Daily News Prescription – 18 January 2020 / Daily current affairs January 2020 for competitive exams. Myupsc.com : is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. Daily News Prescription-18 January 2020. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. India UNSC Permanent Member
The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization’s objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the vast majority of the world’s sovereign states.
The organization’s mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. UN membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization beginning in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories that had been monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s, the UN’s budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks. India UNSC Permanent Member
The UN has six
principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and
Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice;
and the UN Secretariat. The UN System includes a multitude of specialized
agencies, such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the
World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. Additionally, non-governmental
organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies
to participate in the UN’s work. The UN’s chief administrative officer is the
Secretary-General, currently Portuguese politician and diplomat Antonio
Guterres since 1 January 2017. The organization is financed by assessed and
voluntary contributions from its member states.
The UN, its officers,
and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes, though other evaluations of
its effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization
to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have
called it ineffective, biased, or corrupt.
In the century prior to the UN’s creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife. In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months later, the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies. The League of Nations was approved, and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification. On 10 January 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria. It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But all of them realized that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia. When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees. India UNSC Permanent Member
How does a country
become a Member of the United Nations?
Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, “is open to all peace-loving States that accept the obligations contained in the United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able to carry out these obligations”. States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council (P-5).
How does a new State
or Government obtain recognition by the United Nations?
The recognition of a
new State or Government is an act that only other States and Governments may
grant or withhold. It generally implies readiness to assume diplomatic
relations. The United Nations is neither a State nor a Government, and
therefore does not possess any authority to recognize either a State or a
Government. As an organization of independent States, it may admit a new State
to its membership or accept the credentials of the representatives of a new
The procedure is
briefly as follows:
The State submits an
application to the Secretary-General and a letter formally stating that it
accepts the obligations under the Charter.
The Security Council
considers the application. Any recommendation for admission must receive the
affirmative votes of 9 of the 15 members of the Council, provided that none of
its five permanent members — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America
— have voted against the application.
If the Council
recommends admission, the recommendation is presented to the General Assembly
for consideration. A two-thirds majority vote is necessary in the Assembly for
admission of a new State.
effective the date the resolution for admission is adopted.
At each session, the
General Assembly considers the credentials of all representatives of Member
States participating in that session. During such consideration, which
routinely takes place first in the nine-member Credentials Committee but can
also arise at other times, the issue can be raised whether a particular
representative has been accredited by the Government actually in power. This
issue is ultimately decided by a majority vote in the Assembly. It should be
noted that the normal change of Governments, as through a democratic election,
does not raise any issues concerning the credentials of the representative of
the State concerned.
The Council is
composed of 15 Members:
members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United
Kingdom, and the United States, and ten non-permanent members elected
for two-year terms by the General Assembly (with end of term year):
Saint Vincent and the
South Africa (2020)
Viet Nam (2021)
More than 50 United
Nations Member States have never been Members of the Security Council.
A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that country’s interests are affected. Both Members and non-members of the United Nations, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, may be invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council’s discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State. India UNSC Permanent Member
Why isn’t India a
permanent member of the UN Security Council?
At the time the United Nations was formed, it simply wasn’t an independent nation, nor was it anywhere near powerful or influential enough even if it had been. The point of having permanent membership on the UN Security Council is to give the Security Council some sort of foundation that provided for both the ability to act and the ability to maintain order. While there is no requirement for a permanent member of the Security Council nuclear weapons, there is a requirement, albeit an implicit one, that the permanent members are to a certain extent strong (in a militaristic sense), economically vibrant, and capable of displays international influence. During the 1940’s India would not have met any of these criteria. India UNSC Permanent Member
The UNSC, even with
five permanent members, manages to pass resolutions on very few important
things. Having a sixth country will only worsen the problem.
Why will the five
countries want to share power with the sixth? The privilege is like a dinner
table with a cake. One additional member means less space and less cake for
The permanent members
have a veto power over all the decisions of the UNSC. What does this
imply? This ensures that no big decision
is taken which will make a powerful country unhappy. This veto power serves
well to the five members as it helps them protect their interests. China uses
its veto power and opposes India.
Why should India be
on UN Security Council?
The current P5 were
among the strongest nations at the time of the creation of the UNSC. Germany
and Japan were in shambles, and much of the world was still colonized. It made
sense for nations like the US and USSR to become permanent members, as well as
their major allies. However, the UN is a global organization, and it needs to
have diversity that reflects the globe, in its most powerful body. This isn’t
just to appear to be a more diverse body. The more different countries you
have, the more perspectives you see brought to the table.
India is a major
player on the world stage currently. It’s strategically located, and has warm
relations with most of the P5. India could bring perspectives to the table that
would differ greatly from those of the Western countries, China and Russia.
That is because the issues India faces are different from the issues these
nations face, and a fresh perspective would be refreshing to say the least.
India has a GDP of about 2 Trillion dollars and has been on an upward curve as far as the economy goes ever since the early 1990s. It’s also one of the fastest growing major economies of the world, and has even overtaken China in the rate of growth of the economy per year. It’s the 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). There’s also the elephant in the room: the elephant that consists of 1.2 billion people. India could give representation to a vast number of these people. India UNSC Permanent Member
India: Statement by
the Mission to the UN
improvements are an intrinsic part of any organization which has to serve the
needs of a changing environment. The United Nations is no exception. India
supports a strengthened and revitalized United Nations with its various organs
functioning within their mandates in accordance with the UN Charter. India
supports an enhanced role for the United Nations in development and development
cooperation dialogue. India firmly believes that development should be central
to UN’s agenda and be pursued in its own right. It is an indispensable
prerequisite to the maintenance of international peace and security.
India has actively participated in all reforms and restructuring exercises that could enhance the capacity of the UN in the fulfillment of its primary tasks. India actively supported the establishment of UNICEF on a permanent basis, the creation of the UN Development Programme, establishment of UNEP and restructuring of the UN in the economic and social fields. It was also represented in the High Level Expert Group established by the UN Secretary-General in the mid-nineties on the financing of the UN. It participated constructively in the discussions on the Agenda for Peace and the Agenda for Development. India was also one of the co-chairs of the Working Group on Strengthening of the United Nations.
India has been supportive of the UN Secretary-General Mr. Kofi Annan’s reform proposals. While some of these have been agreed and implemented, discussions continue on others. An important proposal is the holding of the Millennium Assembly. India believes that the Millennium Assembly must identify concrete goals for the promotion of development cooperation and disarmament and must also provide the United Nations with the required resources to effectively tackle these challenges. India UNSC Permanent Member
India shares the
concerns for improving efficiency, avoidance of duplication, and the
minimization of waste in the functioning of the entire UN system. While efforts
for these objectives need to be intensified, India believes that the Member
States should pay their contributions unconditionally, in full and on time, as
delays in payments have caused an unprecedented financial crisis in the UN
system. Contributions of the Member States should have, as their fundamental
underpinning, the capacity to pay principle. Financial reforms hold the key to
the future of the world body. Without sufficient resources, the UN’s activities
and role would suffer.
The United Nations as
a universal forum should have as its guiding principles transparency,
non-discrimination, consensus, and equal respect for the dignity of all
individuals, societies and nations. Be it world trade, environment and
development, resolution of the global debt crisis, or economic assistance for
the poorest members of the world community, these values have to be the
touchstone of global initiatives and actions.
The composition of the Security Council has remained largely static, while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded considerably. This has undermined the representative character of the Council. An expanded Council, which is more representative, will also enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy. India UNSC Permanent Member
In 1965, the membership of the Security Council was expanded from 11 to 15. There was no change in the number of permanent members. Since then, the size of the Council has remained frozen. Even more dramatic than the increase in the number of Member States of the UN, is the change in composition of the General Assembly. The overwhelming majority of the UN General Assembly members today are developing countries. They are also, most often the objects of the Council’s actions. They must have a role in shaping those decisions which affect them. The present composition of the Security Council, particularly the permanent members’ category, is weighted heavily in favour of industrialized countries. This imbalance must be redressed in an expansion of the Council, by enhancing the representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent members’ categories. India UNSC Permanent Member
Activities of the
Security Council have greatly expanded in the past few years. The success of
Security Council’s actions depends upon political support of the international
community. Any package for restructuring of the Security Council should,
therefore, be broad-based. In particular, adequate presence of developing
countries is needed in the Security Council. Nations of the world must feel
that their stakes in global peace and prosperity are factored into the UN’s
Any expansion of
permanent members’ category must be based on an agreed criteria, rather than be
a pre-determined selection. There must be an inclusive approach based on
transparent consultations. India supports expansion of both permanent and
non-permanent members’ category. The latter is the only avenue for the vast
majority of Member States to serve on the Security Council. Reform and
expansion must be an integral part of a common package.
PM Modi to inaugurate
‘Gandhi Solar Park’ – India’s gift to the UN Headquarters
At a contribution of
about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been
installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193
UN Member State.
In a first of its
kind symbolic effort by India at the UN, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will
inaugurate a 50KW ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ next week during his visit to the
world organisation, a gesture that highlights India’s willingness to go beyond
the talk on climate change.
At a contribution of
about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been
installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193
UN Member State.
PM Modi will remotely
inaugurate the solar park at the UN Headquarters and the ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’
during a special commemorative event on September 24, 2019 marking Gandhi’s
150th birth anniversary. On the occasion, a special UN Postage on Gandhi’s 150
years will also be released.
The ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ is an innovative initiative under which the Consulate General of India in New York, Long Island-based NGO Shanti Fund and the State University of New York – Old Westbury have entered into an agreement to plant 150 trees. India UNSC Permanent Member
Daily News Prescription – 17 January 2020 / Daily current affairs January 2020 for competitive exams. Myupsc.com : is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. Daily News Prescription-17 January 2020
1ST Session of India-Norway Dialogue on Trade & Investment Held in New Delhi (PIB) The first Session of India-Norway Dialogue on Trade & Investment (DTI) was convened in New Delhi on 15-16 January, 2020. The session was based on the Terms of Reference (ToR) signed between India and Norway on 8th January, 2019 in New Delhi, during the visit of Prime Minister of Norway. This was the first meeting after the signing of DTI.
Talking of Kashmir (TH) For the second time since the government’s decision on Article 370 in August last year, China raised the issue of Kashmir at the United Nations
China, U.S. sign initial trade agreement (TH) The Phase 1 deal, struck last month, is expected to reduce tariffs and boost Chinese purchases of American farm, energy and manufactured goods while addressing some disputes over intellectual property.
GS3: Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, etc.
Ladakh Food Processing Summit gathers huge participation (PIB) Ladakh Food Processing Summit “Building Partnerships for Inclusive Growth in Food Processing Sector” was organised by the Department of Industries & Commerce, Ladakh in partnership with the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India and Invest India, the national investment promotion & facilitation agency, in Leh today. Daily News Prescription 2020
MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC IAS General Studies.
Minister for Consumer
Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ram Vilas Paswan today said the
Government has begun implementing nation-wide portability of the benefits under
the National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013.
He was speaking
during the Question Hour in the Lok Sabha today. Mr Paswan said eligible
households or beneficiaries covered under NFSA would be able to lift their
entitled food grains from any Fair Price Shop, FPS, in the country.
This would be
possible by using the same ration card after biometric or Aadhaar
authentication on Electronic Point of Sale, EPoS, and device at an FPS of
Destination/Sale State through ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ Plan.
reiterated that the facility of inter-State portability under this initiative
would be available only through FPSs, having fully online ePoS devices.
The system would largely benefit numerous migratory beneficiaries such as labourers, daily wagers and blue-collar workers who frequently change their place of dwelling in search of employment or for other reasons, across the country.
Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana
Context: In line with
the provisions of National Policy for Farmers (NPF) (2007), the Department of
Rural Development, Ministry of Rural Development is implementing a programme
exclusively for women farmers namely, Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP).
Funding support to
the tune of up to 60% (90% for North Eastern States) for such projects is
provided by the Government of India.
About Mahila Kisan
It is a sub component
of the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM).
It seeks to improve
the present status of women in Agriculture, and to enhance the opportunities
available to empower her.
MKSP recognizes the
identity of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to build the capacity of women in
the domain of agro-ecologically sustainable practices.
The focus of MKSP is
on capacitating smallholders to adopt sustainable climate resilient
agro-ecology and eventually create a pool of skilled community professionals.
Its objective is to
strengthen smallholder agriculture through promotion of sustainable agriculture
practices such as Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA), Non
Pesticide Management (NPM), Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF), Pashu-Sakhi
model for doorstep animal care services, Sustainable regeneration and
harvesting of Non-Timber Forest Produce.
Need for feminization
Rural women form the
most productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations
More than 80% of
rural women are engaged in agriculture activities for their livelihoods.
About 20 per cent of
farm livelihoods are female headed due to widowhood, desertion, or male
system in India strengthens the exclusion of women from their entitlements as
agriculture workers and cultivators.
Most of the
women-headed households are not able to access extension services, farmers
support institutions and production assets like seed, water, credit, subsidy
etc. As agricultural workers, women are paid lower wage than men.
Centre to provide assistance to intensify use of buckwheat
Minister Narendra Singh Tomar today said that to intensify the use of
buckwheat, ICAR-All India Co-ordinated Research Network on potential crops has
developed nutritionally rich five varieties.
He said they are
promoted by ICAR and respective State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) through
front line demonstrations, trainings and kisan melas.
In a written reply in
the LokSabha today, the Agriculture Minister said Buckwheat is grown in the
Hilly regions of Northern and Northeastern states including in the Nilgiris &
Palani Hills, in an estimated area of 25,800 hectares.
Mr. Tomar said, to
encourage farmers to grow buckwheat, Government is providing assistance through
programmes like Paramparagat KrishiVikasYojana (PKVY) and Mission on Organic
Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region.
Vice- President has
launched the new rotavirus vaccine – ROTAVAC5D.
The vaccine has been
designed and developed by Bharat Biotech.
It is a genus of
double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family.
Rotavirus is a
leading cause of severe diarrhoea and death among children less than five years
It is responsible for
around 10% of total child mortality every year.
Kids with a rotavirus
infection have fever, nausea, and vomiting, often followed by abdominal cramps
and frequent, watery diarrhea.
Kids may also have a
cough and runny nose.
diarrhea that accompanies a rotavirus infection is so severe that it can
quickly lead to dehydration.
As with all viruses,
though, some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms, especially in
transmitted by the faecal-oral route, via contact with contaminated hands,
surfaces and objects, and possibly by the respiratory route. Viral diarrhea is
Out of all the causes
of diarrhoea, rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoea in children less than 5
years of age. Rotavirus diarrhoea presents in similar manner like any other
diarrhoea but can mainly be prevented through rotavirus vaccination. Other
diarrhoea can be prevented through general measures like good hygiene, frequent
hand washing, safe water and safe food consumption, exclusive breastfeeding and
vitamin A supplementation.
Centre not to stop circulation of high denomination notes
The Government today
clarified that it is not contemplating to stop the circulation of two thousand
In a written reply in
the RajyaSabha today, Minister of State for Finance, Anurag Thakur said there
is no such proposal under consideration. He also said that a declining trend is
visible in the seizure of unaccounted cash in the denomination of two thousand
The Minister said in
the year 2017-18, around 68 per cent of unaccounted cash was seized in the
denomination of two thousand rupees, while in the year 2018-19, it was around
66 percent. In the current financial year, over 43 per cent of unaccounted cash
was seized in the denomination of two thousand rupees.
The Minister said as on March this year, over 31 per cent of total notes in circulation are of two thousand rupees.
“Top 100 City Destination” ranking
Released by Euro
monitor International, a UK-based global market research company
The Euro monitor
report highlights top 100 cities based on 2018 international arrivals. An
arrival encompasses all purposes of visit such as business, leisure and
visiting friends and relatives.
India has emerged as
the strongest emerging destination with seven cities in the top 100 popular
cities this year.
Delhi is forecast to
be hold the 8th place in 2019.
unrest and protests in the last few months, Hong Kong remained No.1 destination
this year. However, the number of visitors arriving to Hong Kong declined in
Asia posted fastest
growth in the number of international arrivals globally.
Developed infrastructure, government’s focus on tourism and digitization of travel facilities like e-visa are some of the reasons behind Asian countries’ popularity among global tourists.
It is a surface-to-surface tactical missile with a strike range of 350 km.
It is developed by DRDO under Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
It is capable of carrying 500 to 1,000 kg of warheads, both conventional as well as nuclear.
The state-of-the-art missile is powered by liquid propulsion twin engines.
It uses an advanced inertial guidance system with maneuvering orbit to hit its target.
It was inducted into Armour of the defence forces in 2003.
TRAI implements new mobile number portability rules
Authority of India (TRAI) has revamped mobile number portability (MNP) rules,
making the entire process faster and simpler. The TRAI has prescribed three
working days timeline for port out requests within a service area.
of five working days has been prescribed for requests for port out from one
circle to another. The new rules will come into effect from December 16.
Validity of the
Unique Porting Code (UPC) has also been brought down to four days instead of a
fortnight earlier. It will be applicable to all circles except Jammu &
Kashmir, Assam and North East, where the validity of the said code remains
unchanged to 30 days.
The MNP request under the present rule will be processed till December 9 and the service will not be available between December 10 and December 15 as entities involved in the process will be migrating their systems to implement new rules.
In a landmark policy shift, Japan formally announced that it would withdraw from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and resume commercial whaling in its territorial waters next year for the first time in more than 30 years.
Reasons of withdrawal cited by Japan
With a moratorium in effect for more than 30 years, populations of endangered whale species will have had plenty of time to regenerate.
‘Fundamental differences’ among members have led the whaling commission to what it calls a dead end.
Pressure from local fishermen to restart commercial whaling.
Background and Implications
Japan has been mulling leaving the whaling commission for
some time in the past. It kills an estimated 450 whales annually.
Japan had proposed lifting a 32-year whaling ban when the
IWC met in Brazil for its annual conference in September 2018. The proposal was
rejected and criticised by the environmental organizations.
The country officially halted commercial whaling in 1988,
complying with the Commission’s moratorium.
Whaling is deeply ingrained in Japanese culinary culture,
dating back as far as the earliest historical era of the Jomon Period
(10,000-200 B.C.). Whale meat also served as critical sources of protein in the
post-war period as the nation grappled with poverty.
Having peaked in 1962 at 230,000 tons, annual consumption
of whale meat has since trended steadily downward, with an average of 5,000 to
6,000 tons consumed yearly today, according to fishery ministry of Japan.
Japan’s withdrawal will put an end to its IWC-sanctioned
whaling activity in the Antarctic Ocean, long conducted under the name of
“scientific research,” in a practice widely slammed as commercial whaling in
However, even after its exit from the IWC, Japan will
continue to attend its meetings as an observer and work toward rectifying what
they called the “dysfunction” of the IWC. Japan’s continued involvement with
the commission is apparently aimed at fulfilling a condition set under
international law for the management of whales. Under the U.N.-designated
Convention on the Law of the Sea, member states are obliged to “work through
appropriate international organizations” for whaling.
International community urged Japan for the protection
needed to safeguard the future of our oceans and these majestic creatures;
rather than resuming commercial whaling.
The other two countries that still hunt whales commercially are Norway and Iceland.
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
IWC is the global body charged with the conservation of
whales and the management of whaling. Currently, it has 89 members. All
members are signatories to the International Convention for the Regulation of
Whaling. This Convention is the legal framework which established the IWC
Uncertainty over whale numbers led to the introduction of a ‘moratorium’ on commercial whaling in 1986. This remains in place although the Commission continues to set catch limits for aboriginal subsistence whaling. Today, the Commission also works to understand and address a wide range of non-whaling threats to cetaceans including entanglement, ship strike, marine debris, climate change and other environmental concerns.
CITES CoP 2019: Giraffes accorded protection from trade for the first time
giraffe has been placed in Appendix II of CITES, which places prohibitions on
uncontrolled trade in a species. The Conference of Parties (CoP) to the
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species or CITES in Geneva
passed a resolution to place the giraffe in Appendix II of CITES.
Giraffes, those tall, stately and graceful animals of Africa’s savannahs, have been accorded protection from unregulated trade as the world finally woke up to their ‘silent extinction’.
The Appendix II listing was proposed by Central
African Republic, Chad, Kenya, Mali, Niger and Senegal.
“Appendix II includes species not necessarily
threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to
avoid utilization incompatible with their survival,”
Giraffes once ranged over much of the semi-arid
savannah and savannah woodlands of Africa. But their numbers have plummeted
dramatically — by up to 40 per cent over the last 30 years — due to threats
including international trade in their parts, as well as habitat loss, civil
unrest and illegal hunting.
While giraffes fall prey to poaching for bush
meat, bones, skin and tail hair, there is also a significant amount of
international trade in their bone carvings and trophies.
There is currently only one recognized species
of giraffe, with nine sub-species. They have been listed as ‘vulnerable’ on the
International Union for Conservation of Species Red List since 2016, with some
sub-species classified as ‘endangered’’ or ‘critically endangered’.
Five of the nine sub-species have only a small
wild population, while four have a decreasing population trend. All are
affected by trade.
While the Appendix II listing will not stop all
trade in giraffe parts, it will ensure this is not contributing to further
population declines and provide global scale data that could not otherwise be
External Affairs Ministry had announced
that Prime Minister of India will attend the outreach session of the G7 meet at
Biarritz, France, where India is a special invitee.
The G7 is a collective of seven of the world’s most industrialized and developed economies. Their political leaders come together annually to discuss important global economic, political, social and security issues. Together, the G7 countries represent 40% of global GDP and 10% of the world’s population.
Function of G7
1. The G7 was formed initially
to discuss economic and political concerns prompted by the 1973 oil crisis –
when members of OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Export Countries, increased
the price of oil and cut global supplies to countries seen as having backed
Israel in the Yom Kippur War.
2. Since then, the group has
expanded its brief to cover a large number of international issues, including
energy security, trade, climate change, global health issues, gender equality,
poverty – and any other topic the country holding the G7 presidency chooses to
put on the agenda.
3. Today, the G7 are reckoned as the seven wealthiest and most advanced nations in the world because China, which holds the second largest net worth in the world, nonetheless has a low net worth per individual and an economy that has not yet fully modernized.
Members of G7
The seven members of the group
are the following:
6. United States
7. United Kingdom
The European Union is also represented at the G7 summit.
• Its first summit was held at
Rambouillet, France, in 1975
• This year, the 45th G7 summit
will be held on August 24-26, 2019, in Biarritz, France. It will focus on
fighting income and gender inequality and protecting biodiversity.
• The 2019 G7 Summit, presided over by France, will focus on fighting inequality.
Following are the five
objectives for the 2019 Summit:
1. Fighting inequality of
opportunity, promoting in particular gender equality, access to education and
high quality health services;
2. Reducing environmental
inequality by protecting our planet through climate finance and a fair
ecological transition, preserving biodiversity and the oceans;
3. Strengthening the social
dimension of globalization through more fair and equitable trade, tax and
4. Taking action for peace
against security threats and terrorism which weaken the foundations of our
5. Tapping into the
opportunities created by digital technology and artificial intelligence (AI).
On a request from China,
consultations on Kashmir were scheduled by United Nations Security Council
(UNSC) recently to discuss Kashmir (India’s abrogation of Article 370).
Abrogation of Article 370
United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
It is one of the six principal organs of the United
Like the UN as a whole, it was created following World
War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the
League of Nations, in maintaining world peace.
The council held its first session in 1946.
It is the only body of the UN with the
authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
The Security Council consists of fifteen members:
The great powers that
were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union (now represented by
Russia), the United Kingdom, France, Republic of China (now represented by the
People’s Republic of China), and the United States – serve as the body’s five
These can veto any
substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states
or nominees for the office of Secretary-General.
In addition, the council
has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of
The body’s presidency
rotates monthly among its members.
Resolutions of the Security Council are typically
enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member
states and funded independently of the main UN budget.
Unlike the General Assembly, the Security Council meets
year-round. Each Security Council member must have a representative available
at UN Headquarters at all times in case an emergency meeting becomes necessary.
Due to the public scrutiny of the Security Council
Chamber, all of the real work of the Security Council is conducted behind
closed doors in “informal consultations”.
Functions and Powers of UNSC
to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;
to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
to take military action against an aggressor;
to recommend the admission of new Members;
to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”;
to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and,
to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.