdom of Gahadwalas was destroyed.
  • Rao Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, of Kannauj, came to Marwar during his pilgrimage to Dwarka.
  • His Son, Rao Asthan conquered Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately got killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.
  • Rao Chanda/Chundarji, 10th in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas – and established rule of Rathores in Marwar. Jodhpur was the primary state of Rathores but different states (Bikaner, Kishangarh etc) were also founded by different Rathore rulers.

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs: History of Rajasthan

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The Origin of Rajputs

The term Rajput starts coming in use from the 6th Century AD. The origin of the Rajputs is the subject of debate. There are four main streams of thought on origin of Rajputs:

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs:

This theory says that the Rajputs are descendents of the races like Sakas, Kushanas, and Hunas etc. Dr. VA Smith, Col. James Todd, William Crooks supported this theory. The main argument of James Todd behind the foreign origin of the Rajputs was that these people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas.

Mixed Origin Theory

This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that Rajput is a mixed race. Some of them were descendents of the Aryans while some of them were from the foreign races such as Hunas, Sakas etc.

Kshatriyas theory of origin

This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that the Rajputs are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama. The theory divides the Rajput based on their lineage as Suryavanshi & Chandravanshi, which they trace from Surya and Chandra. They worship fire as the Aryans did and worship of fire was not the tradition of the Foreigners only.

Agnikula Theory

This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, Rajputs were the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu. The four Rajput clans from Agnikunda are Chauhans, Chalukyas, Parmaras and Pratiharas. Muhnot Nainsi & Suryamal Mishran also support this theory

Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

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Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

Because of Alexander’s invasion in 326 BCE tribes of South Punjab especially Malav, Shivi and Arjunayan migrated to Rajasthan. Punjab and Rajasthan became the nucleus of a number of oligarchies, or tribal republics whose local importance rose and fell in inverse proportion to the rise and fall of larger kingdoms. According to coins recovered, the most important politically were the Audambaras, Arjunayanas, Malavas, Kunindas, Trigartas, Abhiras, Yaudheyas and Shibis (Shivi).

Arjunayana

The Arjunayanas flourished in the Agra Jaipur tract from c. 200 BC TO 400 AD. Their coins have been found, which do not bear the name of any king or general, the legend is simply ‘Arjunayanam Jayah’, victory to the Arjunayanas. The coins belong to C 100 BC, but the Arjunayana state must have been much more ancient, for the ruling class believed that it descended from Arjuna, the epic hero. They worked in close cooperation with the Yaudheyas, their northern neighbours, who believed themselves to be the descendants of Dharma, the eldest brother of Arjuna.

  • Arjunayanas had their base in the present-day Bharatpur-Alwar region.
  • They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period (c. 185 – c. 73 BCE).

Rajnaya

  • Different scholars have ascribed different regions to Rajnaya janapadas; based on coins Cunningham suggested their region as near Mathura, Smith suggested former Dholpur state as original home of Rajnaya and Rapson ascribed them in same region as of Arjunayanas & Kings of Mathura.

Shivi

  • Shivi gana covered present districts of Udaipur & Chittorgarh.
  • The Shibis (Shivi) migrated from the Punjab to Rajasthan and settled at Madhyamika (later Nagri), located near Chittorgarh.
  • Nagri was excavated in 1904 A.D by D. R. Bhandarkar Malavas
  • The Malavas are actually mentioned in the Mahabhashya of Patanjali.
  • According to D. R. Bhandarkar, they initially lived in the Punjab; later, they migrated to eastern Rajasthan (Jaipur & Tonk), and finally to region in Madhya Pradesh, which is known as Malwa after them.
  •  Their capital in Rajasthan was Nagar, located in Tonk.

Shalvya: It was situated in Alwar district

Yodheya or Yaudheyas: Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana was an ancient confederation who lived in the area between the Indus River and the Ganges River. Present Ganganagar & Hanumangarh districts formed part of their gana

  • They find mention in Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha.
  • Later, the Junagarh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas.

The name itself is derived from ‘Yodha’ and signifies ‘warrior’. Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing upto the time of Samudragupta. They survived the onslaught of the Mauryan imperialism and closed their ranks in face of the Machiavellian Magadhan statecraft.

They disillusioned the Sunga ambitions and subsequently defied the alien Sakas and Kushans, resisted their advance and were instrumental in bringing about their downfall. Their country is called Bahudhanyaka and their capital is Rohtak in Mahabharata. According to Dr Altekar, we find from the spots where its coins have been discovered, that it extended from Saharanpur in the east to Bahawalpur in the west, from Ludhiana in the North West to Delhi in the south east. It was a confederation of three republics. Rohtak in Punjab was the capital of one of them, the northern Panchala known as Bahudhanyaka country was the centre of power for the second. Northern Rajputana seems to have been the jurisdiction of the third. The powerful Trans Beas state, mentioned by Alexander’s historians, which possessed fertile territory and virile inhabitants, and which was governed by an aristocracy exercising its powers with justice and moderation was the Yaudheya republic.

Vedic Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan during Vedic Period (1500 BC – 500 BC)

The cities of the Harappan Culture had declined by 1500 B.C. Around this period, the speakers of Indo- Aryan language, Sanskrit, entered the north-west India from the Indo-Iranian region. Initially they would have come in small numbers through the passes in the northwestern mountains. Their initial Settlements were in the valleys of the north-west and the plains of the Punjab.

Later, they moved into Indo-Gangetic plains. As they were mainly a cattle-keeping people, they were mainly in search of pastures. By 6th century B.C., they occupied the whole of North India, which was referred to as Aryavrata. The original home of the Aryans is a debatable question and there are several views.

 Period between 1500 B.C and 600 B.C may be divided into:

  • Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 B.C -1000 B.C)
  • The Later Vedic Period (1000B.C – 600 B.C).

Why it is called Vedic Period?

The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the root ‘vid’, which means to know. In other words, the term ‘Veda’ signifies ‘superior knowledge’. The Vedic literature consists of the four Vedas – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva.

  • The Rig Veda is the earliest of the four Vedas and it consists of 1028 hymns.
  •  The Yajur Veda consists of various details of rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice.
  •  The Sama Veda is set to tune for the purpose of chanting during sacrifice. It is called the book of chants and the origins of Indian music are traced in it.
  •  The Atharva Veda contains details of rituals.

Rig Vedic or Early Vedic Period (1500-1000 BC)

During the Rig Vedic period, the Aryans were mostly confined to the Indus region. The Rig Veda refers to Saptasindhu or the land of seven rivers. This includes the five rivers of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej along with the Indus and Saraswati.

Political System:

  • Family was called as kula.
  • Several families joined together on the basis of their kinship to form a village or grama.
  • The leader of grama was known as gramani.
  • A group of villages constituted a larger unit called visu. It was headed by vishayapati.
  • The highest political unit was called Jana or tribe.
  • There were several tribal kingdoms during the Rig Vedic period such as Bharatas, Matsya,Yadus and Purus.
  •  The head of the kingdom was called as rajan or king.

 The Rig Vedic polity was normally monarchical and the succession was hereditary. The king was assisted by Purohitas or priest and senani or commander of the army in his administration.

  • There were two popular bodies called the Sabha and Samiti. The Sabha seems to have been a council of elders and the latter, a general assembly of the entire people.

Social Life:

  • The Rig Vedic society was patriarchal. The basic unit of society was family or graham. The head of the family was known as grahapathi.
  • Monogamy was generally practiced while polygamy was prevalent among the royal and noble families.
  • Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and intellectual development.
  • There were women poets like Apala, Viswavara, Ghosa and Lopamudra during the Rig Vedic period.
  • Women could even attend the popular assemblies. There was no child marriage and the practice of sati was absent.
  • Both men and women wore upper and lower garments made of cotton and wool.
  • Chariot racing, horse racing, dicing, music and dance were the favourite pastimes.
  • The social divisions were not rigid during the Rig Vedic period as it was in the later Vedic Period.

Economic Condition:

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing. Their wealth was estimated in terms of their cattle.
  • When they permanently settled in North India they began to practice agriculture. With the knowledge and use of iron they were able to clean forests and bring more lands under cultivation.
  • Carpentry was another important profession and the availability of wood from the forests cleared made the profession profitable. Carpenters produced chariots and ploughs.
  • Workers in metal made a variety of articles with copper, bronze and iron. Spinning was another important occupation and cotton and woolen fabrics were made. Goldsmiths were active in making ornaments.
  • The potters made various kinds of vessels for domestic use.
  • Trade was another important economic activity and rivers served as important means of transport. Trade was conducted on barter system. In the later times, gold coins called nishka were used as media of exchange in large transactions.

Religion:

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans worshiped the natural forces like earth, fire, wind, rain and thunder.
  • The important Rig Vedic gods were Prithvi (Earth), Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), Varuna (Rain) and Indra (Thunder).
  • There were also female gods like Aditi and Ushas.
  • There were no temples and no idol worship during the early Vedic period.
  • Prayers were offered to the gods in the expectation of rewards. Ghee, milk and grain were given as offerings.

      Later Vedic Period or Iron Age (1000-600 BC)

  • The Aryans further moved towards east in the Later Vedic Period. The Satpatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains.
  •  Kuru and Panchala kingdoms flourished in the beginning. After the fall of Kurus and Panchalas, other kingdoms like Kosala, Kasi and Videha came into prominence.
  • The later Vedic texts also refer to the three divisions of India – Aryavrata (northern India), Madhyadesa (central India) and Dakshinapatha (southern India).

Political System:

  • Larger kingdoms were formed during the later Vedic period. Many Jana or tribes were amalgamated to form janapadas or Rashtras in the later Vedic period.
  • The king performed various rituals and sacrifices to strengthen his position. They include Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race).
  • The kings also assumed titles like Rajavisvajanan, Ahilabhuvanapathi, (lord of all earth), Ekrat and Samrat (sole ruler).
  •  In the later Vedic period, a large number of new officials were involved in the administration in addition to the existing Purohitas, senani and gramani. They include the treasury officer, tax collector and royal messenger.
  • At the lower levels, the village assemblies carried on the administration. The importance of the Samiti and the Sabha had diminished during the later Vedic period.

Social System:

  • The four divisions of society (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras) or the Varna system was thoroughly established during the Later Vedic period.
  • Position of women declined, they were still considered inferior and subordinate to men. Women also lost their political rights of attending assemblies.
  • Child marriages had become common.

Economic Condition:

  • Iron was used extensively in this period and this enabled the people to clear forests and to bring more land under cultivation. Agriculture became the chief occupation. Improved types of implements were used for cultivation. Besides barley, rice and wheat were grown.
  • Metal work, leather work, carpentry and pottery made great progress. In addition to internal trade, foreign trade became extensive. The Later Vedic people were familiar with the sea and they traded with countries like Babylon.
  • Vaishyas also carried on trade and commerce. They organized themselves into guilds known as ganas.
  • Besides nishka of the Rig Vedic period, gold and silver coins like satamana and krishnala were used as media of exchange.

Religion:

  • Gods of the Early Vedic period like Indra and Agni lost their importance.
  • Prajapati (the creator), Vishnu (the protector) and Rudra (the destroyer) became prominent during the Later Vedic period.
  • Sacrifices were still important and the rituals connected with them became more elaborate. The importance of prayers declined and that of sacrifices increased.
  • Priesthood became a profession and a hereditary one. The formulae for sacrifices were invented and elaborated by the priestly class. Therefore, towards the end of this period there was a strong reaction against priestly domination and against sacrifices and rituals. The rise of Buddhism and Jainism was the direct result of these elaborate sacrifices.
  • Also, the authors of the Upanishads, which is the essence of Hindu philosophy, turned away from the useless rituals and insisted on true knowledge (jnana) for peace and salvation.

Vedic Age or Iron Age in Rajasthan

From 1000 BC, Iron was used in Gandhara in Pakistan. Around same time, use of iron appeared in eastern Punjab, Western UP and Rajasthan. The Vedic literature mentions the Matsya and the Salvas as located near the river Saraswati and there is evidence to believe that by the close of the Vedic age Rajasthan had become fully colonized by the Vedic tribes.

The relics of Painted Grey ware culture have been reported from the dried- up beds of Saraswati and Drishadwati rivers. There is also evidence of Painted Grey Ware (PGW) from Noh (Bharatpur), Jodhpura (Jaipur), Viratnagar (Jaipur) and Sunari (Jhunjhunu). These sites represent the growth of Iron Age in Rajasthan.

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The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture

The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture is defined by the type of similar Ochre Pottery found at different sites. In 1951, B.B. Lal carried out small digs at Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu villages in Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh at spots where copper hoards had reportedly been discovered earlier. While B.B. Lal did not find any new copper objects, he came across weathered ochre-coloured pottery (OCP), and on that basis he suggested a probable correlation between the hoards and this pottery. Since then as many as 950 sites of OCP culture have been discovered from the different parts of western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.

  • Further, because of their discovery in groups, they have also been labelled as Copper Hoard Culture.

The highest Number of the OCP sites in Rajasthan is found in the district of Sikar followed by Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, Alwar and Bharatpur.

Features of OCP Culture:

 The hoards comprise a variety of objects like flat axes with Splayed sides and convex cutting edges, shouldered axes, bar Celts, double-edged axes and antenna-hilted swords.

  1. The pottery is ill-fired, ochrish red in colour, and heavily weathered, with the slip peeling off. The shapes comprise storage jars, vases, basins, bowls, dishes-on-stand and miniature pots; they are considerably similar to the Harappan pottery shapes.
  2. Occasionally the pottery is decorated with incised designs, graffiti and paintings in black pigment.
  3. OCP settlements are small in size and have thin habitation deposit. This indicates that habitation on them was of short duration. Because of the small size of excavations very little is known of the economy and material culture associated with this pottery.
  4.  Evidence was found regarding cultivation of rice and barley, domestication of cattle, rammed earth floors, post-holes, baked and unbaked bricks, terracotta human figurines and bangles, and beads of stone and bone.

Important Sites of OCP Culture: In Rajasthan, Ochre Colored Pottery sites have been discovered at Ganeshwar (Sikar)andJodhpura (Jaipur).

Ganeshwar (Sikar)

Ganeshwar is a village in Neem Ka Thana Tehsil in the Sikar District. Excavations have revealed ancient sites, with remains of a 4000 years old civilization. The site is located at source of river Kantali, which used to join river Drishadwati, near Soni-Bhadra on the north.

Historian R.L. Mishra wrote that, Red pottery with black portraiture was found which is estimated to be belonging to 2500–2000 BC was found when Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977.

Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. It mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

  • Copper objects, Microlith & pottery were found throughout the deposits.
  •  Copper objects included arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels.
  •  Microlith, discovered here, represent a highly evolved geometric industry, the principal tool types being blunted-back blades, obliquely-blunted blades, lunates, triangles and points. The raw materials employed for the industry include qarts, garnet, and occasionally jasper.
  • The Pottery found represents OCP culture and includes storage jars, vases, basins, bowls, lids and miniature pots.

Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

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Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

A number of Chalcolithic cultures have been discovered in northern, central and western India. The Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP) culture in the Punjab, Haryana, north-east Rajasthan and upper Ganga-Yamuna doab

  •  The Narhan culture and its variants in the northern Vindhyas and the middle and lower Ganga valley.
  • The Ahar culture in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.
  • The Kayatha and Malwa cultures in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Jorwe culture in western Maharashtra.

The Ahar culture, also known as the Banas culture, is a Chalcolithic Culture of southeastern, Rajasthan, lasting from 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley Civilization. The Main distribution of this culture seems to be concentrated in the river valleys of Banas and its tributaries namely Berach and Ahar. More than 90 sites of the culture have been identified till date, out of which, Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are prominent sites. These sites of Ahar culture provide important information about the transformation of life from hunting-gathering to agriculture in the Mewar region.

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture:

Houses: People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses and the houses were made of stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.

Pottery: Typical Ahar pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it in white pigment and has limited range of shapes, which include bowls, bowls-on-stands, elongated vases and globular vases.

Economy & Subsistence: The subsistence of Ahar-Banas people was based on cultivation, animal rearing and hunting. They sustained on a number of crops, including wheat and barley. The people of Ahar culture had trade links with the Harappans.

Technology: The technology of Ahar people was mostly based on copper. They exploited the copper ores of the Aravalli Range to make axes and other artefacts.However, the Neolithic trend of using polished stone tools continued in this period also and Microlithic tools of Silicious material were also very common.

Important Sites of Ahar-Banas Culture:

  1. Gilund
  2. Ahar
  3. Ojiyana
  4. Balathal
  5. Pachamta (Because, Excavation done in 2015)

Ahar-Banas is Culture and not Civilization. So what is the difference between Civilization & Culture?

  • Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization. Civilization includes (technology, forms of government etc, and even culture)
  •  Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture. Hence, Culture is earlier or a pre-condition for civilization to develop.
  • All Societies have culture but only a few have Civilization (example, Indus Valley Civilization).

1. Gilund (Rajsamand):

Gilund is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by

B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture. The archaeological site is also known as “Modiya Mangari“. Gilund is also famous for its celebration of “Khehkhara Utsav” (Next day of Diwali).

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture at Gilund: Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation can be divided into two Periods: Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2000 BCE and Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE

Period I:

  • Period I is Chalcolithic in character on account of the presence of a few Microlith along with copper.
  •  All through the period the residential houses are made of mud brick, the walls being plastered with mud. Within the houses are noticed circular clay-lined ovens and open mouthed chulhas.
  • The characteristic Pottery of Period-I is Black-and-Red Ware, painted over with linear and curvilinear designs in a creamish-white pigment, other wares include plain and painted black, burnished grey and red wares.
  •  Among the Terracotta figurines particularly noteworthy are the bull figurines with a prominent hump and long horns.

Period II

  • Period II of Gilund seems to have begun about the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., as indicated by the presence of bowls and dishes of grey ware.
  •  In the successive strata have been found Sunga and Kushana bowls in red ware, sprinklers in the Red Polished Ware, and bowls in kaolin ware and knife-edged bowls in red ware, indicating that this occupation continued up to the end of the 1st millennium A.D.

2. Balathal (Udaipur)

Balathal is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. It is located on banks of Katar River. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63. There were various ethno botanical remains recovered at Balathal and these include wheat, barley, Indian jujube, okra and Job’s tears as well as several varieties of millet, lentils and peas. The excavated remains also included domesticated animals such as sheep, goat and cattle. Archaeologists also discovered several burial sites where the earliest evidence of leprosy in South Asia was found. Apart from manufacturing of

Iron objects, Balathal people cultivated rice, Kodo millet and Bengal gram. They also bred animals, but their reliance over on wild animal was less. The Early Historic pottery of Balathal is generally drab and poor quality in comparison to Chalcolithic pottery. It consists four wares, namely Red, Grey, Black and Red, and Black. A number of stone objects made of locally available quartz or granite, and comprising saddle querns, rotary querns, hammer stones, mullers, pounders and sling balls have been found. Ornaments of the Balathal people included glass, terracotta and copper bangles and beads of terracotta, glass, shell and steatite and semi precious stones, including etched ones. A tiny piece of cotton cloth with matting-type weaving pattern was found. A number of terracotta human and animal figurines, the latter comprising bull, dog, goat and tortoise have been found. Other terracotta objects included weights, lamps, wheels and discs.

This was identified in the remains of an adult male buried sometime between 2500 and 2000 B.C. Balathal was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.

This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the early historic. Excavation at Balathal revealed a Chalcolithic period stretching from 3000 to 1500 BC and an early historic period dated to 5-3 century BC.

Chalcolithic Phase (3000 -1500 BC): Balathal was part of the Ahar-Banas Complex and can be connected to other Ahar-Banas culture sites through artifacts that have been discovered.

  •  The period is characterized by well-planned structures. The houses found at the site are square or rectangular made of mud brick and stones.
  •  Stone objects including saddle querns, mullers, rubber stone, hammer stone and copper objects including choppers, knives, razors, chisels and tanged arrowhead have been found.
  •  It has been determined that the people practiced agro-pastoralism, which is a mixture of both farming and herding animals. Pottery at the site has been thoroughly analyzed and tells much about life at this ancient site.

After the Chalcolithic period the site was abandoned for a long time till the early historic period.

Early Historic Phase (5 – 3 BC):

  • Excavation of early historic phase produced the evidence of large-scale use of iron implements, suggesting its important role in the economy of that period.
  • The people lived in wattle and daub houses and the floors were made of mud and stone rammed together.
  • Iron working in the form of furnaces with iron slags and abundant objects like nails, arrow head, lamps, needle, hoe, spatula, knife etc. are found on site.

Most peculiar item: A skeleton was found buried at Balathal believed to be 4,000 year old skeleton of a man believed to be 37 years when he died. The skeleton it provides the oldest evidence of leprosy in human beings.

3. Pachamta:

Recently in 2015, excavation was carried out at Pachamta, a village 100 km from Udaipur in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

Pachamta belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture. The Ahar culture, datable to 3,000-1,700 BCE, was Chalcolithic and its people had trade links with the Harappans.

Artefacts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan

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Different Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan are:-

  1. Kalibangan Civilizations
  2. Bhinmal Civilizations
  3. Gilund Civilizations
  4. Ganeshwar Civilizations
  5. Ishwal Civilizations
  6. Bairath Civilizations
  7. Balathal Civilizations
  8. Aahar River Civilizations
  9. Bagore Civilizations
  10. Rangmahal Civilizations
  11. Ojiyana Civilizations
  12. Nagari Civilizations
  13. Tilwara Civilizations
  14. Barore Civilizations

1. Kalibangan Civilizations

Kalibangan lies along the left bank of the dried-up bed of River Ghaggar (ancient name Saraswati. It is older than 4000 B.C. approx.

It was first discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1952 AD It comprises of three mounds, the larger one in the middle, the smaller in the west and the smallest in the east .

  • The excavations brought to light grid layout of a Harappan metropolis, perhaps truly it is the first city of the Indian culture heritage.
  • The significant part of the evidence, however, relates to the discovery of an early-Harappan settlement, immediately underlying the occupational remains of the Harappan citadel.
  • The pre-Harappan settlement was a fortified parallelogram, the fortification wall being made of mud-bricks.
  • The houses within the walled area were also made of mud-bricks. The distinctive trait of this period was the pottery which was significantly different from that of the succeeding Harappans.
  • An outstanding discovery was a ploughed field, showing a cross-grid of furrows, the southeast of the settlement outside the town-wall.
  • This is perhaps the earliest ploughed field excavated so far.  During the Harappan period, the structural pattern of the settlement was changed.
  • There were now two distinct parts: the citadel on the west and the lower city on the east. The former was situated atop the remains of the preceding occupations to gain an eminence over the lower city which was laid out on the natural plain towards the east.  The citadel complex was a fortified parallelogram, consisting of two equal but separately patterned parts.
  • The fortification was built throughout of mud-bricks.
  • The southern half of the citadel contained some five to six massive platforms, some of which may have been used for religious or ritual purposes.  The northern half of the citadel contained residential buildings of the elite.
  • The lower city was also fortified. Within the walled city, was a gridiron plan of streets running north-south and east-west, dividing the area into blocks.  The houses were built of mud-bricks, baked bricks being confined to drains, wells, sills, etc.   Beside the above two principal parts of the metropolis, there was also a third one, situated 80 m east of the lower city.
  • It consisted of a modest structure, containing four to five fire-altars and as such could have been used for ritualistic purposes.  Of the finds obtained from this excavation, a cylindrical seal and an incised terracotta cake are quite significant.
  • The cemetery of the Harappans was located to the west-southwest of the citadel
  • Three types of burials were attested: extended inhumation in rectangular or oval grave-pits- pot-burials in a circular pit and rectangular or oval grave-pits containing only pottery and other funerary objects.
  •  The Later two methods were unassociated with skeletal remains.

 2. Bhinmal Civilizations

  • It was explored by the Ratna Chandra Agrawal in 1953 -54 A.D.
  • The original name of Bhinmal was bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils.
  • It was the early capital of the kingdom of Gurjaradesa, a name derived from the Gurjara people.
  • The kingdom is first attested in Bana’s Harshacharita (7th century AD).
  • Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha’s father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD). The surrounding kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.
  • Located in Jalore district and reflects about the trade relations with Unani civilization.
  • Huen Shang has visited the ancient city.

3. Gilund Civilizations

At the ancient site of Gilund, two mounds labelled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’, measuring 45 ft and 25 ft respectively above the surrounding fields in height and covering an area of 500 X 250 yards were partially excavated by a team under the direction of B. B. Lal during 1959-60. Excavation was carried out at three different areas, designated as GLD-1 (with its extension GLD-1A), GLD-2 and GLD-3. The site was later revisited from 1999 to 2005 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania and the Deccan College in Pune, India.

Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation are divided into three phases: Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE, Middle Ahar-Banas 2500-2000 BCE, and Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2500 BCE. Here various housing structures have been uncovered, as well as large buildings with long parallel walls, workshops; refuse heaps, and an exterior wall surrounding the site. The workshop area has revealed that the occupants practiced small-scale craft production. Further analysis of the areas also shows that the inhabitants were agro-pastoralists, meaning that they mixed agricultural practices with livestock herding practices.

Artefact analysis has linked objects found at Gilund to the other sites in the Ahar-Banas Complex, as well as the site of Bagor. In addition, lithics at Gilund and Bagor were produced using the same techniques.

4. Ganeshwar Civilizations: – Excavations in the area revealed the remains of a 4,000-year-old civilization. Historian Ratan Lal Mishra writes that Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found there. Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period. Ganeshwar mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

The copper was obtained in the nearby Aravalli Range

5. Ishwal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Five stage settlement, Iron was melted about 500 B.C.

6. Bairath Civilizations: – Jaipur District near Beejak hills, Explored by Dayaram Sahani in 1937.

7. Balathal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored by V.N. Mishra in 1993. Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India.This site, located 6 km from Vallabhnagar town and 42 km from Udaipur. It’s famous for Ahar Culture.

8. Aahar River Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored by Kirti Vyas in 1953.

9. Bagore Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Explored by V.N. Mishra in 1967. Three stages of Settlements, ie 4480-3285 BC, 2765 BC -500 BC and 500 BC to 400 AD. The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic (pre-Harappa) archaeological site located on the Kothari River in the Bhilwara District of the Rajasthan region of western India. Bagor was excavated by Deccan College scholars such as Virendra Nath Misra and Vasanta Shinde in the 1960s and 1970s, who found evidence for the domestication of sheep, cattle and goats by the nomadic pastoralists of Bagor dating as early as 5000 to 3000 BC.

10. Rangmahal Civilizations: – This early historical site was excavated by the Swedish Archaeological Expedition, during 1952-4. The first settlement was laid around A.D. 250 during Kushana period and flourished up to the sixth or seventh century A.D. During excavations, coins of Kanishka III, besides the Murundas and three earlier coins of Kanishka I, Huvishka and Vasu-deva and a seal paleographical datable to A.D. 300, have been found. Excavation has revealed eight structural phases. The structures were built of mud-bricks of varying sizes but the normal size was about 32 x 23 x 7 cm. The bricks were laid in the English bond system. The floors were paved with mud-bricks. The houses were rectangular with north-south orientation. The site is famous for the manufacture of typical ceramic industry termed as Rang Mahal Ware culture. This distinctive pottery is wheel-made, reddish or pinkish in colour. The types include globular or oval jars and handy with pronounced rims, externally rusticated showing wavy ribs. In some cases the shoulder and the neck are painted in black-on-red polished surface, other types are spouted vase, sprinkler, cooking vessels, storage jars, beaker with or without handle, bowls of different varieties, lamp, incense-burner, etc. A few carinated handis have textile marks on the body. Moulded pottery is represented by the bowl and miniature basin. The decorations on the pottery are applied and incised patterns and paintings. The cultural assemblage also includes figurines in faience, terracotta animal figurines, carts and wheels, weights, balls, flesh-rubbers, discs, dice, votive tanks, potters stamps, pendants, ear-orinaments, beads of coral, paste, lapis lazuli and shell; rotary querns, mullers, pestles and bone and iron objects.

11. Ojiyana Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Previously the site was excavated in the season 1999-2000 which had revealed remains of Chalcolithic cultures. The recent excavation conducted at the site in 2000-01 has yielded white painted black and red wares, white painted terracotta bulls, cow figurines, copper chopper and beads of faience, carnelian, agate, shell, steatite, stone and terracotta and bangles and pendant of copper belonging to Chalcolithic cultures ranging from 3rd millennium B.C. to 2nd millennium B.C.

12. Nagari Civilizations: – It was one of the most important townships of the Mauryan era in Rajasthan, situated on the banks of river Bairach. It was formerly known as Majhimika/Madhyamika, which flourished from the Maurya to Gupta era. The excavations over here have unearthed many interesting facts and have showed signs of strong Hindu and Buddhist influence.

13. Tilwara Civilizations: – Tilwara is an archeological site from where evidence for the Mesolithic culture has been excavated.Its in Barmer district at the bank of river Luni.

14. Barore Civilizations: – Baror is situated on the right bank of dried up river Sarasvasti (modern Ghaggar) in Anupgarh Tehsil of Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. It is located about 13 km. north-east of Anupgarh and about 100 km. south-west of Kalibangan.

L.P. Tessitore (1916-17), Aurel Stein (1940-41) and A. Gosh surveyed this area and identified the archaeological importance of this region.

The excavation work at Baror added new chapter in the study of Harappan Civilization.

The mound of Baror roughly measures 200× 150 mts. and rises to a height of 11 mts. from its surrounding plain. The western portion of the mound is higher and seems to be the citadel whereas the eastern portion is lower indicating lower town.

On the basis of ceramic industries, antiquities and other material culture, recovered from the field-season’s work, a three-fold cultural sequence was established.

Archaeological Sites in Rajasthan: Ancient History

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Indus Valley Civilization: The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak. Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus and at Harappa further upstream. The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system. The social conditions of the citizens were comparable to those in Sumeria and superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These cities display a well-planned urbanization system.

Kalibangan:

Located on the bank of river Ghaghhar in Hanumangarh District.

Discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1953.

Excavated by Brijvasilal in 1961.

Evidence of ploughed field is found.

Evidence of growing Barley and Mustard are found.

Cylindrical seal of Mesopotamia is found here.

Houses were made from Raw bricks (Kachhi Int).

The drainage system was not properly developed.

Evidence of Earthquake.

Sothi (Sothi Civilization):

It was a rural civilization.

Located in Ganganagar District.

Situated on the plain of Ghaghhar and Chautang River.

It is also called Kalibanga 1st.

Historian mentioned it as the origin place of Harappan civilization.

Other Archaeological Sites

1. Ganeshwar: It isLocated on the bank of river Kantali in Sikar District.

Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture group has over 80 other sites currently identified. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Historian Ratna Chandra Agrawal wrote that Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period.

Ganeshwar saw three cultural phases: Period 1 (3800 BCE) which was characterized by hunting and gathering communities using chert tools; Period II (2800 BCE) shows the beginnings of metal work in copper and fired clay pottery; Period III (2000 BCE) featured a variety of pottery and copper goods being produced. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found here. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture.

2. Sunari: It islocated in Jhunjhunu district, as at other sites, the PGW culture (period I) issucceeded by Period II which is represented by unslipped ware though Black and Redand Black slipped wares of PGW period continue and a few NBP sherds are alsopresent. The important antiquities include a stone plaque bearing auspicious Buddhistsymbol, iron implements and copper objects. Period III is represented by typical potteryof the Sunga Kushana period and important finds include a seal with an inscription inBrahmi characters, terracotta animal figurines, and copper cast coins. It is situated on the bank of river Kantali in Jhunjhunu district and It is a Iron Age site.

3. Kurada

  • It is in Nagaur district and also Called Town of Tools.

4. Iswaal

  • Located in Udaipur district and Industrial Town (Because of Iron Mine in Ancient time)

5. Gardara

  • Located in Bundi district and Rock paintings of ancient India are found.

6. Jodhpura

The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Rajasthan, undertook excavation at Jodhpura located on Jaipur-Delhi highway. At Jodhpura Period III, represented by the PGW culture, is succeeded by periods of IV and V both Early Historic age. Period IV is marked by occurrence of NBP ware and unslipped red ware. Important finds of this period include iron arrow heads and nails, shell bangle, terracotta humped bull and stone bead. Period V is represented by Sunga Kushana pottery. The common shapes are bowl, lid cum bowl, and lipped bowl with small spouted channel. Some sherds are stamped with Triratna and Swastika symbols. Other finds of the period comprise iron implements, a terracotta ghata shaped bead, a stone bead and a copper coin.

  • It is located on the bank of river Sabi in Jaipur district.
  • This site is known for incised ware, Reserved Slipware, Copper Arrow heads and Celts.

Gupta Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Gupta Empire in Rajasthan                

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is called the Golden Age of India (there was peace, development and prosperity in the country) by some historians.

  • According to Prayag Prashashthi (Allahabad Inscription), Samundragupta defeated many republican kingdoms.
  • Samundra Gupta defeated Rudradaman II in 351 A.D. and captured southern Rajasthan.
  • Vikramaditya Defeated last Shaka ruler and whole Rajasthan came under Gupta dynasty.
  • Maximum Gupta period coins are found from Bayana (Bharatpur) belonging to Kumar Gupta.
  • Baran (Rajasthan) inscription mention about Gupta period.
  • Durga Temple (Kota) and Shiv Temple (Chachanura) are the best examples of Gupta Architecture.

Post Gupta Period (Huns, Vardhan and Gurjars)

  1. In 503 A.D, Toranmal of Hun Dynasty defeated Guptas and captured Rajasthan.
  2. Mihirkula built Shiva temple in Badauli.
  3. Later Mihikula was defeated by Narsingh Baladitya Gupta and Rajasthan was preoccupied by Guptas.
  4. The capital of Gurjar-Pratihar was Bhinmal.
  5. Chinese traveller Huang Tsang visited Bhinmal during his period.
  6. Brahmagupta belongs to Bhinmal.
  7. Gurjar Pratihar stopped Arab invasion from North West.

Mauryan Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Mauryan Period – Rajasthan

The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, 2,000 years back when he overthrew the Nanda King. His assistant was Chanakya, a shrewd advisor and strategic thinker. He has written a book called Arthashastra that comprises his thoughts on politics, economics, foreign affairs, administration, military arts, war and religion.

Chandragupta was succeeded by Bindusara, his son who extended the Mauryan Empire till Mysore. Bindusara was succeeded by his son Ashoka, who is regarded as the greatest ruler of the empire by many historians. He extended the Mauryan Empire till the modern-day Afghanistan, with Patliputra as capital.

The Mauryan Emperors appointed the family members to control the large empire. Only the capital Patliputra was controlled by the emperor while states like Ujjain and Taxila were governed by royal princes. The Emperors also appointed officials for collecting taxes, maintaining law and order and keeping a check on the activities of the subjects.

  1. Bairat (Viratnagar)

Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, Director of Archaeology and Historical Research of former Jaipur state, conducted excavations at Bairat sometime in the thirties of the last century. we know that the so called Bhabru Rock Edict found by Captain Burt in 1840 must have come from Bijak ki Pahari because this place alone has provided evidence of Mauryan period and also another Ashokan edict. This edict is the only known edict of Ashoka, which is inscribed on a stone slab (Shila phalaka) as distinguished from stone pillar (Shila Stambha) or rock. It also provides definite proofs of Ashoka’s faith in Buddhist religion and his consequent exhortation to monks and nuns and to laymen and laywomen to listen to and to study seven select passage from the Buddhist scriptures.

The principle monuments brought to light are numerous remnants of two Ashoka pillars, a temple of an entirely new type and a monastery both of which latter monuments must have been erected by Ashoka himself. It was capital of Matsya Mahajanapada.

  • It was a part of Mauryan Empire.
  • In 1837, Ashoka’s Rock Edict was discovered by Capt. Burj from Bijak-ki-Pahadi.
  • Evidence of the Buddhist stupa sites was found here.
  • In 634 A.D Huang Tsang visited Bairat.
  • Sculptures, coins, pottery, seals and metal objects were found from the excavation.
  • It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1936.
  • According to Maan Sarovar inscription of 713 A.D., Maan Maurya was the ruler of Bairat. This inscription also mentions the name of 4 rulers. Maheshwar, Bhoj, Bhim and Maan.

Post Mauryan Period

Post-Mauryan coinage refers to the period of coinage production in India, following the breakup of the Maurya Empire. The centralized Mauryan power ended during a Coup d’état in 185 BCE leading to the foundation of the Shunga Empire. King Ashoka ruled for 50 years and after the war of Kalinga, he led the path of peace and Buddhism. Since the successor of king Ashoka wasn’t capable of ruling the kingdom.

  • Greek ruler Menander attacked Rajasthan in 150 B.C.
  • 16 Greek coins were found from Bairat.
  • Coins were found from the Rang Mahal of Hanumangarh belonging to Kushan period.
  • The first Saka king in India was Maues who ruled in Gandhar and extended his power in northwest India.

Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan

  1. Matsya
  • Capital: – Viratnagar
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur
  1. Saurasena (Brajmandala)
  • Capital: – Mathura
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Karauli.
  1. Kuru
  • Capital: – Indraprastha (Delhi)
  • Present: – Delhi and northern Region of Rajasthan.
  1. Some Other Janapada Of Rajasthan

Shivi Janapada

  • Capital: – Madhyamika (Present name Nagari)
  • Present region: – Chittorgarh And Udaipur district
  • Rajasthan’s first excavated site.
  • Excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar.

Arjunayana Janapada

  • Present Alwar and Bharatpur District.
  • They emerged as political power During Sunga Period.

Malav Janapada

  • Present Jaipur and Tonk district.
  • Capital: – Nagar (Tonk)
  • They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali

Yaudheyas

  • Present Hanumangarh and Ganganagar district.
  • Kushana power was stopped by them.
  • They are mentioned in Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha of Panini.

Shalvya

  • Present Alwar district.

Rajanya

  • Present Jodhpur and Bikaner region.

Stone Age: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

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Stone Age: a prehistoric period when weapons and tools were made of stone or of organic materials such as bone, wood or horn.

  1. Paleolithic age: Paleolithic, The cultural period of the Stone Age that began about 2.5 to 2 million years ago, marked by the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone. The Paleolithic Period ended at different times in different parts of the world, generally around 10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East.

Paleolithic site in Rajasthan: Nagaur and Didwana.

  1. Mesolithic Age: Mesolithic, also called Middle Stone Age, ancient cultural stage that existed between the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), with its chipped stone tools, and the Neolithic (New Stone Age), with its polished stone tools. Most often used to describe archaeological assemblages from the Eastern Hemisphere, the Mesolithic is broadly analogous to the archaic culture of the Western Hemisphere. Mesolithic material culture is characterized by greater innovation and diversity than is found in the Paleolithic. Among the new forms of chipped stone tools were microliths, very small stone tools intended for mounting together on a shaft to produce a serrated edge.

Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan:

1. Bagor

  • On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwara District.
  • Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Tools are excavated in large numbers.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
  • Biggest Mesolithic Site in India.

2. Tilwara

  • On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
  • Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.

3. Chalcolithic Age: Chronology of Chalcolithic Settlement. The first metal age of India is called Chalcolithic Age which saw the use of copper along with stone. It was also called Stone-Copper Age.

 Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan (5, 00, 00 BC – 10,000 BC)

Man is said to have appeared in the early Pleistocene in Africa about 3 million (30 lakh) years ago. In India, based on recent evidence, man is said to have appeared 1.4 million (14 lakh) years back at Bori, Maharashtra.

  • This Man had no knowledge of cultivation and house building till 9000 years B.C. From there first appearance to beginning of 3000 BC man used tools & implements only made up of stone and so early phase of human existence has been Called as Stone-Age. Based on nature of stone tools and nature of change in climate the stone-age is divided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic age period to study history till 1000B.c.

The Paleolithic age has been divided into 3 sub-ages namely:

  • 5,00,000 BC – 1,00,000 BC: Lower Paleolithic or Early Old Stone Age
  • 1,00,000 BC – 40,000 BC: Middle Paleolithic or Middle Old Stone Age
  • 40,000 BC – 10,000 BC: Upper Paleolithic or Later Old Stone Age

1. Lower Paleolithic or Early Old Stone Age (5, 00,000 BC – 1, 00,000 BC)

Acheulian-Handaxes: These areSpecial characteristic stone tools – Hand axe and cleaver.Raw materials used for making stone tools included – quartzite, quartz and basalt. The sites of early Stone Age discovered in Rajasthan have been identified as belonging to Acheulian culture, named after French site of St. Acheul which was the first effective colonization of the Indian subcontinent.The Acheulian culture was a hunter-gatherer culture.Sites of lower-Paleolithic age are located in Nagaur and Didwana of Rajasthan, Barkhera, Bhimbetka and Putlikarar in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh.

2. Middle Paleolithic or Middle Old Stone Age (1, 00,000 BC – 40,000 BC)

 The Acheulian culture of Old Stone Age was slowly transformed into the middle Paleolithic by giving some of the tool types and by developing new tools & technology. Special characteristic of stone tools – Flakes.

  • In comparison to the lower Paleolithic era, the tools in middle Paleolithic became smaller, thinner and lighter.
  • The New raw materials used for making stone tools included fine-grained siliceous rocks like chert and jasper.
  • In our Rajasthan, sites of Middle Paleolithic age are located at Luni valley, around Didwana, Budha Pushkar.

3.  Upper Paleolithic or Later Old Stone Age (40,000 BC – 10,000 BC)           

 The tools of Upper Paleolithic Era are further refined upon the lower and middle periods and show a marked regional diversity with respect to the refinement of techniques and standardization of finished tool forms.

1. Special characteristic of stone tools of Upper Paleolithic age – Flakes and blades.

2. One important discovery is of the Ostrich egg shells at over 40 sites in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, which shows that ostrich, a bird adapted to arid climate.

3. The upper Paleolithic settlements also show a distinct trend of being associated with permanent sources of waters.

4. Society was ‘Band Society‘- small communities, usually consisting of less than 100 people. They were nomadic to some extent moving from one place to another.

5. The earliest form of art by humans also belongs to upper Paleolithic period in the form of rock Paintings (Bhimbetka).

6. Sites of Upper Paleolithic age in Rajasthan included Chittorgarh, Kota and basins of rivers Wagoon, kadamli, Sabarmati & Mahi.

4. Mesolithic-Middle Stone Age in Rajasthan (10,000 BC – 5,000 BC)

The last stage of Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age was followed by Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age in Rajasthan (in India). The transition from the Paleolithic period to Mesolithic period is marked by transition from Pleistocene period (2.58 million years ago – 10,000BC) to Holocene (10,000 BC – till now) and favorable changes in the climate. The climate became warmer and humid and there was expansion of flora and fauna contributed by increased rainfall. This led to availability of new resources to humans.

Tools of Mesolithic Age: The tools are Mesolithic age were smaller in size and better in finishing (more geometric) than the Paleolithic age and are called as Microlith.

  • The main tool types are backed blades, obliquely truncated blades, points, crescents, triangles and trapezes.
  • Some of the Microlith were used as components of spearheads, arrowheads, knives, sickles, harpoons and daggers.
  • Use of bow and arrows for hunting has been documented by Mesolithic man in rock art of the period.

Changes in Society of Mesolithic Age:

1. Domestication of Animals & Farming: The early period of Mesolithic age was based on the hunting, fishing and food gathering, slowly domestication of animals and cultivation of crops made their way into human life.

  •  The earliest evidence of domestication of animals has been provided by Adamagarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bagor in Rajasthan.
  • The first animals to be domesticated were dog, cattle, sheep and goat and the first crops to be cultivated were wheat and barley.

2. Nomadism to Sedentary settlements:

The favourable climate, better rainfalls, warm atmosphere and increased food security led to reduction in Nomadism to seasonally sedentary settlement and increased population.

They moved to new areas such as nearby rivers which provided water and First human colonization of the Ganga plains took place during this period.

 3. Beginning of customs

  • The Mesolithic age saw beginning of the tradition of various ways of intentional disposal of the dead.
  • Mesolithic human burials have been found at Bagor in Rajasthan, Langhnaj in Gujarat, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh etc.

 4. Emergence of Arts:

  • The rock painting of Mesolithic period is found in Adamagarh, Bhimbetka of Madhya Pradesh and Pratapgarh, Mirzapur of Rajasthan.
  • The paintings are made mostly in red and white pigments, made from the nodules found in rocks and earth. (Red made by minerals of iron oxide and white by limestone).
  • The subject matter of the paintings are mostly wild animals and hunting scenes, though there are some related to human social and religious life such as sex and child birth.

Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan:

  • The Pachpadra basin, Sojat Area & Tilwara of Rajasthan is rich Mesolithic sites and lot of Microlith has been discovered.
  • However, Bagor is the largest Mesolithic site in India.

Neolithic Age in Rajasthan (5,000 BC – 1,000 BC)

Neolithic or new Stone Age, which followed Mesolithic age, was the last phase of Stone Age. The Neolithic period began around 10700 to 9400 BC in Tell Qaramel in Northern Syria. In South Asia the date assigned to Neolithic period is 7000 BC and the earliest example is Mehrgarh Culture.

  Neolithic Revolution:

  • The human settlements in the Mesolithic era got more sedentary and people began settle down in agricultural communities which led to establishment of villages.
  • Man for first time domesticated cattle, sheep and goats.
  •  As efficiency of agriculture improved, man was able to produce surplus food. As a consequence, some people moved away from agriculture and new occupations like dancers, musicians, masonry came up.
  •  The people of this age used tools & implements of polished stone. Neolithic tool kit was composed of heavy ground tools – pestles, mortars, grinders and pounders – as also axes and sickles which have a characteristic sheen on them, the result of harvesting wild or domesticated plants and grasses.

The use of pottery and the wheel and the subsequent invention of crafts like spinning, weaving and bead making also serve to demonstrate the uniqueness of the Neolithic phase. This transition from hunting gathering to food production is called the Neolithic revolution.

Causes of Neolithic Revolution: Factors that pushed humans in vastly separated parts to adopt agriculture and animal domestication included:

i. Climatic change at the beginning of the Holocene period

ii. Increasing population density

iii. Evolving cultural and technological strategies of human groups.

Features of Mehrgarh Neolithic Culture:

Mehrgarh is located on bank of the Bolan River, a tributary of the Indus, at the eastern edge of the Baluchistan plateau overlooking the Indus plain. It is considered as the oldest agricultural settlement in the Indian subcontinent.

  • The main domesticated animals in Mehrgarh were cattle, sheep, goat and water buffalo while the main cultivated plants were wheat and barley.
  •  Houses made in mud and mud-bricks, created rooms to store grains, buried dead under floors of houses where they lived, used ornaments of steatite, turquoise, sea shells etc.
  • Domesticated cotton for the first time. Used pottery decorated with images of birds, animals.
  • Learnt use of making stone beads, copper smelting, timber, terracotta, commercial transactions.
  • The first evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in a living person was found in Mehrgarh.

Neolithic Age in Rajasthan

There are no significant Neolithic sites that fall in modern Rajasthan.

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RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes Free pdf

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan in English – Download

We are providing some free study notes/ebook/pdf for education purpose only and the material already available free online. if any objection please contact us – thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

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History of Rajasthan in Hindi