Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

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Punjab Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Punjab based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Punjab State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Punjab General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

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Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, and the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest. It is bordered by the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India’s total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic groups are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) and Hindus (38%). The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab is a state in northwest region of India and is one of the most prosperous states.

The name Punjab is made of two words Punj (Five) + Aab (Water) i.e. land of five rivers. These five rivers of Punjab are Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum. Only Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow in today’s Punjab. The other two rivers are now in the state of Punjab, situated in Pakistan. The Punjab State is divided into three regions: Majha, Doaba and Malwa.

Agriculture is the mainstay of Punjab’s economy. Other major industries include manufacturing of scientific instruments, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines etc.

Punjab has made considerable economic progress after Independence despite the setback it suffered in 1947. It contributes nearly two thirds to the total production of food grains and a third of milk production in the country. It is the leading producer of wheat, thereby contributing to the national food security. The initiative of Green revolution (a major agricultural initiative) has been keenly taken forward by the people of Punjab. Even though Punjabis account for less than 2.5% of the Indian population, they are one of the most prosperous races in India. Their per capita income is twice the national average. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab is considered to have the best infrastructure in India; this includes road, rail, air and river transport links that are extensive throughout the region. Punjab also has the lowest poverty rate in India and has won the best state performance award, based on statistical data compiled by the Indian Government.

According to 2011 Census of India, the total Population of Punjab is 2, 77, 43, 338,  The decadal change i.e. increase in population from 2001 to 2011 is 13.89%.

The total area of the state is 50,362 square kilometers (19,445 square miles), with the cultivable area being under assured irrigation. Its average elevation is 300 meters (980 ft) above sea level, with a range from 180 meters (590 ft) in the southwest to more than 500 meters (1,600 ft) around the northeast border. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab extends from the latitudes 29.30° north to 32.32° North and longitudes 73.55° east to 76.50° east.

Punjab is bounded on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the northeast by Himachal Pradesh and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan.

The state has a balanced amalgamation of heat in summer, rain in monsoon and cold in winter. The three seasons are so distinctly distributed that you can enjoy each of them individually.  Punjab experiences both summer and winter to its extreme. It even receives abundant rainfall, which makes the state a very fertile land. The region lying near the foot hills of Himalayas receive heavy rainfall whereas the region lying at a distant from the hills, the rainfall is scanty and the temperature is high. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

The summer months span from mid April to the end of June. The rainy season in Punjab is from early July to end of September. October marks the beginning of the winter season. From December onwards, the winter becomes chilly. Most of the major festivals of Punjab, like Lohri, Holla Mohalla, Diwali, and Dussehra, fall during this period. The best time to visit Punjab is from October to the end of March.

Punjabi, the official language of the state, is the tenth most widely spoken language in the world. It is also the fourth most spoken language in Asia. It is the only living language among the Indo-European languages which is a fully tonal language. Punjabi is written in the Gurumukhi Script. Besides Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu and the universally acclaimed English are the languages that are spoken in Punjab.

Chandigarh is a union territory and serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. It is one of the early planned cities in the post-independence India. Picturesquely located at the foothills of Shivaliks, it is known as one of the best experiments in urban planning and modern architecture in the twentieth century in India. The dream city of India’s first Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru, and Chandigarh was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier.

The foundation stone of the city was laid in 1952. In March, 1948, the Government of Punjab, in consultation with the Government of India, approved the area of the foothills of the Shivaliks as the site for the new capital. The location of the city site was a part of the erstwhile Ambala district as per the 1892-93 gazetteer of District Ambala. Subsequently, at the time of reorganization of the state on 01.11.1966 into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pardesh, the city assumed the unique distinction of being the capital city of both, Punjab and Haryana while it itself was declared as a Union Territory and under the direct control of the Central Government.

It is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world with a distinguished culture. Punjabi language has its origins in the Indo-European family of languages which included Persian and Latin. A land of ethnic and religious diversity, it is birth place of a number of religious movements. Some of the prominent ones include Sikhism, Buddhism and many Sufi schools of Islam.

The Indian State of Punjab was created in 1947, when the partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan’s Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh eastern part became India’s Punjab state. The partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence, as many Sikhs and Hindus lived in the west and many Muslims lived in the east. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of Indian Punjab. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

In 1950, two separate states were created; Punjab included the former Raj province of Punjab, while the princely states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kalsia were combined into a new state, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Himachal Pradesh was created as a union territory from several princely states and Kangra District. In 1956, PEPSU was merged into Punjab state, and several northern districts of Punjab in the Himalayas were added to Himachal Pradesh.

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The history of Punjab has witnessed the migration and settlement of innumerable races, forming a melting pot of Punjabi civilisation. The first traces of human habitation in India were found in the Punjab region. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in antiquity before recorded history until their decline around 1900 BCE. The Punjab has had numerous recorded invasions, starting with the Vedic tribes. Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including the Achaemenid, Alexander’s, Seleucid, and Maurya Empires. After the fall of the Maurya Empire, the region was splintered into multiple kingdoms and republics. Punjab was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, and then Harsha’s Empire. Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna, Turkic and the Mongols. Circa 1000, the Punjab was ruled by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, and Durrani Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire and ensuing conflict with the Durrani Empire. This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Greater Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western part was assimilated into Pakistan while the east became part of India. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Hindi speaking areas (including various dialects) were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab. Punjab’s government has three branches – executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region. In later years it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryas, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Medieval Punjab saw supremacy of the Muslims. Ghaznavid was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khilji’s, the Tughlaqs, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked a period of watershed in the history of Punjab. Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Sikhism began as a socio-religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa. They rose to challenge tyranny and after centuries of servitude, established a humane Punjabi Raj based on secularism and patriotism. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the works of a Persian writer, changed Punjab from Madam Kada to Bagh-Bahist (from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise). But soon after his death the entire edifice collapsed due to internal intrigues and British machinations. After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849.

The fight against the British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival on the scene. The revolt found expression through the movement of a revivalist or reformist character. First, it was the Namdhari sect, which believed in self-discipline and self-rule. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the Freedom Movement. Punjab was in the vanguard of India’s freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad. Punjab’s hardships did not end with Independence. It had to face the misery of Partition with large-scale bloodshed and migration. Besides their rehabilitation, there was the task of reorganization of the State.

Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form a single State called PEPSU (Patiala and the East Punjab States Union) with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab in 1956. Later in 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab and during the same year the erstwhile capital of Punjab was shifted from Shimla to Chandigarh.

Situated in the north-western corner of the country, Punjab is bound on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the north-east by Himachal Pradesh and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan. There are 13 Members of Parliament from Punjab and 117 Members of Legislature are elected to form the State Government. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab has accorded top priority to the development of Agriculture sector and has achieved about 3 per cent growth in the first for years of the 11th year Plan. Sustenance of cereal production and productivity is not only important for the State but also for the food security of the nation. The State has been consistently contributing about 45 per cent of wheat and 25 per cent of or rice towards the central pool thereby ensuring the national food security. In the year 2010-11, the State produced 162 lakh MT paddies, out of wheat, out of which 108 lac MT has been procured. Similarly, the State produced 152 lakh MT of wheat, out of which 108 lakh MT has been procured. Only 10 districts of the State are covered under National Food Security Mission for rice even though state is its leading producer.

The State has 83% of its total geographical area (50.36 lakh hectares) under cultivation. The cropping intensity is around 189.69% with over 97% of the cultivable area being under assured irrigation. The State produces 19.50% of the country’s wheat, 11% rice, 10.26% cotton and contributes significantly to the Central Pool with about 50% wheat and 40% rice. The paddy and wheat productivity in the State is 4022 kg/ha and 4462 kg/ha against the national average of 2178 kg/ha and 2907 kg/ha respectively. Fertilizer consumption is at 223.46 kg/ha. The State’s farm economy is highly mechanized. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

The total Geographical area of the State is 50.36 lakh hectares, out of which about 41.74 lakh hectares area is under cultivation. After partition of the country in 1947, Indus water treaty of 1960 between India and Pakistan restricted India’s right to usage to only three eastern rivers Satluj, Beas and Ravi. The State has three dams namely Bhakra Dam with storage capacity of 5.60 MAF constructed on River Satluj, Pong Dam with storage capacity 1.90 MAF constructed on River Ravi. At present the area under irrigation is 40.77 lakh hectares, which is 97.68% of the area under cultivation. The canal surface water distribution System consists of 14500 km of Canals/ Distributaries covering six major systems in the state namely: Sirhind Canal system, Bhakra Main Line, Bist Doab Canal, Upper Bari Doab Canal, Sirhind feeder and Eastern canal. Contrary to common perception only 27% area is irrigated by canal surface water and 73% area is irrigated by tubewells in Punjab. This has resulted in depletion of ground water table. As many as 112 out of 141 blocks have been categorized as over exploited or “dark blocks”. The canal water and electricity are being provided free of cost to the farmer in the State. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

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