ISRO postpones launch of GISAT-1

ISRO announced that a New type of earth observation satellite, GISAT-1,has been postponed due to ‘technical reasons’. ISRO GISAT satellite DRDO

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GISAT-1 : GISAT-1 is short for Geo-Imaging Satellite  and it is an Earth observation  Satellite. ISRO is preparing to launch the satellite in the first week of March.It will be the first of two planned Indian EO spacecraft to be placed in a geostationary orbit of around 36,000 km. All Indian EOs have been placed so far in a 600-odd-km orbits and circle the earth pole to pole. They were launched by the smaller PSLV rocket. A medium lift GSLV-MK II rocket will be carrying the spacecraft.

Objectives:The 2,268-kg spacecraft will provide imageries of “large areas of interest” on earth in almost real time and at frequent intervals.It is tasked with continuous observation of Indian sub-continent and quick monitoring of natural hazards and disaster. It will also be adding a new edge to national security.It will apparently be in a fixed spot looking over the Indian continent at all times.It contains multi-spectral, multi-resolution cameras, which will make us able to keep a constant watch on our borders, monitor any changes in the geographical condition of the country. ISRO GISAT satellite DRDO

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ISRO GISAT satellite DRDO: Daily News Prescription - General Studies of India

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC IAS General Studies UPSC PSC Books 2020. ISRO GISAT satellite DRDO

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UPSC Prelims 2020: Important Topics 1-10 February

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What is Republic Day? Why do we celebrate it?

India is celebrating its 71st Republic Day today (January 26, 2020) marking it with grand celebrations in the national capital and all across the nation. Republic Day is celebrated to honour the historic date when the country completed its transition towards becoming an independent republic after its constitution came into effect.

71st Republic Day, Brazilian Prez Bolsonaro is the Chief Guest.

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What is Republic Day? Why do we celebrate it? History, Importance of Republic Day of India

Captain Tania Shergill, an officer with Army’s Corps of Signals, will be the first woman parade adjutant for the Republic Day parade. A parade adjutant is responsible for the parade.

 tania shergill

Shergill is the first woman army officer to become parade adjutant for Republic Day. She also leads the all-men contingent on Army Day. Commissioned in March, 2017, from the Officer Training Academy, Chennai, Shergill is an electronics and communications graduate.

Republic Day is a day to remember when the Constitution of India officially came into force on January 26, 1950. This historical act formally transitioned India to become an independent republic and hence it is celebrated on January 26 every year.

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It’s noted that though India gained freedom from the British rule after a long struggle in the wee hours of August 15, 1947. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru delivered his famous speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’, declaring India’s independence to the citizens. But sadly this freedom did not come along with democracy and the right to choose your own Government. Since India didn’t have an official Constitution then, our country was a constitutional monarchy under the rule of King George VI even after Independence. It was finally after two and half years later on January 26, 1950, when the Indian Constitution came into effect thus making India one of the biggest democracies in the world. It was on this day when India was declared as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. And to honour this day, the Indian Republic Day is celebrated with great fervour throughout the country every year on January 26.

Information, History and Importance of Republic Day of India

It was through the monumental Indian Independence Act of 1947 through which Indian gained its independence, an Act of the United Kingdom’s Parliament which divided British India in two parts. As mentioned earlier, though India gained its freedom from the British rule it was still under the constitutional monarchy of King George VI (head) and Earl Mountbatten, who was the Governor General. This was because in 1947, India did not have its own Constitution. In fact, the laws in India at that time were based on the Government of India Act of 1935.

Realising the need of having an Indian Constitution, a Drafting Committee was set up with Dr Bheem Rao Ambedkar being appointed as its chairman. The sole objective of setting this committee was to draft the Constitution of India, which would be the supreme law of India. The Constitution lays down a broad framework of the fundamental political code, structure, powers, procedures and duties of all Government institutions and also states the fundamental rights and duties of all citizens of India. The committee worked tirelessly for many months and submitted their first draft of the Constitution on November 4, 1947 to the Constituent Assembly. It took exactly 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to finally adopt the Constitution with the necessary amendments.

Though the Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India it became was formally made effective on 26 January, 1950. The reason: it was during in 1929 during the Indian National Congress’ (INC) Lahore Session that a demand for complete independence was made in the history of India’s freedom struggle from the British rule. This was followed by January 26, 1930 being announced as the Purna Swaraj Diwas (complete Independence Day). To honour this important day in India’s freedom movement, our Constitution was adopted on January 26, 1950. India Republic Day 2020

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Daily News Prescription – 21 January 2020

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GS2: Governance

Explained: Why India is a laggard in social mobility (IE) According to the report, the Nordic economies such as Denmark and Finland top the social mobility rankings while countries like India

GS2: International Relations

Deciphering the moves on Russia’s power chessboard (TH) Just as the countdown to the end of Russia’s Vladimir Putin’s presidential term draws close, he has announced major changes

Stay put (TH) Putin is manoeuvring to stay politically relevant at the end of his fourth term

Explained: Dubai has been declared ‘reciprocating territory’ by India. What does this mean? (IE) The notification also declared a list of courts in the UAE to be “superior Courts” under the same

GS3: Science and Technology

Explained: What is Xenobot? (IE) Scientists in the United States have named the millimetre-wide robots “xenobots”

 Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus in China: Actions taken by the Health Ministry (PIB) As per WHO update (as of 11th January, 2020) in all, 41 cases of Novel Coronavirus have been reported so far from China [including one death (further update is awaited)]. As per WHO risk assessment, the risk for global spread, as of now, remains low.

GS3: Economy

Govt. yet to seek green nod for water aerodromes (TH) A year after 10 water aerodromes were awarded to airlines for seaplane operations, the government is yet to seek environmental clearance

Redesigning India’s ailing data system (TH) The present national accounting and analytical framework misses out on many key dimensions of a complex economy. Daily News Analysis UPSC

Richest 10% of Indians have three-fourths of nation’s wealth: Oxfam (MINT) The top 1% holds over four times the wealth held by 953 million, who … Richest 10% of Indians have three-fourths of nation’s wealth

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GS2: Governance

Centre for tougher law against sexual harassment at work (TH) Group of Ministers finalises recommendations, which will be put up for public comments.

A net verdict that falls short of expectations (TH) If one were to merely consider its proclamation of the law, it is difficult to quibble with the ruling of the Supreme Court of India delivered recently.

INDIAN CONSTITUTION, IN NUMBERS (Mint) Nearly 70 years after it first came into effect on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India—which is a 146,385-word tome—has outlived most peers

Simply put: Understanding the Bru settlement (IE) Centre, Tripura, and Mizoram have signed an agreement with the Bru/Reang community that promises to end their 23-year-old internal conflict. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

For Brus, a permanent home (TH) The decision to settle displaced Brus in Tripura is humanitarian, but could lead … living in Tripura as refugees since 1997, to settle permanently in Tripura.

GS3: Science and Technology

Ahead of holiday, China gears up to contain virus outbreak (TH) China will step up efforts to contain the coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan ahead of the Lunar New Year holidays. With 17 new cases of the virus …

Coronavirus outbreak puts spotlight on India’s level of preparedness (Mint) India is not well-equipped to identify disease-carrying people at its ports of entry, says a health expert

Health Ministry reviews preparedness for Novel Corona Virus(nCoV) (PIB) Dr. HarshVardhan, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfarehas been closely monitoring the situation after the reports of 41 confirmed cases of novel Corona virus (nCoV) including one death from Wuhan

GS3: Economy

Shri DV Sadananda Gowda launches the “APNA UREA – SonaUgle” brand of HURL (PIB) The Union Minister for Chemicals and Fertilizers, Shri D.V. Sadananda Gowda launched the “APNA UREA – SonaUgle” brand of Hindustan Urvarak&Rasayan Limited (HURL) at a function here today. On the occasion, he also unveiled the Company’s logo.

Why ‘Make in India’ has failed (TH) On September 25, 2014, the Indian government announced the ‘Make in India’ initiative to encourage manufacturing in India and galvanize. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

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Daily Current Affairs for Competitive Exams 2020

1. What is National Investigation Agency Act, and why is Chhattisgarh challenging it?

2. Open Acreage Licensing Policy.

3. Telecommunication Consumers Education and Protection Fund (TCEPF).

4. Punjab’s new Right to Business Bill.

5. GSAT-30.

6. Bru-Reang refugee agreement.

7. Yada Yada virus.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

GS1: Geographical phenomenon

Explained: What new monsoon dates mean (IE) Over the past many years, however, significant changes have been seen in precipitation patterns

Can’t prevent earthquakes, but can minimise Damage: Earth Sciences ministry (DTE) Can’t prevent earthquakes, but can minimise Damage: Earth Sciences ministry. Vulnerable areas include all north-eastern states

GS2: Governance

Nirbhaya killers to hang on February 1 (TH) Court issues death warrants on a plea by the victim’s parents to expedite their execution. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

Merger plan of RSTV and LSTV in final stages (TH)  By any reckoning RSTV has a far greater brand value but LSTV has the financial and administrative muscle

Bru deal could fuel tensions’ (TH) The move, they feel, has set a bad precedent but is the “State-level variant” of the Bharatiya Janata Party’s “national policy of keeping minorities

GS2: International Relations

Quiet, for now (TH) The trade deal between the U.S. and China allows President Trump to claim some success

Explained: How Russia’s new constitutional amendment will help Putin stay in power (IE) How Russia’s new constitutional amendment will help Putin stay in power

GS3: Science and Technology

GSAT-30 gives India a communication boost (TH) GSAT-30, for DTH television services, broadband operations, has been launched from Kourou

GS3: Environment

Renewable energy: Curtailment is a bane that must be done away with (DTE)  Curtailment is a bane that must be done away with. If solutions to the problem are not found,it will add to the.. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

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India UNSC Permanent Member P-5 Case Study

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. India UNSC Permanent Member

The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization’s objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the vast majority of the world’s sovereign states.

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The organization’s mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. UN membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization beginning in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories that had been monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s, the UN’s budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks. India UNSC Permanent Member

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The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System includes a multitude of specialized agencies, such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. Additionally, non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN’s work. The UN’s chief administrative officer is the Secretary-General, currently Portuguese politician and diplomat Antonio Guterres since 1 January 2017. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states.

The UN, its officers, and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes, though other evaluations of its effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called it ineffective, biased, or corrupt.

Background

In the century prior to the UN’s creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife. In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months later, the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies. The League of Nations was approved, and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification. On 10 January 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria. It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But all of them realized that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia. When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees. India UNSC Permanent Member

How does a country become a Member of the United Nations?

Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, “is open to all peace-loving States that accept the obligations contained in the United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able to carry out these obligations”. States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council (P-5).

How does a new State or Government obtain recognition by the United Nations?

The recognition of a new State or Government is an act that only other States and Governments may grant or withhold. It generally implies readiness to assume diplomatic relations. The United Nations is neither a State nor a Government, and therefore does not possess any authority to recognize either a State or a Government. As an organization of independent States, it may admit a new State to its membership or accept the credentials of the representatives of a new Government.

The procedure is briefly as follows:

The State submits an application to the Secretary-General and a letter formally stating that it accepts the obligations under the Charter.

The Security Council considers the application. Any recommendation for admission must receive the affirmative votes of 9 of the 15 members of the Council, provided that none of its five permanent members — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America — have voted against the application.

If the Council recommends admission, the recommendation is presented to the General Assembly for consideration. A two-thirds majority vote is necessary in the Assembly for admission of a new State.

Membership becomes effective the date the resolution for admission is adopted.

At each session, the General Assembly considers the credentials of all representatives of Member States participating in that session. During such consideration, which routinely takes place first in the nine-member Credentials Committee but can also arise at other times, the issue can be raised whether a particular representative has been accredited by the Government actually in power. This issue is ultimately decided by a majority vote in the Assembly. It should be noted that the normal change of Governments, as through a democratic election, does not raise any issues concerning the credentials of the representative of the State concerned.

Current Members

The Council is composed of 15 Members:

Five permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly (with end of term year):

Belgium (2020)

Dominican Republic (2020)

Estonia (2021)

Germany (2020)

Indonesia (2020)

Niger (2021)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2021)

South Africa (2020)

Tunisia (2021)

Viet Nam (2021)

Non-Council Member States;

More than 50 United Nations Member States have never been Members of the Security Council.

A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that country’s interests are affected. Both Members and non-members of the United Nations, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, may be invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council’s discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State. India UNSC Permanent Member

Why isn’t India a permanent member of the UN Security Council?

At the time the United Nations was formed, it simply wasn’t an independent nation, nor was it anywhere near powerful or influential enough even if it had been. The point of having permanent membership on the UN Security Council is to give the Security Council some sort of foundation that provided for both the ability to act and the ability to maintain order. While there is no requirement for a permanent member of the Security Council nuclear weapons, there is a requirement, albeit an implicit one, that the permanent members are to a certain extent strong (in a militaristic sense), economically vibrant, and capable of displays international influence. During the 1940’s India would not have met any of these criteria. India UNSC Permanent Member

The UNSC, even with five permanent members, manages to pass resolutions on very few important things. Having a sixth country will only worsen the problem.

Why will the five countries want to share power with the sixth? The privilege is like a dinner table with a cake. One additional member means less space and less cake for all.

The permanent members have a veto power over all the decisions of the UNSC. What does this imply?  This ensures that no big decision is taken which will make a powerful country unhappy. This veto power serves well to the five members as it helps them protect their interests. China uses its veto power and opposes India.

Why should India be on UN Security Council?

The current P5 were among the strongest nations at the time of the creation of the UNSC. Germany and Japan were in shambles, and much of the world was still colonized. It made sense for nations like the US and USSR to become permanent members, as well as their major allies. However, the UN is a global organization, and it needs to have diversity that reflects the globe, in its most powerful body. This isn’t just to appear to be a more diverse body. The more different countries you have, the more perspectives you see brought to the table.

India is a major player on the world stage currently. It’s strategically located, and has warm relations with most of the P5. India could bring perspectives to the table that would differ greatly from those of the Western countries, China and Russia. That is because the issues India faces are different from the issues these nations face, and a fresh perspective would be refreshing to say the least.

India has a GDP of about 2 Trillion dollars and has been on an upward curve as far as the economy goes ever since the early 1990s. It’s also one of the fastest growing major economies of the world, and has even overtaken China in the rate of growth of the economy per year. It’s the 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). There’s also the elephant in the room: the elephant that consists of 1.2 billion people. India could give representation to a vast number of these people. India UNSC Permanent Member

India: Statement by the Mission to the UN

Reform and improvements are an intrinsic part of any organization which has to serve the needs of a changing environment. The United Nations is no exception. India supports a strengthened and revitalized United Nations with its various organs functioning within their mandates in accordance with the UN Charter. India supports an enhanced role for the United Nations in development and development cooperation dialogue. India firmly believes that development should be central to UN’s agenda and be pursued in its own right. It is an indispensable prerequisite to the maintenance of international peace and security.

India has actively participated in all reforms and restructuring exercises that could enhance the capacity of the UN in the fulfillment of its primary tasks. India actively supported the establishment of UNICEF on a permanent basis, the creation of the UN Development Programme, establishment of UNEP and restructuring of the UN in the economic and social fields. It was also represented in the High Level Expert Group established by the UN Secretary-General in the mid-nineties on the financing of the UN. It participated constructively in the discussions on the Agenda for Peace and the Agenda for Development. India was also one of the co-chairs of the Working Group on Strengthening of the United Nations.

India has been supportive of the UN Secretary-General Mr. Kofi Annan’s reform proposals. While some of these have been agreed and implemented, discussions continue on others. An important proposal is the holding of the Millennium Assembly. India believes that the Millennium Assembly must identify concrete goals for the promotion of development cooperation and disarmament and must also provide the United Nations with the required resources to effectively tackle these challenges. India UNSC Permanent Member

India shares the concerns for improving efficiency, avoidance of duplication, and the minimization of waste in the functioning of the entire UN system. While efforts for these objectives need to be intensified, India believes that the Member States should pay their contributions unconditionally, in full and on time, as delays in payments have caused an unprecedented financial crisis in the UN system. Contributions of the Member States should have, as their fundamental underpinning, the capacity to pay principle. Financial reforms hold the key to the future of the world body. Without sufficient resources, the UN’s activities and role would suffer.

The United Nations as a universal forum should have as its guiding principles transparency, non-discrimination, consensus, and equal respect for the dignity of all individuals, societies and nations. Be it world trade, environment and development, resolution of the global debt crisis, or economic assistance for the poorest members of the world community, these values have to be the touchstone of global initiatives and actions.

The composition of the Security Council has remained largely static, while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded considerably. This has undermined the representative character of the Council. An expanded Council, which is more representative, will also enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy. India UNSC Permanent Member

In 1965, the membership of the Security Council was expanded from 11 to 15. There was no change in the number of permanent members. Since then, the size of the Council has remained frozen. Even more dramatic than the increase in the number of Member States of the UN, is the change in composition of the General Assembly. The overwhelming majority of the UN General Assembly members today are developing countries. They are also, most often the objects of the Council’s actions. They must have a role in shaping those decisions which affect them. The present composition of the Security Council, particularly the permanent members’ category, is weighted heavily in favour of industrialized countries. This imbalance must be redressed in an expansion of the Council, by enhancing the representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent members’ categories. India UNSC Permanent Member

Activities of the Security Council have greatly expanded in the past few years. The success of Security Council’s actions depends upon political support of the international community. Any package for restructuring of the Security Council should, therefore, be broad-based. In particular, adequate presence of developing countries is needed in the Security Council. Nations of the world must feel that their stakes in global peace and prosperity are factored into the UN’s decision making.

Any expansion of permanent members’ category must be based on an agreed criteria, rather than be a pre-determined selection. There must be an inclusive approach based on transparent consultations. India supports expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members’ category. The latter is the only avenue for the vast majority of Member States to serve on the Security Council. Reform and expansion must be an integral part of a common package.

PM Modi to inaugurate ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ – India’s gift to the UN Headquarters

At a contribution of about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193 UN Member State.

In a first of its kind symbolic effort by India at the UN, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate a 50KW ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ next week during his visit to the world organisation, a gesture that highlights India’s willingness to go beyond the talk on climate change.

At a contribution of about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193 UN Member State.

PM Modi will remotely inaugurate the solar park at the UN Headquarters and the ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ during a special commemorative event on September 24, 2019 marking Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary. On the occasion, a special UN Postage on Gandhi’s 150 years will also be released.

The ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ is an innovative initiative under which the Consulate General of India in New York, Long Island-based NGO Shanti Fund and the State University of New York – Old Westbury have entered into an agreement to plant 150 trees. India UNSC Permanent Member

India UNSC Permanent Member

What are the chances of India for getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council?

What are the chances of India for getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council?

Why doesn’t Brazil have a permanent seat in the UN’ Security Council?

Is it true that Nehru rejected a permanent seat offered to India in the UN Security Council by The US, and if so, why did Nehru do so, and if …

United Nations in India

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Daily News Prescription – 17 January 2020

Daily News Prescription – 17 January 2020 / Daily current affairs January 2020 for competitive exams. Myupsc.com : is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. Daily News Prescription-17 January 2020

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GS2: Governance

Explained: What is National Investigation Act, why is Chhattisgarh challenging it? (IE) What is the NIA Act, and why is Chhattisgarh challenging it?
 

GS2: Social Issues

No improvement in state of mental health patients, despite legislation (Mint) 4935 people who were cured are still lodged in mental hospitals as they could not be rehabilitated

GS2: International relations

1ST Session of India-Norway Dialogue on Trade & Investment Held in New Delhi (PIB) The first Session of India-Norway Dialogue on Trade & Investment (DTI) was convened in New Delhi on 15-16 January, 2020. The session was based on the Terms of Reference (ToR) signed between India and Norway on 8th January, 2019 in New Delhi, during the visit of Prime Minister of Norway.  This was the first meeting after the signing of DTI.

India to invite Imran Khan for Shanghai Council meet (TH) will be invited to participate in the Heads of Government Council meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation

Talking of Kashmir (TH) For the second time since the government’s decision on Article 370 in August last year, China raised the issue of Kashmir at the United Nations

China, U.S. sign initial trade agreement (TH) The Phase 1 deal, struck last month, is expected to reduce tariffs and boost Chinese purchases of American farm, energy and manufactured goods while addressing some disputes over intellectual property.

GS3: Economy

A contraction in CAD may not be a reason for cheer (Mint) Current account is essentially a record of all trade, net transfers and earning transactions of a country

GS3: Infrastructure

World Bank and Government of India Sign $88 million loan agreement for the implementation of Assam Inland Water Transport Project (PIB)  The Government of India, the Government of Assam and the World Bank signed a loan agreement of $88 million here today to help modernize Assam’s passenger ferry sector that runs on its rivers including the mighty Brahmaputra.

GS3: Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, etc.

Ladakh Food Processing Summit gathers huge participation (PIB) Ladakh Food Processing Summit “Building Partnerships for Inclusive Growth in Food Processing Sector” was organised by the Department of Industries & Commerce, Ladakh in partnership with the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India and Invest India, the national investment promotion & facilitation agency, in Leh today. Daily News Prescription 2020

GS3: Security

Shri Amit Shah presides over signing of Historic Agreement to end the Bru-Reang Refugee Crisis; Around 34,000 Internally Displaced People to be settled in Tripura (PIB) Around 34,000 Internally Displaced People to be settled

34,000 Bru refugees to be settled in Tripura (TH) the signing of a quadripartite pact of MHA with the State governments of Tripura, Mizoram and Bru community

Adjusted Gross Revenue case: SC dismissal of telcos’ plea may hit consumer services (IE) Adjusted Gross Revenue case: SC dismissal of telcos’ plea may hit consumer

Explained: Sikhs to be counted as separate ethnic group in US. What does it mean? (IE) Sikhs in the US will be counted as a separate ethnic group in the 2020

Explained: Decade ended 2019 hottest ever, last year the second hottest (IE) Since the 1960s, each decade has been significantly warmer than the previous one. This trend continued in the 2010s, and five of the hottest years ever were experienced in the second half of the decade. Daily News Prescription 2020

Daily News Prescription 2020 for UPSC PSC Exams 2020, MYUPSC UPSC Prelims 2020 Test Series

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC IAS General Studies.

MYUPSC! Daily Current Affairs 24 December 2019

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Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 

Former CJI wants cyber space as part of school curriculum

PM denies existence of detention camps in the country

Despite decline in GDP growth rate, FPI’s surge in 2019

India signs agreement with ADB to upgrade state roads

India, China to reach agreement on boundary question

Manuel Cruz appointed as Cuba’s first PM in 40 years

Mission Shat Pratishat

West African Nations Rename Common Currency- eco

Chilai-Kalan

Hunar Haat

Winter solstice 2019

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Govt. to implement portability of NFSA benefits

Minister for Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ram Vilas Paswan today said the Government has begun implementing nation-wide portability of the benefits under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013.

He was speaking during the Question Hour in the Lok Sabha today. Mr Paswan said eligible households or beneficiaries covered under NFSA would be able to lift their entitled food grains from any Fair Price Shop, FPS, in the country.

This would be possible by using the same ration card after biometric or Aadhaar authentication on Electronic Point of Sale, EPoS, and device at an FPS of Destination/Sale State through ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ Plan.

The Minister reiterated that the facility of inter-State portability under this initiative would be available only through FPSs, having fully online ePoS devices.

The system would largely benefit numerous migratory beneficiaries such as labourers, daily wagers and blue-collar workers who frequently change their place of dwelling in search of employment or for other reasons, across the country.

Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana

Context: In line with the provisions of National Policy for Farmers (NPF) (2007), the Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Rural Development is implementing a programme exclusively for women farmers namely, Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP).

Funding support to the tune of up to 60% (90% for North Eastern States) for such projects is provided by the Government of India.

About Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana:

It is a sub component of the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM).

It seeks to improve the present status of women in Agriculture, and to enhance the opportunities available to empower her.

MKSP recognizes the identity of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to build the capacity of women in the domain of agro-ecologically sustainable practices.

Objectives and significance:

The focus of MKSP is on capacitating smallholders to adopt sustainable climate resilient agro-ecology and eventually create a pool of skilled community professionals.

Its objective is to strengthen smallholder agriculture through promotion of sustainable agriculture practices such as Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA), Non Pesticide Management (NPM), Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF), Pashu-Sakhi model for doorstep animal care services, Sustainable regeneration and harvesting of Non-Timber Forest Produce.

Need for feminization of agriculture:

Rural women form the most productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations including India.

More than 80% of rural women are engaged in agriculture activities for their livelihoods.

About 20 per cent of farm livelihoods are female headed due to widowhood, desertion, or male emigration.

Agriculture support system in India strengthens the exclusion of women from their entitlements as agriculture workers and cultivators.

Most of the women-headed households are not able to access extension services, farmers support institutions and production assets like seed, water, credit, subsidy etc. As agricultural workers, women are paid lower wage than men.

Centre to provide assistance to intensify use of buckwheat

Union Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar today said that to intensify the use of buckwheat, ICAR-All India Co-ordinated Research Network on potential crops has developed nutritionally rich five varieties.

He said they are promoted by ICAR and respective State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) through front line demonstrations, trainings and kisan melas.

In a written reply in the LokSabha today, the Agriculture Minister said Buckwheat is grown in the Hilly regions of Northern and Northeastern states including in the Nilgiris & Palani Hills, in an estimated area of 25,800 hectares.

Mr. Tomar said, to encourage farmers to grow buckwheat, Government is providing assistance through programmes like Paramparagat KrishiVikasYojana (PKVY) and Mission on Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region.

Rotavirus

Rota-virus-complete-detail

Vice- President has launched the new rotavirus vaccine – ROTAVAC5D.

The vaccine has been designed and developed by Bharat Biotech.

About Rotavirus:

It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family.

Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhoea and death among children less than five years of age.

It is responsible for around 10% of total child mortality every year.

Rotavirus-Signs and Symptoms:

Kids with a rotavirus infection have fever, nausea, and vomiting, often followed by abdominal cramps and frequent, watery diarrhea.

Kids may also have a cough and runny nose.

Sometimes the diarrhea that accompanies a rotavirus infection is so severe that it can quickly lead to dehydration.

As with all viruses, though, some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms, especially in adults.

Transmission:

Rotavirus is transmitted by the faecal-oral route, via contact with contaminated hands, surfaces and objects, and possibly by the respiratory route. Viral diarrhea is highly contagious.

Background:

Out of all the causes of diarrhoea, rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoea in children less than 5 years of age. Rotavirus diarrhoea presents in similar manner like any other diarrhoea but can mainly be prevented through rotavirus vaccination. Other diarrhoea can be prevented through general measures like good hygiene, frequent hand washing, safe water and safe food consumption, exclusive breastfeeding and vitamin A supplementation.

Centre not to stop circulation of high denomination notes

The Government today clarified that it is not contemplating to stop the circulation of two thousand rupee notes.

In a written reply in the RajyaSabha today, Minister of State for Finance, Anurag Thakur said there is no such proposal under consideration. He also said that a declining trend is visible in the seizure of unaccounted cash in the denomination of two thousand rupee notes.

The Minister said in the year 2017-18, around 68 per cent of unaccounted cash was seized in the denomination of two thousand rupees, while in the year 2018-19, it was around 66 percent. In the current financial year, over 43 per cent of unaccounted cash was seized in the denomination of two thousand rupees.

The Minister said as on March this year, over 31 per cent of total notes in circulation are of two thousand rupees.

“Top 100 City Destination” ranking

Released by Euro monitor International, a UK-based global market research company

The Euro monitor report highlights top 100 cities based on 2018 international arrivals. An arrival encompasses all purposes of visit such as business, leisure and visiting friends and relatives.

Key findings:

India has emerged as the strongest emerging destination with seven cities in the top 100 popular cities this year.

Delhi is forecast to be hold the 8th place in 2019.

Despite political unrest and protests in the last few months, Hong Kong remained No.1 destination this year. However, the number of visitors arriving to Hong Kong declined in 2019.

Asia posted fastest growth in the number of international arrivals globally.

Developed infrastructure, government’s focus on tourism and digitization of travel facilities like e-visa are some of the reasons behind Asian countries’ popularity among global tourists.

Prithvi-II missile

  • It is a surface-to-surface tactical missile with a strike range of 350 km.
  • It is developed by DRDO under Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
  • It is capable of carrying 500 to 1,000 kg of warheads, both conventional as well as nuclear.
  • The state-of-the-art missile is powered by liquid propulsion twin engines.
  • It uses an advanced inertial guidance system with maneuvering orbit to hit its target.
  • It was inducted into Armour of the defence forces in 2003.

TRAI implements new mobile number portability rules

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has revamped mobile number portability (MNP) rules, making the entire process faster and simpler. The TRAI has prescribed three working days timeline for port out requests within a service area.

Similarly, timeline of five working days has been prescribed for requests for port out from one circle to another. The new rules will come into effect from December 16.

Validity of the Unique Porting Code (UPC) has also been brought down to four days instead of a fortnight earlier. It will be applicable to all circles except Jammu & Kashmir, Assam and North East, where the validity of the said code remains unchanged to 30 days.

The MNP request under the present rule will be processed till December 9 and the service will not be available between December 10 and December 15 as entities involved in the process will be migrating their systems to implement new rules.

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JAPAN LEAVES INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION

Context

In a landmark policy shift, Japan formally announced that it would withdraw from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and resume commercial whaling in its territorial waters next year for the first time in more than 30 years.

Reasons of withdrawal cited by Japan

  1. With a moratorium in effect for more than 30 years, populations of endangered whale species will have had plenty of time to regenerate.
  2. ‘Fundamental differences’ among members have led the whaling commission to what it calls a dead end.
  3. Pressure from local fishermen to restart commercial whaling.

Background and Implications

  • Japan has been mulling leaving the whaling commission for some time in the past. It kills an estimated 450 whales annually.
  • Japan had proposed lifting a 32-year whaling ban when the IWC met in Brazil for its annual conference in September 2018. The proposal was rejected and criticised by the environmental organizations.
  • The country officially halted commercial whaling in 1988, complying with the Commission’s moratorium.
  • Whaling is deeply ingrained in Japanese culinary culture, dating back as far as the earliest historical era of the Jomon Period (10,000-200 B.C.). Whale meat also served as critical sources of protein in the post-war period as the nation grappled with poverty.
  • Having peaked in 1962 at 230,000 tons, annual consumption of whale meat has since trended steadily downward, with an average of 5,000 to 6,000 tons consumed yearly today, according to fishery ministry of Japan.
  • Japan’s withdrawal will put an end to its IWC-sanctioned whaling activity in the Antarctic Ocean, long conducted under the name of “scientific research,” in a practice widely slammed as commercial whaling in disguise.
  • However, even after its exit from the IWC, Japan will continue to attend its meetings as an observer and work toward rectifying what they called the “dysfunction” of the IWC. Japan’s continued involvement with the commission is apparently aimed at fulfilling a condition set under international law for the management of whales. Under the U.N.-designated Convention on the Law of the Sea, member states are obliged to “work through appropriate international organizations” for whaling.
  • International community urged Japan for the protection needed to safeguard the future of our oceans and these majestic creatures; rather than resuming commercial whaling.

The other two countries that still hunt whales commercially are Norway and Iceland.

International Whaling Commission (IWC)

  • IWC is the global body charged with the conservation of whales and the management of whaling. Currently, it has 89 members. All members are signatories to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling.  This Convention is the legal framework which established the IWC in 1946. 

Uncertainty over whale numbers led to the introduction of a ‘moratorium’ on commercial whaling in 1986.  This remains in place although the Commission continues to set catch limits for aboriginal subsistence whaling.  Today, the Commission also works to understand and address a wide range of non-whaling threats to cetaceans including entanglement, ship strike, marine debris, climate change and other environmental concerns.  

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CITES Conference of Parties (CoP) 2019

About

CITES CoP 2019: Giraffes accorded protection from trade for the first time

The giraffe has been placed in Appendix II of CITES, which places prohibitions on uncontrolled trade in a species. The Conference of Parties (CoP) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species or CITES in Geneva passed a resolution to place the giraffe in Appendix II of CITES.

Giraffes, those tall, stately and graceful animals of Africa’s savannahs, have been accorded protection from unregulated trade as the world finally woke up to their ‘silent extinction’.

  1. The Appendix II listing was proposed by Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya, Mali, Niger and Senegal.
  2. “Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival,”
  3. Giraffes once ranged over much of the semi-arid savannah and savannah woodlands of Africa. But their numbers have plummeted dramatically — by up to 40 per cent over the last 30 years — due to threats including international trade in their parts, as well as habitat loss, civil unrest and illegal hunting.
  4. While giraffes fall prey to poaching for bush meat, bones, skin and tail hair, there is also a significant amount of international trade in their bone carvings and trophies.
  5. There is currently only one recognized species of giraffe, with nine sub-species. They have been listed as ‘vulnerable’ on the International Union for Conservation of Species Red List since 2016, with some sub-species classified as ‘endangered’’ or ‘critically endangered’.
  6. Five of the nine sub-species have only a small wild population, while four have a decreasing population trend. All are affected by trade.
  7. While the Appendix II listing will not stop all trade in giraffe parts, it will ensure this is not contributing to further population declines and provide global scale data that could not otherwise be obtained.

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Introduction/Context

External Affairs Ministry had announced that Prime Minister of India will attend the outreach session of the G7 meet at Biarritz, France, where India is a special invitee.

The G7 is a collective of seven of the world’s most industrialized and developed economies. Their political leaders come together annually to discuss important global economic, political, social and security issues. Together, the G7 countries represent 40% of global GDP and 10% of the world’s population.

Function of G7

1. The G7 was formed initially to discuss economic and political concerns prompted by the 1973 oil crisis – when members of OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Export Countries, increased the price of oil and cut global supplies to countries seen as having backed Israel in the Yom Kippur War.

2. Since then, the group has expanded its brief to cover a large number of international issues, including energy security, trade, climate change, global health issues, gender equality, poverty – and any other topic the country holding the G7 presidency chooses to put on the agenda.

3. Today, the G7 are reckoned as the seven wealthiest and most advanced nations in the world because China, which holds the second largest net worth in the world, nonetheless has a low net worth per individual and an economy that has not yet fully modernized.

Members of G7

The seven members of the group are the following:

1.         France

2.         Italy

3.         Japan

4.         Germany

5.         Canada

6.         United States

7.         United Kingdom

The European Union is also represented at the G7 summit.

Background

• Its first summit was held at Rambouillet, France, in 1975

• This year, the 45th G7 summit will be held on August 24-26, 2019, in Biarritz, France. It will focus on fighting income and gender inequality and protecting biodiversity.

• The 2019 G7 Summit, presided over by France, will focus on fighting inequality.

Following are the five objectives for the 2019 Summit:

1. Fighting inequality of opportunity, promoting in particular gender equality, access to education and high quality health services;

2. Reducing environmental inequality by protecting our planet through climate finance and a fair ecological transition, preserving biodiversity and the oceans;

3. Strengthening the social dimension of globalization through more fair and equitable trade, tax and development policies;

4. Taking action for peace against security threats and terrorism which weaken the foundations of our societies; and

5. Tapping into the opportunities created by digital technology and artificial intelligence (AI).

GIBRALTAR

Gibraltar recently allowed a detained Iranian supertanker Grace 1 to leave the British overseas territory after a last-minute U.S. attempt to seize the vessel.

Gibraltar

  • Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the bottom of Spain on the narrow gap between Europe and Africa.
  • Known as the Gib or the Rock, it is a small 2.5-mile-squared area with a population of just 30,000 – but it has huge strategic importance.
  • This is because from this spot a navy can potentially control shipping in and out of the Mediterranean – much of it coming from Asia having travelled through the Suez Canal.
  • The UK, a key member of NATO, has a naval and military base there for this reason.

History of Gibraltar

  • Spain originally began controlling Gibraltar in 1501.
  • But the Rock then came under British control during the War of Spanish Succession in 1704.
  • Then in 1779 Spain tried but failed to win it back in what was known as the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
  • The rock was declared a colony in 1830.
  • The people of Gibraltar voted in 1967 to be a dependency of the United Kingdom.
  • This effectively guarantees the unique community independence from Spain but allows support from a major Western country.
  • In June last year, 99 per cent voted to remain in the UK.

UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC)

On a request from China, consultations on Kashmir were scheduled by United Nations Security Council (UNSC) recently to discuss Kashmir (India’s abrogation of Article 370).

Abrogation of Article 370

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

  • It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN).
  • Like the UN as a whole, it was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace.
  • The council held its first session in 1946.
  • It is the only body of the UN with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
  • The Security Council consists of fifteen members:
    • The great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union (now represented by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, Republic of China (now represented by the People’s Republic of China), and the United States – serve as the body’s five permanent members.
    • These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General.
    • In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years.
    • The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.
  • Resolutions of the Security Council are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget.
  • Unlike the General Assembly, the Security Council meets year-round. Each Security Council member must have a representative available at UN Headquarters at all times in case an emergency meeting becomes necessary.
  • Due to the public scrutiny of the Security Council Chamber, all of the real work of the Security Council is conducted behind closed doors in “informal consultations”.

Functions and Powers of UNSC

  • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
  • to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;
  • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
  • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
  • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
  • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
  • to take military action against an aggressor;
  • to recommend the admission of new Members;
  • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”;
  • to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and,
  • to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

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