RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Revision Part-2
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Describe the Southern Aravali
Range and which the main hill ranges of it are?
The southern Aravali expansion
of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and
Aravali quartzite also found in this range and 8-10 hill ranges are in
parallel. This range Includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur
& South-eastern margin of Pali districts.
Main Hill ranges of
Southern Aravali are:
- Girwa Hills
- Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
- Merwara Hills
- Abu block & Oria plateau
The Climate Change Agenda task
forces constituted for which sectors?
For the implementation of the Environment Policy,
Rajasthan Environment Mission and Climate Change Agenda task forces have been
constituted for different sectors, viz.,
3. Forestry and bio-diversity
4. Urban governance and sustainable habitat
5. Enhanced energy efficiency including solar energy
6. Strategic knowledge for climate change
The climate of Rajasthan
state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus
parameters, have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.
. What is a Collegium system in
select Judges, The Supreme
Court of India’s Collegium system, which appoints judges to the nation’s
constitutional courts, has its genesis in, and continued basis resting on,
three of its own judgments which are collectively known as the Three Judges
system is a process through
which decisions related to appointments and transfer of judges in supreme court
and high court is taken by a Collegium which consists of CJI, four senior most
judges of supreme court and three members of concerned high court (in the
matter related to high court) including chief Justice.
Answer: The Mesabi Iron Range is an elongate trend
containing large deposits of iron ore, and the largest of four major iron
ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota.
Discovered in 1866, it is the chief iron ore mining district in the United
Answer: A green bond is a bond specifically
earmarked to be used for climate and environmental projects. These bonds are
typically asset-linked and backed by the issuer’s balance sheet, and are also
referred to as climate bonds.
The World Bank is a
major issuer of green bonds. World Bank green bonds finance projects around the
world, such as India’s Rampur Hydropower Project, which aims to provide
low-carbon hydroelectric power to northern India’s electricity grid.
Which/What is plastic money?
Answer: Plastic money is a term that is used
predominantly in reference to the hard plastic cards we use every day in place
of actual bank notes. They can come in many different forms such as cash cards,
credit cards, debit cards, pre-paid cash cards and store cards.
The Reserve Bank of
India introduce plastic/polymer currency note of ₹10 on a field trial basis in five cities in India. RBI
proposed to conduct field trials of Rs 10 polymer banknotes in five cities – Shimla,
Kochi, Jaipur, Bhubaneswar and Mysore.
What monetary policy is used to
Answer: One popular method of controlling inflation
is through a contractionary monetary policy. The goal of a contractionary
policy is to reduce the money supply within an economy by decreasing bond
prices and increasing interest rates.
Inflation is generally
controlled by the Central Bank and/or the government. The main policy tools to
control inflation include:
policy: – Setting interest
rates. Higher interest rates reduce demand, leading to lower economic growth
and lower inflation
money supply: – Monetarists
argue there is a close link between the money supply and inflation, therefore
controlling money supply can control inflation.
policies: – policies to increase
competitiveness and efficiency of the economy, putting downward pressure on
policy: – a higher rate of
income tax could reduce spending and inflationary pressures.
controls: Trying to control
wages could, in theory, help to reduce inflationary pressures.
Write short notes on NABARD and
Answer: NABARD is a
Development Bank with a mandate for providing and regulating credit and other
facilities for the promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale
industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts
and other allied economic activities in rural areas with a view to promoting.
- It acts as
an apex body for meeting the credit needs of all types of agricultural and
provides refinancing facilities to State Co-operative Banks (SCBs), Land Development
Bank (LDBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and other approved financial
institutions for financing rural economic activities.
Answer: Los Llanos
(The Plains) is vast tropical grassland plain situated to the east of the Andes
in Colombia and Venezuela, in northwestern South America.
“Plains”) wide grasslands stretching across northern South America and
occupying western Venezuela and northeastern Colombia. The Llanos have an area
of approximately 220,000 square miles (570,000 square km), delimited by the
Andes Mountains to the north and west, the Guaviare River and the Amazon River
basin to the south, and the lower Orinoco River and the Guiana Highlands to the
Answer: Young India was a weekly paper or journal in
English published by Mohandas Karam chand Gandhi from 1919 to 1931. Gandhi
wrote various quotations in this journal that inspired many. The papers focused
on India and the world’s social and economic problems.
Answer: Chenab Bridge is a railway steel and
concrete arch bridge under construction between Bakkal and Kauri in the Reasi
district of Jammu and Kashmir in India. When finished, the bridge will span the
Chenab River at a height of 359 m (1,178 ft) above the river, making it the
world’s highest rail bridge.
In November 2017 the
base supports were declared completed allowing for the start of the
construction of the main arch.
The bridge is
scheduled to open in 2019 though that seems highly optimistic.
technical data of the bridge include:
Deck height (height
above river): 359 m (1,178 ft)
Bridge length: 1,315 m
(4,314 ft), including the 650 m (2,130 ft) long viaduct on the northern side
Arch span: 467 m
Arch length: 480 m
This makes the Chenab
- The world’s highest railway bridge
- The bridge with the widest span in the Indian broad gauge railway network
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Enumerate a few reasons that
cause phenomenon of ‘Forgetting’ in humans
Answer: This explanation
of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the
brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous
system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the
automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.
There are three ways in which you can
forget information in the STM:
This occurs when you do not ‘rehearse’ information, ie you don’t contemplate
Displacement is quite literally a form of forgetting when new memories replace
Write down the list of Districts
of Rajasthan touched the boundary with other States.
- Punjab: – Ganganagar
and HanumangarhHaryana: – Hanumangarh,
Churu, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Jaipur, Alwar and BharatpurUttar Pradesh: – Bharatpur
and DhaulpurMadhya Pradesh: – Karauli,
Sawai Madhopur, Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Banswara, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh and
Bhilwara.Gujrat: – Barmer,
Jalore, Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur and Banswara
Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in earth’s
energy balance, including:
- Variations in the sun’s energy reaching
- Changes in the reflectivity of earth’s
atmosphere and surface.
- Changes in the greenhouse effect, which
affects the amount of heat retained by earth’s atmosphere.
Define the following terms:
- Drainage basin
stream that branches off from the main stem of a river or other flowing fluid.
in the direction of a flow, toward its end.
- Drainage basin:
an entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.
branch or tributary of a river, usually having the same name as the river
largest river or channel in a watershed or drainage basin.
- Runoff: overflow
of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.
entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.
What are the main industries and
crops of Rajasthan?
The principal crops
Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize Ground
Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices. Next to the agricultural sector, the
Industry of Rajasthan plays a major role in the economy. There are mainly two
What are the different models for
Public Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure?
PPP is a mode of
providing public infrastructure and services by Government in partnership with
private sector. It is a long term arrangement between Government and private
sector entity for provision of public utilities and services.
PPP mechanism is a
major element of India’s infrastructure creation efforts as there is huge level
of investment requirement in the sector. The twelfth plan targets to spend
$1000 bn to expand infrastructure. Conventional form of finance – the budgetary
allocation by the government is not enough to meet this big investment size. So
the government at present is making several efforts to modify and energize the
PPP (Public Private Partnership) mode of infrastructure generation. A committee
chaired by Kelkar also made valuable recommendations to empower the PPP
with PPP in a serious manner started from 2006 onwards. PPP requires private
sector participation in public asset creation through money, technology and
management. For this, several models inviting their participation were launched
for different projects. Some of the commonly adopted forms of PPPs include
build-operate-transfer (BOT) and its variants, build-lease-transfer (BLT),
design-build-operate-transfer (DBFOT), operate-maintain-transfer (OMT), etc.
These models operate
on different conditions on the private sector regarding level of investment,
ownership control, risk sharing, technical collaboration, duration of the
project, financing mode, tax treatment, management of cash flows etc. Following
are the main models of PPPs.
(a) Build Operate and
Transfer (BOT): This is the simple and conventional PPP model where the private
partner is responsible to design, build, operate (during the contracted period)
and transfer back the facility to the public sector. Role of the private sector
partner is to bring the finance for the project and take the responsibility to
construct and maintain it. In return, the public sector will allow it to
collect revenue from the users. The national highway projects contracted out by
NHAI under PPP mode is a major example for the BOT model.
(BOO): This is a variant of the BOT and the difference is that the ownership of
the newly built facility will rest with the private party here.
The public sector
partner agrees to ‘purchase’ the goods and services produced by the project on
mutually agreed terms and conditions.
Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT): This is also on the lines of BOT. After the
negotiated period of time, the infrastructure asset is transferred to the
government or to the private operator. This approach has been used for the
development of highways and ports.
Build-Operate-Lease-Transfer (BOLT): In this approach, the government gives a
concession to a private entity to build a facility (and possibly design it as
well), own the facility, lease the facility to the public sector and then at
the end of the lease period transfer the ownership of the facility to the
(LDO): Here, the government or the public sector entity retains ownership of
the newly created infrastructure facility and receives payments in terms of a
lease agreement with the private promoter. This approach is mostly followed in
the development of airport facilities.
Rehabilitate-Operate-Transfer (ROT): Under this approach, the governments/local
bodies allow private promoters to rehabilitate and operate a facility during a
concession period. After the concession period, the project is transferred back
to governments/local bodies.
(g) DBFO (Design,
Build, Finance and Operate): In this model, the private party assumes the
entire responsibility for the design, construction, finance, and operate the
project for the period of concession.
(h) The private party
assumes the entire responsibility for the design, construct, finance, and
operate or operate and maintain the project for the period of concession.
contract: Here, the private promoter has the responsibility for a full range of
investment, operation and maintenance functions. He has the authority to make
daily management decisions under a profit-sharing or fixed-fee arrangement.
(j) Service contract:
This approach is less focused than the management contract. In this approach,
the private promoter performs a particular operational or maintenance function
for a fee over a specified period of time.
Deendayal Upadhyay Aadarsh Gram
Around 77% of total
population lives in 39753 villages. Besides many plans for village development,
most of the villages lack basic facilities. Due to increasing population, the
demand for hygiene, pure drinking water, electricity, roads, health facilities
etc are increasing day by day. The rural population is migrating to urban
places. By giving a thought on present criteria, its necessary to pay attention
towards the development of the villages so that the people there can get
financial and social basic facilities to improve their living standards. For
the mentioned goal, govt. decided to start “DEENDAYAL UPADHYAYY GRAM YOJNA”
It is not possible to
make all the facilities available all together in all villages. In the first
phase the state Govt. in year 2006-07 decided to undertake 50 villages for this
purpose. Similarly in the state on every 10 lacs one village will be selected.
The villages with population of 3000 or more will be eligible to apply for
DEENDAYAL ADARSH GRAM. The selection will be made with the support and
participation of the rural people.
Which one of the following cattle
product is main product of Rajasthan?
The State of Rajasthan
has proud possession of 9 cattle breeds, 8 sheep breeds, 6 goat breeds, 4 camel
breed and also endowed with thorough bred horses. The important breeds of
cattle traded in the State are Rathi, Kankrej, Nagour, Tharparkar, Haryana,
Malvi, Gir, Sanchori and Mehwati.
What is production possibility of
In the field of
macroeconomics, the production possibility frontier (PPF) represents the point
at which a country’s economy is most efficiently producing its goods and
services and, therefore, allocating its resources in the best way possible.
What are the some main challenges
before agriculture sector in Rajasthan?
- To achieve
a higher growth rate and stability in the face of recurrent droughts and
rapidly declining water table.
increase levels of investment, particularly private, in the agriculture sector
for modernization, diversification and commercialization.
- To achieve
coordinated development of agriculture and livestock for maximizing benefits to
farmers. Fodder availability and development of a dairy network hold the key to
a vibrant livestock sector.
modernize agriculture markets to ensure better realization for the producer and
availability of produce to buyers and for stimulating diversification
encourage setting up of agro-processing and agri-businesses enterprises for
value addition in agriculture produce and generating new employment
In view of the geographical location and size of the State, dependence
of its economy on agriculture is unlikely to reduce significantly in the near
future and, therefore, stimulating the growth of the agriculture sector is not
a choice but a necessity. The fact that most of the agriculture in Rajasthan is
subsistence by nature is reflective of the potential that exists for value
addition to agricultural output.
Agriculture being 28 % of the overall economic contribution in terms of value
remains its backbone. The services industry has grown to 43 % and industry has
grown to 29 % of the state GDP. The manufacturing capacity of the state has been
increasing and it is moving towards attracting heavy industries. The economic growth
of 7.0 – 7.5 % promises long term development.
Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)
PMJDY is a National Mission for Financial Inclusion, particularly to
provide access to financial services such as savings and deposit accounts,
remittance, credit, insurance, pension, etc. at affordable rates. The scheme
was announced on the eve of Independence Day, in 2014 by Prime Minister
What has changed?
– 29.43 crore bank accounts opened so far
– Rs 65, 532.77 crore balance in these accounts
– 1.26 lakh Bank Mitras delivering branchless banking services in
Sub-Services Areas and counting
– Nearly 25 crore Jan Dhan accounts in the country, of which nearly 5.8
crore are zero-balance accounts.
How can the paradox of value be
The paradox of value
(also known as the diamond–water paradox) is the apparent contradiction that,
although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than
diamonds, diamonds command a higher price in the market.
What are the three types of
benefits provided by Social Security?
Four basic categories
of Social Security benefits are paid based upon the record of your earnings:
retirement, disability, dependents, and survivors benefits. These benefits all
fall under the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program (OASDI),
which is the official name of Social Security.
Sister State/City Agreement
Answer: Sister cities or twin towns are a form of
legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts,
prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically
and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Cities International (SCI) is
a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships
between communities in the United States and those in other countries,
particularly through the establishment of “sister cities”.
Discuss the role of inland
waterways in India?
Answer: Any of the waters (as lakes, canals, rivers,
watercourses, inlets, and bays) within the territory of a state as contrasted
with the open seas or marginal waters bordering another state subject to
various sovereign rights of the bordering state —usually used in plural.
The CIWTC is mainly
engaged in transportation of goods by inland waterways in the
Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly, Sunderbans and Brahmaputra rivers. They are operating
regular cargo services between Kolkata and Pandu (near Guwahati), between
Kolkata and Karim ganj (Assam), Kolkata-Bangladesh and between Haldia and
Inland waters are
permanent water bodies inland from the coastal zone and areas whose properties
and use are dominated by the permanent, seasonal, or intermittent occurrence of
flooded conditions. Inland waters include rivers, lakes, floodplains,
reservoirs, wetlands, and inland saline systems.
Which factors affecting the
climate of Rajasthan?
Write short notes on e-waste
Answer: The rapid growth of technology, upgradation
of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics
industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world
which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It
comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as
refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles,
i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in
consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious
challenge to environment and human health.
E-waste is not
hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or
transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal
sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive
Toxins in E‐waste
- Toxins in
polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older
models), cadmium, manganese,
cobalt, gold, and iron.
1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons
of mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
chromium, lead and Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most
adverse health effects in humans.
- Survey was
carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005
- In India,
among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by
Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and
What is the importance of
regulating act? What are the features of the act?
Answer: It was the first step taken by the British
Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.
time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions
of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration
- The Act
designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and
created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and
Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
- Act prohibited
servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and
gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India
- The Act
told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all
its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.
What is Coriolis force?
Answer: It is a deflecting force experienced due to
rotation of earth. Because of Coriolis the air appears to turn towards its
right in the northern hemisphere and towards its left in the southern
hemisphere. The coriolis always acts in the perpendicular direction of the
motion of air. It is zero at the equator and increases towards the poles.
The following are four
basic points to remember about the Coriolis Effect:
of the initial direction of motion, any freely moving object appears to deflect
to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern
apparent deflection is strongest at the poles and decreases progressively
toward the equator, where the deflection is zero.
Coriolis effect is proportional to the speed of the object, and so a
fast-moving object is deflected more than a slower one.
Coriolis effect influences direction of movement only; it does not change the
speed of an object.
What are the areas of concerns in
centre and state relationship?
of bill by governor for President Assent.
of use of central agency to serve political vendetta.
of civil servants and Management of All India services.
- Role of
planning commission now NITI Aayog in approving state subjects.
of enquiry commissions against the chief minister.
over the state subjects.
India-China relation got a
setback due to Doklam issue. What was this issue?
Answer: Doklam issue is an extension of border
dispute. It is a border dispute between Bhutan and China. India being the party
to the friendship treaty with Bhutan tried to stop China from infrastructure
creation in the disputed area.
Doklam plateau is
situated in SW Bhutan. It is among those three regions which are disputed
between China and Bhutan.
2) Pasam Lung
3) Doklam Plateau
treaty was signed in 1890. According to China this treaty gives Doklam to
China, But India and Bhutan Rejected the Claims. China was constructing a road
in this region which was opposed by India because:
- India and
Bhutan have a friendship treaty of 2007 which gives Bhutan Defence
responsibility to India
- In 2013,
India and China signed Border defence and Corporation Agreement which maintains
status quo in Border areas and China was amending the status quo.
region is strategically important because “Chicken Neck Corridor” which
connects NE states to mainland India is near Doklam. An attack can be launched
on India through this region.
Write short notes on the
2) Horse latitudes
4) Jet streams
Above the subtropical
highs in the Northern Hemisphere, and below the subtropical highs in the
Southern Hemisphere, winds blow from the west towards the east. These winds are
thus called westerly winds, after the direction from whence the winds come. The
westerlies generally blow between 30 ° and 60 ° latitude in both the Northern
and Southern hemispheres. The higher one travels into the atmosphere, the more
noticeable these westerly winds are.
The sub-tropical high
pressure belt of the oceans of North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans is known
as horse latitudes. This is a belt of weak variable winds and frequent calms.
Doldrums: the quite zone at ITCZ is called the
doldrums. The air appears to be stagnant in this belt. Earlier ships used to
get stuck in this region because of the absence of the wind.
streams are high speed winds
that occur in narrow bands of upper air westerlies. The width of this air band
can be 160-480km wide and 900-2150m thick, with core speed exceeding 300km/hr.
such is their strength that aircraft routes which run counter to jet movements
are generally avoided. Jets are coincident with major breaks in the tropopause.
What are the steps taken by
Gandhi ji towards the upliftment of Harijans?
Answer: Determined to undo the divisive intentions
of the Government’s divide and rule policy, Gandhi gave up all his other
preoccupations and launched a whirlwind campaign against untouchability— first
from jail and after his release in August 1933 from the outside. While in jail,
he had set up the All India Anti Untouchability League in September 1932 and
had started the weekly Harijan in January 1933.
- He urged
political workers to go to villages and work for social, economic, political
and cultural upliftment of the Harijan.
undertook two fasts— on May 8 and August 16, 1934—to convince his followers of
the seriousness of his effort and the importance of the issue.
his Harijan tour, social work and fasts, Gandhi stressed on certain themes: He
put forward a damning indictment of Hindu society for the kind of oppression
practised on Harijans.
What is the amendment procedure
in Indian Constitution?
Answer: Procedure for amendment is laid down in
article 368 part XX of the Indian constitution.
is the procedure for the amendment of the constitution:
of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill in
either of the house.
legislature cannot introduce a bill for CA.
- The bill
must be passed by special majority by separate house.
- There is
no provision of joint sitting in the case of deadlock between both the houses.
- If the
bill seeks to amend the federal provisions then it must also be ratified by the
state legislatures of half of the state by simple majority.
- After duly
passed by both houses and ratified by state legislature, the bill is presented
to the President for assent
president must give his assent; he can neither withhold his assent to the bill
nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
President Assent the Bill becomes an act.
What is corporate governance?
What are the importances of corporate governance?
Answer: Corporate governance is the system,
principles and group of procedure through which company is governed. It is sum
of those principles, ideal values and code which inspire an institution to
behave morally and with transparency.
of Corporate Governance:
- It is
helpful in the increment of transparency, accountability and relevance.
- To discuss
policies among people and informing them.
- Helps in
taking effective decision.
transparency in exchange of business.
accordance with the law.
exercise to protect the rights of the shareholders.
to the business values and moral behaviour.
What are the features borrowed
from various constitution?
government, Rule of Law, legislative procedure, single citizenship, cabinet
system, prerogative writs, parliamentary privileges and bicameralism.
rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of the
president, removal of Supreme Court and high court judges and post of
Principles of State Policy, nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of
election of president.
Constitution of Germany Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.
established by Law
with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre, appointment of
state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
List, freedom of trade, commerce and inter-course, and joint sitting of the two
Houses of Parliament.
Constitution Republic and the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in the
(USSR, now Russia)
duties and the ideal of justice (social, economic and political) in the
for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha.
Give an account of the following
1) Mahila e-Haat
2) Sakhi-one stop
3) Ujjwala scheme
an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens
more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting
aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for
showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been
set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an
autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of
stop centres: To
provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in
private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace
under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by
violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or
marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund
scheme: For prevention of
trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of
cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are
vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries.
Rehabilitative centres are given financial support for providing shelter and
basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.
Recently RBI released report
regarding demonetization, whether demonetization helped in curbing black money?
The issue of demonetization is back in the news due to
RBI report highlighting that 99.2% of 500 and 1000 Rs notes in circulation have
found their own back in Banking System.
Critically examine – you need to do is look at the good
and bad of the topic in fair manner.
Bring out the findings of RBI report and assess what it
Discuss the rationale given that suggests that
demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money –
increasing tax base, formalization of economy.
Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in
tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in
penalizing all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetization
worked as an unintended amnesty scheme etc.
Examine the other impacts of demonetization which
negated any small gains that were made – slow down in GDP, loss of jobs etc.
Conclusions – Give a fair and balanced view on the
success/failure of demonetization.
What is OSIRIS-Rex mission and
write down facts on asteroid Bennu?
Answer: For the first time in more than two years, the OSIRIS-REx
spacecraft has unfurled its robotic arm and put it through a series of
maneuvers to ensure its space-worthiness after being packed away for launch and
a long flight to the asteroid Bennu.
This arm and its sampler head, known as the Touch-and-Go
Sample Acquisition Mechanism or TAGSAM, is critical to the mission’s
goal of retrieving at least 60 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and
returning this sample to Earth by 2023.The collection device will act something
like a reverse vacuum cleaner.
The launch of the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission took
place on September 8, 2016. Since then, the spacecraft has been two years
travelling through space to reach its target, primitive asteroid Bennu, in
October and 2018.
About the mission:
OSIRIS-Rex stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation,
Resource Identification and Security-Regolith Explorer.
OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers
program, which previously sent the New Horizons spacecraft zooming by Pluto and
the Juno spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter.
What will the OSIRIS-Rex do?
will spend two years travelling towards Bennu, arriving at the asteroid in
August 2018. The probe will orbit the asteroid for 3 years, conducting several
scientific experiments, before returning to Earth, with the sample capsule
expected to land in Utah, USA in September 2023.
Scientific Mission Goals:
During its three year orbit of Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will
be conducting a range of scientific experiments in order to better understand
As part of this, the asteroid will be mapped using
instruments on the probe, in order to select a suitable site for samples to be
The aim of the mission is to collect a sample of
regolith- the loose, soil-like material which covers the surface of the
In July 2020,
the probe will move to within a few metres of Bennu, extending its robotic arm
to touch the asteroid’s surface. The arm will make contact with the surface for
just 5 seconds, during which a blast of nitrogen gas will be used to stir up
the regolith, allowing it to be sucked into the sample collector.
OSIRIS-REx has enough nitrogen on board for 3 sample collection attempts, and NASA are hoping to collect between 60 and 2000g of regolith material to bring back to Earth.
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Why was Bennu chosen?
Bennu was selected for a the OSIRIS-REx mission from
over 500,000 known asteroids, due to it fitting a number of key
criteria. These include:
Proximity to Earth:
In order for OSIRIS-REx to reach its destination in a reasonable timeframe,
NASA needed to find an asteroid which had a similar orbit to Earth. Around 7000
asteroids are ‘Near-Earth Objects’ (NEOs), meaning they travel within around
~30million miles of the Earth. Out of these, just fewer than 200 have orbits
similar to Earth, with Bennu being one of these.
Those are less than 200m in diameter; typically spin much faster than larger asteroids,
meaning the regolith material can be ejected into space. Bennu is around 500m
in diameter, so rotates slowly enough to ensure that the regolith stays on its
Bennu is a primitive asteroid, meaning it hasn’t significantly changed since
the beginning of the Solar System (over 4 billion years ago). It is also very
carbon-rich, meaning it may contain organic molecules, which could have been
precursors to life on Earth.
Additionally, Bennu is of interest as it is a
Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA). Every 6 years, Bennu’s orbit brings it
within 200,000 miles of the Earth, which means it has a high probability of
impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century.
Examine the role of Praja Mandal
Movements in Rajasthan’s political awakening. What was the role of Smt. Vijaya
Answer: In 1927, the All
India States People’s Conference was held in Bombay after which the congress
allowed people from different Princely States to join the party and the Indian
freedom Struggle. In 1927 itself, the Akhil Bhartiya Desi Rajya Lok Parishad or
All India Native States Public Council was established in Bombay and Vijay
Singh Pathik became its chairperson. In Rajasthan, Rajputana Desi Lok Parishad
or Rajputana Native States Public Council was established. These councils laid
the foundation for Praja Mandal movement in Rajasthan.
Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:
- The people of Praja Mandal fought against
the Feudalism and colonialism.
- The people of Praja Mandal movement fought
against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for
- The main demand of the Praja Mandal
movements was the democratic (fundamental) rights.
Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:
The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented
the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely
They established schools, used Khadi, encouraged
cottage industries and Started agitation against the Untouchability.
Contribution of Praja Mandal:
The Praja Mandal movement not only created a political
awakening among the people in the Indian States but also fought for their
rights, their share in the government and their dynamic participation in the
future political set up of the country. Other contributions included:
- Improvement in Education
- Rise of social equality
- The most important contribution of this
organisation was to break the insularity of the peasant movements by linking
them with one another in different princely states, as well as with peasant
movements in British India.
Origin, lifestyle and culture of
Garasia Tribal in Rajasthan
Answer: The Garasia tribal community has
gained a place of prominence in Indian culture due to their lifestyle and
culture. This Garasia tribal community has got concentration in several areas
of the state of Rajasthan. The Garasia tribal community is considered to be the
third largest tribal group of the state of Rajasthan. The people of this tribal
community are basically concentrated in different parts of this state namely Kotra,
Abu Road tehsil of Sirohi, Bali and Desuri tehsils of Pali districts and
Gogunda and Kherwara tehsils of Udaipur.
As per the history,
the Garasia tribes are a division of the Rajput community. The colonization
made the scarcity of lands during the time of the British administration, and
the tribal people were marginalized and started living with the people dwelling
in the forest. The further division was created by the nationalist movement in
between the groups. Among the Garasia, the Bhil-Garasia are the part of tribes
who married the Bhil women to maintain peace and harmony. This tribal community
is divided in three sections namely the nanki niyat, moti niyat and nichli
niyat and these sections have further clan divisions namely Solanki, Mali, Parmar,
Raidara etc. The territory of the Garasia people is called patta and the
smallest unit of the villages is termed as hamlet or phalia.
The word ‘Garasia’ is
derived from the Sanskrit word ‘grass’ that signifies the substance. The
history says that after defeated by Ala-ud-Din Khilji, the Rajputs took flight
to the hilly areas of Bhil tribes. The Garasia took control over the Bhil
tribes and came to be known as Garasia tribal community. They have a link with
the medieval Rajput community. Moreover, the Garasia tribes are popularly known
as ‘the fallen Rajputs’ and as per the popular belief are that these Garasia
tribes can trace back their heredity to the famous Chauhans of Rajasthan state.
Some say that the
Garasia tribes are the off springs of the Rajput who got married to a Bhil
female. It is assumed that they formerly were ‘chiefs’ who were thrown out by
several plunderers. As early as 13th century, several hapless Rajput escape to
Aravalli and Vindhya hills. There these Garasia tribes get the opportunity to
mix up with several tribes of the Bhil community.
After sometime, the
Garasia tribes crushed the power of the Bhil leaders and their supporters,
settling down near the dense forests and at the bottom of the hills. For
safeguarding the local people and their settlements, this Garasia tribal
community got the land for carrying on agricultural activities. There are many
people who even refer all the Rajput and other landholders dwelling in both
Gujarat and Rajasthan states, as Garasia.
The language of the
Garasia tribes is Doongri Garasia language. It belongs to the Bhil sub-group of
the famous Indo-Aryan language family. It has been said that the Garasia
language is a blend of three different languages namely Bhili, Marwari and
Gujarati language. The dialect of the Garasia people is called Nayar dialect or
Cultural exuberance of
these Garasia tribes of Rajasthan is rightly being depicted in several of its
elements. Since the houses of these Garasia tribes are small, a Garasia male of
the household can perform all the household chores on his own. These Garasia
tribes in general reside in one-room houses prepared from mud and bamboo.
Nowadays, this Garasia tribal community has learnt to make flat tiled roofs.
There are also few Garasia tribes who still today make thatched roofs. Houses
are usually built on the slopes of hills with their fields extending out in
front. There is as a rule a guest house opposite the house of the head of the
Garasia village. However, there is hardly any meting point for all the people
of the Garasia community.
Even though the whole
of the Garasia tribal community can be divided into several clans, they seldom
maintain unity amongst themselves. In order to sustain their living these
Garasia tribes practice cultivation. However, there is also no dearth of
Garasia people who also work as laborers in the fields also. Needless to say,
food habits of these Garasia tribes too follow the tradition of any other
agrarian tribal community of the state. Maize is the staple food grown by all
Garasia families. Apart from this, they also add rice, jowar and wheat in their
diet. Many of this Garasia tribal community also consume all the forest
products like vegetables, fruits etc. Rab or rabdi is considered as the well admired
food of the Garasia people. They prepare lapsi, malpua, Churma etc. during
their occasions. The Garasia tribes are mostly veggies and also have got no
addiction to various types of liquors.
The society of the
Garasia tribe is controlled by the Panchayat and the village head Patel takes
the major decisions related to the village and the villagers. The position of a
woman is not high in a Garasia tribal community. Like any other patriarchal
society, the Garasia tribal females also are not permitted to possess property.
There are also certain stringent rules that these Garasia tribal women need to
follow quite diligently. For example, it is mandatory for the Garasia women to
put veils over their faces when they are present in front of senior male relatives.
Different duties are
allotted for both Garasia males and females. The onus of carrying on certain
domestic duties is fall upon the Garasia women. These include cooking, nursing
the cattle, milking the animals, and also taking care of the children. The men
do the physical labor such as plowing, harvesting, and building the houses.
Marriage too like any
other tribal community is held in high position. The Garasia tribal community
is permitted freedom in selecting their partners. Young Garasia males between
the ages of eighteen and twenty four generally marry females who are between
fourteen and eighteen years. Another interesting thing is that any Garasia
couple cal lives together without getting married. However, under the impact of
Hindu rituals and customs, nowadays, this rule of the Garasia tribal community
varies in certain places of the Rajasthan. As per recent survey, it has been
rightly find out that only 1 percent of the Garasia tribal community has taken
up the religion of Christianity.
What do you mean by Horse
Latitudes? Explain the location.
Answer: Horse latitudes or subtropical highs are
subtropical latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south where
Earth’s atmosphere is dominated by the Subtropical high, an area of high pressure,
which suppresses precipitation and cloud formation, and has variable winds
mixed with calm winds.
The consistently warm,
dry, and sunny conditions of the horse latitudes are the main cause for the
existence of the world’s major non-polar deserts, such as the Sahara Desert in
Africa, the Arabian and Syrian deserts in the Middle East, the Mojave and
Sonoran deserts in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, all in
the Northern Hemisphere; and the Atacama Desert, the Kalahari Desert, and the
Australian Desert in the Southern Hemisphere.
Examine the social structure
under the Rajputs.
Answer: In the 11th century, the term “rajaputra”
appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials. Gradually, the
Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic
and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the
membership of this class became largely hereditary, although new claims to
Rajput status continued to be made in the later centuries. Several Rajput-ruled
kingdoms played a significant role in many regions of central and northern
India until the 20th century.
land grants and related economic changes led to the evolution of social
structure broadly characterized by a sizeable number of intermediaries and a
large body of impoverished peasantry.
Samantas and the ruling landed aristocracy irrespective of their social origins
emerged as a distinctive group.
were the majority in this group and focused on management of land. Kayasthas,
traders and members of the rich dominant peasantry were also conferred titles
such as ranaka, Nayaka etc. as and when they joined the upper section of the
society and ruling landed elite.
shudras were getting transformed into cultivators as a result of the expansion
of agricultural settlements, thereby coming closer to the vaishyas.
vaishyas practically lost their identity as peasant caste.
Climatic Regions of Rajasthan
based on Rainfall Intensity
The distribution of
climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature
variations includes following divisions:
a. The Arid region includes Jaisalmer district,
northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of Jodhpur, western
parts of Bikaner and southern parts of Ganganagar district.
b. Climate of the region is very severe and arid.
c. Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of
regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.
d. The average temperature
during summer is recorded more than 34degree C and during winters it ranges in
between 12 DegC to 16DegC.
i. The average temperature during winter season ranges
between 10 Deg C and 17 Deg C and the summer season temperature range 32 Deg C
to 36 Deg C.
ii. As the region has erratic as well as torrential
rainfall it brings floods too each time.
iii. Rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.
iv. The winter season is very short and arid in the
northern parts of this region.
v. This region comprises
the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and Barmer
1. In the semi arid humid region, rainfall is meager
and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few monsoon months only.
2. The rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average
temperature during summer season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is
recorded 12 Deg C in northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.
3. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of
Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara
and Sirohi districts are included in this category.
4. This region has steppe
type of vegetation.
1. This region receives winter rainfall associated with
cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which varies from 60 to 80 cm.
2. Deciduous trees dominate the region.
3. Humid region is found
at the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and
Rajsamand and the north-eastern parts of Udaipur.
Very Humid Region
Very Humid Region includes south-east Kota, Baran, and
Jhalawar, Banswara, south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the
summers are very hot and winters are cold and dry. Rainfall received is
between 80 cm to 150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna
type of vegetation is present in the region.
What is the difference between
Reserved, Protected and Unclassified forest Areas?
Land rights to forests declared to be Reserved forests or Protected forests are
typically acquired (if not already owned) and owned by the Government of India.
Unlike national parks of India or wildlife sanctuaries of India
Protected forests are of two kinds – demarcated protected
forests and undemarcated protected forests, based on whether the
limits of the forest have been specified by a formal notification.
Typically, protected forests are often
upgraded to the status of wildlife sanctuaries which is turn, may be upgraded
to the status of national parks, with each category receiving a higher degree
of protection and government funding. For example: Sariska National
Park was declared a reserved forest.
forests which are neither protected nor reserved and wasteland comes under
this classification. They are controlled by government officials and private
Koeppen’s Classification of
climatic regions of Rajasthan
Koeppen’s classification for the World Climatic regions
is totally based on the vegetation, as the effects of temperature and rainfall
are directly evident and visible it. Here, the three categories are associated
with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid) climates and Mild Temperate
The classification of Rajasthan according
to Koeppen’s is as follows:
Aw or Tropical Humid Region–
- Winter season is arid and cool whereas
summers experience scorching heat.
- Rainfall also mainly occurs in summer
- The temperature is more than 18 Deg. C in
the coldest month records.
- The southern parts of Dungarpur district
and Banswara come under the region.
Bshw Climatic Region–
- Vegetation is of steppe type, characterized
with thorny bushes and grasses.
- Region comprises the districts of Barmer,
Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
- This climatic region is semi-arid, where
winters are dry and even in summers there is no sufficient amount of rainfall.
Bwhw Climatic Region
- The region has arid-hot desert climate with
very scanty rainfall.
- On the contrary the process of evaporation
is very active.
- North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western
Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district are included in this category.
Cwg Climatic Region
- The south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the
part of the region.
- Seasonal winds do not bring rains to this
region during winters.
- Rains are limited to few monsoon months
What is the
Rajasthan State Water Policy 2010?
- The growing imbalance between demand and
supply of water
- Low operational efficiency of water
resource development projects
- Inequity in access to water
- High cost of service, low cost recovery and
low level of expenditure
- Lack of ownership among stakeholders
- Depleting groundwater resources and
deteriorating quality of water
- Uncertainty in availability of water
policy has evolved out of the earlier policy documents and intends to function
from the new perspective of Integrated Water Resources Management, which is
holistic and includes a bottom up Approach.
The new policy document
addresses issues related to:
- Water supply and development
- Water conservation
- Water quality
- Environmental management
- Water pricing
- Integrated Water Resource Management
- Water resources infrastructure
- Legal enablement
- Capacity building
- Monitoring and evaluation of water policy
and action plans.
What is the
distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan?
There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall
over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive
rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of
Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more
rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and
West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.
There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall
over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer
districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts
of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of
The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and
Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.
The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran,
Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan
receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.
The districts of Eastern plains
i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur,
South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.
The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur,
Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part
of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.
The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu,
Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of
Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.
The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e.
Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western
Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.
The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the
Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli
hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43
cm in West Rajasthan.
In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer
district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive
annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of
these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.
The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100
years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas
it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.
What are the features of humidity
The relative humidity
in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to
unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this
region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.
During the monsoon months, July to September the
relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is
about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in
West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the
humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity
percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows
a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.
The annual average of relative humidity
of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of
Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of
relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.
The variation in the relative humidity is low during
the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the
variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the
afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid
The main reason in this decline is the deforestation
and other activities.
The diurnal variation
in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the
contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative
humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the
summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the
diurnal variation is highest.
Describe the socio-economic
condition of Harappan civilisation?
Answer: Indus valley is an
example of great civilisation flourishing in the pre Vedic era. The
civilisation marks the zenith in terms of art, architecture and culture. Its
magnanimous architecture depicts the vibrant social and culture life.
Cities were divided into two parts. One was citadel (for the nobles) and the
other part was common city depicting the hierarchy in the social milieu. There
was strong sense of fashion including cosmetics and jewellery and it was common
for both men and women. Various household articles made of pottery; stone,
shells, ivory and metal have been found at Mohenjodaro. Spindles, needles,
combs, fish hooks, knives are made of copper. Children’s toys include little
clay carts. Marbles, balls and dice were used for games.
Mother earth was worshipped as Goddess. Nature
worshipping was prevalent with people believing in ghosts and spirits. Amulets
were used to cast away bad spirits. Pashupati seal resembles the lord Shiva of
Vedic era. Absence of temples is there.
Economic life: There was a great progress in all spheres of
economic activity such as agriculture, industry and crafts and trade. Indus
valley was both agrarian and industrial economy. Specialized groups of artisans include
goldsmiths, brick makers, stone cutters, weavers, boat-builders and terracotta
manufacturers. Bronze and copper vessels are the outstanding examples of the
Harappan metal craft.
Internal trade was extensive with other parts of India.
Foreign trade of barter type was mainly conducted with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan
and Iran. Presence of seal in Mesopotamia testifies the trade links. Trade was
of the barter type.
What is HGP read? How it is
different from HGP write? List down the application of Human genome project?
Answer: The Human genome
project was a large, international and multi-institutional effort that took 13
years from 1999 and $2.7 billion to produce a blueprint of the sequence of
genes and space between genes that make up a typical human genome. Following
were the observation of HGP (read)-
- 99% of the total human DNA is junk DNA
- 1% is the only functional gene
- We have a total 30,000 gene in our genome.
In 2016, a project name HGP write was started whose
major function was to synthesise gene from scratch by the help of
bioengineering tools. Following areas of science have taken advantage of human
HGP has made it easy for researchers and doctors to look deeply into the cause
of the disease other than symptoms. It will help to treat genetic disease at an
embryonic stage by the help of gene therapy, site generated mutagenesis. It
will help to create efficient DNA vaccine.
Mapping of human genome will help to improve the scope of gene therapy and stem
cell therapy to treat the diseases. It will also help to improve the production
of healthy livestock.
It will help to solve the criminal cases by increasing
the scope and efficiency of forensic DNA testing. It will help to solve the
HGP will help to build the technology to write the
genome of microorganism like bacteria. It will help to treat the deadly diseases
like malaria, dengue etc. We can
synthesise methane generating microorganism which can address the energy
Hence, HGP has wide range of application from filed of medicine to industrial sector. It has huge potential in the future which can be utilised to address the problems like deadly diseases (vector borne), energy deficiency and polluted environment.
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Explain the Salient features of
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
It is a living document, an instrument which makes the government system work.
It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles,
establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government
institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the
duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign
country in the world, Containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5
appendices and 101 Amendments.
Salient Features of the Indian Constitution
Constitution in the world
Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed of all the written
Constitutions of the world containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5
appendices and 101 Amendments.
Parliamentary form of Government
of India establishes a parliamentary form of a government both at the Centre
and the State. The essence of the parliamentary government is its
responsibility to the Legislature. The president is the constitutional head of
the State but the real executive power is vested in the council of ministers
whose head is the Prime Minister.
Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility
It has been the nature of the amending process itself
in federations which had led political scientists to classify federal
Constitution as rigid.
incorporation of a formal declaration of Fundamental Rights in part III of the
Constitution is deemed to be a distinguishing feature of a democratic State.
These rights are prohibitions against the State. The State cannot make a law
which takes away or abridges any of the rights of the citizens guaranteed in
part III of Constitution.
Directive Principles of State policy (DPSP)
Principles of State Policy contained in Part IV of the Constitution, it set out
the aims and objectives to be taken up by the States in the governance of the
federation with strong centralizing tendency
The most remarkable feature of the Indian Constitution
is that being a federal Constitution it acquires a unitary character during the
time of emergency. During the proclamation of emergency the normal distribution
of powers between Centre and State undergoes a vital change. The union
parliament is empowered to legislate on any subject mentioned in the state
list. The financial arrangements between the Centre and State can also be
altered by the Union Government.
The old system
of communal electorates has been abolished and the uniform adult suffrage
system has been adopted. Under the Indian Constitution every man and women
above 18 years of age has been given the right to elect representatives for the
and impartial judiciary with power of judicial review has been established under
the Constitution of India. It is a custodian right of citizens. Besides, in a
federal Constitution it plays another significant role of determining the
limits of power of the Centre and States.
A Secular State
has no religion of its own as recognised religion of State. It treats all
religions equally. Articles 25 to 28 of the Indian Constitution give concrete
shape to this concept of secularism. It guarantees to every person the freedom
of conscience and the right to profess, practice and propagate religion. In a
Secular state, the state only regulates the relationship between man and man.
The American constitution provides for dual
citizenship, i.e., the citizen of America and a state citizenship. But in India
there is only one citizenship i.e., Citizen of India.No state citizenship like
citizen of Assam, Citizen of Delhi. Every Indian is Citizen of India and enjoys
the same rights of citizenship no matter in what state he resides.
What were the
objectives of Demonetisation? What were the positive effects?
The stated objective of
- Reduction of black money
- Achieving lower cash/ GDP ration
- An attack on fake currency
- To stop terror funding
- Increasing digital transactions
- Increasing tax network
Positive effects of
Demonetisation are as follows:
- The number of tax fillers have increased.(
Additional 9 million)
- The transactions made amounting to Rs 3
lakh crore are under Income tax deptt. Vigilance
- Over 2 lakh shell companies have been
- Demonetisation has able to put a hold on
unregulated Real estate sector.
- Anonymity with the cash transactions is
- The whole process has brought more
- Formalisation of economy- a step toward
World War I brought significant
changes? Discuss the Impact of World War I?
World War I was fought globally and had global
consequences. It leads to rise of new ideologies and new centre of Human power
at the same time it had huge cost attached with the war. The Impact of the
World War I is as follows:
Human and economic cost:
- Approx 10million died due to direct
- Rails and River transport was destroyed.
- Millions were killed due to typhus.
- The fragile machinery of international
exchange was destroyed.
- The influenza pandemic
Rise of new centre of power
- US’s military was turned into a large scale
fighting force with intense experience of modern warfare.
- US economic hegemony started to the rise
after the war. European dominancy phase started to decline.
Advent of new ideologies:
- Rise of communism in Russia
- Fascism and Nazism
- Rise of socialism
Changes in the Political map of Europe and
- Austria and Hungary became new independent
- Serbia kingdom became Yugoslavia
- French occupation over Rhineland.
- French, British and Russian divided Ottoman
Empire into sphere of influence.
- A buffer zone of nations was created
between Russian and Europe to help deter the spread of Bolshevism.
Birth rates went down because millions of young men
died. Civilians lost their homes and fled to other countries.
The role of women also changed. They played a major
part in replacing men in factories and offices. Many countries gave women more
rights after the war had ended, including the right to vote.
The upper classes lost their leading role in society.
Young middle and lower class men and women demanded a say in forming their
country after the war.
World War 1 boosted research in technology, because
better transport and means of communication gave countries an advantage over
After World War 1, the need for an international body
of nations that promotes security and peace worldwide became evident. This
caused the founding of the League of Nations.
What is continental drift theory?
Write down the evidence for continental drift?
The continental drift hypothesis was developed in the
early part of the 20th century, mostly by Alfred Wegener. Wegener said that
continents move around on Earth’s surface and that they were once joined
together as a single supercontinent. While Wegener was alive, scientists did
not believe that the continents could move. Alfred Wegener proposed that the
continents were once united into a single supercontinent named Pangaea, meaning
all earth in ancient Greek. He suggested that Pangaea broke up long ago and
that the continents then moved to their current positions. He called his
hypothesis continental drift.
Identical rocks of the same type and age are found on
both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Wegener said the rocks had formed side-by-side
and that the land had since moved apart.Mountain ranges with the same rock
types, structures, and ages are now on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Appalachians of the eastern United States and Canada, for example, are just
like mountain ranges in eastern Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway.
Wegener concluded that they formed as a single mountain range that was
separated as the continents drifted.
of the same species of extinct plants and animals are found in rocks of the
same age but are on continents that are now widely separated. Wegener proposed
that the organisms had lived side by side, but that the lands had moved apart
after they were dead and fossilized.
glossopteris vegetation in carboniferous rocks of India, Australia, South
Africa, Falkland Islands (Overseas territory of UK), Antarctica, etc. can be
explained on the basis of the fact that parts were linked in the past.
It is the sedimentary rock formed out of deposits of glaciers. The Gondwana
system of sediments from India is known to have its counter parts in six
different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base the system has
thick Tillite indicating extensive and prolonged glaciations. Counter parts of
this succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica
and Australia besides India.
deposits of gold are found on the Ghana coast (West Africa) but the source
(gold bearing veins) are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of
the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side
What is Biopiracy? Give some
Biopiracy is the practice of commercially exploiting
naturally occurring genetic material or biochemical. Most of the indigenous
people possess a traditional knowledge that mainly comprises of genetic
diversity and biological feature of the natural environment from generation to
generation. Some of the traditional knowledge that is relevant to global
survival includes the following components.
- Medicinal Plants.
- Farming or Agriculture.
- Varieties of Food crops.
The essential components for the survival of rural and
indigenous people include conservation of habitat, species, and biodiversity.
Examples of Biopiracy
African super-sweet berries: Pentadiplandra brazzein is a plant found in the
west of South Africa. It is a vital source of protein known as Brazzein. Here,
people use it as a low-calorie sweetener. It is known to be two thousand times
sweeter than sugar. Recent developments include isolation of the gene encoding
brazzein that has been sequenced and patented in the USA.
Biopiracy of the Enola bean:
It was named after the wife of Larry Proctor, who patented it in 1999. Enola
bean is a variety of Mexican yellow bean. Farmers in North Mexico depended on
sales of this bean. The patent-holder subsequently sued a large number of
importers of Mexican yellow beans. As a result, it caused an economic damage to
farmers. A lawsuit was filed by farmers and the result was in favor of farmers
as ruled by U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The rosy periwinkle: The
rosy periwinkle was originally found in Madagascar. Now, it has been introduced
to several other tropical countries across the globe. This implements that
researchers can obtain knowledge from one nation and plants samples in other
What are the
reasons for seasonality?
Seasonality refers to both
the seasonal variation of the suns position above the horizon and the changing
day length. There are five reasons for
seasons which are discussed here under:
Earth’s revolution in its
orbit around the sun: Earth completes its annual orbit in 365.24 days at a
speed averaging 107,280 Km.hr in a counter clockwise direction when viewed from
above the earth’s North Pole.
It determines day length, causes the apparent deflection of moving bodies and
produces tides. Earth’s rotation reduces the diurnal pattern of day and night.
The dividing line between day and night is called the circle of illumination.
Since this circle of illumination always bisect the equator, day length at the
equator always evenly divided. Tilt of axis: Earth is tilted towards its
axis. It makes an angle of 23.50. This
is also the reason for seasonality.
Throughout the revolution the earth’s axis maintain the same alignment relative
to the plane of ecliptic. In each position earth is revolving with the axis
oriented identically. This condition is known as parallelism.
Spherical shape of earth:
Earth curved surface presents a continuously varied angle to the incoming
parallel rays of the sun. The latitudinal variation in the angle of solar rays
results in an uneven global distribution of insolation.
What is the role
of NITI Aayog? Write short notes.
Answer: NITI Aayog
(National Institute for transforming India) is a policy think tank of the Government
of India to achieve sustainable development goals and to achieve cooperative
federalism by enhancing the role of state government in the economic policy
making and to make bottom up approach a reality.
The role of NITI Aayog
- Bring Inclusivity in the policy making by
acting as collaborating platform.
- It will act as the friend, philosopher and
guide for the state. Here, best practices among the state can be shared and can
- It will help to integrate data and the
analysis of the data to make policies more efficient.
- Designing policies more grounded in reality
will be another aspect. Bringing reality and innovation in policy making.
- It will help to bring harmony between state
and centre rather than confonntative federalism. The idea is to make team
Describe the drainage system of
The Location of the great Indian watershed and the
existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of
Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide
due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from
the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the
southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of
Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past
Udai sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to
Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west
and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi
are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern
side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along
with its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and
Berach, Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins
the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.
The inland drainage system
is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is
that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies
west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin,
Barrah basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage
basins. The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these
The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer
is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the
southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur,
Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river
has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A
small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river
widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km
flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area
of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is
choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the
river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut
the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the
western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri,
Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams
contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river
Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near
the Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather
than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to
the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River
Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which
it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.
The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south,
southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and
has some important streams.
The river Chambal is the largest stream
and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the
Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might
occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.
The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of
the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about
325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both
the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at
505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.
The river Chambal is joined by its first major
tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati
joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it
bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj,
after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the
river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms
the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river
Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas
join the Chambal River on the left bank.
The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar
Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The
river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara
and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards
the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this
river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The
upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.