UPSC and State Public Services Commission Prelims and Mains Exam 2019-20
General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One
UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020
UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019
RPSC RAS Prelims Exam
RPSC RAS Mains Exam
- Western Disturbance is an extra tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent.
- It is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the westerlies.
- Extra-tropical storms are a global phenomenon with moisture usually carried in the upper atmosphere, unlike their tropical counterparts where the moisture is carried in the lower atmosphere.
- Western disturbances bring moderate to heavy rain in low-lying areas and heavy snow to mountainous areas of the Indian Subcontinent.
- Precipitation has great importance in agriculture, particularly for the Rabi crops. Wheat among them is one of the most important crops, which helps to meet India’s food security.
Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and
landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic
concept of protection, education and sustainable development.
present, there are 147 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 41 countries
Global Geoparks is given this designation for a period of four years after
which the functioning and quality of each UNESCO Global Geoparks are thoroughly
re-examined during a revalidation process.
In 2018 Lonar Lake in Maharashtra and St. Mary’s Island and Malpe beach in coastal Karnataka are listed for UNESCO Global Geopark Network status.
have detected that Helium hydride ion (HeH+) was the first molecule to be
formed in the universe.
bang, ionized hydrogen and neutral helium atoms reacted to form HeH+.
molecule will emit its strongest spectral line at a characteristic wavelength
of 0.149 mm.
NASA’s high-flying observatory SOFIA detected this molecule towards a planetary nebula.
Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an aircraft with reflecting
telescope, flying into the stratosphere at 38,000-45,000 feet.
put above Earth’s infrared-blocking atmosphere, allowing astronomers to study
the solar system and beyond in ways that are not possible with ground-based
observatory’s mobility allows researchers to observe from almost anywhere in
the world and enables studies of transient events that often take place over
oceans where there are no telescopes.
Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with co-operation of Centre for
Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) has initiated a genome sequencing project
for educating a generation of students on the “usefulness” of genomics.
many countries have undertaken genome sequencing of a sample of their citizens
to determine unique genetic traits, susceptibility (and resilience) to disease.
the first time that such a large sample of Indians will be recruited for a
The project aims to sequence at least 10,000 Indian genomes, where Genomes will be sequenced based on a blood sample.
Fleet Review (IFR) is a parade of naval ships, aircraft and submarines, and is
organized by nations to promote goodwill, strengthen cooperation and showcase
their organizational capabilities.
serves as an ideal platform for the world’s navies to showcase their prowess
and indigenous ship designing and shipbuilding capabilities in a global/
Indian Navy warships INS Kolkata and INS Shakti will be participating in IFR 2109, China.
of External Affairs has setup Indo-Pacific division to integrate the Indian
Ocean Rim Association (IORA), ASEAN region and the Quad to the Indo-Pacific
falling in the direct hinterland of the vast Indian and Pacific oceanic expanse
are termed ‘Indo-Pacific countries’.
It is a
multipolar region, contributing more than half of the world’s GDP and
several important regional trading blocs, many of which have implemented free
trade agreements (FTAs) in goods and services and some of which have even been
elevated to the Customs Union.
will give a coherent architecture to the policy articulated at the Shangri-La
Dialogue in 2018.
Shangri-La Dialogue is an annual security dialogue that brings together defence ministers and military chiefs from 28 Asia-Pacific countries to talk about security in the region.
census in India is conducted every four years by the National Tiger
Conservation Authorities (NTCA).
all India tiger census was conducted in 2006.
Institute of India (WII), a Union Environment Ministry funded body, is
coordinating agency for the tiger estimation exercise.
an android app named MSTrIPES (Monitoring system for Tigers – Intensive
Protection and Ecological Status), for the proper location data feeding and
filling the record more accurately.
will capture the forest team’s route throughout the forest and assist them in
uploading geo-tagged images into the database
According to the last survey conducted in 2014, the tiger count was 2,226.
are a type of plastic fragment that is less than five millimetres in length,
which are atmospheric pollutants.
include fragments, fibres and sheet-like pieces of film.
According to recent reports, microplastics are carried away by winds and being deposited in a remote, high-altitude mountain location far from any major city causing microplastic-pollution.
to recent research, it is found that inadequate zinc intake has been rising in
India for decades, causing tens of millions of people to become newly deficient
carbon dioxide levels can accelerate zinc deficiency in crops and thus in human
The highest rate of inadequate zinc intake was concentrated mainly in the southern and northeastern States with rice-dominated diets: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur and Meghalaya.
have developed a new salt-tolerant transgenic rice plant by over-expressing a
gene from wild rice called Porteresia coarctata into the commonly used IR 64
indicia rice variety.
coarctata is a native of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar and is grown
mainly in saline estuaries.
The new crop can withstand salt concentration of up to 200 micromoles per litre or about half as saline as seawater without affecting normal growth and grain yield under greenhouse conditions.
of life from Ponds
to a recent study, primitive ponds may have provided a suitable environment for
creating the earth’s first life forms, more so than oceans.
water bodies could have held high concentrations of nitrogen, a key ingredient
for jump-starting life on the earth.
oxides were likely deposited in water bodies, including oceans and ponds, as
remnants of the breakdown of nitrogen in earth’s atmosphere.
nitrogen comprises two nitrogen molecules, linked via a strong triple bond that
can only be broken by an extremely energetic event namely, lightning.
ocean, UV light and dissolved iron would have made nitrogenous oxides far less
available for synthesizing living organisms.
ponds, however, life would have had a better chance to grow, mainly because
ponds have much less volume over which compounds can be diluted.
As a result, nitrogenous oxides would have built up to much higher concentrations in Ponds.
- The Mariana Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean and has the deepest natural trench in the world.
- It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth’s crust averaging about 2,550 km long and 69 km wide.
- The maximum known depth is 10,994 meters (36,070 ft) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep.
- For comparison: if Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres (1.2 mi) under water.
- The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the centre of the Earth since the Earth is not a perfect sphere.
- Recently scientists have discovered unique oil-eating bacteria in the Mariana Trench.
- The found microorganisms eat compounds similar to those in oil and then use it for fuel.
Scientists have unveiled a 3D print of a heart with human tissue and vessels.
This invention is a major medical breakthrough that advances possibilities for transplants in near future.
doctors in Greece and Spain have produced a baby from three people in order to
overcome a woman’s infertility; the team used a technique called maternal
spindle transfer (MST).
developed to help families affected by deadly mitochondrial diseases which are
passed down from mother to baby.
experimental form of MST uses an egg from the mother, sperm from the father,
and another egg from a donor woman.
have mitochondria, which are like power packs for the cells and create the
energy that keeps cells alive.
child’s DNA is a mixture from both the mother and father, mitochondria are
separate “packages of genetics” that come solely from the mother.
people have a mitochondrial disease a problem with the genetics in their
mitochondria which can lead to severe, life-threatening conditions, although
this is rare.
treatment for a woman who might have one of these diseases is to replace the
mitochondria in her eggs via IVF.
Monitoring Committee on Pollution
- National Green Tribunal (NGT) has
formed a Central Monitoring Committee to prepare and enforce a national plan to
make over 350 river stretches across the country pollution free.
- The Chairman of the Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will be the nodal authority for coordination.
- The Chief Secretaries of the states
will act as the nodal agency at the state level.
- The committee has been composed to
monitor pollution of rivers, as it has caused a serious threat to the safety of
water and environment.
Besides checking river pollution, the central monitoring committee will coordinate with the River Rejuvenation Committees of the states and oversee the execution of the action plans.
wholesale price index (WPI) is an index that measures and tracks the changes in
the price of goods in the stages before the retail level – that is, goods that
are sold in bulk and traded between entities or businesses instead of
expressed as a ratio or percentage, the WPI shows the included goods average
price change and is often seen as one indicator of a country’s level of
countries use WPI changes as a central measure of inflation, but India has
adopted new CPI to measure inflation.
published by the Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
where CPI is released by CSO.
The Wholesale Price Index focuses on the price of goods traded between corporations, rather than goods bought by consumers, which is measured by the Consumer Price Index.
- Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is NASA’s first mission to demonstrate kinetic impact or technique which will strike the asteroid to shift its orbit to defend against a potential future asteroid impact.
- The target for DART is an asteroid that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022 and then again in 2024.
- The asteroid is called Didymos, an asteroid binary system that consists of two bodies: Didymos A, and Didymos B.
- The kinetic impact technique works by changing the speed of a threatening asteroid by a small fraction of its total velocity, which would shift the asteroid’s path away from Earth.
a Long Range Sub-Sonic Cruise Missile designed and developed by DRDO.
missile has been recently test fired from the Integrated Test Range (ITR),
located in Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha.
The missile has way point navigation and sea-skimming capability to cruise at very low altitudes.
first time, Leucistic five-striped palm squirrel has been reported from north
pennanti is more frequently found in the northern part of India including
Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar.
abnormalities are very rare in wild mammals; these abnormalities may be
governed by several factors like environmental pollution, congenital infection,
low nutrition food and genetic causes.
a condition where there is partial loss of pigmentation in animals on the skin;
however, the loss of colour does not extend to the eye.
On the other
hand, in albinism, the affected individual is totally white, with red eyes.
survival rate of Leucistic animals is comparatively lesser than non-Leucistic
ones because of their distinctive features which easily gets noticed by
Yangtze giant soft-shell turtles
- The only known female member of Yangtze giant soft-shell turtle has died recently in China.
- The animal was one of four known to be remaining in the world, rest three turtles are male.
- It is also known as the Red River giant soft-shell turtle.
- It is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List.
Chief Minister announced a new programme “PEETHA” for transparency and
awareness on various government schemes.
The programme, the Peoples Empowerment Enabling Transparency and Accountability or PEETHA aims to improve transparency in the distribution of individual and social benefits.
Navy will conduct its flagship large-scale coastal defence exercise “Theatre
Level Operational Readiness Exercise” (TROPEX) from next year to test the
robustness of entire coastal security apparatus.
It is an
annual exercise that takes place on Western Seaboard.
It is a
tri-service exercise in which troops from the Indian Army and fighter aircraft
from Indian Air will also participate.
It is conducted to test various aspects of not only joint combat capabilities but also to test the war capabilities of three services in a war-like situation.
Darshan scheme is one among the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Tourism for
development of thematic circuits in the country in a planned and prioritized
was launched in 2014 -15.
Under this scheme, the Government is focussing on the development of quality infrastructure in the country with the objective of providing better experience and facilities to the visitors on one hand and on other hand fostering the economic growth.
One Sun One Grid
- 24thmeeting of Conference of Parties (COP-24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held at Katowice, Poland.
- This year the theme of the Indian Pavillion was “One World One Sun One Grid”.
- India will try for achieving 175 GW target for installed Renewable Energy capacity by 2022.
- India stands 4th in wind power 5th in renewable power and 5th in solar power.
- Under Ujjwala scheme, 58 million households are already covered under and it will not only contribute to improved health of women and children but also help on reducing deforestation.
- India also pledged to get rid of single-use plastic by 2022 across the country.
- India’s leadership in global climate action has been recognized and PM Narendra Modi has been awarded the “champions of Earth Award” this year by the United Nations in promoting International Solar Alliance and resolve to make India plastic free by 2022.
Dam, also known as Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar, is the country’s largest
reservoir by volume and largest artificial lake, located on the Rihand River.
catchment area spread over Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
largest floating solar plant to date is a 2MW one in Vishakhapatnam.
a 500-kWh plant built by the Kerala State Electricity Board at the Banasura
Recently a 50 Mega Watt floating solar plant will be set up in the country’s largest reservoir Rihand dam in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh.
(Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive) Scheme
scheme was launched by Ministry of Tourism in 2014-15.
scheme aimed at infrastructure development such as entry points (road, rail,
and water transport), last mile connectivity and basic tourism facilities.
the scheme ‘Prasad’, the Ministry of Tourism provides Central Financial
Assistance (CFA) to State Governments/Union Territory Administrations for
development and beautification of the identified pilgrimage destinations.
is a 100% Central Government funded scheme.
Twelve cities were identified, namely Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh), Gaya(Bihar),
Dwaraka(Gujarat), Amritsar(Punjab), Ajmer(Rajasthan), Kanchipuram(Tamil Nadu), Velankanni
(Tamil Nadu), Puri(Odisha), Varanasi(Uttar Pradesh), Mathura(Uttar Pradesh),
Kedarnath (Uttarakhand) and Kamakhya (Assam) for development under PRASAD by
the Ministry of Tourism.
implement the PRASAD scheme a Mission Directorate has been set up in the
Ministry of Tourism.
Centre has included Gangotri and Yamunotri in Uttarakhand, Amarkantak in Madhya
Pradesh and Parasnath in Jharkhand under this central scheme to develop
pilgrimage and heritage destinations in the country.
With the new additions, the number of sites under the Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive (PRASAD) scheme has now become 41 in 25 states.
Science and Environment (CSE) said that a ban on the use of the antibiotic
colistin would be a step in the right direction.
highest drug advisory body, the Drug Technical Advisory Board had recommended a
stoppage on the use of colistin by poultry farmers.
is a last resort antibiotic which is administered to human beings when most
other antibiotics fail to function.
it is indiscriminately used by the poultry industry to promote growth and
prevent the occurrence of infections in chicken.
Increasing evidence has linked this to the development of resistance against colistin in humans.
Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer
(OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft completed its journey to arrive at the asteroid Bennu
on 3 December 2018.
primary goals of this survey are to refine estimates of Bennu’s mass and spin
rate and to generate a more precise model of its shape.
The mission will help scientists investigate how planets formed and how life began, as well as improve our understanding of asteroids that could impact Earth.
satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the
same as the Earth’s rotation period.
satellite in such an orbit is at an altitude of approximately 36000 km above
mean sea level.
case of the geosynchronous satellite is the geostationary satellite, which has
a geostationary orbit– a circular geosynchronous orbit directly above the
satellites have the special property of remaining permanently fixed in exactly
the same position in the sky, as viewed from any location on Earth, meaning
that ground-based antennas do not need to track them but can remain fixed in
Such satellites are often used for communication purposes.
heaviest and most-advanced high throughput communication satellite GSAT-11 was
successfully launched from the Spaceport in French Guiana on December 5, 2018.
vehicle Ariane 5 VA-246 lifted off from Kourou Launch Base, French Guiana
carrying India’s GSAT-11 and South Korea’s GEO-KOMPSAT-2A satellites, as
is one of three launch vehicles operated by Arianespace along with Soyuz and
5,854-kg GSAT-11 will provide high data rate connectivity to users of Indian
mainland and islands through 32 user beams in Ku-band and 8 hub beams in
will boost the broadband connectivity to rural and inaccessible Gram Panchayats
in the country coming under the Bharat Net Project, which is part of Digital
will be positioned at 74-degree east longitude in the geostationary orbit.
Subsequently, the two solar arrays and four antenna reflectors of GSAT-11 will be deployed in orbit.
Tirth Yatra Yojana
scheme, any resident of Delhi above 60 years of age will be eligible for the
scheme and those above 70 years can have one attendant.
does not have any income criterion, but preference will be given to those who
are from the economically weaker section.
applicant should not be an employee of the central, state, local government or
journey will be performed through Indian Railways.
A total of
77,000 pilgrims will be able to avail this facility every year.
pilgrimage duration will be of three days and two nights and will be for any of
the following routes:
Delhi-Amritsar-Wagah border-Anandpur Sahib-Delhi;
will help and promoting communal harmony and brotherhood in society.
Cabinet has approved implementation of Shahpurkandi Dam Project, Punjab on
of Rs. 485.38 cr (for irrigation component) would be provided over five years
from 2018-19 to 2022-23.
of this project would help to minimize some of the water of the River Ravi
which at present is going waste through the Madhopur Headworks downstream to
Pakistan whereas there is a requirement for the same for use in Punjab and
for Central Assistance to Shahpurkandi Dam project shall be made through NABARD
under the existing system for funding of 99 PMKSY-AIBP projects under LTIF.
project would be implemented by Govt. of Punjab with Central Assistance of Rs.
485.38 crore the project would be completed by June 2022.
announced the Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR) to enable safe flying of Remotely
Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS) popularly referred to as drones in India.
specified the obligations of operators, remote pilots/ users and manufacturers/
OEM for safe operations of RPAS and co-operative use of airspace.
announced Digital Sky Platform, a first of its kind that implements ‘no
permission, no take-off’ (NPNT) – a novel system of software based
self-enforcement to minimize deviations from the CAR.
Digital Sky Platform will register and monitor the drones, pilots, and operators
for online permission before the take-off.
platform is built to evolve with the needs of the rapidly changing industry
with Digital Sky Service Providers (DSPs) by extending the functionality of the
platform through Application Program Interfaces (APIs).
Response Support System (ERSS)
Home Minister launched Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) for the State
of Nagaland at Kohima.
is the first amongst the North-Eastern States and the second State in India to
launch Pan-India single emergency number ‘112’ under ERSS.
project, one Emergency Response Centre (ERC) has been established in Kohima
along with 3 District Command Centers (DCCs), namely Kohima, Dimapur and
Emergency Response Centre is capable of receiving emergency calls through voice
call to 112 emails; panic buttons activated calls and 112 India mobile App.
Nagaland has integrated ERSS with Tourist Police and Highway patrol and will
expand to interior districts subsequently.
special feature, to ensure safety of women, a unique ‘SHOUT’ feature
exclusively for women has been introduced in 112 India mobile App.
feature allows victims to seek immediate assistance from registered volunteers
in the vicinity apart from contacting Emergency Response Centre.
Cover & Forest Cover
defines ‘forest cover’ in India as all lands, more than one hectare in area
with a tree canopy density of more than 10%.
cover’ is defined as tree patches outside recorded forest areas exclusive of
forest cover and less than the minimum mappable area of one hectare.
scheme for the purpose of Forest Cover assessment is described as follows:
Forest All lands with tree canopy density
of 70% and above.
Dense Forest All lands with tree canopy
density of 40% and more but less than 70%.
Forest all lands with tree canopy density
of 10% and more but less than 40%.
- Scrub Degraded forest lands with canopy density less
- Non-forest Lands not included in any of the above classes.
for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS)
Ministry of Human Resources Development has launched the Scheme for Higher
Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS) for providing industry
apprenticeship opportunities to the general graduates exiting in April 2019
through the National Apprenticeship Promotional Scheme (NAPS).
a programme basket comprising the initiatives of three Central Ministries,
namely the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Skill
Development & Entrepreneurship and the Ministry of Labour& Employment
viz the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS), the National Career
Service (NCS)and introduction of BA/BSc/BCom (Professional) courses in the
higher educational institutions.
is a programme conceived for students in degree courses, primarily
non-technical, with a view to introduce employable skills into their learning,
promote apprenticeship as integral to education and also amalgamate employment
facilitating efforts of the Government into the education system so that clear
pathways towards employment opportunities are available to students during and
after their graduation.
enhance the employability of Indian youth by providing ‘on the job work
exposure’ and earning of stipend.
all the tracks together, it is proposed to cover 50 lakh students by 2022.
Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme
to the needs and aspirations of the youth, the National Cooperative Development
Corporation (NCDC) has come up with a youth-friendly this scheme for attracting
them to cooperative business ventures.
launched scheme would encourage cooperatives to venture into new and innovative
will be linked to Rs 1000 crore ‘Cooperative Start-up and Innovation Fund
(CSIF)’ created by the NCDC.
funding for the project will be up to 80% of the project cost for these special
categories as against 70% for others.
envisages 2% less than the applicable rate of interest on term loan for the
project cost up to Rs 3 crore including 2 years moratorium on payment of
have more incentives for cooperatives of North Eastern region, Aspirational
Districts and cooperatives with women or SC or ST or PwD members.
of cooperatives in operation for at least one year are eligible.
is popular local traditional brew (liquor) distilled from the cashew fruit.
feni was given the Geographical Indication tag as manufactured goods.
name feni is derived from Sanskrit word ‘phena’ meaning froth or foam.
is also distilled from fermented toddy from coconut palm.
is prepared in a typical Portuguese way that does not entail the use of
electricity in the process.
Internet Index 2019
Inclusive Internet Index, commissioned by Facebook and conducted by The
Economist Intelligence Unit, seeks to measure the extent to which the Internet
is not only accessible and affordable, but also relevant to all, allowing usage
that enables positive social and economic outcomes at individual and group
The aim of
the Inclusive Internet Index is to provide researchers and policymakers with
the information they need to enable the beneficial use of the Internet,
irrespective of age, gender, location or background.
assesses the performance of 100 countries in four categories of inclusion:
Accessibility, Affordability, Relevance and Readiness. Each category
incorporates key indicators of internet inclusion, including quantitative
measures such as network coverage and pricing, and qualitative measures such as
the presence of e-inclusion policies and the availability of local-language
topped the rankings followed by Singapore and the US.
been ranked 47th.
launched the PRANAM Commission, a panel set up to look after the issues
concerning a Bill brought in for protection of parents of state government
Parents Responsibility and Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM)
Bill, stated to be the first-of its-kind Bill in the country, is an effort to
protect elderly parents of government employees in their times of need.
that no state government employee ignores their elderly parents and unmarried
Bill makes it mandatory for the state government employees to look after their
parents and unmarried differently-abled siblings who do not have their own
sources of income.
bill’s provisions, if the PRANAM Commission gets a complaint that parents of a
state government employee are being ignored, then 10 or 15 per cent of the
employee’s salary will be deducted by the government and paid to the parents or
employees of private companies and the central government working in the state
would also be covered by the bill at a later stage.
2000 Fighter Jet
Air Force Mirage 2000 fighters were used to destroy the Jaish-e-Mohammad camps
at Balakot along the Line of Control.
is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation fighter jet.
is manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
gained prominence after their remarkable success rate in the 1999 Kargil war.
has a maximum climbing speed of 60,000 feet per minute and is designed for all
weather penetration at low altitude.
of Repo Rate
make the system more transparent since every borrower will know the fixed
interest rate and the spread value decided by the bank.
help borrowers compare loans in a better way from different banks.
new system, a bank is required to adopt a uniform external benchmark within a
loan category so that there is transparency, standardisation and ease of
understanding for the borrowers.
mean that same bank cannot adopt multiple benchmarks within a loan category.
Repo stands for ‘Repurchasing Option’.
to the rate at which commercial banks borrow money from the RBI in case of
shortage of funds. It is one of the main tools of RBI to keep inflation under
borrow money from the bank, they charge an interest on the principal.
Basically, it is cost of credit.
banks too can borrow money from RBI during cash crunch on which they must pay
interest to the Central Bank. This interest rate is repo rate.
Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)
Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) is the minimum interest rate, below
which a bank is not permitted to lend. RBI can give authorization for the same
in exceptional cases.
replaced the earlier base rate system to determine the lending rates for
implemented it on 1 April 2016 to determine rates of interests for loans.
It is an
internal reference rate for banks to decide what interest they can levy on
they take into account the additional or incremental cost of arranging
additional rupee for a prospective buyer.
Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM)
successfully test-fired two indigenously developed Quick Reaction
Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM) from a test range off the Odisha coast.
- The trials were conducted by the
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from Launch Complex 3 of
the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur.
- This missile has been developed to
replace the ‘Akash’ missile defence system, and has 360-degree coverage, light
weight, high mobility and shorter second reaction time as compared to ‘Akash’.
- It also uses solid fuel propellant
and has a stated range of strike range of 25-30 km with capability of hitting
capable of hitting the low flying objects.
successfully demonstrated the robust Control, Aerodynamics, Propulsion,
Structural performance and high maneuvering capabilities thus proving the
Electro Optical Systems, Telemetry and other stations have tracked the Missiles
and monitored through the entire flights.
It is an
important bilateral defence cooperation endeavour between India and Bangladesh
and this will be the eighth edition of the exercise which is hosted alternately
by both countries.
As part of
the ongoing India Bangladesh defence cooperation, the joint military exercise
will be conducted at Tangail, Bangladesh.
exercise is aimed to strengthen and broaden the aspects of interoperability and
cooperation between the Indian and Bangladesh Armies.
exercise will involve tactical level operations in a counter insurgency and
counter terrorism environment under the UN mandate.
addition to understanding each other in tactical level operations, emphasis
will also be laid for greater cultural understanding to strengthen military
trust and cooperation between the two nations.
It is a
popular buffer zone of Kanha national park, Madhya Pradesh.
It lies in
Southern region of Kanha tiger reserve, close to Madhya Pradesh and
Chhattisgarh state borders.
declared as a wildlife sanctuary in year 1983 by Government of Madhya Pradesh.
at this sanctuary mainly consists of the Tiger, Leopard, Wild boar, Cheetal,
clouds could break up and vanish if CO2 in the atmosphere triples.
protects us from hothouse Earth conditions by reflecting sunlight back into
It is the
stratocumulus clouds that cover about 20 % of subtropical oceans, mostly near
western seaboards such as the coasts of California, Mexico and Peru.
clouds cool and shade the earth as they reflect the sunlight that reflects them
back into space.
Due to the
rise in Carbon Dioxide it may become unstable and disappear.
consequence will trigger a spike in global warming.
Digital Health Partnership (GDHP)
Digital Health Partnership (GDHP) is an international collaboration of
governments, government agencies and multinational organisations.
dedicated to improving the health and well-being of their citizens through the
best use of evidence-based digital technologies.
are making significant investments to harness the power of technology and
foster innovation and public-private partnerships that support high quality,
sustainable health and care for all.
facilitates global collaboration and co-operation in the implementation of
digital health services.
2 and Ryugu asteroid
- Hayabusa 2 is a Japanese probe sent
to collect samples from an asteroid for clues about the origin of life and the
- It fired a bullet into the surface
of the Ryugu asteroid.
- The Ryugu asteroid is thought to
contain relatively large amounts of organic matter and water from some 4.6
billion years ago when the solar system was born.
- It was launched in December 2014
and is scheduled to return to the Earth with its samples in 2020.
- The probe will observe the surface
of the asteroid with its camera and sensing equipment.
Information Commission (CIC)
Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act
is the authorized quasi judicial body, established in 2005.
upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit
information requests due to either the officer not having been appointed, or
because the respective Officer refused to receive the application for
information under the RTI Act.
Commission includes 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10
Information Commissioners (IC) who are appointed by the President of India.
members are appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a
committee consisting of—Prime Minister as Chairperson, the Leader of Opposition
in the Lok Sabha; a Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime
Succession Act, 1956
Hindu Succession Act, 1956, only sons had a direct right to ancestral property,
excluding daughters from inheritance claims where the father did not leave a
1970s onwards, changes in inheritance legislation sought to empower women by
strengthening their financial and social position and reducing dependence on
traditional preference for sons was also supposed to lessen, because daughters,
backed by possession of the family home, would be able to offer parents
security in old age.
this was expected to eradicate the dowry system, a key contributing factor to
the perception of a daughter as a financial burden.
Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana was introduced in April 2015 as an effort to extend
affordable credit to micro and small enterprises.
to Rs. 10 lakh are extended to these non-corporate, non-farm enterprises by the
Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) through last-mile
15.56 crore loans worth a total of Rs. 7.23 lakh crore have been disbursed.
December 2017, faced with mounting criticism on the failure to create job
opportunities, the Labour Ministry had asked the Labour Bureau to initiate the
survey on jobs created through the MUDRA scheme.
It is the
world’s largest bee that was recently rediscovered in a remote part of
giant bee was discovered in the 19th century by British naturalist Alfred
Red List of Threatened Species lists the bee as “vulnerable”.
nicknamed the “flying bulldog as it is nearly four times bigger than the
in the Indonesian island region of North Moluccas and makes its nest in termite
prepared the ‘invisible ink’ as part of a pilot project mooted by the Mysore
Paints and Varnish Ltd. (MVPL)
It is a
transparent liquid as an organic-inorganic mixture that was biodegradable and
could be washed off in 48 hours.
on the well-known principle of fluorescence — certain materials emit a
characteristic glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.
ink, however, glows only when exposed to a narrow band of frequencies of
ultraviolet (UV) light.
invisible ink experiment is linked to a larger project of creating security
inks that could be used to make bank notes and documents, such as passports,
Ink in India
was first used during India’s third General Elections in 1962. Indelible ink
has been used in every General Election since
time, the country’s election commission was having a tough time dealing with
identity theft, as they soon discovered that there were duplicate or fake
ink is made of a chemical compound called silver nitrate.
applied to the skin and exposed to ultraviolet light, it leaves a mark that is
almost impossible to wash off.
is so strong; in fact, it is only removed when the external skin cells are
on the skin, silver nitrate reacts with the salt present on it to form silver
chloride is not soluble in water, and clings to the skin. It cannot be washed
off with soap and water.
is a rare Giant Tortoise (Chelonoidis phantasticus).
was feared to be extinct but has been found in a remote part of the Galapagos
island of Fernandina recently.
IUCN listed it as critically endangered & possibly extinct.
habitat is largely dry brush land at lower elevations, but much of that habitat
has been destroyed by extensive lava flows.
is the third largest Galapagos Island and features the La-Cumber volcano, one
of the most active in the world.
It is a
ritual art and folk dance form performed at Bhadrakali temples in the state of
‘Padai-ani’ means line-up or formation of the soldiers.
behind Padayani is the re-enactment of the killing of Demon Darika and calming
the Goddess Kali after it.
is to appease the Goddess so that there is eradication of social evils and
there is rain, good crop and prosperity.
resident certificate is a legal document issued to Indian citizens that serves
as evidence of residence and is required to be submitted as residential proof
for official purpose.
is a domicile certificate otherwise called as Permanent Residence Certificate
(PRC) to the residents of the state who stayed therein over a period.
citizens who are not currently residing in the state but are sure of
permanently staying therein can also apply for it.
the permanent residence certificate, the State also offers Temporary Residence
Certificate (TRC) for those who reside in the State on a temporary basis.
enables the citizens to avail various policies and claims made in their