Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook 2020: Latest Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

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Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Manipur (Static GK)

2. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

3. Latest Govt. Schemes

Manipur Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Manipur based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Manipur State. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Manipur General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

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Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Manipur

Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Myanmar lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres and has a population of almost 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state, the Pangals or the Pangans (Manipuri Muslims), Naga tribes, Kuki/Zo tribes and other communities, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It has long connected the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia to Southeast Asia, China (or East Asia), Siberia (Russia), Micronesia and Polynesia, enabling migration of people, cultures, and religions. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

The history of Manipur Meities is chronicled in Puyas or Puwaris, namely, the Ninghthou Kangbalon, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Ningthourol Lambuba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, Panthoibi Khongkul, etc. in the archaic Meitei script, which is comparable to the Thai script. The historical accounts presented here were recordings from the eyes and the judgment of the Meitei Kings and Maichous.  Hill tribes have their own folk tales, myths, and legends.  Manipur was known by different names at various periods in its history, such as, Tilli-Koktong, Poirei-Lam, Sanna-Leipak, Mitei-Leipak, Meitrabak or Manipur (present day). Its capital was Kangla, Yumphal or Imphal (present day).  Its people were known by various names, such as Mi-tei, Poirei-Mitei, Meetei, Maitei or Meitei.  The Puwaris, Ninghthou Kangbalon, Ningthourol Lambuba, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, recorded the events  of each King who ruled Manipur in a span of more than 3500 years until 1955 AD (a total of more than 108 kings). Ningthou Kangba (15th century BC) is regarded as the first and foremost king of Manipur.  There were times when the country was in turmoil without rulers and long historical gaps in between 1129 BC – 44 BC. In 1891 AD, after the defeat of the Meitei’s by the British in the Anglo-Manipuri war of Khongjom, the sovereignty of Manipur which it had maintained for more than three millenniums was lost. In 1926, it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 4 January 1947. It regained its freedom on 14 August 1947 AD. On 15 October 1949, Manipur was unified with India.

During the days of the British Indian Empire, the Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states. Between 1917 and 1939, some people of Manipur pressed the princely rulers for democracy. By the late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to continue to be part of the Indian Empire, rather than part of Burma, which was being separated from India. These negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II in 1939. On 11 August 1947, Maharaja Budha Chandra signed an Instrument of Accession, joining India. Later, on 21 September 1949, he signed a Merger Agreement, merging the kingdom into India, which led to its becoming a Part C State. This merger was later disputed by groups in Manipur, as having been completed without consensus and under duress. The dispute and differing visions for the future has resulted in a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as in repeated episodes of violence among ethnic groups in the state. From 2009 through 2018, the conflict was responsible for the violent deaths of over 1000 people.

The Meitei ethnic group represents around 53% of the population of Manipur state, followed by various Naga tribes at 24% and various Kuki-Zo tribes at 16%. The main language of the state is Meitei on (also known as Manipuri). Tribals constitute about 41% of the state population (according to 2011 census) and are distinguished by dialects and cultures that are often village-based. Manipur’s ethnic groups practice a variety of religions. According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the major religion in the state, closely followed by Christianity. Other religions include Islam, Sanamahism, Buddhism, Judaism etc.

Manipur has primarily an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential. It is connected to other areas by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest in northeastern India. Manipur is home to many sports and the origin of Manipuri dance, and is credited with introducing polo to Europeans. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

By the medieval period, marriage alliances between royal families of the Manipur kingdom, Ahom (Assam) and Burma had become common. Medieval era Manipur manuscripts discovered in the 20th century, particularly the Puya, provide evidence that Hindus from the Indian subcontinent were married to Manipur royalty at least by the 14th century. In centuries thereafter, royal spouses came also from what is now modern Assam, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh along with ancient Dravidian kingdoms, and other regions. Another manuscript suggests that Muslims arrived in Manipur in the 17th century, from what is now Bangladesh, during the reign of Meidingu Khagemba. The socio-political turmoil and wars, particularly the persistent and devastating Manipur-Burma wars, affected the cultural and religious demography of Manipur.

After the war, British India moved towards independence, and the princely states which had existed alongside it became responsible for their own external affairs and defence, unless they joined the new India or the new Pakistan. The Manipur State Constitution Act of 1947 established a democratic form of government, with the Maharaja continuing as the head of state. Faced with Burma’s ambitions to take over the state, in 1949, Maharaja Bodhchandra went to Shillong, where he signed an instrument of accession to merge the kingdom into the Union of India instead. Thereafter, the legislative assembly was dissolved, and in October 1949 Manipur became part of India. It was made a Union Territory in 1956 and a fully-fledged State in 1972.

Manipur has had a long record of insurgency and inter-ethnic violence. The first armed opposition group in Manipur, the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), was founded in 1964, which declared that it wanted to gain independence from India and from Manipur as a new country. Over time, many more groups formed in Manipur, each with different goals, and deriving support from diverse ethnic groups in Manipur. For example, in 1977 the People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was formed, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was formed in 1978 which Human Rights Watch states as having received arms and training from China. In 1980, the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) was formed. These groups began a spree of bank robberies and attacks on police officers and government buildings. The state government appealed to the central government in New Delhi for support in combating this violence.

From 1980–2004, the Indian government referred to Manipur as a disturbed area. This term (designated by the Ministry of Home Affairs or a state governor) refers to a territory where extraordinary laws under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act can be used. The laws allow the military to treat private and public spaces, in the same manner, detain individuals up to 24 hours with unlimited renewals, to perform warrantless searches, and to shoot and kill individuals that break laws, carry weapons, or gather in groups larger than four as well as giving legal immunity to the military. Since 1980, the application of AFSPA has been at the heart of concerns about human rights violations in the region, such as arbitrary killings, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and forced disappearances. Its continued application has led to numerous protests, notably the longstanding hunger strike by Irom Sharmila Chanu.

In 2004, the government lifted the disturbed status after a violent attack on a local woman. The rape of a Manipuri woman, Thangjam Manorama Devi, by members of the Assam Rifles paramilitary had led to wide protests including a nude protest by the Meira Paibis women association.

The state lies at a latitude of 23°83’N – 25°68’N and a longitude of 93°03’E – 94°78’E. The total area covered by the state is 22,327 square kilometres. The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 700 square miles surrounded by Blue Mountains and is at an elevation of 790 metres above sea level. The slope of the valley is from north to south. The mountain ranges create a moderated climate, preventing the cold winds from the north from reaching the valley and barring cyclonic storms. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

The state is bordered by the Indian states of Nagaland to its north, Mizoram to its south, Assam to its west, and shares an international border with Myanmar to its east. The state has four major river basins: the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north. The water resources of Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 Mham. The overall water balance of the state amounts to 0.7236 Mham in the annual water budget.

The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by tributaries, such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north, forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills.

Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and therefore deposit their sediment load in the Loktak Lake. The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang, and Leima tak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams.

Manipur may be characterised as two distinct physical regions: an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated landforms. These two areas are distinct in physical features and are conspicuous in flora and fauna. The valley region has hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak Lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km2. The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mount Tempu peak along the border with Nagaland. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand, and sandy clay, and are varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The topsoil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.

Imphal (capital): The city is inhabited by the Meitei, who predominate, also Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) and other tribes. The city contains the Tulihal Airport. The district is divided into East and West. The Khuman Lampak Sports Complex was built for the 1997 National Games. The stadium is used for a sports venue. It also contains a cyclists’ velodrome. Most of the imported goods are sold here at its Paona Bazaar, Gambhir Singh Shopping Complex and Leima Plaza. Shree Govindajee Temple, Andro village, and the Manipur State Museum are in the city.

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