(PDF) History and Culture of Rajasthan: State Gazetteer

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Geography of Rajasthan

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(PDF) Land and The People of Rajasthan: State Gazetteer

This is very useful for all competitive exams; Rajasthan Public Service Commission RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains, Rajasthan subordinate exams, Lecturer, Teachers, SI, LDC etc.

Join our Telegram Channel for Regular Updates

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

UPSC IAS EXAMS BOOK/NOTESRPSC RAS/RTS EXAMS BOOK/NOTES

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Disclaimer:-The myupsc.com is not an official website of any government examination, and not associated with the Government Organization. The Information and study material we are providing here have been collected from http://plan.rajasthan.gov.in. All the Readers/students/others please also check details on Original website before taking any decision. Here we are not responsible for any Inadvertent Error that may have crept in the information being published in this Website and for any loss to anybody or anything caused by any Shortcoming, Defect or Inaccuracy of the Information on this Website. If any Problem please contact us@thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com

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Geography of Rajasthan

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RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
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RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS/RTS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-3

Paper-III General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs-Click Here

  • Indian Constitution: Framing, Features, Amendments, Basic Structure.
  • Ideological Contents: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Institutional framework- I: Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Parliament.
  • Institutional Framework- II: Federalism, Centre-State relations, Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  • Institutional Framework- III: Election Commission of IndiaComptroller and Auditor General, Union Public Service Commission, NITI Aayog, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Information Commission, National Human Rights Commission
  • Political Dynamics: Role of Cast, Religion, Class, Ethnicity, Language and Gender in Indian Politics, Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour, Civil Society and Political Movement, Issues related to National Integrity and Security. Potential areas of Socio-Political conflicts
  • State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan, Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions
  • Emerging World Order in the post Cold War era, USA’s hegemony and its resistance, UN and Regional Organizations, International Terrorism and Environmental issues.
  • Foreign Policy of India: Evolution, Determinants, India’s relations with USA, China, Russia and European Union, India’s role in UN, NAM, BRICS, G- 20, G- 77 and SAARC.
  • Geo-political and Strategic development in South Asia, South East Asia and West Asia and their impact on India.
  • Current Affairs: Current events, persons and places of Rajasthan, National and international importance, recent activities related to games and sports.

Unit II- Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

Download-Public Administration & Management Study Notes for RAS Mains Exam Paper-3

  • Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance. Its role in developed & developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration, Theories of public administration.
  • Concepts of power, authority, legitimacy, responsibility and delegation.
  • Principles of organization: Hierarchy, Span of control and unity of command
  • Functions of management, Corporate governance and social responsibility
  • New dimensions of public management, management of change.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of civil services: integrity, impartiality, and non partisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between generalists and specialists.
  • Legislative & Judicial control over administration: various methods and techniques of legislative & judicial control.
  • Administrative setup, administrative culture in Rajasthan: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Secretariat and Chief Secretary.
  • District administration: organization, role of District Collector and Superintendent of Police, Sub-divisional and Tehsil administration.
  • Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics.
  • State Human Rights Commission, State Election Commission, Lokayukta, Rajasthan Public Service Commission, Public Service Guarantee Act, 2011.

Unit III- Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

DOWNLOAD-RAS Mains Exam Paper-3 Sports & Yoga Study Notes

Part A- Sports and Yoga

  • Sports Policies of India.
  • Rajasthan State Sports Council.
  • National Awards of Sports.
  • (Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award,
  • Maharana Pratap Award etc.)
  • Yoga – Positive way of Life.
  • Eminent Players of India.
  • First Aid in Sports.
  • Participation of Indian Atheletes in Olympics and Para-Olympic Games.

Part B – Behavior

Download-RAS mains Exam Paper-III Law & Behaviour Study Notes

  • Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social intelligence, Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
  • Personality: Psychoanalytical theories, Trait and Type theories, Determinants of personality and Assessment of personality.
  • Learning and Motivation: styles of learning, Models of memory, causes of forgetting. Classification and types of motives, Theories of work motivation, Assessment of motivation
  • Meeting Life Challenges: Stress: Nature, type, Sources, Symptoms, Effects, Stress Management, Promotion of Positive health and well being.

Part C-Law

  • Concepts of Law: Ownership and possession, Personality, Liability, Rights and Duties.
  • Contemporary Legal issues: Right to information, Information technology law including cyber laws (concepts, purpose, prospects), Intellectual Property Rights (concepts, types, purpose, prospects)
  • Crimes against Women and Children: Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment the work place, the protection of children from sexual offenses Act 2012, Laws related to child labour.
  • Important Land Laws in Rajasthan: Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956; Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit I- Administrative Ethics

Administrative Ethics Study notes for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II – Download

  • Ethics and Human Values: Lesson from lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators. Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Ethical concept-Rit and Rin, concept of Duties, concept of Good and Virtues.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships- Behaviour, Moral and Political attitudes of administrators – Philosophical basis of Integrity.
  • Ethics of Bhagavad Geeta and its role in Administration.
  • Gandhian Ethics.
  • Contribution of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India.
  • Psycho-Stress Management.
  • Case Studies.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts and their Utilities.

Unit II- General Science & Technology

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-II Science & Technology Study Notes-Download

  • Nanotechnology: -Concept and its application; Nano Mission of India.
  • Nuclear technology: – Basic concept, radioactivity and its applications, different types of nuclear reactors, civilian and military uses. Institutional structure for development of nuclear technology in India.
  • Telecommunication :- Basic concept, Telecom application for socio-economic development of masses, Indian telecom industry with brief history, National
  • Telecom Policy and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
  • Electromagnetic waves, communication systems, basics of computers, uses of information technology, e-governance and e-commerce in administration.
  • Defence :- Types of missiles with reference to the India Missile Programme;
  • Various chemical and biological weapons ; Role of DRDO in various fields
  • States of Matter
  • Allotropes of carbon.
  • pH Scale and importance of pH in daily life.
  • Corrosion and its prevention
  • Catalyst
  • Soap and Detergents – Cleansing action of soap.
  • Polymers and their uses
  • General awareness of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, coordination and reproductive system of Humans
  • Application of Biotechnology and concerned Ethical and Intellectual Property Right Issues.
  • Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food, Malnutrition, Intoxicants, Blood, Blood Group and Immunity (Antigen, Antibodies), Blood Transfusion, Immunization & Vaccination.
  • Human diseases: Communicable & Non Communicable Diseases, Acute and Chronic Diseases; Causes and Prevention of Infectious, Genetic and Lifestyle Disease.
  • Water quality and water purification.
  • Public Health Initiatives with special reference to the State of Rajasthan.
  • Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology.
  • Ecosystem: Structure and Function.
  • Atmosphere : Composition and Basic nutrient cycling (Nitrogen, Carbon and Water Cycles)
  • Climate Change; Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation; Waste Management.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation with special reference to the state of Rajasthan.
  • Water Conservation with special reference to the Traditional Systems in the State of Rajasthan.
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal Husbandry with special Reference to Rajasthan

Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)

Part A- World

World Geography Study Notes RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II-Download

Part B- India

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-II Geography of India Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers.
  • Major Physio-graphic divisions of India.
  • Climate- Origin of Monsoon, Seasonal Climatic conditions, Distribution of rainfall and climatic regions,
  • Natural Resources: (a) Water, Forest, Soil

(b) Rocks & Mineral: Types and their uses

  • Population: Growth, Distribution and Density, Sex-ratio, Literacy, urban and Rural Population.

Part C- Rajasthan

RAS Mains Exam Paper-2 Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes-Download

  • Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Rivers and Lakes.
  • Major Physio-graphic Regions.
  • Natural Vegetation and Climate.
  • Livestock, Wildlife and its Conversation.
  • Agriculture- Major Crops.
  • Mineral Resources: (i) Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation.                                              (ii)Non-Metallic Minerals- Types, distribution and Industrial uses and their conservation
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional
  • Population and Tribes.

RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test in Hindi

Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

Paper – I General Knowledge and General Studies

Unit-I

Part A

History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan

Art-Culture-Heritage of Rajasthan for RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

Ancient Medieval Modern History of Rajasthan for RAS Mains Exam Paper-I Notes-Download

  • Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  • Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  • Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  • Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  • Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  • Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

Part B

 Indian History & Culture

Art and Culture of India for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

Part C – History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

(Free)RAS Mains Exam Paper-I History of Modern World Study Notes

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

Unit II- ECONOMICS

Part A- Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

Part B- World Economy

  • Global Economic issues and trends: Role of World Bank, IMF & WTO.
  • Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
  • India in global Scenario

Part C- Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan for RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I Study Notes-Download

  • Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Dairy and Animal husbandry with special reference to Rajasthan.
  • Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends.
  • Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan. Recent development and issues in service sector of Rajasthan.
  • Major Development Projects of Rajasthan- their objectives and impact.
  • Public Private Partnership Model for Economic Transformation in Rajasthan.
  • Demographic Scenario of the State and its impact on Rajasthan Economy.

Unit III- SOCIOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Sociology,Management,Accounting & Auditing RAS Mains Paper-I-Study Notes

Part A- Sociology

  • Development of Sociological Thought in India Social Values
  • Caste Class & Occupation
  • Sanskritization
  • Varna, Ashram, Purusharthas and Sanskar Vyavastha
  • Secularism
  • Issues and Problems of Society.
  • Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia.

Part B- Management

  • Management – Scope, concept, functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Coordination and Control, Decision-Making: concept, process and techniques.
  • Modern concept of Marketing, Marketing Mix Product, Price, Place and Promotion
  • Objective, concept of maximization of wealth, Sources of Finance – Short and Long term, Capital Structure, Cost of Capital
  • Concept and Main theories of Leadership and Motivation, Communication
  • Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development and appraisal system

Part C- Business Administration

  • Techniques of analysis of Financial statements, Basics of Working Capital Management
  • Responsibility and Social Accounting Meaning
  • Objectives of Auditing, Internal Control, Social, Performance and Efficiency Audit. Basics of different types of Budgeting, Budgetary control

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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-7

Write short Notes:-

1. Jakham Dam

  • Jakham Dam is located in Pratapgarh District in Rajasthan. It is located in Anooppura village of Pratapgarh Tehsil; the dam is a main irrigation project of the area.

This dam is built on the Jakham River, which originates from a small village Jakhamia in Chhoti Sadri sub division. The Jakham dam’s foundation was laid on 14 May 1968 by then chief minister Mohan Lal Sukhadia.

2. Bhiwadi

  • Bhiwadi is a city in Alwar district of Rajasthan state in India. It is an industrial hub in Rajasthan. It is part of the National Capital Region.

3. Kali Sindh River

  • The Kali Sindh is a river in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. It belongs to the Ganges Basin. The Kali Sindh originates from Bagli (District Dewas) in Madhya Pradesh. It crosses the State Highway No 18 connecting Indore and state capital Bhopal near Sonkatch. The main tributaries of the Kali Sindh are Parwan, Niwaj and Ahu, Kuwari and Betwa Rivers.

It makes boundary of Shajapur and Rajgarh districts and enters Jhalawar and Kota districts of Rajasthan. The river then joins Chambal River at the downstream of Baran District in Rajasthan.

4. Palana Lignite Coal Fields

  • Palana and Khari mines of Bikaner district in Rajasthan carry Lignite deposits (inferior quality of coal). The coal produced is mainly used in the thermal power plants and railways.

5. National Desert Park

  • Desert National Park is situated in the West Indian state of Rajasthan near the Jaisalmer and Barmer. This is one of the largest national parks, covering an area of 3162 km². The Desert National Park is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert. Sand dunes form around 20% of the Park.

Despite a fragile ecosystem there is an abundance of birdlife. The region is a haven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. Many eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures are spotted here. Desert National Park has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old.

6. Irrigation by Persian Wheel

The Persian wheel method is popular in the central and eastern region where the ground water table is comparatively high. One Persian wheel can irrigate up to one hectare of land.

7. When was Hurda meeting organized? What were its objectives?

The land of Rajasthan has witnessed very few moments when its warriors united on a common issue shading all the differences. One such occasion was the battle of Khanwa when all the kings fought in unison against the mighty Mughal Babar. May be it was the charismatic leadership provided by Maharana Sangram Singh. But the bitter truth is that after Sangram Singh the threads of unity shattered. The death of Aurangzeb coincided with the rise of Maratha power.

  1. The Maratha power reached its zenith under the leadership of Peshwas. They used to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi as tax or tribute. In the first half of eighteenth century their interference in the politics of Rajasthan reached disturbing levels.
  2. They started plundering territories of Rajasthan inflicting defeats on various rulers. Even kingdoms of high stature like Mewar were humbled by the Marathas.
  3. At this time Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur tried to unite all Rajput rulers under one umbrella by convening Hurda Conference. It was attended by almost all Rajput kings.

8. What are the Problems of draughts and desertification in Rajasthan?

The major factors responsible for the desertification of Thar Desert of Rajasthan are climatic factors such as high temperature, low rainfall and high wind velocity and biotic factors like overgrazing of livestock (mainly cattle), intensive crop cultivation, indiscriminate deforestation and exploitation of natural.

9. What are the Causes of environmental pollution in the desert area of Rajasthan?

1. Wind erosion is a major problem in the desert regions of Rajasthan resulting in loss of top soil, damaging crop plants, and burying viable agricultural lands.

2. Water erosion tends to occur in the wetter parts of the arid zone and the semi-arid areas of India.

3. Rapid population growth contributes to land degradation in India. On one hand, the growing population has disrupted traditional systems of land tenure and inheritance extending agricultural activities to marginal lands which are much more vulnerable to land degradation. On the other hand, slums are built on some of the region’s best agricultural land. People have the imperative to produce more food on shrinking plots, and then turn to adopt intensive agricultural techniques which make soil resources face a constant danger of depletion.

4. Unsustainable land use can also lead to land degradation. Much of the land currently under cultivation was regarded, until recently, suitable only for animal husbandry, which causes two problems: first, growing food crops on such land has led to the development of unsustainable agricultural practices such as intensive irrigation and over-cropping; second, it has pressed grazers onto more marginal land which may lead to overgrazing. Both have contributed to the growing problem of erosion.

5. Irrigation of soils makes them prone to Stalinization, alkalinization or even water-logging.

6. Over-cropping reduces the available organic matter in the soil. Humus loss decreases the ability of the soil to hold water, speeds precipitation runoff, increases the chance of flooding and water erosion, and makes the area more vulnerable to drought.

7. Mine spoils are becoming a driver of land degradation in the arid lands of India.

8. Trade and globalization contribute to land degradation in India as well. The importance of cash crops and food crop exports is likely to grow. This development is predicted to force more food production onto marginal areas, which will augment existing problems, especially related to erosion.

10. What are the reasons for the development of cement industry in Rajasthan?

The industry depends upon the availability of limestone, clay or shale and gypsum. These natural materials are mined in different regions; as such factories are set up close to the sources of raw material.

Development of means of transport and availability of capital are other factors which determine development of cement industry. It is because of developmental work in the country, like construction of multipurpose river valley projects, means of transport, industries and housing activity. Rajasthan has rich potentials for cement manufacturing. Cement factories are located at Lakheri, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Banas, Beawar, Nimbahera and Sirohi.

RAS-MAINS-PRACTICE-PAPER

11. Describe Aravali Hill Development Programme

  • In the year 2000, Government of Rajasthan engaged ARAVALI to undertake a baseline study to demarcate the Magra Area and identify the development gaps and priority for its development.
  • Based on the survey, the government allocated funds for the development of the area. In the year 2005, again Government of Rajasthan requested Aravali to prepare a proposal detailing out situational analysis and identifying appropriate solutions in terms of natural resource enhancement, infrastructure development and capacity building aspects and finally proposing a strategic plan of Bhilwara district.

12. Write short notes on Mansagar Lake

  • Man Sagar Lake is an artificial lake, situated in Jaipur, the capital of the state of Rajasthan in India. It is named after Raja Man Singh, the then ruler of Amer, who constructed it in c. 1610 by damming the Dravyavati River.
  • The Jal Mahal is situated in the middle of the lake.

Write short notes on the followings:

13. Ghatiyala Inscription

14. Ghosundi Inscription

15. BuchKalan Inscription

16. Ranthambore Fort

17. Chittorgarh Fort

18. Mandawa Fort

13. Ghatiyala Inscription

Ghantiyala or Ghatiyala is a village in Jodhpur Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient names are Rohimsakupaka, Rohimsakupaka and Rohimsaka.

The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in Ghatiyala, twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column is not far distant from an old ruined Jaina structure, now called Mata-ki-Sal.

14. Ghosundi Inscription

The earliest epigraphic evidence regarding the worship of Lord Narayana is found from the Ghosundi Stone Inscription of Maharaja Sarvatata of 1st Century B.C. Ghosundi is a village in the chittorgarh district of rajasthan.

The inscription record the erection of enclosing wall around the stone object of worship called Narayana Vatika for the divinities  Sankarshana and Vasudeva  by one Sarvatta  who was a devotee of Bhagavat and had performed an Asvamedha Sacrifice.

15. BuchKalan Inscription

BuchKalan is an ancient historical town in Bilada tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Rajyaghangakam.

This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at BuchKalan in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabha mandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati.

16. Ranthambore Fort

Ranthambore Fort is housed in the wildlife sanctuary of the same name in Sawai Madhopur. Built in the 10th century by Nagil Jats, these are the oldest remnants of the royalty of Rajasthan. Built on two hills, the fort is mainly in ruins. Witnessing attacks of Mughals, British and ravages of time, few structures remain standing.

Attractions to check out are Hammir’s Court, Badal Mahal, Dhula Mahal, Ganesha temple, Jogi Mahal, Shiva Temple, Ramlal ji Temple and temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath. The roar of the Royal Bengal Tigers and the call of wild animals can be frequently heard. The calls are reminders that the fort is their territory.

Adventure is the allure of the fort. Now it is a free sanctuary of animals which was previously hunting grounds of the Royalty.

17. Chittorgarh Fort

One of the oldest forts in Rajasthan, Chittorgarh Fort is the origin of many stories of valor, courage and sacrifice. The impregnable fortress is one of the most significant places to learn the history of Rajasthan. The 7th century fort is the land of Meera Bai who drank poison than leave the love of her Lord Krishna, and, Rani Padmini and Karanavati who protected honor by jumping into the fire of Jauhar and the heroics of Gora, Badal and Panna Dhai.

  • The UNESCO World Heritage Site is the breathing grounds of the romantic tales of Rajasthan.
  • Sieged numerous times in various periods of history, a lot of stories lies within its boundaries. Check out the beautiful attractions of Rana Kumbha Mahal, Ratan Singh’s Palace, Badal Mahal, Rani Padmini’s Palace, Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal, etc.
  • The Vijay Stambha and Kirti Stambha and several cenotaphs stand as memorials.

The temples of Kalika mata Temple, Adbuthnath Temple, Kumbha Shyam Temple, etc are worshipped by Hindus and Jains and still draw crowds. The seven gates of Chittorgarh deserve attention as they have lots of history associated with it.

18. Mehrangarh Fort

Mehrangarh Fort stands as one of the most important heritage sites of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The foundation of the fort was laid way back in 1458 by Rathore ruler, Rao Jodha. The Citadel of the Sun was not once sieged. The fort remains invincible and inspires awe from all. There are numerous mysteries and scandals hidden.

  • What does not hide is its architectural splendor.
  • The exquisite palaces of Moti Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Phool Mahal, Daulat Khana and Sileh Khana.
  • The fort itself is a museum where the lifestyle of the Rathore clan and even Mughals is preserved. From weaponry, palanquins, cradles, musical instruments, furniture to the clothes of the era get an insight of the glorious era.

19. Taragarh Fort

Taragarh Fort in Bundi is one of the magnificent forts in Rajasthan. The fort overlooking the city of Bundi has sadly been ravaged by time but its charm does not fade. Built in 1354 A.D., the fort remains as glorious remnants of the Chauhan dynasty. The breathtaking views are delightful. The gateway to the fort is decked with stone statues of elephants.

  • There are mainly 3 entries named Lakshmi Pol, Gagudi ki Phatak and Phuta Darwaza.
  • Taragarh fort also houses an excellent network of tunnels which were saviors in times of need. The huge properly planned water reservoirs must be visited.
  • The beautiful Rani Mahal was designed with murals; artwork and lattice artworks inspire awe.
  • The Bhim Burj and Garbha Gunjan, the huge field cannons are few of the popular attractions.

20. Gagron Fort

One of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, the hill fort of Rajasthan is a beauty. The Gagron Fort is a beautiful site of archaeological importance. This structure is the epitome of a “Jal Durg” as it is surrounded by water on all sides.

  • Built for protection from armies, in 1195 A.D by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire, the fort draws visitors and devotes from all over. Here also lies the tomb of a Sufi saint, Pipa Baba.
  • The glory of the fort has been faded with time but its charm still lives. The Rajputana glory lives in these structures forgotten in the chapters of history.

21. Mandawa Fort

Founded in 18th Century by Nawal Singh, Mandawa Fort of Shekhawati is an impressive structure of heritage of Rajasthan. The exquisite artwork, architecture and the ambiance has been preserved beautifully and converted into a heritage hotel. The charm has been pleasantly treasured.

  • The medieval themed rooms, balconies, the antique collection, the family portraits of the rulers and their belongings take you back in history.
  • The grand archways and the paintings of Lord Krishna and his cows are a visual treat. Wander through areas opened for tourists and you shall witness the impressive aura and architecture of the Royal state of Rajasthan.

22. Write the Name of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan

There are eight world Heritage sites in Rajasthan Namely:

  1. Chittorgarh Fort
  2. Kumbhalgarh Fort
  3. Ranthambore Fort
  4. Jaisalmer Fort
  5. Gagron Fort
  6. Keoladeo National Park
  7. Jantar Mantar
  8. Amber Fort

23. Write in brief on e-waste management.

The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

• Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
• Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
• Mercury, chromium, lead, and  Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.

 Give an account of the following

24) Mahila e-Haat

25) Sakhi-one stop centres

26) Ujjwala scheme

 

Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given     financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

 Give an account of the following:

27) SAKAAR

28) PRAGATI

29) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters

30. Discuss the importance of Champaran Satyagraha.

This was the first experiment of novel method adopted by Gandhiji i.e. civil disobedience and passive resistance in the Champaran. This has huge historical significance as it marks the advent of Gandhiji in mainline politics and paved the ground for Gandhi ji popularity as leader. It also gave sanctions to the method adopted by Gandhiji.

Gandhiji was able to convince the administration that tinkathia was an exploitative system and need revamping. He became the member of the committee to make an enquiry. The recommendations of the committee were in the favour of Peasants and it recommended to abolish tinkathia and asked to compensate the peasants for illegal collection of rents and taxes.

First time rural problem in general and the problem of peasants were taken into consideration which were obscure hitherto in the Indian politics. It makes the way for participation of peasants in mass movements.

 Give an account of the following:

31) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

32) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

33) Khilafat movement

34) Lahore conspiracy case

 

31) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

JBM: On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000. The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar.

32) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

Nagpur session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.

33) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.

34) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.

Give an account of following:

35) Hunter commission

36) Sadler commission

Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:

•       Assess wood’s dispatch.

•       To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.

Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work

Give an account of the following:

37) Vaikkom Satyagraha

38) Delhi proposal

39) Alipore conspiracy

40) Muzaffarpur conspiracy case

Vaikkom Satyagraha:

Vaikkom Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the princely state of Travancore.

Delhi proposal:

Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.

Alipore conspiracy:

The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging (1908).

Muzaffarpur Conspiracy:

It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack.

41. Discuss the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?

Reasons:

  • The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
  • Lack of leadership
  • Internal rift in congress
  • Congress failure to influence masses at large.
  • It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
  • Repression by Britishers was another reason

Give an account of following.

42) Project Tiger

43) Project Hangul

44) Sea Turtle Project

45) Project snow leopard

Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA

Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag) its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m

Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.

Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Prades

Define following term

46) Current account

47) Capital account

48) Balance of payment

49) Trade balance

Current account: Current account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in share.

Capital account: Capital account of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or liabilities of the residents of the country or its government

Balance of payments: The balance of payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world.

Trade balance: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments

50. What is a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the Benami transactions amendment act?

Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is made by another.

Effect on economy:

  1. Loss of revenue
  2. Generation of black money
  3. Moral hazard for honest tax payers
  4. Artificial inflationary tendencies
  5. Increase in the prices especially of real estate

Provisions of Benami amendment act:

  • Establishment of adjudicating authority
  • Case has to be decided in a year’s time
  • Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two other members.
  • Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these properties.
  • Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.

51. What is Desai-Liaqat proposal?

M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.

Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:

  • Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
  • Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
  • The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.

M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League

Geography of Rajasthan Study Notes with practice MCQ

Where globalization means as it so often does that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protect in the name of universal freedom – Nelson Mandela

Preface

I am presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, forest, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I have tried to avoid mistakes, if there is any minute mistakes in it please comment and that will help to improve the book when a revised edition comes out. It is honest hope that this book will prove useful for Aspirants.

Best wishes!!

Er. R.P.Meena

myupsc.com

(thesupermanreturns61@gmail.com)

Content                                                 Pages

  1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                             3-10
  2. Geology of Rajasthan                                                    11-47  
  3. Disaster Management                                                   48-53
  4. Physical divisions                                                          54-73
  5. Mountain Peaks                                                             74-78
  6. Climate of Rajasthan                                                     79-103
  7. Drainage/River  System                                               104-125
  8. Lakes in Rajasthan                                                         126-132
  9. National Parks                                                                133-143
  10. Wildlife Sanctuary                                                         144-146
  11. Soils of Rajasthan                                                           147-159
  12. Irrigation Development                                                 160-172
  13. Agriculture                                                                     173-183
  14. Minerals and Mines                                                       184-213
  15. Rajasthan Basin(Hydrocarbon)                                   214-220
  16. Livestock of Rajasthan                                                  221-233
  17. Classification of forest                                                   234-235
  18. Natural Vegetation                                                        236-238
  19. Transportation in Rajasthan                                         239-256
  20. Tribes of Rajasthan                                                         257-267
  21. Population-2011                                                            268-308
  22. Practice Solved Questions                                             309-379

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Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question: RAS Mains Exam

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RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Question.

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  1. What is the Political Background of Rajasthan?
  2. What is unification?
  3. What is the role of Pro-term Speakers of Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha?
  4. Briefly describe the Integration of Rajasthan
  5. What do you know about Greater Rajasthan?
  6. Write short notes on The Indian Councils Act, 1861
  7. Which are the important bodies in Rajasthan?
  8. What is Inter-State Council?
  9. What is the Composition of the inter-state Council?
  10. What is a no-confidence motion?
  11. What is the Legal Guardian of Cows?
  12. What is Special Category Status?
  13. Write short notes on the following:
  14. Rashtriya Ekta Diwas
  15. # Powerof18 Campaign
  16. Constitution Day of India
  17. What are the recommendations of Punchhi Commission?
  18. What is the Composition of State Human Rights Commission?
  19. What are the Executive Powers & Functions of a Governor?
  20. Who is a ‘Citizen’ with reference to Citizen’s Charter?
  21. What do you know about United States of Rajasthan?
  22. What do you know about United States of Greater Rajasthan?
  23. What is State Re-organization Act (1956)?
  24. Write facts related to Unification Process of Rajasthan.
  25. Write short notes on The Regulating Act, 1773
  26. What is the role and function of Advocate General of Rajasthan?
  27. What do you know about Rajasthan Union?
  28. Whether Citizen’s Charter is legally enforceable?
  29. Write notes about Rajasthan State Commission for Women
  30. Write short notes on The Charter Act of 1813
  31. What are the Powers & Functions of Chief Minister of State?
  32. What are the power and functions of UPSC?
  33. Who elects the Council of Ministers?
  34. How is Council of Ministers formed?
  35. What was the immediate purpose of the Commission on Human Rights?
  36. What is the difference between Cabinet and Council of Ministers?
  37. Who can be investigated by the Lokpal?
  38. What is a Centre state relation in India?
  39. What are the eligibility conditions for Chief Minister?
  40. What does a whip do?
  41. Is Election Commission of India a constitutional body? Explain
  42. What is the Organizational Structure of the Election Commission?
  43. What type of cases is heard in High Court?
  44.  Write notes on the 73rd Constitutional Amendment act of 1992.
  45. The act says Gram Sabha as the foundation of the Panchayati Raj System. Analyse
  46. What is the Composition of Panchayats in Rajasthan?
  47. What is the Historical Background and types of Urban Local Government?
  48. What are the Constitutional Provisions of Urban Local Government?
  49. Write in detail about the Composition of Municipal Bodies.
  50. What is the role and functioning of Urban Local Government in Rajasthan?
  51. What are the Constitutional Provisions related to Composition of RPSC?
  52. What are the Powers & Functions of Rajasthan public service commission?
  53. Write notes on Advocate General of Rajasthan
  54. What is the role of State Legislature? How it formed?
  55. What is the Method of Abolition or Creation of a State Legislative Council?
  56.  What is the Citizenship Act 1955?
  57. Which countries of the world have Lokpal?
  58. What is the Composition of the Lokpal?
  59. What is the ordinance making power of the Governor?
  60. Write the name of three urban local bodies?
  61. A federal structure for India was 1st put forward by the?
  62. Which are the discretionary powers given to the Governor of a State?
  63. Which bodies, does the Chief Minister of a State hold membership?
  64. Who is an illegal immigrant?
  65. What is the issue with Article 35A?
  66. What is the difference between pardoning powers of president and governor?
  67. What is Inner Line Permit (ILP)?
  68. Which are the different types of state legislatures?
  69. What is the Composition of State Legislature?
  70. What are the Business Procedure Rules of Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha?
  71. What do you know about United Rajasthan?
  72. Who can disqualify from the member of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State?
  73. What is the Process of Passing of Bill?
  74. What is Election Code of Conduct?
  75. What are the Main/General Features of Lok Adalats?
  76. What is the main function of administration?
  77. What are the Powers and functions of Chief Secretary of State?
  78. What are the main objectives of Citizen’s Charter?
  79. What is the relation between Secretariat & Directorate?
  80. What are the functions & responsibilities of the District Collector?
  81. What is difference between local government and local self government?
  82. What was the Role and functions of Panchayats during Ancient and Medieval period in Rajasthan?
  83. Write about the Origin & Growth of Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha.
  84. What are the power and functions of Rajasthan State Information Commission?
  85. Who is entitled for Free Legal Aid?
  86. What is the main purpose of Lok Adalat?
  87. Write short notes on Mewar Bhil Corps
  88. What are the advantages of Lok Adalat?
  89. What are the features of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir?
  90. What is interim budget?
  91. What is the difference between single citizenship and dual citizenship?
  92. Write short notes on Rajasthan Information Commission
  93. Write notes on History of Lokayukta in Rajasthan.
  94. What are the Aim & Objectives of Rajasthan State Commission for Women?
  95. What is the Composition of State Information Commission?
  96. Which are the recent initiatives taken by Rajasthan State Commission for Women?
  97. What is the aim of Chief Minister’s Advisory Council?
  98. Why Mewar Bhil Corps was created?
  99. What are the roles of Sub-Ordinate Courts in Rajasthan?
  100. What are the functions of Rajasthan State Legal Service Authority?
  101. What are the key features of Kamlesh Chandra Committee?
  102. What do you know about Cantonment Board Ajmer?
  103. What are the main power and functions of Revenue Board Ajmer?
  104. What do you know about Special Appeal?
  105. What is difference between fundamental rights and DPSP?
  106. What do you know about Social Accountability Bill of Rajasthan govt?
  107. What do you know about the formation of ‘Matsya Union’?
  108. What is the role of State Level Fair development Authority?
  109. Rajasthan Civil Services Appellate Tribunal
  110. What role do women play in Indian politics?
  111. Define the system of judicial review?
  112. Which circumstances, the Governor can reserve a state bill for the consideration of the President?
  113. What are the functions of the municipalities under 74th Amendment act?
  114. While appointing a Lokayukta, the Governor in most of the states consults?
  115. Which is the administrative function of a Village Panchayat?
  116. What is Appellate Tribunal against Benami Transactions?
  117. What are Denotified tribes?
  118. Why Delhi cannot be a full- fledged state?
  119. What are Government Bills?
  120. Define the following Terms
  121. Appropriation Bill
  122. Ballot
  123. Bill
  124. Budget
  125. Bulletin

119. Define the following terms:

  1. Calendar of Sittings
  2. Calling Attention
  3. Casting Vote
  4. Crossing the floor
  5. Demand for Grants

120. Define the following terms:

  1. Financial Business
  2. Half-an-Hour Discussion
  3. Leader of the Council
  4. Leader of the Opposition
  5. Leave of absence

121. Define the following terms:

  1. Motion of Thanks
  2. Naming a Member
  3. Ordinance
  4. Panel of Vice-Chairmen
  5. Papers laid on the Table
  6. Personal explanation

   122. Write short notes on the following financial committees?

  1. Public Accounts Committee
  2. Public Undertakings Committee

123. Define the following terms:

  1. Point of Order
  2. Precincts of Rajya Sabha
  3. Private Members’ Resolution
  4. Prorogation
  5. Putting the Question
  6. Question Chart

124. Define the following Terms

(1) Act

 (2) Ad hoc Committee

(3) Adjournment of Debate

 (4) Adjournment of the sitting of the House

 (5) Adjournment sine-die

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Describe the Southern Aravali Range and which the main hill ranges of it are?

The southern Aravali expansion of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and Aravali quartzite also found in this range and 8-10 hill ranges are in parallel. This range Includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur & South-eastern margin of Pali districts.

Main Hill ranges of Southern Aravali are:

  • Girwa Hills
  • Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  • Merwara Hills
  • Abu block & Oria plateau

The Climate Change Agenda task forces constituted for which sectors?

For the implementation of the Environment Policy, Rajasthan Environment Mission and Climate Change Agenda task forces have been constituted for different sectors, viz.,

1. Industry

2. Water

3. Forestry and bio-diversity

4. Urban governance and sustainable habitat

5. Enhanced energy efficiency including solar energy

6. Strategic knowledge for climate change

The climate of Rajasthan state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus parameters, have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.

. What is a Collegium system in India?

Answer: Judges select Judges, The Supreme Court of India’s Collegium system, which appoints judges to the nation’s constitutional courts, has its genesis in, and continued basis resting on, three of its own judgments which are collectively known as the Three Judges Cases.

Collegium system is a process through which decisions related to appointments and transfer of judges in supreme court and high court is taken by a Collegium which consists of CJI, four senior most judges of supreme court and three members of concerned high court (in the matter related to high court) including chief Justice.

Mesabi Range

Answer: The Mesabi Iron Range is an elongate trend containing large deposits of iron ore, and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief iron ore mining district in the United States.

Green Bonds

Answer: A green bond is a bond specifically earmarked to be used for climate and environmental projects. These bonds are typically asset-linked and backed by the issuer’s balance sheet, and are also referred to as climate bonds.

The World Bank is a major issuer of green bonds. World Bank green bonds finance projects around the world, such as India’s Rampur Hydropower Project, which aims to provide low-carbon hydroelectric power to northern India’s electricity grid.

Which/What is plastic money?

Answer: Plastic money is a term that is used predominantly in reference to the hard plastic cards we use every day in place of actual bank notes. They can come in many different forms such as cash cards, credit cards, debit cards, pre-paid cash cards and store cards.

The Reserve Bank of India introduce plastic/polymer currency note of ₹10 on a field trial basis in five cities in India. RBI proposed to conduct field trials of Rs 10 polymer banknotes in five cities – Shimla, Kochi, Jaipur, Bhubaneswar and Mysore.

What monetary policy is used to fight inflation?

Answer: One popular method of controlling inflation is through a contractionary monetary policy. The goal of a contractionary policy is to reduce the money supply within an economy by decreasing bond prices and increasing interest rates.

Inflation is generally controlled by the Central Bank and/or the government. The main policy tools to control inflation include:

Monetary policy: – Setting interest rates. Higher interest rates reduce demand, leading to lower economic growth and lower inflation

Control of money supply: – Monetarists argue there is a close link between the money supply and inflation, therefore controlling money supply can control inflation.

Supply-side policies: – policies to increase competitiveness and efficiency of the economy, putting downward pressure on long-term costs.

Fiscal policy: – a higher rate of income tax could reduce spending and inflationary pressures.

Wage controls: Trying to control wages could, in theory, help to reduce inflationary pressures.

Write short notes on NABARD and its functions?

Answer: NABARD is a Development Bank with a mandate for providing and regulating credit and other facilities for the promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts and other allied economic activities in rural areas with a view to promoting.

  • It acts as an apex body for meeting the credit needs of all types of agricultural and rural development.
  • It provides refinancing facilities to State Co-operative Banks (SCBs), Land Development Bank (LDBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and other approved financial institutions for financing rural economic activities.

Llanos forest

Answer: Los Llanos (The Plains) is vast tropical grassland plain situated to the east of the Andes in Colombia and Venezuela, in northwestern South America.

Llanos, (Spanish: “Plains”) wide grasslands stretching across northern South America and occupying western Venezuela and northeastern Colombia. The Llanos have an area of approximately 220,000 square miles (570,000 square km), delimited by the Andes Mountains to the north and west, the Guaviare River and the Amazon River basin to the south, and the lower Orinoco River and the Guiana Highlands to the east.

Young India

Answer: Young India was a weekly paper or journal in English published by Mohandas Karam chand Gandhi from 1919 to 1931. Gandhi wrote various quotations in this journal that inspired many. The papers focused on India and the world’s social and economic problems.

Chenab Bridge

Answer: Chenab Bridge is a railway steel and concrete arch bridge under construction between Bakkal and Kauri in the Reasi district of Jammu and Kashmir in India. When finished, the bridge will span the Chenab River at a height of 359 m (1,178 ft) above the river, making it the world’s highest rail bridge.

In November 2017 the base supports were declared completed allowing for the start of the construction of the main arch.

The bridge is scheduled to open in 2019 though that seems highly optimistic.

Key technical data of the bridge include:

Deck height (height above river): 359 m (1,178 ft)

Bridge length: 1,315 m (4,314 ft), including the 650 m (2,130 ft) long viaduct on the northern side

Arch span: 467 m (1,532 ft)[7]

Arch length: 480 m (1,570 ft)[8]

This makes the Chenab Bridge:

  • The world’s highest railway bridge
  • The bridge with the widest span in the Indian broad gauge railway network

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Enumerate a few reasons that cause phenomenon of ‘Forgetting’ in humans

Answer: This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.

There are three ways in which you can forget information in the STM:

  1. Decay: This occurs when you do not ‘rehearse’ information, ie you don’t contemplate it.
  2. Displacement: Displacement is quite literally a form of forgetting when new memories replace old ones.
  3. Interference

Write down the list of Districts of Rajasthan touched the boundary with other States.

  • Punjab: – Ganganagar and HanumangarhHaryana: – Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Jaipur, Alwar and BharatpurUttar Pradesh: – Bharatpur and DhaulpurMadhya Pradesh: – Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Banswara, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh and Bhilwara.Gujrat: – Barmer, Jalore, Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur and Banswara

What causes temperature variation?

Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in earth’s energy balance, including:

  1. Variations in the sun’s energy reaching earth.
  2. Changes in the reflectivity of earth’s atmosphere and surface.
  3. Changes in the greenhouse effect, which affects the amount of heat retained by earth’s atmosphere.

Define the following terms:

  1. Distributary
  2. Downstream
  3. Drainage basin
  4. Fork
  5. Mainstream
  6. Runoff
  7. Watershed
  1. Distributary: stream that branches off from the main stem of a river or other flowing fluid.
  2. Downstream: in the direction of a flow, toward its end.
  3. Drainage basin: an entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.
  4. Fork: branch or tributary of a river, usually having the same name as the river itself.
  5. Mainstream: largest river or channel in a watershed or drainage basin.
  6. Runoff: overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.
  7. Watershed: entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

The principal crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices. Next to the agricultural sector, the Industry of Rajasthan plays a major role in the economy. There are mainly two crop seasons.

What are the different models for Public Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure?

PPP is a mode of providing public infrastructure and services by Government in partnership with private sector. It is a long term arrangement between Government and private sector entity for provision of public utilities and services.

PPP mechanism is a major element of India’s infrastructure creation efforts as there is huge level of investment requirement in the sector. The twelfth plan targets to spend $1000 bn to expand infrastructure. Conventional form of finance – the budgetary allocation by the government is not enough to meet this big investment size. So the government at present is making several efforts to modify and energize the PPP (Public Private Partnership) mode of infrastructure generation. A committee chaired by Kelkar also made valuable recommendations to empower the PPP mechanism.

India’s experience with PPP in a serious manner started from 2006 onwards. PPP requires private sector participation in public asset creation through money, technology and management. For this, several models inviting their participation were launched for different projects. Some of the commonly adopted forms of PPPs include build-operate-transfer (BOT) and its variants, build-lease-transfer (BLT), design-build-operate-transfer (DBFOT), operate-maintain-transfer (OMT), etc.

These models operate on different conditions on the private sector regarding level of investment, ownership control, risk sharing, technical collaboration, duration of the project, financing mode, tax treatment, management of cash flows etc. Following are the main models of PPPs.

(a) Build Operate and Transfer (BOT): This is the simple and conventional PPP model where the private partner is responsible to design, build, operate (during the contracted period) and transfer back the facility to the public sector. Role of the private sector partner is to bring the finance for the project and take the responsibility to construct and maintain it. In return, the public sector will allow it to collect revenue from the users. The national highway projects contracted out by NHAI under PPP mode is a major example for the BOT model.

(b) Build-Own-Operate (BOO): This is a variant of the BOT and the difference is that the ownership of the newly built facility will rest with the private party here.

The public sector partner agrees to ‘purchase’ the goods and services produced by the project on mutually agreed terms and conditions.

(c) Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT): This is also on the lines of BOT. After the negotiated period of time, the infrastructure asset is transferred to the government or to the private operator. This approach has been used for the development of highways and ports.

(d) Build-Operate-Lease-Transfer (BOLT): In this approach, the government gives a concession to a private entity to build a facility (and possibly design it as well), own the facility, lease the facility to the public sector and then at the end of the lease period transfer the ownership of the facility to the government.

(e) Lease-Develop-Operate (LDO): Here, the government or the public sector entity retains ownership of the newly created infrastructure facility and receives payments in terms of a lease agreement with the private promoter. This approach is mostly followed in the development of airport facilities.

(f) Rehabilitate-Operate-Transfer (ROT): Under this approach, the governments/local bodies allow private promoters to rehabilitate and operate a facility during a concession period. After the concession period, the project is transferred back to governments/local bodies.

(g) DBFO (Design, Build, Finance and Operate): In this model, the private party assumes the entire responsibility for the design, construction, finance, and operate the project for the period of concession.

(h) The private party assumes the entire responsibility for the design, construct, finance, and operate or operate and maintain the project for the period of concession.

(i) Management contract: Here, the private promoter has the responsibility for a full range of investment, operation and maintenance functions. He has the authority to make daily management decisions under a profit-sharing or fixed-fee arrangement.

(j) Service contract: This approach is less focused than the management contract. In this approach, the private promoter performs a particular operational or maintenance function for a fee over a specified period of time.

Deendayal Upadhyay Aadarsh Gram Yojna

Around 77% of total population lives in 39753 villages. Besides many plans for village development, most of the villages lack basic facilities. Due to increasing population, the demand for hygiene, pure drinking water, electricity, roads, health facilities etc are increasing day by day. The rural population is migrating to urban places. By giving a thought on present criteria, its necessary to pay attention towards the development of the villages so that the people there can get financial and social basic facilities to improve their living standards. For the mentioned goal, govt. decided to start “DEENDAYAL UPADHYAYY GRAM YOJNA”

It is not possible to make all the facilities available all together in all villages. In the first phase the state Govt. in year 2006-07 decided to undertake 50 villages for this purpose. Similarly in the state on every 10 lacs one village will be selected. The villages with population of 3000 or more will be eligible to apply for DEENDAYAL ADARSH GRAM. The selection will be made with the support and participation of the rural people.

Which one of the following cattle product is main product of Rajasthan?

The State of Rajasthan has proud possession of 9 cattle breeds, 8 sheep breeds, 6 goat breeds, 4 camel breed and also endowed with thorough bred horses. The important breeds of cattle traded in the State are Rathi, Kankrej, Nagour, Tharparkar, Haryana, Malvi, Gir, Sanchori and Mehwati.

What is production possibility of an economy?

In the field of macroeconomics, the production possibility frontier (PPF) represents the point at which a country’s economy is most efficiently producing its goods and services and, therefore, allocating its resources in the best way possible.

What are the some main challenges before agriculture sector in Rajasthan?

  • To achieve a higher growth rate and stability in the face of recurrent droughts and rapidly declining water table.
  • To increase levels of investment, particularly private, in the agriculture sector for modernization, diversification and commercialization.
  • To achieve coordinated development of agriculture and livestock for maximizing benefits to farmers. Fodder availability and development of a dairy network hold the key to a vibrant livestock sector.
  • To modernize agriculture markets to ensure better realization for the producer and availability of produce to buyers and for stimulating diversification agriculture.
  • To encourage setting up of agro-processing and agri-businesses enterprises for value addition in agriculture produce and generating new employment opportunities.

In view of the geographical location and size of the State, dependence of its economy on agriculture is unlikely to reduce significantly in the near future and, therefore, stimulating the growth of the agriculture sector is not a choice but a necessity. The fact that most of the agriculture in Rajasthan is subsistence by nature is reflective of the potential that exists for value addition to agricultural output.

Agriculture being 28 % of the overall economic contribution in terms of value remains its backbone. The services industry has grown to 43 % and industry has grown to 29 % of the state GDP. The manufacturing capacity of the state has been increasing and it is moving towards attracting heavy industries. The economic growth of 7.0 – 7.5 % promises long term development.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)

PMJDY is a National Mission for Financial Inclusion, particularly to provide access to financial services such as savings and deposit accounts, remittance, credit, insurance, pension, etc. at affordable rates. The scheme was announced on the eve of Independence Day, in 2014 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

What has changed?

– 29.43 crore bank accounts opened so far

– Rs 65, 532.77 crore balance in these accounts

– 1.26 lakh Bank Mitras delivering branchless banking services in Sub-Services Areas and counting

– Nearly 25 crore Jan Dhan accounts in the country, of which nearly 5.8 crore are zero-balance accounts.

How can the paradox of value be resolved?

The paradox of value (also known as the diamond–water paradox) is the apparent contradiction that, although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than diamonds, diamonds command a higher price in the market.

What are the three types of benefits provided by Social Security?

Four basic categories of Social Security benefits are paid based upon the record of your earnings: retirement, disability, dependents, and survivors benefits. These benefits all fall under the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program (OASDI), which is the official name of Social Security.

Sister State/City Agreement

Answer: Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

Sister Cities International (SCI) is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between communities in the United States and those in other countries, particularly through the establishment of “sister cities”.

Discuss the role of inland waterways in India?

Answer: Any of the waters (as lakes, canals, rivers, watercourses, inlets, and bays) within the territory of a state as contrasted with the open seas or marginal waters bordering another state subject to various sovereign rights of the bordering state —usually used in plural.

The CIWTC is mainly engaged in transportation of goods by inland waterways in the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly, Sunderbans and Brahmaputra rivers. They are operating regular cargo services between Kolkata and Pandu (near Guwahati), between Kolkata and Karim ganj (Assam), Kolkata-Bangladesh and between Haldia and Patna.

Inland waters are permanent water bodies inland from the coastal zone and areas whose properties and use are dominated by the permanent, seasonal, or intermittent occurrence of flooded conditions. Inland waters include rivers, lakes, floodplains, reservoirs, wetlands, and inland saline systems.

Which factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan?

1.       Temperature

2.       Rainfall

3.       Thunder Storms

4.          Wind

5.       Humidity

6.       Dust Storms

Write short notes on e-waste management.

Answer: The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

  • Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
  • Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
  • Mercury, chromium, lead and Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.
  • Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005
  • In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.

What is the importance of regulating act? What are the features of the act?

Answer: It was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.

  • First time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration in India.
  • The Act designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
  • Governor of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
  • Act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India Company.
  • The Act told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.

What is Coriolis force?

Answer: It is a deflecting force experienced due to rotation of earth. Because of Coriolis the air appears to turn towards its right in the northern hemisphere and towards its left in the southern hemisphere. The coriolis always acts in the perpendicular direction of the motion of air. It is zero at the equator and increases towards the poles.

The following are four basic points to remember about the Coriolis Effect:

  • Regardless of the initial direction of motion, any freely moving object appears to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • The apparent deflection is strongest at the poles and decreases progressively toward the equator, where the deflection is zero.
  • The Coriolis effect is proportional to the speed of the object, and so a fast-moving object is deflected more than a slower one.
  • The Coriolis effect influences direction of movement only; it does not change the speed of an object.

What are the areas of concerns in centre and state relationship?

Answer:

  • Appointment of governor.
  • Reservation of bill by governor for President Assent.
  • Allegation of use of central agency to serve political vendetta.
  • Appointment of civil servants and Management of All India services.
  • Control over finance.
  • Role of planning commission now NITI Aayog in approving state subjects.
  • Appointment of enquiry commissions against the chief minister.
  • Control over the state subjects.

India-China relation got a setback due to Doklam issue. What was this issue?

Answer: Doklam issue is an extension of border dispute. It is a border dispute between Bhutan and China. India being the party to the friendship treaty with Bhutan tried to stop China from infrastructure creation in the disputed area.

Doklam plateau is situated in SW Bhutan. It is among those three regions which are disputed between China and Bhutan.

They are:

1) Zaskar/lung

2) Pasam Lung

3) Doklam Plateau (259KM)

  • Sino-British treaty was signed in 1890. According to China this treaty gives Doklam to China, But India and Bhutan Rejected the Claims. China was constructing a road in this region which was opposed by India because:
  • India and Bhutan have a friendship treaty of 2007 which gives Bhutan Defence responsibility to India
  • In 2013, India and China signed Border defence and Corporation Agreement which maintains status quo in Border areas and China was amending the status quo.
  • This region is strategically important because “Chicken Neck Corridor” which connects NE states to mainland India is near Doklam. An attack can be launched on India through this region.

Write short notes on the following:

1) Westerlies

2) Horse latitudes

3) Doldrums

4) Jet streams

Above the subtropical highs in the Northern Hemisphere, and below the subtropical highs in the Southern Hemisphere, winds blow from the west towards the east. These winds are thus called westerly winds, after the direction from whence the winds come. The westerlies generally blow between 30 ° and 60 ° latitude in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The higher one travels into the atmosphere, the more noticeable these westerly winds are.

The sub-tropical high pressure belt of the oceans of North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans is known as horse latitudes. This is a belt of weak variable winds and frequent calms.

Doldrums: the quite zone at ITCZ is called the doldrums. The air appears to be stagnant in this belt. Earlier ships used to get stuck in this region because of the absence of the wind.

Jet streams are high speed winds that occur in narrow bands of upper air westerlies. The width of this air band can be 160-480km wide and 900-2150m thick, with core speed exceeding 300km/hr. such is their strength that aircraft routes which run counter to jet movements are generally avoided. Jets are coincident with major breaks in the tropopause.

What are the steps taken by Gandhi ji towards the upliftment of Harijans?

Answer: Determined to undo the divisive intentions of the Government’s divide and rule policy, Gandhi gave up all his other preoccupations and launched a whirlwind campaign against untouchability— first from jail and after his release in August 1933 from the outside. While in jail, he had set up the All India Anti Untouchability League in September 1932 and had started the weekly Harijan in January 1933.

  • He urged political workers to go to villages and work for social, economic, political and cultural upliftment of the Harijan.
  • He undertook two fasts— on May 8 and August 16, 1934—to convince his followers of the seriousness of his effort and the importance of the issue.
  • Throughout his Harijan tour, social work and fasts, Gandhi stressed on certain themes: He put forward a damning indictment of Hindu society for the kind of oppression practised on Harijans.

What is the amendment procedure in Indian Constitution?

Answer: Procedure for amendment is laid down in article 368 part XX of the Indian constitution.

Following is the procedure for the amendment of the constitution:

  • Amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill in either of the house.
  • State legislature cannot introduce a bill for CA.
  • The bill must be passed by special majority by separate house.
  • There is no provision of joint sitting in the case of deadlock between both the houses.
  • If the bill seeks to amend the federal provisions then it must also be ratified by the state legislatures of half of the state by simple majority.
  • After duly passed by both houses and ratified by state legislature, the bill is presented to the President for assent
  • The president must give his assent; he can neither withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
  • After President Assent the Bill becomes an act.

What is corporate governance? What are the importances of corporate governance?

Answer: Corporate governance is the system, principles and group of procedure through which company is governed. It is sum of those principles, ideal values and code which inspire an institution to behave morally and with transparency.

Importance of Corporate Governance:

  • It is helpful in the increment of transparency, accountability and relevance.
  • To discuss policies among people and informing them.
  • Helps in taking effective decision.
  • Maintain transparency in exchange of business.
  • In accordance with the law.
  • Must exercise to protect the rights of the shareholders.
  • Adherence to the business values and moral behaviour.

What are the features borrowed from various constitution?

Answer:

British Constitution:

  • Parliamentary government, Rule of Law, legislative procedure, single citizenship, cabinet system, prerogative writs, parliamentary privileges and bicameralism.

US Constitution:

  • Fundamental rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of the president, removal of Supreme Court and high court judges and post of vice-president.

Irish Constitution:

  • Directive Principles of State Policy, nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of election of president.

Germany:

  • Weimar Constitution of Germany Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.

Japanese Constitution

  • Procedure established by Law

Canadian Constitution

  • Federation with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre, appointment of state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Australian Constitution

  • Concurrent List, freedom of trade, commerce and inter-course, and joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.

France

  • French Constitution Republic and the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in the Preamble.

Soviet Constitution

(USSR, now Russia)

  • Fundamental duties and the ideal of justice (social, economic and political) in the Preamble.

South Africa:

  • Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha.

Give an account of the following

1) Mahila e-Haat

2) Sakhi-one stop centres

3) Ujjwala scheme

Answer:

Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

Recently RBI released report regarding demonetization, whether demonetization helped in curbing black money? Critically analyze

Answer:-

The issue of demonetization is back in the news due to RBI report highlighting that 99.2% of 500 and 1000 Rs notes in circulation have found their own back in Banking System.

Critically examine – you need to do is look at the good and bad of the topic in fair manner.

Bring out the findings of RBI report and assess what it implies.

Discuss the rationale given that suggests that demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money – increasing tax base, formalization of economy.

Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in penalizing all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetization worked as an unintended amnesty scheme etc.

Examine the other impacts of demonetization which negated any small gains that were made – slow down in GDP, loss of jobs etc.

Conclusions – Give a fair and balanced view on the success/failure of demonetization.

What is OSIRIS-Rex mission and write down facts on asteroid Bennu?

Answer: For the first time in more than two years, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft has unfurled its robotic arm and put it through a series of maneuvers to ensure its space-worthiness after being packed away for launch and a long flight to the asteroid Bennu.

This arm and its sampler head, known as the Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism or TAGSAM, is critical to the mission’s goal of retrieving at least 60 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and returning this sample to Earth by 2023.The collection device will act something like a reverse vacuum cleaner.

The launch of the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission took place on September 8, 2016. Since then, the spacecraft has been two years travelling through space to reach its target, primitive asteroid Bennu, in October and 2018.

About the mission:

OSIRIS-Rex stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security-Regolith Explorer.

OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, which previously sent the New Horizons spacecraft zooming by Pluto and the Juno spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter.

What will the OSIRIS-Rex do?

OSIRIS-REx will spend two years travelling towards Bennu, arriving at the asteroid in August 2018. The probe will orbit the asteroid for 3 years, conducting several scientific experiments, before returning to Earth, with the sample capsule expected to land in Utah, USA in September 2023.

Scientific Mission Goals:

During its three year orbit of Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will be conducting a range of scientific experiments in order to better understand the asteroid.

As part of this, the asteroid will be mapped using instruments on the probe, in order to select a suitable site for samples to be collected from.

The aim of the mission is to collect a sample of regolith- the loose, soil-like material which covers the surface of the asteroid.

In July 2020, the probe will move to within a few metres of Bennu, extending its robotic arm to touch the asteroid’s surface. The arm will make contact with the surface for just 5 seconds, during which a blast of nitrogen gas will be used to stir up the regolith, allowing it to be sucked into the sample collector.

OSIRIS-REx has enough nitrogen on board for 3 sample collection attempts, and NASA are hoping to collect between 60 and 2000g of regolith material to bring back to Earth.

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Why was Bennu chosen?

Bennu was selected for a the OSIRIS-REx mission from over 500,000 known asteroids, due to it fitting a number of key criteria. These include:

Proximity to Earth: In order for OSIRIS-REx to reach its destination in a reasonable timeframe, NASA needed to find an asteroid which had a similar orbit to Earth. Around 7000 asteroids are ‘Near-Earth Objects’ (NEOs), meaning they travel within around ~30million miles of the Earth. Out of these, just fewer than 200 have orbits similar to Earth, with Bennu being one of these.

Small asteroids: Those are less than 200m in diameter; typically spin much faster than larger asteroids, meaning the regolith material can be ejected into space. Bennu is around 500m in diameter, so rotates slowly enough to ensure that the regolith stays on its surface.

Composition: Bennu is a primitive asteroid, meaning it hasn’t significantly changed since the beginning of the Solar System (over 4 billion years ago). It is also very carbon-rich, meaning it may contain organic molecules, which could have been precursors to life on Earth.

Additionally, Bennu is of interest as it is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA). Every 6 years, Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth, which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century.

Examine the role of Praja Mandal Movements in Rajasthan’s political awakening. What was the role of Smt. Vijaya Bahin Bhavsar?

Answer: In 1927, the All India States People’s Conference was held in Bombay after which the congress allowed people from different Princely States to join the party and the Indian freedom Struggle. In 1927 itself, the Akhil Bhartiya Desi Rajya Lok Parishad or All India Native States Public Council was established in Bombay and Vijay Singh Pathik became its chairperson. In Rajasthan, Rajputana Desi Lok Parishad or Rajputana Native States Public Council was established. These councils laid the foundation for Praja Mandal movement in Rajasthan.

Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:

  • The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism.
  • The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights.
  • The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic (fundamental) rights.

Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:

The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states.

They established schools, used Khadi, encouraged cottage industries and Started agitation against the Untouchability.

Contribution of Praja Mandal:

The Praja Mandal movement not only created a political awakening among the people in the Indian States but also fought for their rights, their share in the government and their dynamic participation in the future political set up of the country. Other contributions included:

  • Improvement in Education
  • Rise of social equality
  • The most important contribution of this organisation was to break the insularity of the peasant movements by linking them with one another in different princely states, as well as with peasant movements in British India.

Origin, lifestyle and culture of Garasia Tribal in Rajasthan

Answer: The Garasia tribal community has gained a place of prominence in Indian culture due to their lifestyle and culture. This Garasia tribal community has got concentration in several areas of the state of Rajasthan. The Garasia tribal community is considered to be the third largest tribal group of the state of Rajasthan. The people of this tribal community are basically concentrated in different parts of this state namely Kotra, Abu Road tehsil of Sirohi, Bali and Desuri tehsils of Pali districts and Gogunda and Kherwara tehsils of Udaipur.

As per the history, the Garasia tribes are a division of the Rajput community. The colonization made the scarcity of lands during the time of the British administration, and the tribal people were marginalized and started living with the people dwelling in the forest. The further division was created by the nationalist movement in between the groups. Among the Garasia, the Bhil-Garasia are the part of tribes who married the Bhil women to maintain peace and harmony. This tribal community is divided in three sections namely the nanki niyat, moti niyat and nichli niyat and these sections have further clan divisions namely Solanki, Mali, Parmar, Raidara etc. The territory of the Garasia people is called patta and the smallest unit of the villages is termed as hamlet or phalia.

The word ‘Garasia’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘grass’ that signifies the substance. The history says that after defeated by Ala-ud-Din Khilji, the Rajputs took flight to the hilly areas of Bhil tribes. The Garasia took control over the Bhil tribes and came to be known as Garasia tribal community. They have a link with the medieval Rajput community. Moreover, the Garasia tribes are popularly known as ‘the fallen Rajputs’ and as per the popular belief are that these Garasia tribes can trace back their heredity to the famous Chauhans of Rajasthan state.

Some say that the Garasia tribes are the off springs of the Rajput who got married to a Bhil female. It is assumed that they formerly were ‘chiefs’ who were thrown out by several plunderers. As early as 13th century, several hapless Rajput escape to Aravalli and Vindhya hills. There these Garasia tribes get the opportunity to mix up with several tribes of the Bhil community.

After sometime, the Garasia tribes crushed the power of the Bhil leaders and their supporters, settling down near the dense forests and at the bottom of the hills. For safeguarding the local people and their settlements, this Garasia tribal community got the land for carrying on agricultural activities. There are many people who even refer all the Rajput and other landholders dwelling in both Gujarat and Rajasthan states, as Garasia.

The language of the Garasia tribes is Doongri Garasia language. It belongs to the Bhil sub-group of the famous Indo-Aryan language family. It has been said that the Garasia language is a blend of three different languages namely Bhili, Marwari and Gujarati language. The dialect of the Garasia people is called Nayar dialect or Nayar-Ki-Boli.

Cultural exuberance of these Garasia tribes of Rajasthan is rightly being depicted in several of its elements. Since the houses of these Garasia tribes are small, a Garasia male of the household can perform all the household chores on his own. These Garasia tribes in general reside in one-room houses prepared from mud and bamboo. Nowadays, this Garasia tribal community has learnt to make flat tiled roofs. There are also few Garasia tribes who still today make thatched roofs. Houses are usually built on the slopes of hills with their fields extending out in front. There is as a rule a guest house opposite the house of the head of the Garasia village. However, there is hardly any meting point for all the people of the Garasia community.

Even though the whole of the Garasia tribal community can be divided into several clans, they seldom maintain unity amongst themselves. In order to sustain their living these Garasia tribes practice cultivation. However, there is also no dearth of Garasia people who also work as laborers in the fields also. Needless to say, food habits of these Garasia tribes too follow the tradition of any other agrarian tribal community of the state. Maize is the staple food grown by all Garasia families. Apart from this, they also add rice, jowar and wheat in their diet. Many of this Garasia tribal community also consume all the forest products like vegetables, fruits etc. Rab or rabdi is considered as the well admired food of the Garasia people. They prepare lapsi, malpua, Churma etc. during their occasions. The Garasia tribes are mostly veggies and also have got no addiction to various types of liquors.

The society of the Garasia tribe is controlled by the Panchayat and the village head Patel takes the major decisions related to the village and the villagers. The position of a woman is not high in a Garasia tribal community. Like any other patriarchal society, the Garasia tribal females also are not permitted to possess property. There are also certain stringent rules that these Garasia tribal women need to follow quite diligently. For example, it is mandatory for the Garasia women to put veils over their faces when they are present in front of senior male relatives.

Different duties are allotted for both Garasia males and females. The onus of carrying on certain domestic duties is fall upon the Garasia women. These include cooking, nursing the cattle, milking the animals, and also taking care of the children. The men do the physical labor such as plowing, harvesting, and building the houses.

Marriage too like any other tribal community is held in high position. The Garasia tribal community is permitted freedom in selecting their partners. Young Garasia males between the ages of eighteen and twenty four generally marry females who are between fourteen and eighteen years. Another interesting thing is that any Garasia couple cal lives together without getting married. However, under the impact of Hindu rituals and customs, nowadays, this rule of the Garasia tribal community varies in certain places of the Rajasthan. As per recent survey, it has been rightly find out that only 1 percent of the Garasia tribal community has taken up the religion of Christianity.

What do you mean by Horse Latitudes? Explain the location.

Answer: Horse latitudes or subtropical highs are subtropical latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south where Earth’s atmosphere is dominated by the Subtropical high, an area of high pressure, which suppresses precipitation and cloud formation, and has variable winds mixed with calm winds.

The consistently warm, dry, and sunny conditions of the horse latitudes are the main cause for the existence of the world’s major non-polar deserts, such as the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Arabian and Syrian deserts in the Middle East, the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, all in the Northern Hemisphere; and the Atacama Desert, the Kalahari Desert, and the Australian Desert in the Southern Hemisphere.

Examine the social structure under the Rajputs.

Answer: In the 11th century, the term “rajaputra” appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials. Gradually, the Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the membership of this class became largely hereditary, although new claims to Rajput status continued to be made in the later centuries. Several Rajput-ruled kingdoms played a significant role in many regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.

Facts:

  • Large-scale land grants and related economic changes led to the evolution of social structure broadly characterized by a sizeable number of intermediaries and a large body of impoverished peasantry.
  • The Samantas and the ruling landed aristocracy irrespective of their social origins emerged as a distinctive group.
  • Brahmans were the majority in this group and focused on management of land. Kayasthas, traders and members of the rich dominant peasantry were also conferred titles such as ranaka, Nayaka etc. as and when they joined the upper section of the society and ruling landed elite.
  • The shudras were getting transformed into cultivators as a result of the expansion of agricultural settlements, thereby coming closer to the vaishyas.
  • The vaishyas practically lost their identity as peasant caste.

Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity

The distribution of climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature variations includes following divisions:

Arid Region

a. The Arid region includes Jaisalmer district, northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and southern parts of Ganganagar district.

b. Climate of the region is very severe and arid.

c. Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.

d. The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 34degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16DegC.

Semi-arid Region

i. The average temperature during winter season ranges between 10 Deg C and 17 Deg C and the summer season temperature range 32 Deg C to 36 Deg C.

ii. As the region has erratic as well as torrential rainfall it brings floods too each time.

iii. Rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.

iv. The winter season is very short and arid in the northern parts of this region.

v. This region comprises the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and Barmer districts.

Sub-humid Region

1. In the semi arid humid region, rainfall is meager and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few monsoon months only.

2. The rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average temperature during summer season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is recorded 12 Deg C in northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.

3. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi districts are included in this category.

4. This region has steppe type of vegetation.

Humid Region

1. This region receives winter rainfall associated with cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which varies from 60 to 80 cm.

2. Deciduous trees dominate the region.

3. Humid region is found at the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and Rajsamand and the north-eastern parts of Udaipur.

Very Humid Region

Very Humid Region includes south-east Kota, Baran, and Jhalawar, Banswara, south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the summers are very hot and winters are cold and dry. Rainfall received is between 80 cm to 150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna type of vegetation is present in the region.

What is the difference between Reserved, Protected and Unclassified forest Areas?

Reserved Forest: Land rights to forests declared to be Reserved forests or Protected forests are typically acquired (if not already owned) and owned by the Government of India. Unlike national parks of India or wildlife sanctuaries of India

Protected Forest: Protected forests are of two kinds – demarcated protected forests and undemarcated protected forests, based on whether the limits of the forest have been specified by a formal notification.

Typically, protected forests are often upgraded to the status of wildlife sanctuaries which is turn, may be upgraded to the status of national parks, with each category receiving a higher degree of protection and government funding. For example: Sariska National Park was declared a reserved forest. 

Unclassified forest: forests which are neither protected nor reserved and wasteland comes under this classification. They are controlled by government officials and private individuals.

Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

Koeppen’s classification for the World Climatic regions is totally based on the vegetation, as the effects of temperature and rainfall are directly evident and visible it. Here, the three categories are associated with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid) climates and Mild Temperate climates respectively.

The classification of Rajasthan according to Koeppen’s is as follows:

Aw or Tropical Humid Region

  1. Winter season is arid and cool whereas summers experience scorching heat.
  2. Rainfall also mainly occurs in summer season.
  3. The temperature is more than 18 Deg. C in the coldest month records.
  4. The southern parts of Dungarpur district and Banswara come under the region.

Bshw Climatic Region

  1. Vegetation is of steppe type, characterized with thorny bushes and grasses.
  2. Region comprises the districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
  3. This climatic region is semi-arid, where winters are dry and even in summers there is no sufficient amount of rainfall.

Bwhw Climatic Region

  1. The region has arid-hot desert climate with very scanty rainfall.
  2. On the contrary the process of evaporation is very active.
  3. North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district are included in this category.

Cwg Climatic Region

  1. The south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the part of the region.
  2. Seasonal winds do not bring rains to this region during winters.
  3. Rains are limited to few monsoon months only.

What is the Rajasthan State Water Policy 2010?

  • The growing imbalance between demand and supply of water
  • Low operational efficiency of water resource development projects
  • Inequity in access to water
  • High cost of service, low cost recovery and low level of expenditure
  • Lack of ownership among stakeholders
  • Depleting groundwater resources and deteriorating quality of water
  • Uncertainty in availability of water

The policy has evolved out of the earlier policy documents and intends to function from the new perspective of Integrated Water Resources Management, which is holistic and includes a bottom up Approach.

The new policy document addresses issues related to:

  1. Water supply and development
  2. Water conservation
  3. Water quality
  4. Environmental management
  5. Water pricing
  6. Integrated Water Resource Management
  7. Irrigation
  8. Water resources infrastructure
  9. Legal enablement
  10. Capacity building
  11. Research
  12. Monitoring and evaluation of water policy and action plans.

What is the distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan?

There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.

There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of earlier.

The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.

The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.

The districts of Eastern plains i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur, South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.

The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur, Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.

The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.

The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e. Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.

The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43 cm in West Rajasthan.

In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.

The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100 years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.

What are the features of humidity in Rajasthan?

The relative humidity in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.

During the monsoon months, July to September the relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.

The annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.

The variation in the relative humidity is low during the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid region.

The main reason in this decline is the deforestation and other activities.

The diurnal variation in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the diurnal variation is highest.

Describe the socio-economic condition of Harappan civilisation?

Answer: Indus valley is an example of great civilisation flourishing in the pre Vedic era. The civilisation marks the zenith in terms of art, architecture and culture. Its magnanimous architecture depicts the vibrant social and culture life.

Social life: Cities were divided into two parts. One was citadel (for the nobles) and the other part was common city depicting the hierarchy in the social milieu. There was strong sense of fashion including cosmetics and jewellery and it was common for both men and women. Various household articles made of pottery; stone, shells, ivory and metal have been found at Mohenjodaro. Spindles, needles, combs, fish hooks, knives are made of copper. Children’s toys include little clay carts. Marbles, balls and dice were used for games.

Mother earth was worshipped as Goddess. Nature worshipping was prevalent with people believing in ghosts and spirits. Amulets were used to cast away bad spirits. Pashupati seal resembles the lord Shiva of Vedic era. Absence of temples is there.

Economic life:  There was a great progress in all spheres of economic activity such as agriculture, industry and crafts and trade. Indus valley was both agrarian and industrial economy.  Specialized groups of artisans include goldsmiths, brick makers, stone cutters, weavers, boat-builders and terracotta manufacturers. Bronze and copper vessels are the outstanding examples of the Harappan metal craft.

Internal trade was extensive with other parts of India. Foreign trade of barter type was mainly conducted with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Iran. Presence of seal in Mesopotamia testifies the trade links. Trade was of the barter type.

What is HGP read? How it is different from HGP write? List down the application of Human genome project?

Answer: The Human genome project was a large, international and multi-institutional effort that took 13 years from 1999 and $2.7 billion to produce a blueprint of the sequence of genes and space between genes that make up a typical human genome. Following were the observation of HGP (read)-

  • 99% of the total human DNA is junk DNA
  • 1% is the only functional gene
  • We have a total 30,000 gene in our genome.

In 2016, a project name HGP write was started whose major function was to synthesise gene from scratch by the help of bioengineering tools. Following areas of science have taken advantage of human genome project:

Molecular medicine: HGP has made it easy for researchers and doctors to look deeply into the cause of the disease other than symptoms. It will help to treat genetic disease at an embryonic stage by the help of gene therapy, site generated mutagenesis. It will help to create efficient DNA vaccine.

Biotechnology: Mapping of human genome will help to improve the scope of gene therapy and stem cell therapy to treat the diseases. It will also help to improve the production of healthy livestock.

It will help to solve the criminal cases by increasing the scope and efficiency of forensic DNA testing. It will help to solve the paternity dispute.

HGP will help to build the technology to write the genome of microorganism like bacteria. It will help to treat the deadly diseases like malaria, dengue etc.  We can synthesise methane generating microorganism which can address the energy deficiency issues.

Hence, HGP has wide range of application from filed of medicine to industrial sector. It has huge potential in the future which can be utilised to address the problems like deadly diseases (vector borne), energy deficiency and polluted environment.

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Explain the Salient features of Indian Constitution?

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is a living document, an instrument which makes the government system work. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, Containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 Amendments.

Salient Features of the Indian Constitution

 The lengthiest Constitution in the world

 The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed of all the written Constitutions of the world containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 Amendments.

Parliamentary form of Government

 The constitution of India establishes a parliamentary form of a government both at the Centre and the State. The essence of the parliamentary government is its responsibility to the Legislature. The president is the constitutional head of the State but the real executive power is vested in the council of ministers whose head is the Prime Minister.

Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility

It has been the nature of the amending process itself in federations which had led political scientists to classify federal Constitution as rigid.

 Fundamental Rights

 The incorporation of a formal declaration of Fundamental Rights in part III of the Constitution is deemed to be a distinguishing feature of a democratic State. These rights are prohibitions against the State. The State cannot make a law which takes away or abridges any of the rights of the citizens guaranteed in part III of Constitution.

Directive Principles of State policy (DPSP)

    The Directive Principles of State Policy contained in Part IV of the Constitution, it set out the aims and objectives to be taken up by the States in the governance of the country.

 A federation with strong centralizing tendency

The most remarkable feature of the Indian Constitution is that being a federal Constitution it acquires a unitary character during the time of emergency. During the proclamation of emergency the normal distribution of powers between Centre and State undergoes a vital change. The union parliament is empowered to legislate on any subject mentioned in the state list. The financial arrangements between the Centre and State can also be altered by the Union Government.

Adult Suffrage

 The old system of communal electorates has been abolished and the uniform adult suffrage system has been adopted. Under the Indian Constitution every man and women above 18 years of age has been given the right to elect representatives for the legislature.

 An Independent Judiciary

 An independent and impartial judiciary with power of judicial review has been established under the Constitution of India. It is a custodian right of citizens. Besides, in a federal Constitution it plays another significant role of determining the limits of power of the Centre and States.

 A Secular State

 A Secular State has no religion of its own as recognised religion of State. It treats all religions equally. Articles 25 to 28 of the Indian Constitution give concrete shape to this concept of secularism. It guarantees to every person the freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice and propagate religion. In a Secular state, the state only regulates the relationship between man and man.

Single Citizenship

The American constitution provides for dual citizenship, i.e., the citizen of America and a state citizenship. But in India there is only one citizenship i.e., Citizen of India.No state citizenship like citizen of Assam, Citizen of Delhi. Every Indian is Citizen of India and enjoys the same rights of citizenship no matter in what state he resides.

What were the objectives of Demonetisation? What were the positive effects?        

The stated objective of Demonetisation was-

  • Reduction of black money
  • Achieving lower cash/ GDP ration
  • An attack on fake currency
  • To stop terror funding
  • Increasing digital transactions
  • Increasing tax network

Positive effects of Demonetisation are as follows:

  • The number of tax fillers have increased.( Additional 9 million)
  • The transactions made amounting to Rs 3 lakh crore are under Income tax deptt. Vigilance
  • Over 2 lakh shell companies have been deregistered.
  • Demonetisation has able to put a hold on unregulated Real estate sector.
  • Anonymity with the cash transactions is reduced.
  • The whole process has brought more accountability.
  • Formalisation of economy- a step toward

World War I brought significant changes? Discuss the Impact of World War I?

World War I was fought globally and had global consequences. It leads to rise of new ideologies and new centre of Human power at the same time it had huge cost attached with the war. The Impact of the World War I is as follows:

Human and economic cost:

  • Approx 10million died due to direct military action
  • Rails and River transport was destroyed.
  • Millions were killed due to typhus.
  • The fragile machinery of international exchange was destroyed.
  • The influenza pandemic

Rise of new centre of power

  • US’s military was turned into a large scale fighting force with intense experience of modern warfare.
  • US economic hegemony started to the rise after the war. European dominancy phase started to decline.

Advent of new ideologies:

  • Rise of communism in Russia
  • Fascism and Nazism
  • Rise of socialism

Changes in the Political map of Europe and colonies:

  • Austria and Hungary became new independent states.
  • Serbia kingdom became Yugoslavia
  • French occupation over Rhineland.
  • French, British and Russian divided Ottoman Empire into sphere of influence.
  • A buffer zone of nations was created between Russian and Europe to help deter the spread of Bolshevism.

Social Changes:

Birth rates went down because millions of young men died. Civilians lost their homes and fled to other countries.

The role of women also changed. They played a major part in replacing men in factories and offices. Many countries gave women more rights after the war had ended, including the right to vote.

The upper classes lost their leading role in society. Young middle and lower class men and women demanded a say in forming their country after the war.

Mislleneous

World War 1 boosted research in technology, because better transport and means of communication gave countries an advantage over their enemies.

After World War 1, the need for an international body of nations that promotes security and peace worldwide became evident. This caused the founding of the League of Nations.

What is continental drift theory? Write down the evidence for continental drift?

The continental drift hypothesis was developed in the early part of the 20th century, mostly by Alfred Wegener. Wegener said that continents move around on Earth’s surface and that they were once joined together as a single supercontinent. While Wegener was alive, scientists did not believe that the continents could move. Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents were once united into a single supercontinent named Pangaea, meaning all earth in ancient Greek. He suggested that Pangaea broke up long ago and that the continents then moved to their current positions. He called his hypothesis continental drift.

Identical rocks of the same type and age are found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Wegener said the rocks had formed side-by-side and that the land had since moved apart.Mountain ranges with the same rock types, structures, and ages are now on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The Appalachians of the eastern United States and Canada, for example, are just like mountain ranges in eastern Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway. Wegener concluded that they formed as a single mountain range that was separated as the continents drifted.

 Ancient fossils of the same species of extinct plants and animals are found in rocks of the same age but are on continents that are now widely separated. Wegener proposed that the organisms had lived side by side, but that the lands had moved apart after they were dead and fossilized.

 Presence of glossopteris vegetation in carboniferous rocks of India, Australia, South Africa, Falkland Islands (Overseas territory of UK), Antarctica, etc. can be explained on the basis of the fact that parts were linked in the past.

 Tillite deposit: It is the sedimentary rock formed out of deposits of glaciers. The Gondwana system of sediments from India is known to have its counter parts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base the system has thick Tillite indicating extensive and prolonged glaciations. Counter parts of this succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica and Australia besides India.

 Rich placer deposits of gold are found on the Ghana coast (West Africa) but the source (gold bearing veins) are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side by side.

What is Biopiracy? Give some examples?

Biopiracy is the practice of commercially exploiting naturally occurring genetic material or biochemical. Most of the indigenous people possess a traditional knowledge that mainly comprises of genetic diversity and biological feature of the natural environment from generation to generation. Some of the traditional knowledge that is relevant to global survival includes the following components.

  • Medicinal Plants.
  • Farming or Agriculture.
  • Varieties of Food crops.

The essential components for the survival of rural and indigenous people include conservation of habitat, species, and biodiversity.

Examples of Biopiracy

 Biopiracy of African super-sweet berries: Pentadiplandra brazzein is a plant found in the west of South Africa. It is a vital source of protein known as Brazzein. Here, people use it as a low-calorie sweetener. It is known to be two thousand times sweeter than sugar. Recent developments include isolation of the gene encoding brazzein that has been sequenced and patented in the USA.

Biopiracy of the Enola bean: It was named after the wife of Larry Proctor, who patented it in 1999. Enola bean is a variety of Mexican yellow bean. Farmers in North Mexico depended on sales of this bean. The patent-holder subsequently sued a large number of importers of Mexican yellow beans. As a result, it caused an economic damage to farmers. A lawsuit was filed by farmers and the result was in favor of farmers as ruled by U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

The rosy periwinkle: The rosy periwinkle was originally found in Madagascar. Now, it has been introduced to several other tropical countries across the globe. This implements that researchers can obtain knowledge from one nation and plants samples in other nations.

What are the reasons for seasonality? 

Seasonality refers to both the seasonal variation of the suns position above the horizon and the changing day length.  There are five reasons for seasons which are discussed here under:

Earth’s revolution in its orbit around the sun: Earth completes its annual orbit in 365.24 days at a speed averaging 107,280 Km.hr in a counter clockwise direction when viewed from above the earth’s North Pole.

Earth’s rotation: It determines day length, causes the apparent deflection of moving bodies and produces tides. Earth’s rotation reduces the diurnal pattern of day and night. The dividing line between day and night is called the circle of illumination. Since this circle of illumination always bisect the equator, day length at the equator always evenly divided. Tilt of axis: Earth is tilted towards its axis.  It makes an angle of 23.50. This is also the reason for seasonality.

 Axial parallism: Throughout the revolution the earth’s axis maintain the same alignment relative to the plane of ecliptic. In each position earth is revolving with the axis oriented identically. This condition is known as parallelism.

Spherical shape of earth: Earth curved surface presents a continuously varied angle to the incoming parallel rays of the sun. The latitudinal variation in the angle of solar rays results in an uneven global distribution of insolation.

What is the role of NITI Aayog? Write short notes.

Answer: NITI Aayog (National Institute for transforming India) is a policy think tank of the Government of India to achieve sustainable development goals and to achieve cooperative federalism by enhancing the role of state government in the economic policy making and to make bottom up approach a reality.

The role of NITI Aayog will be:

  • Bring Inclusivity in the policy making by acting as collaborating platform.
  • It will act as the friend, philosopher and guide for the state. Here, best practices among the state can be shared and can be implemented.
  • It will help to integrate data and the analysis of the data to make policies more efficient.
  • Designing policies more grounded in reality will be another aspect. Bringing reality and innovation in policy making.
  • It will help to bring harmony between state and centre rather than confonntative federalism. The idea is to make team India.

Describe the drainage system of Rajasthan.

The Location of the great Indian watershed and the existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past Udai sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to Pratapgarh.

Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along with its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and Berach, Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.

The inland drainage system is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin, Barrah basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage basins. The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these rivers.

The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri, Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near the Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.

The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south, southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and has some important streams.

The river Chambal is the largest stream and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.

The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about 325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at 505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.

The river Chambal is joined by its first major tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj, after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas join the Chambal River on the left bank.

The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.

RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-1

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Revision Part-I

Which are the Products obtained from forests of Rajasthan?

  1. Gums and Regins
  2. Tan and Dyes
  3. Oil seeds and Oil yielding plants
  4. Essential oil bearing plants
  5. Species providing fibres and flosses
  6. Edible product species.
  7. Fuel, charcoal etc.

Write down on Instrumented Earthquakes in Rajasthan

1. 15 August 1906 – Thar Desert, Rajasthan, Mw 6.2

2. This event was located along the India-Pakistan border, in the vicinity of Janpalia, Rajasthan which is located north-northwest of Bakhasar.

3. 31 October 1940 – Thar Desert, Rajasthan and Mw 5.6 this event was located to the north-west of Ramgarh and to the north-west of Jaisalmer.

4. 08 November 1991 – Bersi-Tejrawa (Jaisalmer) area, Rajasthan, Mw 5.4 Few houses collapsed in Konoi village and 90% of the structures in the village developed cracks. A 500-metre long fissure was observed in the same village. It was felt over an area of 130 square kilometres, including at Jaisalmer, Barmer and Kishengarh.

5. 11 May 1998 – Pokhran Nuclear Test, Rajasthan, Mw 5.2

This the first nuclear test conducted by India after 1974. Three devices were detonated simultaneously. They consisted of a 45 kiloton thermonuclear device, a 15 kiloton fission device and a sub kiloton device. Interestingly this test was initially reported as an earthquake on the India-Pakistan border by the prototype International Data Centre (PIDC) which verifies the compliance of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

What is the catchment area of a river?

A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent or an area of land where all surface water from rain, melting snow or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin where the waters join another body of water, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea or ocean.

Write Notes about the Seismic Faults in Rajasthan.

  1. Several faults have been identified in Rajasthan, out of which many show evidence of movement during the Holocene epoch.  
  2. The Cambay Graben terminates in the south-western part of the state.
  3. The Konoi Fault near Jaisalmer trends in a north-south direction and was associated with the 1991 Jaisalmer earthquake.
  4. Several active faults criss-cross the Aravalli range and lie parallel to each other.
  5. The most prominent of them is the north-south trending Sardar Shahar Fault and the Great Boundary Fault which runs along the Chambal River and then continues in the same direction into Uttar Pradesh.

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What do you know about ‘Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan’?

Answer:

  • Mangarh Dham (MANGARH HILL) is known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan
  • In a barbaric tribal massacre that was executed on November 17, 1913, nearly a century ago, 500 odd tribal martyrs were killed by British Rulers, in Santrampur taluka of tribal dominated Panchmahal district.
  • Govind Guru and Mangarh massacre have become part of the memory of Bhils. Despite this, it was buried in remote areas of Banswara-Panchmahal, situated on the border of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and this historic tragedy could not have been more than a footnote in the history of India’s freedom fight.
  • He awakened the Bhil community and filled them with a sense of patriotism. The Bhils were so inspired that they sacrificed their lives for freedom. Later, 1500 Gurubhakt Bhils sacrificed their lives while fighting against the British army. It is therefore also known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan.

Enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to implement financial inclusion in the country?

Answer: – Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion simply means to ensure that everyone gets the benefit of the financial services of the nation at an affordable cost in spite of whatever background he belongs. It especially focuses on including Underprivileged and vulnerable group of the society into the economy and providing them with its benefit and thus further causing growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country through increase of customer base of the financial institutes which will further results in high profits for future and this cycle will keep going with increasing profits.

It enhances GDP growth by broadening the resource base of the financial system by developing a culture of savings among large segment of rural population bringing low-income groups within the perimeter of formal banking sector thus plays its own role in the process of economic development

India and Financial Inclusion

As far as India is concerned it has a long history of putting efforts to have financial inclusion and to some extent, it has been successful as compared to starting stages of building up of Indian economy after independence but there are still many milestones yet to be achieved in this process. And efforts of current government have enhanced financial inclusion in the society to many folds but we still are in the process figuring out to use this in favoring our economy and make everyone in the reach of its benefit and for this, there are various government schemes available.

Steps and Schemes followed by India for Financial Inclusion

  • Swabhiman Campaign
  • Business correspondent Model

Under this model financial Institutes appoint commission agents who provide financial Services at the doorstep of the public at remote areas where they are unable to open branches which result in large customer base at low cost. Therefore this model is also known as the cost-efficient model.

Various steps taken in area of banking for financial inclusion are:-

RBI’s Compulsory Requirement of Opening Branches in Un-banked Villages, banks is directed to allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches to be opened during the year in un-banked (Tier 5 and Tier 6) rural centers.

No Frill account- The central bank had introduced ‘no-frills’ accounts in 2005 to provide basic banking facilities to poor and promote financial inclusion. The accounts could be maintained without or with very low minimum balance. These were later converted into BSBDA

BSBDA- RBI advised all banks to open Basic Saving Bank Deposit (BSBD) accounts with minimum common facilities such as no minimum balance, deposit, and withdrawal of cash at bank branch and ATMs, receipt/ credit of money through electronic payment channels, facility of providing ATM card

JAN DHAN Account- These are similar to BSBDA but with little more features as earlier bank were reluctant to open BSBDA account. Banks also do not provide good service to BSBDA account holder. They even denied service like the debit card. But after JHAN DHAN Yojna this scenario has been completely changed

JHAN DHAN account holder is compulsorily issued RUPAY debit card and many more services. It certainly increased the financial inclusion and made bank account opening a cake walk

Account age should be at least 6 months

Account holder should visit ATM branches at least once in 90 days

Income should be up to 1 lakh per year in rural areas and up to 1.5 lakh year for urban areas

For Loans-

In order to control public to borrow from Schedule banks to lend fix amount in priority sector at affordable rate of interest along with certain government schemes such as – Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc.

For Insurance Sector

Insurance sector also plays a major role in financial inclusion of a country and thus government has various schemes in this sector among which few most recent schemes are-

Pradhanmantri Fasal Bima Yojna: This is a general insurance for crops and this scheme started from Feb 2016 by NDA government and replaced the earlier scheme of UPA government named “National Agricultural Insurance” with few more advantages such as low premium on crop insurance, use of technology for weather forecasting (like smartphones, drones, remote sensing satellites), Future generation of claim and post-harvest benefits e.t.c

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojna : It is a life insurance scheme from age of 18-50 years (benefit until 55 years) at a premium of Rs 330+(18%gst). It covers till 2 lakh Rs and is under LIC India on behalf of the government of India. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima yojna – started on Jan 2015 for accidental insurance and covers up to Rs 2lakh in case of death and Rs 1 lakh in case of physical disability at a premium of (Rs 12+GST) for the age group of 18 to 70 years and is under HDFC life on behalf of government of India

Recent steps still in progress

On Recommendation of Nachiket More committee there are various measures are going on among which one is opening of two special kinds of banks in India which are

Payment banks– These banks will only accept deposit from public and will not lend loans, these payment banks will provide payment services and deposit products to its target customers which will be small businesses and low-income households. Till date 11 licenses have been granted out of which four banks are functional which are – Paytm, Airtel, Indian postal payment bank, Phinopayment?

Small finance banks– Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.

Where is Kaila Devi temple located in Rajasthan?

Answer: Kaila Devi Temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Kaila Devi Village of Karauli district, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The temple is located on the banks of the Kalisil River, a tributary of the Banas River in the hills of Aravali.

Differentiate between Acute and Chronic diseases, with the help of some examples.

Answer: Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long-developing syndrome, such as osteoporosis or asthma. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma.

Examples of acute diseases include appendicitis, acute leukemia, and strep throat. Some acute diseases do not require hospitalization or medical treatments, such as influenza, whereas others, such as pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction, may require medical attention and extended treatment.

Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Many people with these illnesses become depressed. In fact, depression is one of the most common complications of chronic illness.

Why the Need of new Inland Container Depots in Rajasthan?

Currently, exporters from Udaipur use the inland ports available in Ahmedabad for exporting while the industry in Bhiwadi routes its goods through an inland depot at Khatuwas in Haryana. The proposed Bhiwadi depot would help Industries located in Bhiwadi and nearby areas and Sirohi depot will help in moving the consignments from Udaipur. This would majorly help the marble industry while agriculture, handicraft and textiles Industries located in Udaipur region would also be benefitted.

These ports are also required as 2015, initiative of Rajasthan Government of building an artificial inland seaport at Jalore has been recently declared infeasible by Water and Power Consultancy Services (WAPCOS). The government had proposed to build a canal between Mori creek and Jalore or using existing Cheras and rivers, like Luni, but, when WAPCOS evaluated the internal rate of return (IRR) for the project, it came out as negative. Additionally, reservations were raised by the defense authorities and there were also concern of disturbing ecological sensitivity of the area. Subsequently, the state government’s water resource department has also now raised the red flag and declared the project unviable.

Analyse the Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan.

The natural resources, policy incentives, strategic location and infrastructure in the state are favourably suited for investments in sectors such as cement, tourism, agriculture and allied industries, mineral and mineral processing industries.

The state has an agricultural economy with nine agro-climatic zones and various types of soil that help during the cultivation of crops. Food grain production in Rajasthan is estimated to have reached 22.58 million tonnes in 2017-18.

Between 2011-12 and 2017-18, Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) expanded at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.60 per cent (in rupee terms) to US$ 130.37 billion whereas the Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) expanded at a CAGR of 11.45 per cent (in rupee terms) to US$ 117.53 billion.

The state is the leading producer of cement grade limestone in India. Production of limestone during 2017-18 reached 67.03 million tonnes, accounting for 22.05 per cent of India’s total limestone production.

Bureau of Investment Promotion (BIP) is a nodal agency of the Government of Rajasthan that facilitates investments in various sectors in the state. Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation (RIICO) is the sole agency in the state that develops land for industrial growth.

In August 2018, the state government inaugurated Bhamashah Techno Hub, India’s biggest incubation centre, in Jaipur. The state-of-the-art facility is spread over 100,000 sq ft and is expected to house over 700 start-ups. Start-ups operating from the centre will receive various facilities including mentoring, funding, logistics and office space.

Key sector performance stood as follows:

  • Total merchandise exports from Rajasthan were US$ 6.95 billion in FY2018. Merchandise exports during FY2019 reached US$ 5.20 billion.
  • Production of cereals was estimated at 1.91 million tonnes, while that of pulses at 3.53 million tonnes during the 2017-18.
  • Cotton production in the state is estimated at 1.73 million bales in 2017-18.
  • In 2017(Provisional), 45.92 million domestic tourists and 1.61 million foreign tourists visited Rajasthan.
  • Value of all minerals produced during 2017-18 in the state stood at Rs 110.19 billion (US$ 1,527.25 million).

 Sukanya Samriddhi Yojna (SSY)

Narendra Modi launched the Sukanya Samridhi scheme, under the ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ campaign on 22nd January 2015. The aim of this scheme is to meet the education and marriage expenses of a girl child.

What are the features?

– It permits opening of one account per girl child. A family can have a maximum two accounts, if there are 2 girl children.

However, a third account can also be opened, provided the first or second delivery results in twins or triplets

– Minimum Rs. 1,000 and maximum of Rs. 1.5 lakh can be deposited during one financial year

– Deposits in the account can be made until the completion of 14 years, from the date of opening of the account.

– The account can be closed only when the girl turns 21. If the account is not closed and the money is not withdrawn even after turning 21, interest can still be earned on the amount.

What are the Main renewable energy sources?

  • Renewable energy
  • Biofuel.
  • Biomass.
  • Biogas.       
  • Geothermal.
  • Hydropower.
  • Solar energy.
  • Tidal power.
  • Wave power.

What is inclusive and exclusive growth?

Inclusive growth simply means the growth or progress of a country such that each and every citizen benefits from the growth. Exclusive growth on the other hand leaves a sizeable lot of population deprived of the fruits of growth. Inclusiveness refers to equality of opportunity in terms of access to markets, resources.

Write short notes on Crop Specific Growth in Rajasthan?

 The major crops grown in different parts of Rajasthan are bajra, wheat,

Jowar, maize, cotton, rapeseed and mustard, groundnut and horticultural crops

As per the cropping pattern in the state, the crop groups such as total cereals, oilseeds, pulses and fodder crops account for about 42 per cent, 21 per cent,18 per cent and 15 per cent of GCA respectively during the year 2010-11.

Among the cereals, bajra (50.5%), wheat (27.9%), maize (10.5%) and jowar (6.7%) are the major crops; while rapeseed and mustard (45.4%), taramira (21.7%), soyabean (14.0%), Sesamum (10.0%) and groundnut (6.3%) are the major oilseeds grown in the state. Among total pulses, gram, moth and moong are the major crops, accounts for about 37.5 per cent, 33.5 per cent and 22.1 per cent respectively during 2010-11. It is evident from that the share of total cereals has declined drastically by

10 percent points (from 52 per cent in 1990-91 to 42.0 per cent in 2010-11); while the share of oilseeds has increased by 6 percent points (from 15 per cent in 1990-91 to 21 per cent in 2010- 11). Thus, it can be assumed that there is shift in area from cereals to oilseeds.

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Critically analyse that Rajasthan is now at a crossroads and faces serious challenges to sustaining rapid and inclusive growth.

 In recent years, growth has slowed down and the crucial tourism sector has lost market share. A worsening water crisis is making traditional agricultural practices increasingly unsustainable, while growing fiscal pressures due partly to deficiencies in the electricity sector are narrowing the fiscal space available to implement comprehensive policy actions. At the same time, a dearth of high-quality jobs and stagnant social indicators, especially for women, make it imperative to devise ways to improve the sustainability and inclusiveness of growth. If these challenges are not addressed, Rajasthan’s progress might be reversed: conditions in rural areas may become more difficult at a time when the environment in urban areas is not yet conducive to rapid growth and job creation in the manufacturing and services sectors. As a result, growing unemployment compounded by persistent geographical and social disparities could threaten the improvements in the state’s welfare.

What is the effect of inflation on the economy?

When prices rise for energy, food, commodities, and other goods and services, the entire economy is affected. Rising prices, known as inflation, impact the cost of living, the cost of doing business, borrowing money, mortgages, corporate and government bond yields, and every other facet of the economy.

What is the difference between absolute and relative pay?

Relative income measures your income in relation to other members of society, weighing it against the current standards of the day. Absolute income, on the other hand, does not take into consideration those other factors, but simply reflects the total amount of earnings you’ve received in a given period.

What is social and economic development?

Socio-economic development is the process of social and economic development in a society. Socio-economic development is measured with indicators, such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy and levels of employment.

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY):

This scheme was introduced in 2008. Its main motto is to provide health insurance coverage to people belonging to the BPL (Below Poverty Line) category.

It provides health insurance coverage to unorganised sectors, such as construction, that are registered under Welfare Boards, Street Vendors, Licensed Porters (railway, MNREGA workers, mine workers, auto or taxi drivers etc.

Covers up to Rs. 30,000 on a floater basis for family consisting of 5 members.

Provides cover for transportation charges of Rs. 100 per visit to the hospital with the maximum limit of Rs. 1,000.

The premium is just Rs. 30 per annum, and BPL families can get an RSBY smart card, which allows holders to claim medical care expenses of up to Rs. 30,000 per annum.

Rajasthan’s growth performance and its record on poverty reduction distinguish it from India’s other low-income states (LIS). Why?

Rajasthan has had an impressive growth performance over the past two decades and Compares Rajasthan’s per capita GDP growth with those of all-India and the average of other low-incomes states, including Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Over the last two decades, Rajasthan’s average annual per capita growth rate was 4.9 percent, about 1.2 percentage points above the growth performance of the LIS.3 However, the all-India average per capita annual growth rate surpassed Rajasthan’s by 0.3 percentage points.

While the state has made progress in improving water management through micro- and drip-irrigation and promotion of less water- guzzling crops, water resources are increasingly stressed as consecutive droughts have put growing pressure on groundwater. Subsidies have not only distorted the structure of the economy, but also limited fiscal space, hence constraining capital and social expenditure that are vital to promote growth.

What are the three indicators of HDI?

HDI Dimensions and Indicators

Health – Life expectancy at birth.

Education – expected years schooling for school-age children and average years of schooling in the adult population.

Income – measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (PPP US$)

Udyam Abhilasha

It is a National Level Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign launched by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) on the occasion of Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

· The campaign has been launched in 115 Aspirational Districts identified by NITI Aayog in 28 States.

About the Campaign:

The campaign would create and strengthen cadre of more than 800 trainers to provide entrepreneurship training to the aspiring youths across these districts thus encouraging them to enter the admired segment of entrepreneurs.

SIDBI has partnered with CSC e-Governance Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle, (CSC SPV) set up by the Ministry of Electronics & IT, Govt. of India for implementing the campaign through their CSCs.

Payment Regulatory Board (PRB)

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has opposed the Centre’s proposal to set up an independent Payment Regulatory Board (PRB) which will oversee all payment systems in the country stating that the proposed body “must remain with the Reserve Bank” and headed by the RBI Governor.

Coming out strongly against the Inter-Ministerial Committee’s proposal to take PRB out of the RBI’s purview, the RBI said there has been no evidence of any inefficiency in payment systems of India.

What are the major factors of globalization?

Factors influencing Globalization are as follows: (1) Historical (2) Economy (3) Resources and Markets (4) Production Issues (5) Political (6) Industrial Organisation (7) Technologies. Globalisation though is basically an economic activity, is influenced by many factors.

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

Wheat and barley are cultivated in large areas, as are pulses, sugarcane, and oilseeds. Cotton and tobacco are cash crops. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and the second largest producer of oilseeds. Rajasthan is also the biggest wool-producing state in India.

RBI eases ECB hedging norms for companies. Explain

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has eased hedging norms for companies that raise funds through external commercial borrowings (ECB), a move that will lower the cost of hedging.

  • The mandatory hedge coverage has been reduced from 100% to 70% under Track I of the ECB framework.
  • Track I refers to medium-term foreign currency-denominated ECBs with a minimum average maturity of 3-5 years.
  • The move will help reduce costs for companies that raise foreign funds.
  • External commercial borrowings (ECBs) are loans in India made by non-resident lenders in foreign currency to Indian borrowers.
  • They are used widely in India to facilitate access to foreign money by Indian corporations and PSUs (public sector undertakings).

India Post Payments Bank (IPPB)

 India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) has been launched. It will focus on providing banking and financial services to people in rural areas.

The India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) is a public sector company under the department of posts and ministry of communication with 100 per cent equity of the government of India, and governed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

How has the Green Revolution affected India?

The Green Revolution in India refers to a period when Indian agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.

What are the challenges to the long-term sustainability of Rajasthan’s growth Performance?

Challenge 1: Sustainability of water resources

Perhaps the most important challenge to the long-term sustainability of Rajasthan’s growth performance is the impending water crisis. Water scarcity has always been a serious issue for Rajasthan, but the most recent data show that it is approaching critical dimensions. Rajasthan’s water reserves are depleted from drought and overuse, which threatens the viability of current agricultural practices as well as prospects for developing water-intensive manufacturing.

Challenge 2: Persistent intra-state disparities and weak social indicators

Rajasthan displays large disparities (i) between locations; (ii) between men and women; and (iii) between members of different socio-economic groups. Moreover, in contrast to income, performance in improving social indicators has been lagging behind the rest of India.

Challenge 3: Inadequate job growth

Challenge 4: Limited fiscal space

What are the basic objectives of Five year Plans?

The basic objectives of the successive Five Year Plans has been to achieve a significant step up in the rate of growth of the State’s economy, optimum utilisation of benefits from potential already created, and improving the living conditions of the people specially of the weaker sections. At the time of initiation of planning in 1951, the state was involved in problems of integration and so there was lack of basic statistical data required for planning the state.

Which industry is the major source of employment in Rajasthan?

In terms of employment, the business and economy of Rajasthan is predominantly pastoral and agricultural. Business and economy of Rajasthan include agriculture, industries, mining and tourism as well.

Describe the Special Area Development Programmes in Rajasthan.

The area development programmes lay focus on development of special region or area.

Mewat Area Development Programme

The area inhabited by Mev’s is known as Mewat area. The Mev community is concentrated in 12 blocks of Alwar and Bharatpur Districts. The Mev is still socially and economically backward and hence, Rajasthan Government is running a special development program since 1987-88 for overall development of Mewat area.

Border Area Development Programme (BADP)

The Border Area Development Programme (BADP) was introduced during the 7th Five Year Plan as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS). The BADP is a Central Government intervention strategy to bring about a balanced development of border areas.

The programme is being implemented in 16 Blocks of 4 Border Districts, namely Barmer, Bikaner, Ganganagar and Jaisalmer. Under BADP, majority of the funds are invested for security related activities. However, since the border districts have poor social and economic infrastructure development activities are also provided due importance.

Dang Area Development Programme

Dang Area Development Programme has been re-launched in 2004-05 by Government of Rajasthan. The Programme covers 394 Gram Panchayats of 26 Panchayat Samities of 8 Districts (Sawai Madhopur, Karauli, Dholpur, Baran, Jhalawar, Bharatpur, Kota and Bundi).

Magra Area Development Programme

The central Southern part of Rajasthan surrounded by hills specially Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Chittorgarh and Rajsamand and not covered under Tribal Area Development (TAD) is locally known as “Magra”

To improve social and economic status of residents, the “Magra Area Development Programme” was initiated since 2005-06 in 14 Blocks of above 5 districts. At present it is being implemented in 16 blocks in above districts. Activities of Watershed Development, Minor Irrigation, Animal Husbandry, Drinking Water, Education, Electrification, Health and Road Construction are undertaken for development of the area.

Analyse the Rajasthan’s inclusive growth in relation to fiscal policy?

Enhance fiscal policy to spend more, better and sustainably:

Successful implementation of Rajasthan’s inclusive growth strategy will require spending better and spending more, while conducting fiscal policy in a sustainable manner. The delivery of high quality health, education and social protection services, as well as needed infrastructure, requires an improvement in the efficiency of expenditure an increased level of resources to finance larger spending in some areas and a stable fiscal policy stance to ensure spending programs receive predictable funding.

Spending better requires deepening ongoing public financial management reforms to improve resource allocation and service delivery. Notwithstanding substantial reforms in recent years, several public finance areas can be strengthened. Actual compliance with the Rajasthan State Public Procurement Portal Act and the internal control framework still remains a challenge due to lack of capacity and skills.

Audit institutions in the state need to be reoriented towards in-time and action-oriented reporting which will help enhance executive response and accountability. There is a need to enhance budget realism, make the budget more performance-oriented and enhance its medium-term focus, which contributes also to the objective of ensuring predictable funding to priority projects. The state already prepares a medium-term fiscal framework in the context of the annual FRBM exercise and this could become the basis for a

Medium Term Expenditure Framework

What explains Rajasthan’s strong record in poverty reduction?

1. Proximity of many districts in Rajasthan to the Delhi National Capital Region and the Delhi Mumbai economic corridor has contributed to growth and poverty reduction.

 The economically most active locations in Rajasthan tend to fall in the cluster around Delhi — a region characterized by greater economic opportunities and lower poverty rates. At the same time, the Southern districts of Rajasthan tend to be the least productive locations – these districts have a majority ST population and the highest percentage of poor. Hence, slower progress in poverty reduction observed for Scheduled Tribes in Rajasthan is in part a reflection of the state of progress of the districts where they live.

2. The importance and performance of the agriculture sector, as well as the relatively large shift of workers to the construction sector are possible explanations for the greater responsiveness of poverty reduction to growth.

3. Improvements in access to basic services in Rajasthan appear to have also had an important impact on poverty reduction and growth.

National Social Assistance scheme

Launched in 1995, this is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing financial assistance to the elderly, widows, and people with disabilities in the form of social pensions.

Who can avail?

– Anyone above 60 years and below the poverty line (BPL)

– BPL widows who fall in the age group of 40 to 64

– BPL people with more than 80% disability and are above 18 years

How many districts of Rajasthan are covered by Thar Desert?

Western Rajasthan, cover 12 district of Rajasthan viz. Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur, Pali and Sikar part of it comes under the great Indian Desert, also well known as the Thar Desert.

What is Gini coefficient and what is the definition?

The Gini index or Gini coefficient is a statistical measure of distribution developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912. It is often used as a gauge of economic inequality, measuring income distribution or, less commonly, wealth distribution among a population.

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)

  • The finance ministry has asked the banks to review all loans

Sanctioned under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY or

Mudra loan scheme), as the non-performing assets (NPA) have

Crossed Rs 11,000 crore within three years of the launch of the

Scheme

  • Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY) scheme:

The PMMY Scheme was launched in April, 2015.

PMMY is a scheme to extend collateral free loans by Banks,

Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) and Micro

Finance Institutions (MFIs) to Small/Micro business enterprises and individuals in the non-agricultural sector to enable them to setup or expand their business activities and to generate self-employment.

  • Banks, NBFCs and MFIs can draw refinance under the MUDRA Scheme after becoming member-lending institutions of MUDRA.

What are the Components of Human Development?

The noted Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq considered four essential pillars of human development.

Describe the physical features of Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau of Rajasthan.

This division constitutes east Sirohi, nearly the whole of Udaipur except a narrow belt in the east and whole of Dungarpur district.

The highest section of the Aravalli range known as ‘Bhorat’ Plateau lies northwest of Udaipur between Kumbhalgarh – Gogunda and the average elevation of this plateau is 1,225 metres.

How are the seasons formed?

  • Due to Earth’s axial tilt
  • Earth has 23.5 degrees axial tilt which causes seasons, the direction of the tilt never changes it always points in the same direction. In June the Northern Hemispheres is directly facing the sun which means that there is summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Six months later in December, the Northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun and its winter in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • In March both Northern and Southern Hemispheres sweep equal portions of sun and its spring in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Six months later in September, it’s autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

What are the deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan?

  • Ajmer: Lohagarh, Gujarwara
  • Udaipur: Acheiwas
  • Bhilwara: Titoli, Deora Guda, Nagaur

It is used as moderator in Nuclear Power Reactors and Green transparent variety of beryl is emerald which is a precious stone.

What is the difference between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park?

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.

Dunes: In geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by Aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.

   1. Longitudinal Dunes

  • These are mostly Run South West to North East
  • Parallel to the prevailing winds & mostly Sword-Shaped type.
  • Its Longer axis is parallel to the direction of wind

  2. Transverse Dunes

  • These types of Dunes are formed across the wind direction.
  • Commonly found in eastern & northern parts of Marusthali.
  • Windward side is long & gently sloping, while leeward side is steep and abrupt.
  • These are also called U-shaped dunes.

 3. Crescent Shaped Dunes

  • The Width of these types of dunes varies from 100 m to 200 m Height of dunes-10 m to 20 m.
  • The Dunes have a gently sloping convex windward side & steep leeward
  • These are found in isolation or occasionally side by side in lines.  

Describe Luni Basin area.

This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and Flood occurs during the Rainy season in Luni River.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga Hills of Aravalli Range near Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur districts are part of this basin and total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni River & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari River meets it.  

Name a few schemes targeted for poverty alleviation in India

Answer: The poverty alleviation programmes in India can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as prevalence of poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations.

 The programmes can be mainly grouped into:

1) Wage employment programmes

2) Self-employment programmes

3) Food security programmes

4) Social security programmes

5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

The five year plans immediately after independence tried to focus on poverty alleviation through sectoral programmes.

1        Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)

2        National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)

3        National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

4        National Maternity Benefit Scheme

5        Annapurna

6        Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

7        Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

Identify and describe (in brief) different types of sheep in the state of Rajasthan

Answer: Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan

Jaisalmeri: Found in Jaisalmer.

Naali: Found in Hanumangarh, Churu and Bikaner & Jhunjhunu. …

Maalpuri: Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli & Sawai madhopur.

Magra: Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year.

Pugal: Originated from Pugal in Bikaner.

Chokla or Shekhawati

Sonari or Chanothar

Describe the salient features of demography of Rajasthan in the latest census

Answer: As per details from Census 2011, Rajasthan has population of 6.86 Crores, an increase from figure of 5.65 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Rajasthan as per 2011 census is 68,548,437 of which male and female are 35,550,997 and 32,997,440 respectively. In 2001, total population was 56,507,188 in which males were 29,420,011 while females were 27,087,177. The total population growth in this decade was 21.31 percent while in previous decade it was 28.33 percent. The population of Rajasthan forms 5.66 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 5.49 percent.

Recently as per Rajasthan census data, 93.22% houses are owned while 5.36% were rented. In all, 66.73% couples in Rajasthan lived in single family. In 2011, 68.02% of Uttar Pradesh population had access to Banking and Non-Banking Finance Corporation. Only 1.80% of Uttar Pradesh population had internet facility which is likely to improve in 2021 due to Jio. 4.66% of family in Uttar Pradesh owned car while 24.06% owned two wheeler. In few months we will also get details of election data for Rajasthan.

Describe the status and potential of non-conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan.

Answer: Rajasthan has become the leading state in tapping wind energy and solar energy for power generation in the country. According to the Government of Rajasthan, the estimated wind energy potential in the state is estimated to be about 5400 MW. A total of 3065.55 MW wind power capacity has been installed by December 2014.

Now, the emphasis has shifted to tapping more of solar Energy for power production and Rajasthan has signed MoUs with investors for setting up of a cumulative generation capacity of 32000 MW in the solar sector recently.

“Rajasthan shines on the solar map of India with 300-330 clear sunny days comparable to deserts of California, Nevada, Colorado and Arizona. Within the state the districts such as Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur are the key regions with best solar radiation. Rajasthan is endowed with two critical resources that are essential to solar power production: high level of solar radiation (6-7 kWh/ m2/ day) and large tracts of relatively flat, undeveloped land,” informs the website of resurgent Rajasthan.

Currently development of Solar-park at Jodhpur is in progress to create 2000 MW Solar Power Plant and Rajasthan has taken the lead ahead of all other states in this sector too. With regard to solar energy production, it is said that the world’s largest 4,000 MW solar project would be built in two phases in Sambhar block of Jaipur.

The first phase will be of 1000 MW and most likely will be commissioned by the end of 2016. Rajasthan is one of India’s most solar-developed states, it is said. As we know that solar energy is the most important non-conventional source of energy because it is non-polluting and helpful in lessening the greenhouse effect.

Rajasthan has decided for promoting generation of electricity from biomass also and is encouraging investments in the sector. The main source for biomass energy in the State of Rajasthan is mustard husk and Julie flora.

Why no precipitation in Kachchh and Western Rajasthan?

There is no mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents (which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.

The monsoon currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by stable anti-cyclonic air.

The hot and dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the ascent of air and absorb its moisture.

These conditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan where desert conditions prevail.

Some of the currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unite with the Bay of Bengal branch.

Although a few air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.

Enumerate salient features of India’s Nano Mission.

Answer: Nano Technology is a knowledge-intensive and “enabling technology” which is expected to influence a wide range of products and processes with far-reaching implications for national economy and development. The Government of India, in May 2007, has approved the launch of a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore for 5 years.

The Department of Science and Technology is the nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this upcoming area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field. For this, research on fundamental aspects of Nano Science and training of large number of manpower will receive prime attention. Equally importantly, the Nano Mission will strive for development of products and processes for national development, especially in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water, materials development, sensors development, drug delivery, etc. For this, it will forge linkages between educational and research institutions and industry and promote Public Private Partnerships.

The Nano Mission has been structured in a fashion so as to achieve synergy between the national research efforts of various agencies in Nano Science and Technology and launch new programmes in a concerted fashion. International collaborative research efforts will also be made wherever required.

Describe the span of settlement of Bhil tribe in India?

Answer: Bhils or Bheels are primarily an ethnic group of people in West India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Places they inhabit:

Bhils are popularly known as the bow men of Rajasthan. They are the most widely distributed tribal groups in India. They form the largest tribe of the whole South Asia. Bhils are mainly divided into two main groups the central or pure bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils. The central Bhils are found in the mountain regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and Rajasthan. Bhils are also found in the north eastern parts of Tripura.

Bhils-tribe History:

Bhils belong to the race of the pre-Aryans. The name ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word villu or billu, which according to the Dravidian language is known as Bow. The name Bhil is also finds mentioned in the great epic called Mahabharata and Ramayana. The Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was wandering through the jungles of Dandaka, searching Sita. The popular legend represents them as being descended from Nishada, son of Mahadev by the human female. Nishad was brutal and ugly, who killed his father’s bull and as the consequence he was banished to mountains and forests. During the ancient era they were considered as the great warriors who fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers.

Language and Costumes:

Apart from other states, Bhils comprise 39% of Rajasthan’s total population. Speak Bhili, which is an Indo Aryan language. Bhil women wear traditional saris and the Bhil men wear loose long frock along with pyjama. The peasants wear turbans. Bhils also wear brass ornaments. Bhils are tall, well built with the handsome features. They are known for their truthfulness and simplicity. They love independence. They are brave and their National weapon is bow made of bamboo. Earlier they were the great haunters. They now practice agriculture as the source of livelihood.

Culture and Religion:

Religion practice among the Bhils differs from place to place. Most of them worship local deities like Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba, and Sitalmata. Some of the worship Tiger God called ‘vaghdev’. They have no temples of their own. They consult Badvas -the hereditary sorcerers on all the occasions. Bhils are highly superstitious tribal people. They have Bhagat or Gurus who perform the religious rites. They have village headsmen, who deal with their disputes. Bhils strictly follow rules and regulations. They marry only in their own classes. Their close relationships are tightly based on mutual love and respect. They have rich cultural history and give much importance to dance and music. Ghoomar is the most famous dance among the Bhils. Than Gair is the religious dance drama performed by the men in the month of Shravana (July and August). The Bhils are talented in the sculptured work. They make beautiful horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay.

Fair and Festivals:

The Beneshwar fair is the main festival celebrated among the Bhils. This fair is held during the period of Shivaratri (in the month of January or February) and is dedicated to Beneshwar Mahadev also known as Lord Shiva. On this occasion Bhils gather all together set up camps on the banks of the Som and Mahi River. They perform dance around the fire and sing traditional songs. At night they all of them enjoy Raslila at the Lakshmi Narayan temple. Cultural shows, magic shows, animal shows acrobatic feast are the main attraction of the fair. This fair is actually the combination of two fairs, which are held in reverence of Lord Shiva and the other one that commenced after the setting up of Vishnu temple by Jankunwari. Holy and Dusshera are the other major festivals celebrated among the Bhils in India.

Describe the phenomenon of Monsoon?

Answer: the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. This results in the southwest monsoon. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one.

A monsoon is a seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction that usually brings with it a different kind of weather. It almost always refers to the Asian monsoon, a large region extending from India to Southeast Asia where monsoon conditions prevail.

Write a short note on ‘Maharana Pratap Award’ in the field of sports?

Answer: Maharana Pratap Award:

This is the highest awards for sportsperson in the state of Rajasthan.

The Award includes:

  • Citation
  • Cash prize of INR 1, 00,000
  • Bronze Statute of Maharana Pratap
  • Blazer and Tie

Why most of the world’s tropical deserts located on the Western margins of continents?

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile to plant and animal life. In other words, it is extremely dry area of land with sparse vegetation.

The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation (the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes).

There are four types of desert found in the world: sub-tropical desert, Coastal deserts, Cold desert and Polar Desert. The fifth part of the Earth’s surface is desert. They are found in Asia, Australia, Africa, North America and South America. Sahara is the world’s largest tropical desert.

There are four major factors responsible for the location of the world’s tropical desert on the western margins of continents:

1. Offshore areas of trade wind and falling under the rain shadow area

2. Anti-cyclonic conditions

3. Formation of Rain-shadow Zone

4. Presence of cold ocean currents along the western coast of continents

What are the Ghaggar Plains?

Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar River which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers Height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

Describe the Eastern Plains of Rajasthan

The area on the northeast, east and southeast of the Aravalli range is known as the Eastern Plain and it covers 23% of total area of the Rajasthan.

The Vindhyan Plateau marks the southeastern limit of the Plain and the western boundary is demarcated by the eastern edge of the Aravalli up to north of Udaipur.

This Plain is further subdivided into two physiographic units-

(i) The Banas Basin

(ii) The Chappan Plain

(i) Banas Basin

The great watershed of India runs in an easterly direction starting From Udai Sagar, east of Udaipur. The watershed acts as the southern boundary of the Mewar Plains and south of this watershed is the Chappan Plain. The region is marked by various types of erosional features, produced in the granite and gneiss rocks mark the topography of the area. The soil is stony and the annual rainfall is about 73cm.

  • The Area- 187400 Km³ is an elevated plain drained by Banas & its tributaries and it is essentially Peneplains
  • It is a dissected in Mewar and flat in Malpura plain region.
  • Mewar plain gradually slopes towards the east & north east.
  • The Banas & its tributaries Berach, Menal, Bandi, Mansi, Kothari and Khori flow through this plain.
  • It is flat upland which recognized a ―Tertiary Peneplane.
  • It is composed of schist & guess.
  • From the foot of the Aravalli range the plain slopes gradually towards northeast.

(ii) The Chappan Plains

  • It is lying east of the Mewar hills & south of the Banas plain. District- Dungarpur
  • The central & eastern parts known as Chhappan
  • Average Elevation is approximate 200-400 m
  • This dissected plain along with hill tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur are locally known as Bagar.
  • This plain drained by the tributaries of the Mahi River lies south of the great Indian watershed in southeastern Udaipur, Banswara and the southern part of Chittorgarh district.

The Chappan area is deeply and intricately eroded resulting in the formation of separate hillocks, which is not identical to the Mewar plain in the north. This deeply dissected area is locally known as ‘Bagar’ and includes the hilly tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur.

What do you know about Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau, Comment?

The eastern part along the Chambal River is covered by the Hadoti Plateau. Four districts Kota, Baran, Bundi and Jhalawar is part of this plateau. The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border. River Chambal drains the large part of this area.

  • This region locally called Pathar and Uppermal
    • It comprises of the eastern & South-eastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti.
    • Bhilwara, Bundi, Kota, Baran and Jhalawar districts it contains about 9.6% of the area of whole Rajasthan
    • East of the plateau has a general slope toward Gwalior & catchment of Betwa river
    • The eastern, southern and south-west part bordered with Madhya pradesh.

The Plateau has been divided into two units

(a) Vindhyan Scrap Land

The scarp lands formed by massive sandstones separated by shale have an Average elevation between 350m to 580m. The scarps are facing towards the south-southeast between the Banas and the Chambal and extend towards the east over Bundelkhand. A scarp block occupies the areas of Dholpur and Karauli. The region presents an undulating topography strewn with blocks, depressions and boulders.

(b) Deccan Lava Plateau

The Deccan Lava Plateau is also known as Pathar or Uppermal plateau. It is a wide stony upland, including Kota-Bundi plateau section. The Chambal along with its tributaries Kali Sindh and Parbati form a triangular alluvial basin of 210m-275m at Kota and the Soil of this region is mostly black.

Best Wishes!!

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Questions:Geography

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Sample Questions:

  1. Which are the Products obtained from forests of Rajasthan?
  2. Write down on Instrumented Earthquakes in Rajasthan.
  3. What is the catchment area of a river?
  4. Write Notes about the Seismic Faults in Rajasthan.
  5. Write down the list of Districts of Rajasthan touched the boundary with other States.
  6. What causes temperature variation?
  7. Describe the physical feature Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau of Rajasthan.
  8. How are the seasons formed?
  9. What are the deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan?
  10. What is the difference between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park?
  11. What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.
  12. Describe Luni Basin area.
  13. Why most of the world’s tropical deserts located on the Western margins of continents?
  14. What are the Ghaggar Plains?
  15. Describe the Eastern Plains of Rajasthan.
  16. What do you know about Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau, Comment?
  17. Describe the Southern Aravali Range and which the main hill ranges of it are?
  18. The Climate Change Agenda task forces constituted for which sectors?
  19. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity
  20. What is the difference between Reserved, Protected and Unclassified forest Areas?
  21. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
  22. What is the Rajasthan State Water Policy 2010?
  23. What is the distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan?
  24. What are the features of humidity in Rajasthan?
  25. Which factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan?
  26. Describe the drainage system of Rajasthan.
  27. Write short notes on Mez River
  28. Write the name of Rajasthani Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea.
  29. K.S. Valdiya Committee report says Saraswati River did exist. What are the key points of this report?
  30. Describe the Salt Water Lakes of Rajasthan.
  31. Write in brief about Fateh Sagar Lake.
  32. What is the definition and features of national park?
  33. Describe the Ranthambore National Park
  34. What is Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme?
  35. Will the farmer get a card every year and for every crop?
  36. What is a soil test laboratory?
  37. Who and Where will the soil sample be tested?
  38. What is the Classification and problems of Soils of Rajasthan?
  39. Write about Indira Gandhi Canal Project.
  40. Which are the deposits of Gypsum in Rajasthan?
  41. Write about the Rajasthan’s two principal crop seasons.
  42. How Aravalli hills are formed?
  43. Write the features and motives of first biological Park of Rajasthan?
  44. Which are the Highest and Low Density cities of Rajasthan as per Census 2011?
  45. Write down the Flora and fauna of Thar Desert?
  46. What is the Soil Classification of Rajasthan in detail?
  47. Describe the physiographic character of Rajasthan and also mention the Importance of Aravali Mountain?
  48. Describe the role of RICCO in the industrial development of Rajasthan
  49. Write down the Introduction of Aravalli Range and Hilly Region.
  50. Write down the detailed features and location of Major Dams in Rajasthan?
  51. Describe the main source of power generation in Rajasthan?
  52. How many villages have benefitted from the Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan?

53 Rajasthan is known for traditionally harvesting rain. Why do the communities once again need to be made aware of the old systems under this initiative?

54. Are corporate bodies contributing to this initiative? Crowd sourcing for such a big scale initiative is new in India. What is the response from the communities?

55. How are the structures being maintained? How do you ensure the quality of the structures constructed? Are the donors also tracking them?

56. In which state is the Aravalli Range situated?

57. What is solar energy? What are the Potential and Possibilities in Rajasthan?

58. What is National Lake Conservation Plan? Background of NLCP

59. Write down the Complete Notes on Humidity in Rajasthan?

60. Describe the mains crop seasons in Rajasthan

61. What are the Programmes for Dairy development in Rajasthan?

62. What are the major crops of Rajasthan?

63. Write notes on Indira Gandhi Canal of Rajasthan, which districts lies on it.

64. Where is Tal Chappar Sanctuary and why it is famous for?

65. Write Introduction of Southern Aravalli Region with its division?

66. What are the Non-Conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan?

67. Give a detailed explaination of the different regions of Rajasthan?

68. Describe Longewala

69. Write short notes on CAZRI and its origin.

70. Write short notes on the Industrial Overview of Rajasthan?

71. What is the Mandate of forest department of Rajasthan?

72. Name the five districts of Rajasthan which have lowest and highest sex ratio of 0-6 Year child?

73. What are the salient features of Rajasthan Tourism Policy?

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Why Telecom Companies are against the Net-neutrality of the internet network?

Telecom companies are worried due to new technology because new technology has affected their business.

For example, the use of SMS service is almost finished due to free app like WhatsApp app. This has reduced the revenue of telecom companies because the earlier SMS packs were sold in large quantities and even on the occasion of festivals, every message was charged up to 2 rupees. Similar losses are due to facility of free video chats because these companies used to generate a lot of revenue from the International Calling earlier.

What are the rules of Net Neutrality in India?

Net Neutrality is applicable in India and all users have access of internet services with a similar speed. However, telecom companies in India are trying to put pressure on the government to end Net Neutrality.

The Government of India argues that internet is still used by very few peoples in India. India is in the initial phase of conveying the internet to every citizen of the country. The number of mobile Internet users in India is likely to reach 478 million by June 2018 but rural India has miles to go in this area. So it is not possible for the government to introduce the concept of Net Neutrality in the country at this juncture.

What is “OneerTM”?

OneerTM is an innovative technology for drinking water disinfection system which was developed by the Council Scientific and Industrial Research and Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Lucknow.

All disease causing pathogens like virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and cyst will be removed from drinking water making it safe for domestic use and for communities. This technique is useful for continuous treatment of water to meet National and International standards prescribed for potable water (WHO etc.). This technology was transferred to M/s Bluebird Water Purifiers on 17 October, 2018.

Let us tell you that Oneer smaller unit is particularly suitable for homes, street food vendors and small establishments.

According to CSIR-IITR this technology will provide access to safe and clean drinking water at a cost of just 2 Paise/Ltr. We know that infection through drinking water results in an increase in morbidity and mortality particularly amongst children. Therefore, this technology will be helpful for rural people since it can be solar powered and the development is done under ‘Make in India Mission’.

About this technology

The technology is based on the principle of anodic oxidation. Through a chamber, raw water is passed and disinfection occurs with the help of singlet oxygen species which was generated at the anode.

Do you know why this technology has been named as Oneer?

The technology has been named as Oneer as ‘O’ for singlet oxygen species and ‘neer’ for water.

Features of OneerTM

A key feature of OneerTM technology is that purified water will retain all essential minerals and there will be no wastage as it happens in reverse osmosis (RO) based purifiers. Also, there is no need to add any type of chemical and water can be stored around 30 hours without the risk of any recontamination. It also consists of an in-built smart sensor system that will provide the real-time information of all operational steps. Depending upon the quality of water it also provides auto self-cleaning system after fixed number of cycles.

Per 5000 litres of water, this system will consume around one unit if electricity and can be operated with solar power as well. Also, the domestic model can be used at homes, street food vendors and small shops, while the community model is suitable for schools, hospitals, restaurants, railway stations etc.

Therefore, we can say that OneerTM is a water purifier technology which can eliminate disease causing pathogens and provide safe drinking water as per national and international standards.

What is Glioblastoma or GBM Grade IV cancer?

Glioblastoma is also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is a type of brain cancer. Among adults, it is most common type of malignant brain tumour. Basically, it is a malignant Grade IV tumour which spread quickly and grows fast in brain.

Let us tell you that there are multiple grades of gliomas i.e. grade II, III and IV but the grade IV is most malignant. Glioblastoma is considered as grade IV tumour.

Where it occurs in the brain?

Glioblastoma is a type of cancer that forms in the brain from star-shaped cells known as astrocytes and the cancer is also called as astrocytoma. It starts in adults in the largest part of the brain that is cerebrum. This type of tumour doesn’t need blood from any where they supply itself due to which they grow easily and quickly.

We can say that Glioblastoma occur is the lobe of the brain, stem of the brain and cerebellum. But more commonly occur in the frontal and temporal lobe.

Is this cancer is common?

It is said that it is most common in males, persons older than 50 and people of Caucasian or Asian ethnicity. Also, brain cancers are not common.

What are the symptoms of Glioblastoma Cancer?

It depends upon the location where the tumour is located in the brain, from where it originated the rate of growth etc. Also, symptoms depend upon the fluid that surrounds the tumour and causes brain swelling.

Common Symptoms are as follows:

– Vomiting

– Constant Headache

– Trouble in thinking or memory loss

– Mood swings and changes in personality

– Blurred vision or sometimes double also.

– Seizures

– Disturbance in speech, problem in speaking

– Nausea

– Muscle weakness

– Weakness or sensory changes of face arm or leg

– Difficulties in balance

Now the question arises that how Glioblastoma tumour is diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Glioblastoma tumour is done by a neurologist, a doctor who has specialization in diagnosing and treating disorders of brain. Several tests, MRI or CT scan are performed which depends upon the symptoms of the patient.

Procedure for the treatment of Glioblastoma

Main focus of the doctors is to slow and control the growth of the tumour as much as possible. The treatments given to the patients are surgery, radiation therapy, Chemotherapy and Electric field therapy.

The first treatment given to the patient is the surgery. Doctors remove tumour in high risk areas of the brain as much as possible.

In Radiation treatment the left over tumour is killed and also slow the growth of the tumour which can’t be removed from the surgery.

In Chemotherapy the most common type of drug given to the patient by the doctors is Temozolomide for glioblastoma. This therapy causes short time side effects but is much less toxic.

Surgically glioblastoma is not curable, only the good part is to remove the tumour as much as possible. But in radiation and chemotherapy treatment progression of the tumour can be delayed.

In Electric field therapy the electric fields are used to target the cells in the tumour while not hurting the normal cells. For this doctor insert electrodes directly into the scalp. The device with the help of this is done is known as Optune. Let us tell you that this FDA therapy has been approved for both newly diagnosed people and people whose glioblastoma has come back.

What is Space Debris and its causes?

The term debris implies that the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up. When it comes to the Space Debris, it referred to the natural debris found in the solar system such as asteroids, comets, and meteoroids (a small rocky or metallic body in outer space).

What causes Space Debris?

The space debris is consists of not only broken pieces of asteroids, comets, and meteoroids but also abandoned pieces of old satellites and used rocket stages including remainder of rocket fuel, paint flakes, frozen liquid coolant, etc.

According to the report of United States Space Surveillance Network, there are more than 13,000 pieces of space debris larger than 10 cm (4 inches), about 200,000 pieces between 1 and 10 cm (0.4 and 4 inches) and also predicted there could be millions of pieces smaller than 1 cm.

How Space Debris will be threat to the operational satellites as well as Earth’s atmosphere?

These debris travels at a high speeds which is up to 8 km per second which might be threats to both manned and unmanned spaceflight. Most of the debris can be found geostationary orbit above equator.

The threat of the collision came into existence when operational satellite and a piece of space debris took place when a fragment from the upper stage of a European Ariane rocket collided with Cerise (French microsatellite) on July 24 1996. This collide partially damages the Cerise, but still functional. The real threat came into light when Iridium 33 (communications satellite owned by the American company Motorola), collided with Cosmos 2251 that destroyed the operational satellite.

Apart from the threat to the operational satellite, it is also a threat to the Earth’s atmosphere as well. Because most of the debris can be found geostationary orbit above the equator, and if debris burns up in the atmosphere, larger objects can reach the ground intact. Hence, despite of their size, there will be significant property damage from the debris.

Tools for tracking and measuring the Space Debris

Lidar (combination of Radar and optical detector) is the main tool for tracking the space debris. Recently, NASA Orbital Debris Observatory tracked space debris with a 3 m (10 ft.) liquid mirror transit telescope. FM Radio waves can also detect debris, after reflecting off them onto a receiver.

Hence, space agencies around the world come up with a single agenda to clean all the debris. Now, they all are actively involved in tracking the largest bits of space debris to mitigate the problem.

What do you know about India’s first floating laboratory?

1. The Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD), Imphal has established India’s first floating laboratory at Loktak Lake to monitor the ecosystem of the lake as well as the water quality.

2. It is a joint venture of Loktak Development Authority (LDA) and Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory Institute (IBSD); and about 15 lakhs spent in setting up this floating laboratory.

3. The Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable laboratory (IBSD) took 4 months to set up this floating laboratory.

4. This floating laboratory will check the oxygen and the pH level of the lake and also will record changes in temperature, acidity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the 300 sq. km of the lake. So that the Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD) can take immediate steps to check water pollution and restore it.

5. This floating laboratory is equipped with all modern equipment such as water quality Analyzer, which will automatically check temperature, temperature, acidity, salinity and electrical conductivity standards.

6. This floating laboratory will have a five-member female researcher who will collect the samples of microorganisms, which may carry potential for use in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and other industries.

7. This floating laboratory model is given by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) of the Central Government to protect the unique ecosystem of the Loktak Lake.

8. The length of the boat is 15 metre and can accommodate 10 people.

9. The lake is shrinking at a speed of 40 sq. km. Therefore, it is a well needed laboratory which will study the nutrients of vegetation and monitor their health so that the hundreds of massive circular rings of floating vegetation called “Phumdis” or floating islands can be taken care of.

10. This floating laboratory will also set up scientific research and social responsibility, because for a few years this has become a dumping yard of lake pollutants which is affecting the ecosystem of the lake.

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Write short notes on Popular Lok Devtas of Rajasthan?

Pabu Ji

Pabuji is a folk divinity of Rajasthan. He subsisted in Fourteenth century. He was one of 4 kids of Dhadal Rathore of Kolu, Rajasthan. The ancient Pabuji was a Rajput prince. He is now extensively revered as a divine being by Rabari herdsmen throughout Rajasthan; and he is served by priests of Nayak. Pabuji survived in the isolated arid region of Kolu.

Rawal Mallinath

Rawal Mallinath is a folk idol of Rajasthan. He was the elder lad of Rao Salkhaji, the Mehwanagar ruler in Barmer.  The descendants of Rawal Mallinath’s are the eldest among all abodes of Rathores in the state of Rajasthan. The domiciles of Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sitamau, Ratlam, Idar, Alirajpur and Sailana sketch their roots to Viramdeo.

Veer Teja Ji

Veer Teja Ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. The narration of Rajasthan is crammed with lots of gallant chronicles and illustrations where people have put their lives at menace and reserved the pride and principles like faithfulness, liberty, genuineness, protection, communal transformation etc. integral. Veer Teja Ji was one of the well-known people in the account of Rajasthan.

Ramdev Ji

Ramdev ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. He was the Rajput ruler of 14th century, said to have astounding powers who dedicated his life for the fortifying of subjugated and deprived people and Hindu revivalism which were edged by assailants. He is venerated today by many communal groups. His devotees deem him to be an embodiment of Lord Vishnu.

Khetla Ji

Khetla Ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. His one of the temples is situated in Sonana Village, Rajasthan. The place of worship is the spot of a 2 day fair, held annually during the months of May and June in respect of Khetla ji. The fair draws a hefty number of followers who gather together here during the fair to summon the blessing of the divinity. There are number of temples of Khetla Ji in Marwar, for example Sayala, Sewari etc. Kataria society of Rajasthan regards him as their Kul Devta. They also perform some ceremonies after birth and marriage which is known as ‘Juar’.

Goga Ji

Goga Ji is also recognized as Jahar Veer Gogga. He is a folk divinity, revered in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. He is a combatant conqueror of the area, acclaimed as a saint. He is venerated as a peer among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus.

Eloji

Eloji is a folk divinity and is considered to be the deity of villages. Effigies of Eloji can be instituted roughly in every rural community of Rajasthan. He is revealed as a burly man with moustaches and arrogance on his face. Many folk songs and music are played in honor of sexual power of Eloji.

Give an account of the following:

1) SAKAAR

2) PRAGATI

3) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: PRO-ACTIVE GOVERNANCE AND TIMELY IMPLEMENTATION, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters

NITI Aayog releases ‘Strategy for New India @75 what are the key features of it?

The forty-one chapters in the document have been merged under four sections – Drivers, Infrastructure, Inclusion and Governance.

Objective

The Strategy document aims to further improve the policy environment in which private investors and other stakeholders can contribute their fullest towards achieving the goals set out for New India 2022 and propels India towards a USD 5 trillion economy by 2030.

Key Takeaways

  • With ‘Strategy for New India @ 75′, Niti Aayog aims to accelerate growth to 9-10 percent and make India a USD 5 trillion economy by 2030.
  • The development strategy includes doubling of farmers’ income, boosting ‘Make in India’, upgrading the science, technology and innovation ecosystem, and promoting sectors like fintech and tourism.
  • NITI Aayog prescribed reducing upper age limit to join the civil services to 27 years from the present 30 years for General Category candidates by 2022-23 in a phased manner and also to have one integrated exam for all civil services.
  • It calls for successfully implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme including the establishment of 150000 health and wellness centres and rolling out Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.
  • The document outlines the need for creating agripreneurs, which implies creation of agro-processing industry at a much faster pace to enhance farmer participation though agro processing.
  • It calls for participation of Private Sector in Indian Railways. From ownership of locomotives and rolling stocks to modernising stations, improvement of the railways hinges on private participation.
  • It boasts of expanding the scope of Swachh Bharat Mission to cover initiatives for landfills, plastic waste and municipal waste and generating wealth from waste.
  • The government will have to ease the tax compliance burden and eliminate direct interface between taxpayers and tax officials using technology.
  • It suggests better compensation to banking correspondents, facilitating paperless banking and introducing financial literacy chapters in school curricula to spur financial inclusion.

It recommends identification of the poorest among the minority communities through the socio-economic caste census data for proper targeting of various schemes.

Key recommendations stated under four sections

Recommendations stated under Drivers

  • Steadily accelerate the economy to achieve a GDP growth rate of about 8 percent on average during 2018-23. This will raise the economy’s size in real terms from USD 2.7trillion in 2017-18 to nearly USD 4 trillion by 2022-23.
  • In agriculture, shift the emphasis to converting farmers to ‘agripreneurs’ by further expanding e-National Agriculture Markets and replacing the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee Act with the Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Act.
  • Give a strong push to ‘Zero Budget Natural Farming’ techniques that reduce costs, improve land quality and increase farmers’ incomes.
  • To ensure maximum employment creation, complete codification of labor laws; and upscale and expand apprenticeships.
  • Launch a mission “Explore in India” by revamping minerals exploration and licensing policy.

Recommendations under Infrastructure

  • Expedite the establishment of the Rail Development Authority (RDA), which is already approved.
  • Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways.
  • Develop an IT-enabled platform for integrating different modes of transport and promoting multi-modal and digitised mobility.
  • Deliver all government services at the state, district, and gram panchayat level digitally by2022-23. With the completion of the Bharat Net programme in 2019, all 2.5 lakh gram panchayats will be digitally connected.
  • The three themes in this section revolve around the dimensions of health, education and mainstreaming of traditionally marginalized sections of the population.

Recommendations under Inclusion

  • Successfully implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme including the establishment of 150000 health and wellness centres across the country, and rolling out the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Abhiyaan (PM-JAY).
  • Create a focal point for public health at the central level with state counterparts.
  • Upgrade the quality of the school education system and skills, including the creation of a new innovation ecosystem at the ground level by establishing at least 10,000 Atal Tinkering Labs by 2020.
  • Conceptualize an electronic national educational registry for tracking each child’s learning outcomes.
  • As already done in rural areas, give a huge push to affordable housing in urban areas to improve workers’ living conditions.
  • Recommendations under Governance
  • Implement the recommendations of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission as a prelude to appointing a successor for designing reforms in the changing context of emerging technologies.
  • Set up a new autonomous body ‘Arbitration Council of India’ to grade arbitral institutions and accredit arbitrators to make the arbitration process cost effective and speedy/
  • Address the backlog of pending cases.
  • Expand the scope of Swachh Bharat Mission to cover initiatives for landfills, plastic waste and municipal waste and generating wealth from waste.

What is the Objective behind States’ Start-up Ranking?

  1. The key objective of the exercise was to encourage States and Union Territories to take proactive steps towards strengthening the Start-up ecosystems in their states.
  • The entire exercise was conducted for capacity development and to further the spirit of cooperative federalism.
  • The methodology behind the exercise was aimed at creating a healthy competition environment wherein States were encouraged further to learn, share and adopt good practices.

Which are five types of State System during Vedic period?

1. Rajya (Central kingdom): Ruled by the Raja

2. Bhojya (Southern kingdom): Ruled by the Bhoja

3. Swarajya (Western kingdom): Ruled by the Svarat

4. Vairajya (Northern kingdom): Ruled by the Virat

5. Samrajya (Eastern kingdom):  Ruled by the Samrat

SAARC

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization in South Asia.

Initially there were 7 members in the SAARC but Afghanistan joined it on April 3, 2007.  Now it has 8 members which includes; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. This organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.

Myanmar is not the member of the SAARC.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu (Nepal). The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu on 16 January 1987 and was inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal.

Maitrakas dynasty

Maitrakas was Iranian in origin and ruled in Saurashtra region of Gujarat with Valabhi as capital. Valabhi became centre of learning, culture and trade and commerce under the guidance of Bhatarka. It survived the longest Arab attacks.

What are the causes of water logging in Rajasthan and measures to reduce it?

A study has determined what the most important causes of Water logging is caused by a combination of excess rainfall (for the site), poor external drain- age (runoff), poor internal drainage (water movement in the soil profile) and the inability of the soil to store much water.

Measures:

  1. After flooding, wash down hard surfaces and collect up debris to prevent drains blocking, soil surfaces being covered, and pollutants or contaminants lingering in the garden.
  2. Keep off the soil until it is workable, to avoid compacting it and worsening the conditions.
  3. Remove damaged shoots from affected plants.

Why do the Western Ghats receive more rain than the Eastern Ghats?

The reason why do the Western Ghats receive more rain than the Eastern Ghats are discussed below:

1. The winds from Arabian Sea climb the slopes of the Western Ghats from 900-1200 m. Soon, they become cool, and as a result, the windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall ranging between 250 cm and 400 cm. After crossing the Western Ghats, these winds descend and get heated up. This reduces humidity in the winds. As a result, these winds cause little rainfall in the Eastern Ghats.

2. The Western Ghats block rain-bearing winds which cause rainfall on the western slopes. Whereas South-west monsoon moves parallel to the Eastern Ghats, which cause less rainfall because in the Eastern Ghats unable to block moisture-laden winds

3. The Western Ghats lies in rain-fed area of the Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon whereas Eastern Ghats lies in the rain shadow area of the Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon.

4. The Western Ghats have gentle slope that provides a greater area for sunlight absorption whereas the Eastern Ghats have an abrupt slope.

What if India has two Time Zones?

Recently, the journal Current Science by the Indian Academy of Sciences states that if India has two time zones then it will not only save the Daylight but also increase the productivity.

In the north-eastern states of India, Sun rises and set earlier, which causes loss of many daylight hours in normal days? But this situation worsens in winter because during winter days get shorter, which causes lower productivity and higher electricity consumption. The study estimated that if India has two time zones then India can save 20 million kWh annual electricity.

Some researcher states that if India has two time zones then it will be havoc situation. For Example- Two time zones could lead to railway collisions.

This study also suggested that “how two time zones are feasible for India”.  For Example- If the train clocks are switched at Alipurduar Junction on the West Bengal and Assam border, such collisions can be avoided.

It will be implemented then we have to generate IST-II for that matter a Primary Time Scale (PTS) must be established to ensemble of five caesium clocks and one hydrogen maser, in one of the north-eastern states similar to PTS for IST-I, which is located in Delhi. A caesium clock measures time on the basis of the resonance (or change of energy state of an isotope of caesium) and a hydrogen maser, which measures time on the basis of the resonance of hydrogen across energy states.

Why India need two time zones?

Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.30′ E longitude which divided India into two halves. It is taken as the standard time as it passes through almost the centre of India. But it is worth remembering that it operate a single Time Zone, not for Daylight Saving Time.

But the country’s east–west distance is more than 2,933 kilometres (1,822 mi) covers over 29 degrees of longitude, resulting in the sun rising and setting almost two hours earlier on India’s eastern border than in the Rann of Kutch in the far west. The people of the north-eastern states have to advance their clocks with the early sunrise and avoid the extra consumption of energy after daylight hours.

What is UN Road Safety Trust Fund?

As we know that United Nations Organisation (UNO) is an intergovernmental organization which maintain international peace and security; develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. Recently, it has launched UN Road Safety Trust Fund in order to enhance road safety worldwide.

UN Road Safety Trust Fund was established in April 2018 with an aims to contribute to two major outcomes, assisting UN Member states to (a) substantially curb the number of fatalities and injuries from road traffic crashes, as well as (b) reduce economic losses resulting from these crashes. Building on the best practices and expertise developed through the Decade of Action for Road Safety, the Trust Fund will focus on supporting concrete actions helping to achieve the road safety-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

It is a trust fund managed by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. It aims to accelerate progress in improving global road safety by bridging the gaps in the mobilization of resources for effective action at all levels. Fund will mobilize resources from governments, intergovernmental or nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, philanthropic organizations and individuals. It will focus on strengthening the capacity of government agencies, local governments and city authorities to develop and implement road safety programmes, prioritizing projects in low and middle-income countries.

Initiatives of UN Road Safety Trust Fund

There are two initiatives which are given below:

1. It will support efforts along five pillars of Global Plan for Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-20), which include improved safety of road infrastructure and broader transport networks; strengthened road safety management capacities; enhanced safety of vehicles; improved behaviour of road users and improved post-crash care.

2. It will serve as catalyst for much-needed progress towards road safety targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG targets 3.6 and 11.2 aim to halve number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents and provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems as well as improve road safety for all.

Hence, we can say that, it has potential to galvanise global efforts to address road safety situation to save lives and prevent the loss of opportunity associated with road accidents. But all these initiatives can only achieve through cooperation and universal brotherhood.

What is Cyberspace Internet and how it is different from Internet?

The media such as radio, television and world web has great impact on the society and also became an anthropological interest for a long time. Now a day, the internet and cyberspace created a virtual world and become social and cultural practices because it transcends the boundaries of the nation-state and offer new ways of creating identities and new spaces for self-representation. The emergence of virtual reality of cyberspace or internet or electronic communication has led to examine the ways of seeing, representing and communicating.

What is Cyberspace Internet?

The term ‘Cyberspace’ was coined by William Gibson in his book ‘Neuromancer’ written in 1984. He defined the term as a consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts.

The Cyberspace Internet can be defined as the virtual computer world which is used to form a global computer network to facilitate online communication. In other words, it is a world of information through the internet. More precisely, we can say it is a three-dimensional representation of virtual space in a computer network. It is a large computer network made up of many worldwide computer networks that employ TCP/IP protocol to aid in communication and data exchange activities.

In the last three decades, there has been a shift among global users from USA to the developing countries. The percentage share of the USA has dropped from 66 in 1995 to only 25 in 2005. Now, the majority of the world’s users are in USA, UK, Germany, Japan, China and India. As billions use the internet each year, cyberspace will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans through e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance. Internet together with fax, television and radio will be accessible to more and more people cutting across place and time. It is these modern communications systems, more than transportation, which has made the concept of global village a reality.

How Cyberspace Internet different from Internet?

The internet is basically a global computer network which provides information and communication facilities through interconnected networks by using standardized communication protocols; Whereas, Cyberspace internet is the virtual computer world which is work over the notional environment of computer networks.

In other words, we can say internet is a set of computer networks that communicate using the internet protocol (an intranet) whereas cyberspace is a world of information through the internet.

What is Black Box? How does it Work?

What is ‘Black Box’?

Black Box is also known as the ‘Flight Data Recorder’. The Black Box or Flight Data Recorder of an Airplane is an instrument which records all the activities of the airplane during its flight.

Black Box is generally kept at the back side of the airplane for the security point of view. This Box is made of Titanium metal and is enclosed in a Titanium box which gives it strength to withstand any shock if it falls in sea or falls from the height.

History of Black Box:-

In the year 1953-54, in view of the increasing incidences of Air accidents, it was thought to develop a device which can give information about the reasons for Plane accidents and might also help in saving planes from accidents. Hence, a black box was invented.

Earlier it used to be red in colour and was known by the name ‘Red Egg’. In the early days, its inner walls were black in colour, so it came to be known as a ‘Black Box’.

The Black Box has two separate boxes:

1. Flight Data Recorder: – This box can contain information about direction, altitude, fuel, speed, turbulence, cabin temperature etc. About 88 such values for about 25 hours can be recorded.

This box can withstand a temperature of about 11000°C for one hour and a temperature of 260°C for 10 hours. These boxes are red or pink in color so that can be found easily.

2. Cockpit Voice Recorder:-This box records the sound of the airplane during the last two hours. It records the sound of engine, emergency alarm, cabin and cockpit in order to predict the conditions of the plane before any accident occurred.

How does a Black Box works:-

As we have already told that the Black Box is made up of a strong metal. It can work for 30 days without any electricity. It can withstand a temperature of 11000°C. When this box is lost anywhere, it keeps on emitting the waves along with a beep sound for about 30 days.

This voice can be identified by the investigators from a distance of about 2-3 Kilometers. An interesting fact with regard to Black box is that it can emit waves from the depth of 14000 feet in the sea.

What is the Meaning of Net Neutrality?

The term “Net Neutrality” was coined by the law professor “Tim Wu” at Columbia University in 2003. Net Neutrality refers to the equal treatment for all the internet users. It means all the users of the social media, email, voice calls, online shopping and YouTube videos will have the equal access and speed of the internet.

Under the principle of Net Neutrality; Internet Service Providers will give equal importance to every type of data. So the behaviour of equality with every internet user is called “Net Neutrality”.

What will happen in the absence of the Net Neutrality?

If the Net Neutrality is not in effect then the Internet Service Providers (includes Telecom Operators) may behave like this;

Video calling through WhatsApp may consume more data and speed may also be slow but YouTube may run at good speed and data consumption can also be very low.

What are the main Properties of Net Neutrality?

1. All online content on the network of Internet Service Providers has the same access and speed.

2. Internet Service Providers can not slow down a particular website, that is, it should not happen that the website of Amazon opens quickly and Flipkart at slow speed.

3. Internet Service Providers will not have any preference for any particular company/website.

But if Net Neutrality is eliminated then the speed on the internet will not be equal for all users and internet services will also get costlier.

If I say in very easy words, Net Neutrality is like the road traffic, where every vehicle has the right to move at the same speed. It cannot happen that the owner of a luxury car; cost Rs. 1 crore will run ahead of all vehicles and all the vehicles on the road will give side to the luxury car like an ambulance car but on the other hand the owner of the Rs. 5 lac car will not these benefits.

If Net Neutrality is finished then what will happen?

1. Service providers or big companies can block other sites on their network.

2. Service providers can charge more money for access to a particular website or separate data price can be charged for these services. Like once, Airtel said that if its users want to enjoy video calling on WhatsApp, then users will have to buy a separate data pack of 100 rupees; currently this service is available free for the users.

3. Internet Service Providers may give preference to the content of a particular company. For example, data speed of the WhatsApp can be increased while the speed of the Skype can be reduced.

4. A company can bribe the Internet Service Providers for blocking the website of a particular company and promote website of the briber or others.

Geography of Rajasthan in Hindi

History of Rajasthan in Hindi

Art and Culture of Rajasthan in Hindi

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(Free) Current Affairs Rajasthan-January 2019

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Rajasthan Current Affairs January 2019 Study Notes for Competitive Exams with RAS/RTS Mains Practice solved questions for RPSC Mains Exam 2018-19.

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Part-6

RPSC RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM SOLVED TEST PAPER

 IMPORTANT STUDY MATERIAL

1. Write a short note on ‘Maharana Pratap Award’ in the field of sports?

Answer: Maharana Pratap Award:

This is the highest awards for sportsperson in the state of Rajasthan.

The Award includes:

  • Citation
  • Cash prize of INR 1, 00,000
  • Bronze Statute of Maharana Pratap
  • Blazer and Tie

2. What is coal bed methane? What is the problem in the extraction of coal bed methane?

Coal bed methane is found in the impermeable stone and is trapped in the coal seams. A significant portion of this gas remains as free gas in the joints and fractures of the coal seam.  Large quantities of gas are adsorbed on the internal surfaces of the micro pores within the coal itself

Coal bed methane can be accessed by drilling wells into the coal seam and pumping large quantity of water that saturate the seam. Water will occupy the gaps and pores and will push out the gas.

Problem of coal bed methane extraction:

  • It is a capital intensive process and at current state of pricing it is not possible to extract.
  • Private sector has no rights to extract unconventional gas reservoir.
  • Coal bed methane comes under Ministry of petroleum and coal mines come under ministry of coal. So there is overlapping of jurisdiction which creates problems.
  • The technology required is very advanced and the public sector companies have very weak organizational setup to efficiently handle such technologies and extract gas economically.

3. Give an account of the following:

1) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

3) Khilafat movement

4) Lahore conspiracy case


RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-4  

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5

1) JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE-

JBM: On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000. The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar.

2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

Nagpur session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.

3) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.

4) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.

4. Define- Comets, Dark matter, Dark energy and Fundamental particle

Ans: Comets originate in outer solar system and are formed of cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust that orbit the sun. When a comet’s orbit brings it close to the sun, it heat up and spewn dust and gases into a giant glowing head larger than most planets.

Dark matter

Ans: Roughly 80% of the mass of the universe is made up of material that scientist cannot directly observe. This is called dark matter. Dark matter is completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect.

Dark energy

Ans: Dark energy is a hypothetical term used for a kind of energy that exerts a negative, repulsive pressure, behaving like the opposite of gravity. Like dark matter dark energy is not directly observed, but rather inferred from observations of gravitational interactions between astronomical objects.

Fundamental particle

Ans: All fundamental particle can be divided into one of two categories, fermions and bosons. Particles that make up matter called fermions eg electrons, protons, leptons, quarks. Particles that carry force are called Boson.

Eg Photons, 4-He atoms, gluons, W-bosonetc

 RAS MAINS 2018-19 REVISION TEST

5. Give an account of the following:

1) Simon commission

2) Meerut conspiracy

3) Hindustan republic association

4) Radcliff line

 

(1) Simon commission:

The commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms. It is also known as Indian statutory commission.  It was set up by lord Birkenhead.

(2) Meerut Conspiracy:

Meerut Conspiracy was a controversial court case initiated in British India in March1929 and decided in 1933. Several trade unionists, including three Englishmen were arrested for organizing an Indian railway strike. The British Government convicted 33 leftist trades Union leaders under a false law suit. The Meerut Conspiracy case trial helped the Communist Party of India to consolidate its position among workers.

(3) Hindustan republic association (HRA):

Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 at village Bholachang in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti. Its objective was to establish a “Federated Republic of the United States of India” through an organized and armed revolution.

(4) Radcliff line:

To fix the international boundaries between the two countries, the Boundary Commission was established chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe. The commission was to demarcate Bengal and Punjab into the two new countries. The boundary demarcation line is called Radcliffe line. Its western side serves as India-Pakistan border and eastern side serves as India- Bangladesh border.

6. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

Basis Mitosis Meiosis
Number of divisions One Two – meiosis 1 and meiosis II
DNA replication Occurs during inter-phase Occurs during inter-phase
Role Production of somatic cells for growth of the body Produces gametes or game to genesis
Daughter cell produced Two diploid cells that are genetically identical to parent Four haploid cells (n) contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Genetics Identical cell Variation
Crossing over No Yes it takes place during pro phase 1
Occurs in All organism Reproductive cells of humans, animals, plants and fungi

7. Give an account for the following:

1) Great lakes

2) Lake Baikal

3) Lake Tanganyika

(4)Aral Sea

(a) Great lakes

  • Great Lakes of North America are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
  • Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario [In the order of largest to smallest].
  • Lake Superior is the largest continental lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.

(b) Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal is situated in Siberia, Russia. It is the deepest lake and world largest lake by volume.  It is also the second longest lake.

(c) Lake Tanganyika

It is situated in African rift valley system. It is the longest lake in the world.  It is also second largest in terms of volume.

(d) Aral Sea

It is classical example of human intervention leading to the shrinking of the water bodies. This lake is situated between Kazakistan in the North and Uzbekistan in the south. Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1960s due to the diversion of the river feeding it for irrigation purpose.

8. Give an account of following:

1) Hunter commission

2) Sadler commission

1) Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:

  • Assess wood’s dispatch.
  • To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.

2) Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work

9. Give an account of the following:

1) Vaikkom Satyagraha

2) Delhi proposal

3) Alipore conspiracy

4) Muzaffarpur conspiracy case

(a)Vaikkom Satyagraha:

Vaikkom Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the princely state of Travancore.

(b)Delhi proposal:

Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.

(c)Alipore conspiracy:

The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging.(1908)

(d)Muzaffarpur Conspiracy:

It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack.

10. How does the climate change affect the global distribution of fauna?

Climate change is a result of rapid global warming. The increase of average temperature of earth is termed as Global warming. Global warming is a natural process which has been accelerated by anthropogenic activities. Because of this earth is not getting time to adjust to this change. This is causing climate change.

Effect on fauna:

  • Migratory roots are changing for the birds. For example The arrival of Siberian cranes in India is delayed and they are returning to Russia a bit early.
  • The breeding pattern of birds and aquatic animals is also changing. Tropical fish species are shifting to more temperate waters.
  • Vector borne diseases which were found in tropical areas are also shifting to temperate regions.
  • There is a large scale habitat loss. This is the single biggest reason of pushing species to the brink of extinction. Many endemic species which are confined to a small area like islands have become critically endangered. Right now, 6th mass extinction is going on.
  • Many polar species are finding it uncomfortable to survive in the polar waters because temperature is increasing.

11. Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements.

Ans:  Green Box Subsidies: The subsidies which cause no, or at most minimal, trade distorting effects or effects on production. These subsidies are permitted under WTO regime, for instance; Government services such as research, disease control, and infrastructure and food security.

Amber Box Subsidies: All domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some exceptions) fall into the amber box. For instance, MSP, Procurement Price, sum total of subsidies on inputs like fertilizer, water, credit, power, etc

Blue Box Subsidies: It contains direct payment subsidies which can be increased without limit, so long as payments are linked to production-limiting programs. This is the “amber box with conditions”, conditions designed to reduce distortion. Any support that would normally be in the amber box is placed in the blue box if the support also requires farmers to limit production.

12. Discuss the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?

Reasons:

  • The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
  • Lack of leadership
  • Internal rift in congress
  • Congress failure to influence masses at large.
  • It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
  • Repression by Britishers was another reason

13. Give an account of following.

1) Project Tiger

2) Project Hangul

3) Sea Turtle Project

4) Project snow leopard

1) Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA

2) Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag)
its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m.

3) Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.

4) Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Prades

14. What is excretion? Outline the functions of kidney.

It refers to the elimination/removal of metabolic wastes from the body. There are four major organs of excretions: kidney, lungs, skin and the liver. Out of these four organs kidneys are the primary excretory organs that eliminate metabolic waste products in the form of urine. The major functions of urine are:

  • Excretions of wastes and toxins such as urea, uric acid, ammonia and excess salts.
  • Maintenance of water balance and electrolyte balance in the body
  • Regulation of blood pressure by producing angiotensin, a substance that constricts blood vessels and signals the body to retain water and sodium when blood pressure is low.
  • Regulating the acid base balance to keep the blood pH 7.2-7.4 and body healthy.
  • Regulation of RBC development in bone marrow with the secretion of hormone erythropoietin.

15. Give the account of the following.

1) Andes

2) Rocky

3) Great dividing Range

4) Drakensberg

Andes:  Longest continental mountain range in the world.  They are   found in South America. They formed due to ocean-continent collisions and subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. Mount Aconcagua is the highest peak. (6962m)

The Rocky Mountains:   They are Fold Mountains found in the western margin of the North American continent. They are formed due to oceanic and continent plate collision. The Rocky Mountains took shape during an intense period of plate tectonic activity that resulted in much of the rugged landscape of the western North America.

Great Dividing Range:  This range is found in the Australian continent. They are the third longest land based range in the world. They are also known as Australian Alps. They were formed due to rifting.

Drakensberg mountain: The spectacular and ancient Drakensberg Mountain Range is Southern Africa’s highest range at 3 482 m and stretches an enormous 1 000 km from north to east. In Zulu the range is called uKhahlamba, or the barrier of spears, which does justice to its dramatic basalt buttresses. The Blyde River Canyon is situated in the northern part of the mountain range

16. What is electromagnetic wave? Outline the features of electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic waves or EM waves are waves that are created as a result of vibrations between an electric field and a magnetic field. In other words, EM waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields.

Properties of electromagnetic waves:

  • EM waves are composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
  • They travel with a constant velocity of 3×108m/s in vaccum.
  • They are not deflected by an electric and magnetic field.
  • They are transverse waves which can show interference and diffraction and may be polarised

17. What are the issues attached with the functioning of tribunals?

Article 323A and 323 B of the constitution empowers parliament and state legislature to establish tribunals. Although the tribunals have reduced the burden of cases on High courts, they are facing some issues:

  • Lack of infrastructure and man power availability.
  • These tribunals do not have power to enforce the decree.
  • Now aggrieved party can appeal against the order of quasi judicial bodies which have diluted the objective of the Tribunals.
  • The lack of complexity to deal with the cases.

Way ahead is to reduce the number of tribunals in accordance with the proposal of S jai Shankar committee. New tribunal service can be incorporated so that staffing problem can be dealt with

18. Define following term

1) Current account

2) Capital account

3) Balance of payment

4) Trade balance

Current account: Current account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in share.

Capital account: Capital account of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or liabilities of the residents of the country or its government

Balance of payments: The balance of payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world.

Trade balance: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments

19. What is a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the Benami transactions amendment act?

Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is made by another.

Effect on economy:

  1. Loss of revenue
  2. Generation of black money
  3. Moral hazard for honest tax payers
  4. Artificial inflationary tendencies
  5. Increase in the prices especially of real estate

Provisions of Benami amendment act:

  • Establishment of adjudicating authority
  • Case has to be decided in a year’s time
  • Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two other members.
  • Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these properties.
  • Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.

20. What is Desai-Liaqat proposal?

M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.

Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:

  • Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
  • Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
  • The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.

M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League.

21. What is SEBI? Write down its functions

SEBI stands for securities and exchange board of India. It was set up through a government resolution in an effort to give the Indian stock market an organised structure. Its initial paid up capital up was Rs. 50 Crore.

Main functions and powers of the SEBI are as follows:

  • Registering and stock exchanges, merchant banks, mutual funds, underwriters, registrars to the issues, broker, sub broker, transfer agents and others.
  • Levying various fees and other charges
  • Promoting investor education
  • Inspection and audit of stock exchanges and various intermediaries
  • Performing other functions as may be prescribed from time to time.

22. Explain the nature and different theories of origin of monsoon.

Answer: The Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons

Monsoon is actually a wind regime operating at a level of 20 km from the earth’s surface. It is characterised by seasonal reversal of wind direction at regular intervals.

Although the monsoon is a global phenomenon influenced by a variety of factors not yet completely understood, the real monsoon rains cover mainly the South Asian region, represented by India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and parts of South East Asia.

Besides the monsoons, the Indian climate is influenced substantially by two more factors. The Himalayas contribute a continental nature to the climate, recognised by land winds, dry air, large diurnal range and scanty rainfall. The Indian Ocean, on the other hand, contributes a tropical character to the Indian climate characterised by uniformity of temperature throughout the year, short diurnal range, damp air, and frequent rainfall.

The monsoon system of the Indian subcontinent differs considerably from that of the rest of Asia. The centres of action, air masses involved, and the mechanism of precipitation of the Indian monsoon are altogether different from other monsoon systems.

Classical Theory or Thermal Concept of Indian Monsoons:

According to this theory, the differential heating of land and sea at the time when the sun makes an apparent northward movement is the main cause of the Indian monsoonal regime.

Two factors are mainly responsible for this very strong development of monsoons:

(i) Vast size of the Indian subcontinent and adjacent seas;

(ii) Very high and extensive mountain systems of the Himalayas in the north, extending in an east-west direction, thus posing a formidable physical barrier between tropical and polar air masses.

The second factor is of great meteorological significance.

  • The high mountain chains of the Himalayas which border the subcontinent on three sides work as both a break and motor at the same time.
  • During the winter season, they prevent the penetration of the cold polar air masses from Siberia into the subcontinent, while in summer, the Himalayas do not allow the equatorial maritime air masses to cross the Himalayas and force them to curve round the north-west.
  • The mighty Himalayas produce hydro-dynamic effects that determine the type of precipitation in India.

According to the thermal concept, during the period following the Spring Equinox (March 23), the sun starts its apparent northward shift. As a result, the areas lying north of the equator (tropics and sub-tropics) – get a progressive high incidence of solar radiation.

The effect of this phenomenon on the Indian subcontinent is seen in the form of intense heating of the vast northern plains and the adjoining highlands. As a result, a massive low pressure trough is formed extending from the Punjab plains in the north-west to the Bengal delta in the east.

This low pressure zone attracts wind regimes from the adjoining areas, from short distances in the beginning. But as the level of solar incidence reaches its peak during May-June, the pressure gradient between this low pressure trough and the adjoining seas is so great that it attracts winds from as far as the south of the equator. Accompanying this process and helping this pull of wind regimes is the development of some high pressure centres—in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and over Australia (it being the winter season in Australia).

The wind patterns which are prevalent south of the equator are actually the south-east trade winds which blow from the south-east towards the north-west. These winds, attracted by the low pressure trough over the Indian subcontinent, while moving north of the equator, turn in a clockwise direction (or towards the right), following Farrell’s law. This shift in direction is brought about by the earth’s rotation. Now, the originally south-east trade winds become south-west monsoons blowing towards the north-east.

At this juncture, the Inter- Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) also shifts northwards. The ITCZ is the hypothetical line where the north-east trade winds from the northern hemisphere and the south-east trades from the southern hemisphere meet. The south-west wands now approaching the Indian peninsula have to travel a long distance over the Indian Ocean.

During their long journey, these winds pick up large amounts of moisture and by the time they reach India they are oversaturated. Here, they are known as the south-west monsoons which get divided into the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch because of the shape of peninsular India. There moisture-laden winds cause heavy rainfall on the windward sides.

The Arabian Sea Branch:

This branch of the south-west monsoons strikes the highlands of the Western Ghats at almost right angles. The windward slopes of the Western Ghats receive heavy orogenic precipitation. Although the western currents of the monsoon penetrate further into the Indian mainland the intensity of rainfall goes on decreasing on the leeward side.

While the windward slopes of the Western Ghats are the areas receiving the highest rainfall, the leeward slopes form a well-marked rain-shadow belt which is drought- prone. For instance, the average annual rainfall at Mumbai and Pune is 188 cm and 50 cm respectively, despite the fact that they are only 160 km apart.

The most characteristic feature of the distribution of rainfall on the windward slope is that the amount of rains is heavier higher up the slopes. However, the heavy rains are concentrated in a narrow strip along the Western Ghats.

After crossing the Western Ghats, the rain- bearing air currents descend the eastern slopes where they get warmed up adiabatically. This results in a pronounced rain-shadow area. The higher the mountains-, the larger are the rain-shadow effect. Towards the north, where the Western Ghats are not very high, the difference in the amount of rainfall between the windward and leeward side is rather negligible.

Bay of Bengal Branch:

This branch is active in the region from Sri Lanka to Sumatra Island of the Indonesian archipelago. Like the Western Ghats of India in the case of the Arabian Sea branch, the windward slopes of the West Coast Mountains of Myanmar (Arakan and Tenasserim mountains) get heavy rainfall when the main monsoon currents of this branch strike the Myanmarese coast. Akyab on the west coast records 425 cm during the June-September period. As in case of the leeward sides of the Western Ghats in India, here too, the rain shadow effect is pronounced on the leeward side.

A northern current of this branch strikes the Khasi hills in Meghalaya and causes very heavy rains. Mawsynram (near Cherrapunji), situated on the southern slopes of Khasi hills, has the distinction of recording the highest annual average precipitation in the old.

This is because of its peculiar geographical location. Mawsynram is flanked on all sides by the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills except for a gap through which the rain-bearing winds enter and are forced to rise, thus yielding the heaviest rainfall. Shillong, a mere 40 km away on top of the Khasi hills, receives only about 140 cm of rainfall during June-September.

Another current of the Bay of Bengal branch takes a left turn at the eastern end of the low pressure trough (roughly the Bengal delta). From here, it blows in a south-east to north-west direction along the orientation of the Himalayas. This current causes rainfall over the northern plains.

The monsoon rainfall over the northern plains is assisted by west-moving monsoon or cyclonic depressions called ‘westerly disturbances’. These are formed in the Bay of Bengal and move along the southern fringe of the northern plains causing copious rains there which are vital for the rice crop.

The intensity of rainfall decreases from east to west and from north to south in the northern plains. The decrease westwards is attributed to the increasing distance from the source of the moisture. The decrease in rainfall intensity from north to south, on the other hand, is due to increasing distance from the mountains which are responsible for lifting the moisture-laden winds and causing orogenic rainfall in the plains, especially in the foothills.

The two main branches of the monsoon winds follow different courses:

But originally, they set out to fill the intense low pressure void created in the north-west of the subcontinent. The two branches meet at the Chhotanagpur Plateau. Of the total moisture carried by the two branches, only 20 per cent falls as precipitation. The Arabian Sea branch is more powerful of the two because of two reasons—one, the size of the Arabian Sea is bigger and two, most of the Arabian Sea branch falls over India, while most of the Bay of Bengal branch goes to Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand.

Retreating or North-East Monsoons:

Towards the end of September, the low pressure centre in the north-west begins to disintegrate and eventually shifts to the equatorial region. The cyclonic conditions are replaced by anti-cyclonic ones. As a result, winds start blowing away from the northern region. Similar anti-cyclonic winds blow from the Tibetan highlands and beyond.

This is also the time when the sun makes an apparent movement south of the equator. The ITCZ also moves equator wards. Now the winds that dominate the sub continental landscape are the ones which move from the north-east to the south-west.

These conditions continue from October till mid-December and are known as the retreating monsoons or the north-east monsoons. By December end, the monsoons have completely withdrawn from India. The retreat of the monsoons is markedly gradual in contrast to the ‘sudden burst’ of the south-west monsoons.

Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons the Thermal Concept

The retreating monsoons over the Bay of Bengal pick up moisture on their way which is dropped over eastern or coastal Orissa, Tamil Nadu and parts of Karnataka during October-November. This is the main season of rains over these areas as they almost lie in the rain-shadow area of the south-west monsoons

During October, easterly depressions occur at the head of Bay of Bengal which move southwards and in November get sucked into Orissa and Tamil Nadu coasts causing heavy rain—sometimes with destructive cyclonic winds in coastal and interior areas. The depressions weaken southwards and towards the interiors.

Winter Monsoons:

The stable, dry anti-cyclonic winds prevailing over the subcontinent after the retreat of the south-west monsoons are not capable of causing precipitation because they are free of moisture. Instead, these winds produce dry and fine weather. However, certain areas in the north get winter precipitation: from sources far away.

The north-western parts of India—Punjab and Ganga plains—are invaded by shallow cyclonic disturbances moving from west to east and having their origin in the Mediterranean Sea. These are called “Westerly Disturbances’ which travel across West Asia and Afghanistan before they reach India. These disturbances come with cloudiness and rising temperature in the front and cold wind in the rear.

These disturbances cause upto 5 cm rainfall in Punjab and Kashmir and up to 2.5 cm over the Uttar Pradesh plains. These showers are very good for the rabi crop, especially wheat and gram, and are very effective because of less run­off, less evaporation (because of low winter temperatures) and the fact that moisture from these showers is confined to the root area of the crops.

23. Why no precipitation in Kachchh and Western Rajasthan?

There is no mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents (which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.

The monsoon currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by stable anti-cyclonic air.

The hot and dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the ascent of air and absorb its moisture.

These conditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan where desert conditions prevail.

Some of the currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unite with the Bay of Bengal branch.

Although a few air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.

24. Enumerate salient features of India’s Nano Mission.

Answer: Nano Technology is a knowledge-intensive and “enabling technology” which is expected to influence a wide range of products and processes with far-reaching implications for national economy and development. The Government of India, in May 2007, has approved the launch of a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore for 5 years.

The Department of Science and Technology is the nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this upcoming area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field. For this, research on fundamental aspects of Nano Science and training of large number of manpower will receive prime attention. Equally importantly, the Nano Mission will strive for development of products and processes for national development, especially in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water, materials development, sensors development, drug delivery, etc. For this, it will forge linkages between educational and research institutions and industry and promote Public Private Partnerships.

The Nano Mission has been structured in a fashion so as to achieve synergy between the national research efforts of various agencies in Nano Science and Technology and launch new programmes in a concerted fashion. International collaborative research efforts will also be made wherever required.

25. What is the meaning of ‘Rit’ as per the Vedas?

Answer: Rit/Rita, Sanskrit ṛta (“truth” or “order”), in Indian religion and philosophy, the cosmic order mentioned in the Vedas, the ancient sacred scriptures of India. As Hinduism developed from the ancient Vedic religion, the concept of Rita led to the doctrines of dharma (duty) and karma (accumulated effects of good and bad actions). Rita is the physical order of the universe, the order of the sacrifice, and the moral law of the world. Because of Rita, the sun and moon pursue their daily journeys across the sky, and the seasons proceed in regular movement. Vedic religion features the belief that Rita was guarded by Varuna, the god-sovereign, who was assisted by Mitra, the god of honour, and that the proper performance of sacrifices to the gods was necessary to guarantee its continuance. Violation (anrita) of the established order by incorrect or improper behaviour, even if unintentional, constituted sin and required careful expiation.

26. Is Election Commission of India, a constitutional or statutory body?

Answer:The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state Legislative Assemblies in India, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the country.

The basic difference is that while statutory bodies come into existence by an act of parliament or a state legislature. For example, Delhi University comes into existence by Delhi University Act, 1912. Constitutional bodies come into existence or rather derive their power from Constitution itself.

27. What role does ‘Staffing’ play in the field of management?

Answer: Human resources management is the management of the planning and staffing of intellectual and physical inputs, or people of different skill levels, needed for an organization to meet its objectives. This means hiring the right people for each job in the organization.

The staffing function is a very important function of the management due to the following reasons. Staffing helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs. It helps in the optimum utilization of the human resources. It helps in developing professionals in every field of organizational activity.

28. Describe the span of settlement of Bhil tribe in India?

Answer: Bhils or Bheels are primarily an ethnic group of people in West India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Places they inhabit:

Bhils are popularly known as the bow men of Rajasthan. They are the most widely distributed tribal groups in India. They form the largest tribe of the whole South Asia. Bhils are mainly divided into two main groups the central or pure bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils. The central Bhils are found in the mountain regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and Rajasthan. Bhils are also found in the north eastern parts of Tripura.

Bhils-tribe History:

Bhils belong to the race of the pre-Aryans. The name ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word villu or billu, which according to the Dravidian language is known as Bow. The name Bhil is also finds mentioned in the great epic called Mahabharata and Ramayana. The Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was wandering through the jungles of Dandaka, searching Sita. The popular legend represents them as being descended from Nishada, son of Mahadev by the human female. Nishad was brutal and ugly, who killed his father’s bull and as the consequence he was banished to mountains and forests. During the ancient era they were considered as the great warriors who fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers.

Language and Costumes:

Apart from other states, Bhils comprise 39% of Rajasthan’s total population. Speak Bhili, which is an Indo Aryan language. Bhil women wear traditional saris and the Bhil men wear loose long frock along with pyjama. The peasants wear turbans. Bhils also wear brass ornaments. Bhils are tall, well built with the handsome features. They are known for their truthfulness and simplicity. They love independence. They are brave and their National weapon is bow made of bamboo. Earlier they were the great haunters. They now practice agriculture as the source of livelihood.

Culture and Religion:

Religion practice among the Bhils differs from place to place. Most of them worship local deities like Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba, and Sitalmata. Some of the worship Tiger God called ‘vaghdev’. They have no temples of their own. They consult Badvas -the hereditary sorcerers on all the occasions. Bhils are highly superstitious tribal people. They have Bhagat or Gurus who perform the religious rites. They have village headsmen, who deal with their disputes. Bhils strictly follow rules and regulations. They marry only in their own classes. Their close relationships are tightly based on mutual love and respect. They have rich cultural history and give much importance to dance and music. Ghoomar is the most famous dance among the Bhils. Than Gair is the religious dance drama performed by the men in the month of Shravana (July and August). The Bhils are talented in the sculptured work. They make beautiful horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay.

Fair and Festivals:

The Beneshwar fair is the main festival celebrated among the Bhils. This fair is held during the period of Shivaratri (in the month of January or February) and is dedicated to Beneshwar Mahadev also known as Lord Shiva. On this occasion Bhils gather all together set up camps on the banks of the Som and Mahi River. They perform dance around the fire and sing traditional songs. At night they all of them enjoy Raslila at the Lakshmi Narayan temple. Cultural shows, magic shows, animal shows acrobatic feast are the main attraction of the fair. This fair is actually the combination of two fairs, which are held in reverence of Lord Shiva and the other one that commenced after the setting up of Vishnu temple by Jankunwari. Holy and Dusshera are the other major festivals celebrated among the Bhils in India.

29. Describe the phenomenon of Monsoon?

Answer: the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. This results in the southwest monsoon. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one.

A monsoon is a seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction that usually brings with it a different kind of weather. It almost always refers to the Asian monsoon, a large region extending from India to Southeast Asia where monsoon conditions prevail.

30. Write short Note on Medieval Indo-Islamic Architecture.

  • With establishment of Turkish rule in India, a new phase coming in history of Indian art and architecture. Turks brought Islamic style of architecture in India. This new style easy significantly different from traditional Indian style. But over a period of time both style underwent assimilation.

Essential feature of Indo -Islamic architecture were

Islamic architecture characterised by uses of arches, domes and minarets. Arches were used for making doors. Dome was used to make roof and minarets were erected in 4 corners of building

  • Assimilation of Indian style i.e. trabeate architecture, use of columns and pillars
  • Use of lime mortar as binding agent. Which provided solidarity to the monuments and buildings
  • Charbhagi style brought by Babar added to the beauty of monuments.
  • Double dome architecture was another significant feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Eg. Humayun Tomb, Taj Mahal etc.
  • Use of new techniques like Pietra deura, calligraphy technique, arabesque etc.
  • Elements of Indian architecture like Jali, Chatra, jharaokha, chhajjas etc.

Right from the beginning of Turkish rule to the age of Mughal rule, process of assimilation of Indian and Islamic continued and it lead to the genesis of new kind of architecture in India. It represents our unique, assimilative cultural identity.

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5

RPSC RAS/RTS MAINS EXAM STUDY NOTES

RAS/RTS MAIN EXAM IMPORTANT QUESTION AS PER TRENDING TOPICS AND PREVIOUS YEAR ANALYSIS

1. Write short notes on the followings:

  1. Ghatiyala Inscription
  2. Ghosundi Inscription
  3. BuchKalan Inscription
  4. Ranthambore Fort
  5. Chittorgarh Fort
  6. Mandawa Fort

Ghatiyala Inscription

Ghantiyala or Ghatiyala is a village in Jodhpur Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient names are Rohimsakupaka, Rohimsakupaka and Rohimsaka.

The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in Ghatiyala, twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column is not far distant from an old ruined Jaina structure, now called Mata-ki-Sal.

Ghosundi Inscription

The earliest epigraphic evidence regarding the worship of Lord Narayana is found from the Ghosundi Stone Inscription of Maharaja Sarvatata of 1st Century B.C. Ghosundi is a village in the chittorgarh district of rajasthan.

The inscription record the erection of enclosing wall around the stone object of worship called Narayana Vatika for the divinities  Sankarshana and Vasudeva  by one Sarvatta  who was a devotee of Bhagavat and had performed an Asvamedha Sacrifice.

BuchKalan Inscription

BuchKalan is an ancient historical town in Bilada tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Rajyaghangakam.

This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at BuchKalan in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabha mandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati.

Ranthambore Fort

Ranthambore Fort is housed in the wildlife sanctuary of the same name in Sawai Madhopur. Built in the 10th century by Nagil Jats, these are the oldest remnants of the royalty of Rajasthan. Built on two hills, the fort is mainly in ruins. Witnessing attacks of Mughals, British and ravages of time, few structures remain standing.

Attractions to check out are Hammir’s Court, Badal Mahal, Dhula Mahal, Ganesha temple, Jogi Mahal, Shiva Temple, Ramlal ji Temple and temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath. The roar of the Royal Bengal Tigers and the call of wild animals can be frequently heard. The calls are reminders that the fort is their territory.

Adventure is the allure of the fort. Now it is a free sanctuary of animals which was previously hunting grounds of the Royalty.

Chittorgarh Fort

One of the oldest forts in Rajasthan, Chittorgarh Fort is the origin of many stories of valor, courage and sacrifice. The impregnable fortress is one of the most significant places to learn the history of Rajasthan. The 7th century fort is the land of Meera Bai who drank poison than leave the love of her Lord Krishna, and, Rani Padmini and Karanavati who protected honor by jumping into the fire of Jauhar and the heroics of Gora, Badal and Panna Dhai.

  • The UNESCO World Heritage Site is the breathing grounds of the romantic tales of Rajasthan.
  • Sieged numerous times in various periods of history, a lot of stories lies within its boundaries. Check out the beautiful attractions of Rana Kumbha Mahal, Ratan Singh’s Palace, Badal Mahal, Rani Padmini’s Palace, Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal, etc.
  • The Vijay Stambha and Kirti Stambha and several cenotaphs stand as memorials.

The temples of Kalika mata Temple, Adbuthnath Temple, Kumbha Shyam Temple, etc are worshipped by Hindus and Jains and still draw crowds. The seven gates of Chittorgarh deserve attention as they have lots of history associated with it.

Mehrangarh Fort

Mehrangarh Fort stands as one of the most important heritage sites of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The foundation of the fort was laid way back in 1458 by Rathore ruler, Rao Jodha. The Citadel of the Sun was not once sieged. The fort remains invincible and inspires awe from all. There are numerous mysteries and scandals hidden.

  • What does not hide is its architectural splendor.
  • The exquisite palaces of Moti Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Phool Mahal, Daulat Khana and Sileh Khana.
  • The fort itself is a museum where the lifestyle of the Rathore clan and even Mughals is preserved. From weaponry, palanquins, cradles, musical instruments, furniture to the clothes of the era get an insight of the glorious era.

Taragarh Fort

Taragarh Fort in Bundi is one of the magnificent forts in Rajasthan. The fort overlooking the city of Bundi has sadly been ravaged by time but its charm does not fade. Built in 1354 A.D., the fort remains as glorious remnants of the Chauhan dynasty. The breathtaking views are delightful. The gateway to the fort is decked with stone statues of elephants.

  • There are mainly 3 entries named Lakshmi Pol, Gagudi ki Phatak and Phuta Darwaza.
  • Taragarh fort also houses an excellent network of tunnels which were saviors in times of need. The huge properly planned water reservoirs must be visited.
  • The beautiful Rani Mahal was designed with murals; artwork and lattice artworks inspire awe.
  • The Bhim Burj and Garbha Gunjan, the huge field cannons are few of the popular attractions.

Gagron Fort

One of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, the hill fort of Rajasthan is a beauty. The Gagron Fort is a beautiful site of archaeological importance. This structure is the epitome of a “Jal Durg” as it is surrounded by water on all sides.

  • Built for protection from armies, in 1195 A.D by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire, the fort draws visitors and devotes from all over. Here also lies the tomb of a Sufi saint, Pipa Baba.
  • The glory of the fort has been faded with time but its charm still lives. The Rajputana glory lives in these structures forgotten in the chapters of history.

Mandawa Fort

Founded in 18th Century by Nawal Singh, Mandawa Fort of Shekhawati is an impressive structure of heritage of Rajasthan. The exquisite artwork, architecture and the ambiance has been preserved beautifully and converted into a heritage hotel. The charm has been pleasantly treasured.

  • The medieval themed rooms, balconies, the antique collection, the family portraits of the rulers and their belongings take you back in history.
  • The grand archways and the paintings of Lord Krishna and his cows are a visual treat. Wander through areas opened for tourists and you shall witness the impressive aura and architecture of the Royal state of Rajasthan.

2. Write the Name of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan

There are eight world Heritage sites in Rajasthan Namely:

  1. Chittorgarh Fort
  2. Kumbhalgarh Fort
  3. Ranthambore Fort
  4. Jaisalmer Fort
  5. Gagron Fort
  6. Keoladeo National Park
  7. Jantar Mantar
  8. Amber Fort

 

3. Write in brief on e-waste management.

The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

• Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
• Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
• Mercury, chromium, lead, and  Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.

Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005

In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.

 

4. Give an account of the following

1) Mahila e-Haat

2) Sakhi-one stop centres

3) Ujjwala scheme

 

Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given     financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

5. Give an account of the following:

a) SAKAAR

b) PRAGATI

c) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: PRO-ACTIVE GOVERNANCE AND TIMELY IMPLEMENTATION, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters

 

6. Discuss the following:

1) Corruption perception index

2) Press freedom index

3) Global peace index

4) World investment report

 

1) Corruption perception index: Released by Berlin based non- government organisation Transparency International. India’s ranking slid to 81 among a group of 180 countries.

2) Press freedom index: The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters without Borders based upon the organization’s own assessment of the countries’ press freedom records in the previous year. India dropped two ranks from 136 to 138.

3) Global peace index: It is presented by institute for economic and peace. It ranked country on the basis of peace fulness.India ranked at 136th position and Iceland is the most peaceful country.

4) World investment report: Released by UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). It gives analysis on foreign direct investment.

 7. Discuss the importance of Champaran Satyagraha.

This was the first experiment of novel method adopted by Gandhiji i.e. civil disobedience and passive resistance in the Champaran. This has huge historical significance as it marks the advent of Gandhiji in mainline politics and paved the ground for Gandhi ji popularity as leader. It also gave sanctions to the method adopted by Gandhiji.

Gandhiji was able to convince the administration that tinkathia was an exploitative system and need revamping. He became the member of the committee to make an enquiry. The recommendations of the committee were in the favour of Peasants and it recommended to abolish tinkathia and asked to compensate the peasants for illegal collection of rents and taxes.

First time rural problem in general and the problem of peasants were taken into consideration which were obscure hitherto in the Indian politics. It makes the way for participation of peasants in mass movements.

 

8. Discuss the following:

1) LED

2) Insulated Gate Bipolar transistor

3) Properties of tungsten

 IMPORTANT RAS STUDY NOTES

(1) LED: Led is light emitting diode. It is a P-N junction diode, which emits light when gets activated. When a suitable energy is applied, electron combines with the electron holes within the device releasing energy in the form of photons.LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times longer than incandescent lamps, and significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps.

(2) Insulated Gate Bipolar transistor: It is a transistor device and forms the basic component of all electronic devices. It used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electric power. IGBTs are also used to generate the (mercury) discharge, which lights up the bulb. It can also fit in a small volume.

(3) Properties of tungsten: Tungsten has a very high melting point; it has low vapor pressure and greatest tensile strength out of all the metals.  Because of these properties tungsten is used as filament in incandescent bulb.

9. Outline the features of the government of India act, 1909.

 

System of dyarchy was introduced. The dyarchy means a system of double government in which the principle of dyarchy was a division of the executive branch of each provincial government into authoritarian and popularly responsible sections. The first was composed of executive councillors, appointed, as before, by the crown. The second was composed of ministers who were chosen by the governor from the elected members of the provincial legislature. These latter ministers were Indians.

Subjects were divided into two lists: “reserved” which included subjects such as law and order, finance, land revenue, irrigation, etc., and “transferred” subjects such as education, health, local government, industry, agriculture, excise, etc.

Expansion of provincial legislative council- 70% of the members were to be elected. The system of communal representation and class electorate were further consolidated. Women were given right of vote. The legislative council could initiate legislation but governor assent was required. The governor can veto bill and ordinances. The Legislative Councils could reject the budget but the governor could restore it, if necessary. The legislators could ask questions and supplementaries, pass adjournment motions and

Vote a part of the budget, but 75% of the budget was still not votable.

 

10. Discuss the reproductive events in the Human?

Gametogenesis: The game to genesis is the formation of gametes i.e. sperm in males and ovum in females. It is also known as spermatogenesis and Oogenesis.

Insemination: Insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female animal or plant for the purpose of impregnating or fertilizing the female for sexual reproduction. The sperm is introduced into the uterus of a mammal or the oviduct of an oviparous (egg-laying) animal.

Fertilisation: fusion of male and female gametes and it eventually lead to the formation of zygote.

Implantation: After the formation of blast cyst and its development. Blast cyst gets attached to the uterus wall. This process is called implantation.

Gestation:  Gestation, in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or foetus is developing in the uterus.

Parturition:  Parturition is the process of giving birth to the offspring.

11. What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what are their advantages?

Universal basic income (UBI) is a model for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status. The purpose of the UBI is to prevent or reduce poverty and increase equality among citizens. It is one of the kinds of redistribution system.

It was suggested because:

  • Inefficiencies of existing subsidies scheme.
  • Exclusion error.
  • According to the survey most of the scheme was not able to reach targeted beneficiaries. Often the very districts that house the most number of poor are the ones facing the greatest shortfall in the allocation of.
  • One of the key problems with many programs is that the take-up and effectiveness of targeting will be correlated with a state’s institutional and implementation capacity.

Benefits of UBI:

A UBI has the merit that it will not necessarily be driven by take-up capability from below but given from above to all the deserving. In that sense, it is less likely to be prone to exclusion errors.

And by directly transferring money to bank accounts, and circumventing multiple layers of bureaucracy, the scope for out-of- system leakages (a feature of PDS schemes) is low.

 

 

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-4

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2018-19 Practice Question Answer

1. What do you know about ‘Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan’?

Answer:

  • Mangarh Dham (MANGARH HILL) is known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan
  • In a barbaric tribal massacre that was executed on November 17, 1913, nearly a century ago, 500 odd tribal martyrs were killed by British Rulers, in Santrampur taluka of tribal dominated Panchmahal district.
  • Govind Guru and Mangarh massacre have become part of the memory of Bhils. Despite this, it was buried in remote areas of Banswara-Panchmahal, situated on the border of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and this historic tragedy could not have been more than a footnote in the history of India’s freedom fight.
  • He awakened the Bhil community and filled them with a sense of patriotism. The Bhils were so inspired that they sacrificed their lives for freedom. Later, 1500 Gurubhakt Bhils sacrificed their lives while fighting against the British army. It is therefore also known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan.

2. Enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to implement financial inclusion in the country?

Answer: – Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion simply means to ensure that everyone gets the benefit of the financial services of the nation at an affordable cost in spite of whatever background he belongs. It especially focuses on including Underprivileged and vulnerable group of the society into the economy and providing them with its benefit and thus further causing growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country through increase of customer base of the financial institutes which will further results in high profits for future and this cycle will keep going with increasing profits.

It enhances GDP growth by broadening the resource base of the financial system by developing a culture of savings among large segment of rural population bringing low-income groups within the perimeter of formal banking sector thus plays its own role in the process of economic development

India and Financial Inclusion

As far as India is concerned it has a long history of putting efforts to have financial inclusion and to some extent, it has been successful as compared to starting stages of building up of Indian economy after independence but there are still many milestones yet to be achieved in this process. And efforts of current government have enhanced financial inclusion in the society to many folds but we still are in the process figuring out to use this in favoring our economy and make everyone in the reach of its benefit and for this, there are various government schemes available.

Steps and Schemes followed by India for Financial Inclusion

  • Swabhiman Campaign
  • Business correspondent Model

Under this model financial Institutes appoint commission agents who provide financial Services at the doorstep of the public at remote areas where they are unable to open branches which result in large customer base at low cost. Therefore this model is also known as the cost-efficient model.

Various steps taken in area of banking for financial inclusion are:-

RBI’s Compulsory Requirement of Opening Branches in Un-banked Villages, banks is directed to allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches to be opened during the year in un-banked (Tier 5 and Tier 6) rural centers.

No Frill account- The central bank had introduced ‘no-frills’ accounts in 2005 to provide basic banking facilities to poor and promote financial inclusion. The accounts could be maintained without or with very low minimum balance. These were later converted into BSBDA

BSBDA- RBI advised all banks to open Basic Saving Bank Deposit (BSBD) accounts with minimum common facilities such as no minimum balance, deposit, and withdrawal of cash at bank branch and ATMs, receipt/ credit of money through electronic payment channels, facility of providing ATM card

JAN DHAN Account- These are similar to BSBDA but with little more features as earlier bank were reluctant to open BSBDA account. Banks also do not provide good service to BSBDA account holder. They even denied service like the debit card. But after JHAN DHAN Yojna this scenario has been completely changed

JHAN DHAN account holder is compulsorily issued RUPAY debit card and many more services. It certainly increased the financial inclusion and made bank account opening a cake walk

Account age should be at least 6 months

Account holder should visit ATM branches at least once in 90 days

Income should be up to 1 lakh per year in rural areas and up to 1.5 lakh year for urban areas

For Loans-

In order to control public to borrow from Schedule banks to lend fix amount in priority sector at affordable rate of interest along with certain government schemes such as – Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc.

For Insurance Sector

Insurance sector also plays a major role in financial inclusion of a country and thus government has various schemes in this sector among which few most recent schemes are-

Pradhanmantri Fasal Bima Yojna: This is a general insurance for crops and this scheme started from Feb 2016 by NDA government and replaced the earlier scheme of UPA government named “National Agricultural Insurance” with few more advantages such as low premium on crop insurance, use of technology for weather forecasting (like smartphones, drones, remote sensing satellites), Future generation of claim and post-harvest benefits e.t.c

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojna : It is a life insurance scheme from age of 18-50 years (benefit until 55 years) at a premium of Rs 330+(18%gst). It covers till 2 lakh Rs and is under LIC India on behalf of the government of India. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima yojna – started on Jan 2015 for accidental insurance and covers up to Rs 2lakh in case of death and Rs 1 lakh in case of physical disability at a premium of (Rs 12+GST) for the age group of 18 to 70 years and is under HDFC life on behalf of government of India

Recent steps still in progress

On Recommendation of Nachiket More committee there are various measures are going on among which one is opening of two special kinds of banks in India which are

Payment banks– These banks will only accept deposit from public and will not lend loans, these payment banks will provide payment services and deposit products to its target customers which will be small businesses and low-income households. Till date 11 licenses have been granted out of which four banks are functional which are – Paytm, Airtel, Indian postal payment bank, Phinopayment?

Small finance banks– Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.

3. Where is Kaila Devi temple located in Rajasthan?

Answer: Kaila Devi Temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Kaila Devi Village of Karauli district, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The temple is located on the banks of the Kalisil River, a tributary of the Banas River in the hills of Aravali.

4. Differentiate between Acute and Chronic diseases, with the help of some examples.

Answer: Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long-developing syndrome, such as osteoporosis or asthma. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma.

Examples of acute diseases include appendicitis, acute leukemia, and strep throat. Some acute diseases do not require hospitalization or medical treatments, such as influenza, whereas others, such as pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction, may require medical attention and extended treatment.

Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Many people with these illnesses become depressed. In fact, depression is one of the most common complications of chronic illness.

5. Enumerate a few reasons that cause phenomenon of ‘Forgetting’ in humans

Answer: This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.

There are three ways in which you can forget information in the STM:

  1. Decay: This occurs when you do not ‘rehearse’ information, ie you don’t contemplate it.
  2. Displacement: Displacement is quite literally a form of forgetting when new memories replace old ones.
  3. Interference

6. Name a few schemes targeted for poverty alleviation in India

Answer: The poverty alleviation programmes in India can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as prevalence of poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations.

 The programmes can be mainly grouped into:

1) Wage employment programmes

2) Self-employment programmes

3) Food security programmes

4) Social security programmes

5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

The five year plans immediately after independence tried to focus on poverty alleviation through sectoral programmes.

1     Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)

2     National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)

3     National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

4     National Maternity Benefit Scheme

5     Annapurna

6     Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

7     Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

7. Identify and describe (in brief) different types of sheep in the state of Rajasthan

Answer: Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan

Jaisalmeri: Found in Jaisalmer.

Naali: Found in Hanumangarh, Churu and Bikaner & Jhunjhunu. …

Maalpuri: Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli & Sawai madhopur.

Magra: Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year.

Pugal: Originated from Pugal in Bikaner.

Chokla or Shekhawati

Sonari or Chanothar

8. Determine the respective importance of generalists and specialists in the Indian Administration

Answer: A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotrophy with a varied diet). A specialist species can thrive only in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.

It is not necessarily true that you would prefer a specialist all the time. A specialist is one who has mastered the skill of one particular trade while a generalist is someone who has a fair knowledge of all trades but not an expert in any. In other words a generalist is Jack.

9. What do you understand by the term ‘Ownership?

Answer: Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property. Ownership is self-propagating in that the owner of any property will also own the economic benefits of that property.

10. Describe the salient features of demography of Rajasthan in the latest census

Answer: As per details from Census 2011, Rajasthan has population of 6.86 Crores, an increase from figure of 5.65 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Rajasthan as per 2011 census is 68,548,437 of which male and female are 35,550,997 and 32,997,440 respectively. In 2001, total population was 56,507,188 in which males were 29,420,011 while females were 27,087,177. The total population growth in this decade was 21.31 percent while in previous decade it was 28.33 percent. The population of Rajasthan forms 5.66 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 5.49 percent.

Recently as per Rajasthan census data, 93.22% houses are owned while 5.36% were rented. In all, 66.73% couples in Rajasthan lived in single family. In 2011, 68.02% of Uttar Pradesh population had access to Banking and Non-Banking Finance Corporation. Only 1.80% of Uttar Pradesh population had internet facility which is likely to improve in 2021 due to Jio. 4.66% of family in Uttar Pradesh owned car while 24.06% owned two wheeler. In few months we will also get details of election data for Rajasthan.

11. Describe the status and potential of non-conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan.

Answer: Rajasthan has become the leading state in tapping wind energy and solar energy for power generation in the country. According to the Government of Rajasthan, the estimated wind energy potential in the state is estimated to be about 5400 MW. A total of 3065.55 MW wind power capacity has been installed by December 2014.

Now, the emphasis has shifted to tapping more of solar Energy for power production and Rajasthan has signed MoUs with investors for setting up of a cumulative generation capacity of 32000 MW in the solar sector recently.

“Rajasthan shines on the solar map of India with 300-330 clear sunny days comparable to deserts of California, Nevada, Colorado and Arizona. Within the state the districts such as Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur are the key regions with best solar radiation. Rajasthan is endowed with two critical resources that are essential to solar power production: high level of solar radiation (6-7 kWh/ m2/ day) and large tracts of relatively flat, undeveloped land,” informs the website of resurgent Rajasthan.

Currently development of Solar-park at Jodhpur is in progress to create 2000 MW Solar Power Plant and Rajasthan has taken the lead ahead of all other states in this sector too. With regard to solar energy production, it is said that the world’s largest 4,000 MW solar project would be built in two phases in Sambhar block of Jaipur.

The first phase will be of 1000 MW and most likely will be commissioned by the end of 2016. Rajasthan is one of India’s most solar-developed states, it is said. As we know that solar energy is the most important non-conventional source of energy because it is non-polluting and helpful in lessening the greenhouse effect.

Rajasthan has decided for promoting generation of electricity from biomass also and is encouraging investments in the sector. The main source for biomass energy in the State of Rajasthan is mustard husk and Julie flora.

(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test Papers

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Some Sample Question for Preview:

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

Which one of the following cattle product is main product of Rajasthan?

What is production possibility of an economy?

What are the some main challenges before agriculture sector in Rajasthan?

How can the paradox of value be resolved?

What are the three types of benefits provided by Social Security?

Why the Need of new Inland Container Depots in Rajasthan?

What are the Main renewable energy sources?

What is inclusive and exclusive growth?

Write short notes on Crop Specific Growth in Rajasthan?

What is the effect of inflation on the economy?

What is the difference between absolute and relative pay?

What is social and economic development?

What are the three indicators of HDI?

What are the major factors of globalization?

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

RBI eases ECB hedging norms for companies. Explain

How has the Green Revolution affected India?

What are the basic objectives of Five year Plans?

Which industry is the major source of employment in Rajasthan?

Describe the Special Area Development Programmes in Rajasthan.

How many districts of Rajasthan are covered by Thar Desert?

What is Gini coefficient and what is the definition?

What are the Components of Human Development?

What are the various industries in Rajasthan?

CAATSA was recently in news. What is CAATSA? How it will affect India?

What is the main occupation of Rajasthan?

Agriculture Ministry takes back report on impact of demonetization on farmers.

Explain in detail the methods to calculate National Income.

In which industry of Rajasthan sodium sulphide is used as raw material?

What causes a kinked demand curve?

Which are the SC, ST, OBC and EBC Welfare initiative taken by government of Rajasthan?

In which year was Bhamashah scheme launched in Rajasthan?

Demonetisation came when world was showing resilience towards negative growth environment. What were the reasons for demonetisation?

What is the difference between FDI and FII?

Examine the role of startup as driver of growth.

Which are the recently welfare Education initiatives of Rajasthan Government?

What is MUDRA? Discuss its significance

What is PPP model? What are the advantages of PPP?

What factors contribute the most to economic growth?

IL&FS Crisis and role of National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)

What is the Land Use Pattern in Rajasthan?

What are the Macro Indicators of Economic Development?

What is per capita income with example?

What is opportunity cost and why is it important?

What are the Mains causes of infant mortality?

What are IMR and MMR?

What are the advantage and disadvantage of PPP?

Describe the Money Illusion with example.

What are the goals of the central bank?

What are the Fiscal Indicators of Rajasthan in 2018-19?

What is interest subvention scheme for farmers?

Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements

What is ease of living index meaning?

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

What are the achievements of green revolution?

What is the impact of demonetization?

Write short notes on Agriculture, Farmer and Animal Husbandry.

What are the steps taken by the government to reduce unemployment?

What are the key facts, important and objectives of National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HARIDAY)?

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

What are the objectives of Trips agreement?

Universal Basic income has its own Pros and Cons. Discuss in the Context of Indian economy?

Why information technologies Markets of today are highly Concentrated Also discuss the need to adapt our Regulatory Policies to new Business Models?

The Disaster That Struck A Coal Mine At Ksan In Meghalaya’s Jaintia Hills District On December 13, Trapping At Least 13 Workers, Is A Shocking Reminder That A Fast-growing Economy Such As India Continues To Allow Dickensian Mining Practices. Discuss

Examine the issues faced by workers of gig economy? Evaluate how they stand in comparison to workers of formal economy?

Explain the role of RBI in the economy and critically analyze whether it makes sense to restrict the primary role of RBI to inflation management?

Which are the Skill, Employment & Youth Programme in Rajasthan?

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment

Inclusive growth and issues arising from it

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance, e-applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures

Vision of a New India – USD 5 Trillion Economies

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

What is PPP?

What are the objectives of PPP?

High Growth Firms have a beneficial spillover effect on MSMEs. Analyze in the context of Indian economy.

We have seen landmark shift in Indian Economy since the adoption of new economic policy in 1991. Discuss the impact that it has had on different sectors of economy?

Food Processing – A Game Changer for Indian Economy?

Write about the Organisation, Scheme and Projects for Rural Development in Rajasthan?

What are the AMRUT Mission and AMRUT Cites of Rajasthan?

Ease of Doing Business Index: India jumps to 77th rank

Reasons behind increase in Patent disposal rate: Reforms in Patent office

Write Govt schemes and policies for Good Governance Indian Economy in the Investment and MSME sector

What is smart city mission? Smart city Programmes of Rajasthan

Discuss India’s poverty decline in the recent report of the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

How to weaken the mandi monopoly in our country?

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY): Crop Insurance Scheme

Explain the Fissures amidst growth: Female foeticide

Huge economic differences between regions of the country

What are the concern and new norms of Credit rating agencies?

UNESCO global education monitoring report 2019

What steps India has taken to address the issue?

What is the role of NITI Aayog?

What is the Green revolution? Analyse the impact of green revolution.

What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what are their advantages?

What do you understand by Tax expenditure?

Indian economy is facing lot of challenges including structural challenges. Outline the structural challenges of Indian economy.

What are Masala bonds? Explain their significance

Is cashless economy feasible in India? Also discuss the impact of it on informal economy?

Which are the main organisation and schemes for Skill Development in Rajasthan?

What is Geographical Indication (GI)? Write some famous GI of Rajasthan?

What is Inland Container Depot?

What was the purpose of PDS? Evaluate its functioning.

What was the mandate of the committee headed by D B Shekatkar? Outline its recommendation.

What is Trade parity Price? And what is e-way bill? And what is OPEC? Explain the cleansing action of Soap?

What is the difference between Tax evasion and Tax avoidance? What are the methods of Tax evasion?

Highlight the Characteristics of Indian economy.

Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements

What are the causes of unemployment in India?

Write an Essay on the Sectoral Composition with respect to contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Employment

What is the role of NITI Aayog?

What is the Green revolution? Analyse the impact of green revolution.

What do you understand by Tax expenditure? Comment on its relevance?

Suggest solutions to deal with the structural challenges of the Indian economy.

What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what is its advantage?

Indian economy is facing lot of challenges including structural challenges. Outline the structural challenges of Indian economy.

Why twin deficit is a concern for any economy? Outline the methods adopted by Government of India to deal with twin deficit.

Why does make in India is essential for sustained growth of India?

What were the objectives of Demonetisation? What were the positive effects?

What is the difference between FDI and FII?

What is SEBI? Write down its functions

What is PPP model? What are the advantages of PPP?

What is PPP? Certain issues are faced by PPP. Examine that.

What is MUDRA? Discuss its significance

What is Inverted duty structure? How it has impacted Indian manufacturing over the years.

What is interest subvention scheme? Discuss its salient features

What is Industrial revolution 4.0? Major components of IR 4.0, What are the advantages for India?

What is globalisation? Examine its impact on the pattern of employment.

What is gender budgeting? What is the rationale behind gender budgeting?

What is FRBM act? Why the objectives of FRBM were not achieved.

What is fiscal consolidation? Provide the ways to achieve it?

What is financial inclusion? How financial inclusion can lead to inclusive growth?

What is Disinvestment? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

What is black money? Discuss its implication in context of India?

What is a monetary policy?

What do you understand by the term inflation? What are the causes of inflation? List down the tools to curb inflation?

What do you understand by decentralized planning?

What do you mean by Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)?

What are the opportunities and challenges confronting the Indian small scale industrial sector in the era of globalization?

What are the objectives of Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana? Discuss its salient features also.

What are the Forms and types of foreign Capital?

What are the efforts taken by Central government to control inflation?

Industrial efficiency is a key to sound economy. In this contest discuss the key initiative taken by India to boost industrial performance.

India’s NPA problem is a chronic problem and exist at a larger scale then peer countries then what factors didn’t allow Indian economy to collapse?

India’s growth story has bypassed the industrial sector. What are the reasons for low performance of industrial sector in India post liberalisation?

In India still after 1991 reforms there is ambivalence towards private sector. Explain with the example

If poverty is a problem, rural poverty poses a greater threat. In this context discuss the reasons for rural poverty.

Give mains reasons of regional imbalance.

Free electric power to the farmers is causing a drain on exchequer and also they are not achieving the desire result. Do you agree with the statement?

Fiscal solidarity is key to foundation of a strong economy. N k singh committee was set up to head a fiscal responsibility and budget management panel? Discuss the features of the act.

FDI is good for a Country like India. But FDI is also not immune from criticism. Discuss the ill effect of FDI.

Farm loan waiver has become a populist tool. Do you think loan waiver is the ultimate solution?

Explain the State Government initiatives for Ease of doing business.

Explain the following terms:

Bank rate

Merchant discount rate

Open Market operations

Repo rate

MSF

Explain the following terms

Tax havens

BEPS

GAAR

Transfer pricing

Explain in detail the methods to calculate National Income.

Exit problem is the biggest hurdle for Indian firms as per economic survey. To get rid of this Insolvency and Bankruptcy code was passed. What are the features of IBC?

Examine the role of startup as driver of growth.

Examine the methods for the calculation of MSP.

Even though Indian economy is growing at a rate of 7% GDP, but still it has some Inherent vulnerabilities? Discuss

Evaluate the pro and cons of decentralized economic planning.

Unutilised employment potential in the phase of demographic transition will only lead to demographic catastrophe. Explain the cause of Unemployment in India. Steps taken by India to tackle unemployment

Discuss the key issues with real estate sector? Outline the provisions of Real estate (regulation and development) Act, 2016.

Discuss the features of consolidated FDI Policy for 2017.

Development is a myth without rendering women equality. Discuss in the context with women participation in labor force.

Demonetisation came when world was showing resilience towards negative growth environment. What were the reasons for demonetisation?

Define the following terms;

Tier -1 capital

Tier -2 capital

CAR

Public debt

CAATSA was recently in news. What is CAATSA? How it will affect India?

Analyze why Indian economy is considered as planned developing economy.

Although India is one of the fastest growing economies the global environment is not conducive enough. Explain the interdependence of global economy with Indian economy.

Air India is severely under stressed but aviation sector is not. Identify the potential and challenges?

A healthy infrastructure is must for a sustained economic growth.

What is BharatMala project? What are the challenges in its implementation?

Demographic dividend is a potential and not destiny. In this context discuss the Advantage of demographic dividend.

Define following term:

Current account

Capital account

Balance of payment

Trade balance

Is cashless economy feasible in India? Also discuss the impact of it on informal economy?

Inflation is a heavy tax and erodes the purchasing power of rupees. Discuss the ways to control inflation.

Economic survey suggested that India’s growth decoupled with the world growth? What is this decoupling and what are the reasons for it?

What are Masala bonds? Explain their significance

What are the aims of the trade policy of India?

Wealth inequality is a serious concern for the Government around the world. What are the reasons for wealth inequality in India? List down the consequence of wealth inequality

Tendulkar committee on estimation of poverty changed the basis of calculating poverty. Discuss.

Tax reforms are the major part of the economic programme. Discuss the reforms taken in the direct taxes and indirect taxes in India.

Subsidies are always been a major tool for the inclusivity. Comment on its efficacy.

Start up India scheme

Recently infrastructure status was given to the logistics sector? Analyse the advantages and major hurdles.

RBI has taken several steps to deal with stressed asset problems. Discuss the steps taken by the RBI. Also comment on their success.

What is Price stabilisation fund?

Post 1991 reform era has seen a major change in the tax system. Discuss the changes?

Post 1991 Indian economy saw a sudden change in outlook. To bring reforms in the financial sector GOI set up Narasimha committee. Discuss its recommendation.

Low skill manufacturing is key to Indian success especially the clothing and manufacturing sector. Do you agree with the statement?

Knowledge based economy has huge potential to grow with sustained rate. But there are concerns with Indian as an eligible country for knowledge based economy. Discuss.

RAS Mains Test-Art and Culture

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Art & Culture of Rajasthan Solved Practice Question

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Rajasthan Public Service Commission Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions.
Art and Culture of Rajasthan Solved Practice Questions as per Syllabus and trending topics of Current Affairs.
20/50/100/200 words Solved Question as per RPSC RAS Mains Exam Requirement.

What is the importance of handicraft in our economy?

Handicrafts are hugely important in terms of economic development. They provide ample opportunities for employment even with low capital investments and thus become a prominent medium for foreign earnings. From transforming the traditional Indian arts, and crafts to the customized version of an overseas art form.

Who was Muhnot Nainsi?

  • Born in Jodhpur city, Mohanot Nainsi was the minister and minister of Maharaja Jaswant Singh-I of Jodhpur.
  • Angered by something, the Maharaja put both Nainasi and his brother Sundarasi in prison.
  • Due to tortures in captivity, both brothers committed suicide.
  • Along with being knowledge lover and History lover he was a man of self-pride and brave nature.
  • Munshi Devi Prasad has called Nainsi as Abul Fazal of Rajputana. Nainsi wrote a famous book titled Muhnot Nainsi RI Khyat.

Mirpur Jain Temple, Sirohi

This is also one of the most important Jain temples of Rajasthan which is known for its extensive architecture as it is dated back to the 9th century. The temple was built by the Rajputs and signified as the oldest marble monument in Rajasthan. The temple is having the idol of the 23rd Tirthankar who is the Parsavanatha. The architecture of this temple globally acclaimed and the carvings of the pillars are the true representation of every beautiful note of Hindu mythology.

Goga Ji

  • Birth-1003 A.D. at Dadrewa in the Churu district of Rajasthan
  • Legend Protects from Snakes bites (Jaharpeer).
  • Saint Goga ji fought with Mahmood Gajnavi for protection of cows.
  • Died (Samadhi) -Gogamedi in Hanumangarh District
  • Worship: Main Temple: Gogamedi, built by King Ganga Singh.
  • Villages in Rajasthan has dedicated to him, than is always under Khejri tree.
  • Farmers tie 9 Knot – Goga Rakhadi – to their plough for good harvest.
  • Goga Ji identification – Blue Horse, Spear and Snake

Famous Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

In Rajasthan, the emergence of saint bhakts was witnessed from 16th century to end of 18 century.

Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan

  • Dadu Dayal
  • Mira Bai
  • Sundar das
  • Rajjab
  • Bhakhan
  • Wajind
  • Raghavdas
  • Lal Das
  • Charan Das
  • Mavaji

What do you know about Akbari Fort & Museum?

This fort was constructed in 1570 by Akbar and is also called as Daulat-khanna or Magazine. Plans for battle of Haldighati were finalized in this fort in 1576 and Jahangir camped in the fort for 3 years to bring mewar under Mughal control.

• This fort is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture and it is the location from where Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir read out the Farman permitting the British East India Company to trade with India. In 1801, control of fort passed to British who converted it into magazine (armory).

• Currently, the fort is converted into a state museum and houses a collection of Mughal, Rajput armor and sculpture. The fort also has beautiful paintings and Janana portion has excellent Picchikari works.

Main Features of the Mughal Paintings in India

1. Confined to Mughal court:

Mughal painting remained confined to the Mughal court and did not reach the people.

2. A synthesis of Indian and Persian elements:

The Mughal rulers brought Persian painters with them. At the same time they patronized Indian painters and the collaboration between these two schools of painters resulted in the synthesis.

3. Main themes of painting:

Apart from Persian books of fables, themes from Mahabharata were also selected. Indian scenes and landscapes came into vogue.

4. Abundant use of colours:

Golden colours considered to be the symbols of prosperity of the Mughals began to be used increasingly.

5. Climax of Mughal painting:

Jahangir had a very discriminating eye and Mughal painting reached its climax of glory during his reign.

What are the main handicrafts of the people of Rajasthan?

Top 10 Historical Places in Rajasthan?

Which famous folk dance is associated with Rajasthan?

Write the dialects of Rajasthan and their region?

What is Fire Dance in Rajasthan?

Write about some Famous cattle fairs in Rajasthan?

Osian Jain Temple, Jodhpur

Write about two most famous saints in the Bhakti Movement from Rajasthan

Adi Shakti Puja

Write down the name of Prominent Freedom Fighters of Rajasthan

What are the reasons and consequences of the Battle of Tunga?

Kalibangan

What were the contributions of Sawai Raja Jai Singh?

Sagarmala Gopa

Explain different types of Rajasthani Paintings?

Kolayat

Describe about famous Lok Devis of Rajasthan (Folk Godesses)

Bala Quila, Alwar

Duleh Rai/Dulha Rao

Write short notes on the following:

1. Shahbad Fort, Baran

2. Shergarh Fort, Baran

3. Nahar Garh Fort, Baran

4. Lohagarh Fort, Bharatpur

5. Bhainsrorgarh Fort, Chittorgarh

Describe the Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature.

Rajasthan’s handicraft have its historical and multiple importance, describe?

Expect on the relation between ruler and Samanta/feudatory after the treaty with the Mughals?

Name the Institute which is famous for the exhibiting of puppets.

In how many parts Rajasthan is divided in the sight of folk Dramas?

Which writer demonstrates the predatory history of Rajasthan?

Four dialects of Rajasthan and there region?

For which purpose Walter created the Rajput Hitkarni Sabha?

Aoudak fort

Gentlemen agreement

Toul movement

Arthuna temple Shiva art

Phad

Khyal

Define the name of Terahtali Dance?

Bhapang

Define the contribution of Laxmi Kumari Chundawat in the field of Rajasthan literature

The importance of Sanganer, Bagru and Barmer in the field of dyeing and printing in Rajasthan?

Imported features of Satyprakash joshi’s Radha?

Short note on Blue Pottery

Short note on Anup Singh the ruler of Bikaner?

Feudatory Administrative system’s important features?

Important feature of Jantar–Mantar the astronomical observatory of Jaipur

Impact of Mughals Architect on Rajasthan’s Palaces

Describe Folk entertainment of Rajasthan Describe.

Cultural achievement of Pratap Singh

Explain gavri dance,bhawai dance,ravan hatha andrammat

Political and cultural achievement of Maharana kumbha

Main incidents happened in Bijoliya peasant movement.

Growth of women education in Rajasthan and its hurdals?

Political, Social and economic expects of Prajamandal movements.

Define the important features of Rajasthan painting along with various painting forms and schools.

Explain the various phases in the unification of Rajasthan

Bijolia Edict

Raj Singh (Mewar)’s Achievements/Achievements of Raj singh

Characteristics of Folk Songs

Judicial Administration of Medieval Rajasthan

Explain the Contribution of folk deities & Saints in Society?

Sarangpur Battle

Beli Krishna – Rukman Ri

Jantar

Shivaji Sagar

Kalsu Bai

1- Describe the Bhakti Saints and folk Gods of medieval Rajasthan.

2- Describe the role of Praja Mandals in the socio-economic upliftment of people.

3-Throw light on the treaties signed between 1803 and 1823 between East India Company and different Rajputana Kingdoms.

4- Shakti Pooja In Rajasthan.

4(a)- Women’s political participation in Freedom Movement in Rajasthan.

4(b) – Role of Castism in Rajasthan

5- Artisan castes in Rajasthan.

6- Rajputana -Madhya Bharat Sabha.

7- Battle of Tunga. 4

8- Jaipur Art during Reign of Sawai Pratap Singh

9- Teej Tyunhara Bawdi, Le dubi Gangaur.

10- Sagar Mal Gopa.

11- Dulha Rai.

12- Mandan Suthradhar

13- Chatra Chauth

14- Nouchoki

15- Kali Bai

16- Gair Dance

17- Thewa Art

18- Morchang

19- Rajasthan Proverb is mirror of religion, Philosophy, policy, agriculture, social traditions, etc.” Explain with examples.

20- Describe various communities of Rajasthan Drawing and comment on their subject matter.

21-Describe the various popular Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

22- Describe the social structure of medieval Rajasthan.

23- Kavi Magh.

24- Merger of Ajmer-Merwara in Rajasthan.

25- Devji.

26- Wedding Customs of Tribals.

27-Rajasthani festivals from Chaitra to Phalguna

28-Role of Rajasthan in 1857 Revolution

29- Gindar Dance

30- Bari- Padla

31- Phad

32- Chitra Shala

33-Pathwari

34- Saint Ranabai

35- Rasdhari Khayal

36- Tasha

37- Tukkangira and Shah Ali

38- Pushti Marg

39- Describe the Religious Beliefs, Cults and Saints of Rajasthan.

40- Describe the contribution of Tessitorry in Dingal Literature.

41- Illustrate the peasant movements of Rajasthan before independence.

42- Contemporary Scenario of Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

43- Nana Bhai Khant and Kalibai Bheelbala.

44- Cultural contribution of Maharana Kumbha.

45- Vrihad Rajasthan.

46- Shekhawati ki Hawaiian.

47- Thakur Kushal Singh Champavat

48- Rangri tongue.

49- Kukadala

50- Gofan

51- Sugali Mata

52- Pandit Durgalal

53- Ravan Hatta

54- Baneshwar Fair

55- Thewa Art

56- Ludrava

57 – Galiyakote

58- Lakulish Temple

59- Kaithoon

60- Throw light on the historical importance and events of Bijoliya Farmers Movement of Rajasthan.

60(a) – Explain the various stages of unification of Rajasthan.

61- Famous Jain temples of Rajasthan.

62- Haveli Music

63- Chirdawi Khayal

64- Bhope of Rajasthan

65- Sclupture art of Molela.

66- Sacrifice of Krishna Kumari.

67- Motilal Tejawat.

67(a) – Describe Rajasthan’s freedom struggle of 1857

68- Bhoora Singh Shekhawat.

69- Merwarda

70- Sahariya.

71- Bappa Rawal.

72- Ghoomar.

73- Suryamal Mishra.

74- Kiradu

75- Arthuna.

76- Kallaji Rathore

77- Jantar.

78- Dingal.

79- Dr. Komal Kothari.

80- Explain the role of Folk Gods of Rajasthan in the socio-cultural development of the state.

81- Explain the role of Sangeet Natak Academy in Cultural development of Rajasthan.

82- Animal fare of Nagaur.

83- Johar.

84- Devnarayanji ki Phad.

85- L.C. Tacitori

86- Raj Prasthi

87- Gajner.

88- Jainarayan Vyas.

89- Nirnjani Sampradaya.

90- Jan Kavi.

91- Bharthari.

92- Manikya lal Verma.

93- Management of Kanhede

94- Soonhari Kothi

95- Girdhaveri.

96- Bhagri

97- Pabuji.

98- Kiradu.

99- Gair Nirtya.

100- Rawan Hatha.

101- Rohida

102- Jamo

103. Ramgopal Singh

104. Galiyakote.

105- Write about the important Archaeological sites of Rajasthan.

106- Suryamal Mishran Literary activities

107- Cattle fairs in Rajasthan.

108- Rammat.

109- Matsya Union.

110- Pabuji ki Phad.

111- Sagarmala Gopa.

112- Kachi Ghodi Dance

113- Bani- Thani.

114- Battle of Khanva

115- Mithe Shah Dargah

116- Menal.

117- Keshari Singh Baraith

118- Bhatner Fort

119- Algoza

120- Sathin

121- Lal Bagh

122- Goga Pir

123- Kurjan

124- Kolayat

125. Write an essay on ‘Nationalism in Rajasthan Literature.

126. What are the main problems in preserving and maintaining rich historical and cultural heritage of Rajasthan? Suggest measures.

127. Explain the salient features of folk music of Rajasthan.

128. Write the names of five freedom fighters of Rajasthan.

129. Kishangarh School of Painting.

130. Important Tourist Places in Rajasthan.

131. Kanhiyalal sethiya

132. Bishan Singh Shekhawat.

133. Kali Bangha.

134. Praja Mandal.

135. What are the main Problem in preserving and maintaining the rich historical and cultural heritage of Rajasthan? Suggest steps.

136. Write the names of main tribes of Rajasthan and explain their role in the development of Rajasthani art, culture and literature.

137. Write the name of four freedom fighters from Rajasthan.

138. Name four cattle fairs of Rajasthan and their location.

139. Veer Tejaji.

140. Mewar school of painting

141. Important Archaeological sites in Rajasthan.

141. Vijay Dhan Detha.

142. Surya mal Mishran.

143. Write an essay on ‘Nationalism in Rajasthan Literature’?

144. Discuss the main features of ‘Rajput Paintings’.

145. Evaluate the social impact of Praja Mandal Movement in Rajasthan.

146. Kishangarh School Of Painting.

147. Lal Bag.

148. Important tourist places in Rajasthan.

149. Name two places where Nagori- Bullocks are traded in cattle- fairs.

150. Name the author of following:-

(1) Raj Ballabh, (2) Prabandh Chintamani, (3) Vamsha Bhaskar, (4) Kandhe Prabandh.

151.  Describe the teachings of Sunderdas.

(I) Tazim (II) Angarakha

151.  (I) 30 March 1949 A.D. (II) Akbar’s visit to Ajmer.

152. Nritya Ganesh.

153. Bani Thani

154. Fire Dance.

155. Main dialect of Rajasthan

156. Write about Handicrafts of Rajasthan.

157. Freedom struggle in Rajasthan Prior to Independence.

RAS Mains-Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question

RAS-MAINS-EXAM-2018-GEOGRAPHY-SOLVED-QUESTION-ANSWER

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Practice Solved Question/Descriptive – Geography of Rajasthan
These Mock Solved Question Answer prepared as per last couple of years RAS Mains analysis.
We have covered almost all trending topics/static topics of geography of Rajasthan.
Answer Style is in 20/50/100/200 words.

Geography of Rajasthan-Solved Test Questions

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Why Rewat hill of Rajasthan is famous?

Write short note on soils of Rajasthan.

Write the name of World Famous Wildlife Sanctuaries in Rajasthan

How Aravalli hills are formed?

Write the features and motives of first biological Park of Rajasthan?

Write down the Introduction of Aravalli Range and Hilly Region.

Which are the Highest and Low Density cities of Rajasthan as per Census 2011?

Write down the Flora and fauna of Thar Desert?

What are the Soil Classifications of Rajasthan in detail?

Why in spite of Aravalli range Rajasthan receives very less rain?

Which part of India gets the monsoon first?

What are pre monsoon showers?

Describe the physiographic character of Rajasthan and also mention the Importance of Aravali Mountain.

Why the Coromandel Coast gets most of its rain during the winter season?

1- Delineate natural regions of Rajasthan and describe any one of them.

2- Describe the role of RICCO in the industrial development of Rajasthan.

3- Describe the main source of power generation in Rajasthan.

4- Combating drought in Rajasthan.

5- Water Policy 2010 of Rajasthan.

6- Write a short note on Aravalli Range.

7- The district of Rajasthan which have the highest and lowest sex ratio as per 2001 census.

7(a) – Describe the seed Spices of Western Rajasthan.

8- Flora of Thar Desert.

9- Lake Development Projects in Rajasthan

10-What is solar Energy Enterprise Zone (SEEZ) and where is it located?

11- Mewat and its source of humidity.

12- Classification of Soil areas.

13- Dairy Development.

14- Stone Industry of Rajasthan.

15(a) – Main Districts which lie across Indra Gandhi Canal

15(b) – Tribal Mahila Self Help Group- 2 marks 2008

16- Cover Erosion.

17- Describe the Desert Development Projects of Rajasthan.

18-Describe the Population distribution format of rajasthan & illustrate its determining factors.

19- Describe the silent features of Physico Cultural Regions of Rajasthan.

20- Describe the Tribal Area Development & Plans.

21- Execution of Narmada Project in Rajasthan.

22(a) – Talchhapar Sanctuary

22(b) – Kankrej &its main varieties

23- Non-Conventional sources of energy.

24- Takhli Dam Project.

25- Describe the current status of population of Rajasthan and the steps taken to restrict the population growth.

26- Through some light on the administrative setup established in Rajasthan for improving the electricity condition.

27- Give a detailed explaination of the cultural regions of Rajasthan.

28- Through some light on the Chambal project of Rajasthan.

29- Explain various cattle varieties and their regions.

30- Drought and famines are frequent in Rajasthan. Mention the causes and suggest the ways to deal with this problem.

31- Describe the role of public sector industries in economic development of the state.

32- Review the present position of production of lead, Zinc and Copper in Rajasthan, stating the places of availability of the sources.

33- What means are used for irrigation in Rajasthan and what is their contribution in the agricultural development of the state?

34- Jakham River

35- Sambhar Lake

36- Compare the mother and child care programmes in Rajasthan with the other states in India.

37- Describe the Main features of ‘Bisalpur Project’?

38- Discuss the growth of Distance education in Rajasthan. To what extent it would serve the interests of Higher Education in the State?

39- Access the Progress of ‘Heritage Hotel Scheme’ Rajasthan during the last five years.

40- How far do you agree that Rajasthan is a Mazor cement producing state in the country?

41- Mineral oil Exploration in Rajasthan.

42- Solar Energy Projects in Rajasthan.

43-Write on any 5 wildlife sanctuaries in Rajasthan

44(a) – Rajsamand Lake

44(b) – Chappan Plains.

45- Write the names and special features of the main geographical sub-regions of Rajasthan.

46- Access the progress of industrial growth and its impact on Rajasthan in last five years.

47- Why population growth in Rajasthan is very high? What strategy should be adopted to contain it?

48- Why literacy in Rajasthan is very low? What immediate steps should be taken to improve the situation?

49- Name 6 important rivers of Rajasthan.

50-(a) Narmada Canal Project

50-(b) Making Rajasthan Literate

50-(c) Gurushikhar

50-(d) Longewala

50-(e) Dang

50(f) Mahi

50-(g) Thar

50-(h) Mewar

51- Access the progress of oil seeds production programme and its impact on Rajasthan in last five years.

52- Mention five major sectors/areas which would be crucial in the development of Rajasthan in 21st Century. Explain why?

53-Why female Literacy in Rajasthan is lowest in the country? What immediate steps should be taken to improve the situation?

54- Main problems of rapid industrial development of Rajasthan.

55- Explain Salient Features of Geography of Rajasthan.

56- Explain Solar Energy as a good source of energy in Rajasthan.

57- Indra Gandhi Canal Project

58- Aravali Mountain

59- Desertification.

60- CAZRI

61- Rajsamand

62(a) – Godawan

62(b) – Rathi

62(c) – Uppermal

62(d) – Hadoti

63- Access the Progress of afforestation programmes in Rajasthan.

64- Desert Development Programme.

65- Drought and famines are frequent in Rajasthan. Mention the causes and suggest the ways to deal with this problem.

66- Write briefly about the following mineral wealth in Rajasthan- Tungsten, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and Feldspar

67- What do you understand by Social-Forestry?

68- Why does western Rajasthan receives low amount of annual rainfall?

69- Present a short note on ‘soil degradation’ in Rajasthan. 2.5 marks-RAS/RTS Mains-1994

70- Explain ‘Bio-Gas’ as a good source of energy in the rural areas of Rajasthan.

71- Family Planning Programme in Rajasthan.

72- Name four breeds of cows which are generally classified as ‘Dairy Breed’.

73- Mention the names of two major tributaries of Chambal River.

74- Name two places in Rajasthan where ‘National Parks’ have been established.

75- Cash Crops of Rajasthan.

76- Maru- Ganga.

77- Desertification

77(a) – Vegetation and climate of Rajasthan

77(b)-Tribals of Rajasthan

77(c) – What are the important agro based industries which can be setup in Rajasthan?

78- Mineral resources of Rajasthan

79- Desert Development Programme.

80- The main Rabi crops of Rajasthan.