General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

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Preface

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the syllabus of RPSC and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the shop in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. Very soon it will be available on Amazon, Flip-kart etc.
General Studies of Rajasthan

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Current Affairs of Rajasthan from September-2018 to August-2019 for RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims & Mains, RSMSSB and Other Competitive Examinations conducted by government and Public sector undertakings.

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Language and Literature: Art -Culture of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Language & Literature

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts. –

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

 Rajasthani Literature

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

RAJASTHANI LITERATURE

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts:

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D) Study Notes

Join our telegram channel for Regular updates

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D)

  1. Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal
  2. Guhil Dynasty of Mewar
  3. Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
  4. Rathod Dynasty of Marwar
  5. Rathod of Bikaner
  6. Kachwaha of Amber
  7. Chauhan Dynasty
  8. Chauhan of Ranthambore
  9. Chauhan of Jalore
  10. Hada Chauhan of Bundi
  11. Hada Chauhan of Kota
  12. Parmar of Abu

Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal

  Raja Nagbhatta I

  • Founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihar.
  • Made triple alliance with Bappa Rawal and Jaisimha to defeat Arabs.

 Raja Watsaraj

  • First Pratihar king to occupy Kannauj.
  • He defeated Dharmapala of Gaud Dynasty and defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 Raja Nagbhatta II

  • Occupied Kannauj.
  • Defeated Dharmapala in the battle of Mudgagiri.
  • Defeated by Govinda of Rashtrakuta.

    Raja Mihir Bhoj

  • Defeated Devpala of Bengal.
  • Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court in 851 A.D.

    Raja Yashpal

  • Last ruler of this dynasty.
  • His rule came to an end due to emerging of Gazni power.

Guhil Dynasty of Mewar

    Guhil

  • In 566 A.D. Guhil established this dynasty.
  • He established independent city Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

  • Original Name was Kaalbhoj
  • In 734, he defeated Maan Mori and took Chittorgarh under his control and made Nagada his capital.
  • At first, started gold coin in Rajasthan.
  • He built Eklingji Temple in Udaipur.

    Allat (943 A.D. to 953 A.D.)

  • Original Name is  Alu Rawal
  • Built Varah Temple of Ahar.
  • Married Hun Princess Hariyadevi.
  • Established bureaucracy in Mewar.

    Jaitra Singh (1213-1253 A.D.)

  • Fought battle of Bhutala and defeated the army of Iltutmish.
  • He made Chittor his new capital.
  • His reign is called Golden Age of Medieval Mewar.

    Ratan Singh (1302-1303 A.D.)

  • AllauddinKhilji defeated him and he was killed.
  • After his death, his wife Padmavati committed Jauhar.
  • This was biggest Saka of Chittor and first Saka of Rajasthan.
  • Gora and Badal, two commanders showed courage during the battle.
  • In 1540 A.D. Malik Mohammed Jayasi wrote Padmavat in which he mentioned the beauty of Queen Padmavati.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar

Rana Hammir (1326-1364)

Khetri Singh (1364-82)

  • He captured Zafar Khan, Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Son of Hammir

 Rana Lakha (1382-1421)

  • He married Hansa Bai, princess of Marwar.
  • His son Rana Choonda took the oath that not to come on the throne. Thus he is also called Bhishmapitamah of Mewar.

    Rana Mokul Singh (1421-33)

  • He reconstructed Samidheshwar Temple in Chittoor.
  • In 1433, he was murdered in Zilwada.

    Rana Kumha (1433-68)

  • Defeated Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Malwa, in battle of Sarangpur (Mandalgarh).
  • He erected Vijay Stambh (sign of Rajasthan police) after this victory which is 37 meters tall and 10 meter in width having 9 floors.
  • It is compared with Qutub Minar.
  • Rana Kumbha defeated the joint army of Mahmud Khilji and Qutbuddin of Gujarat in 1456.
  • Important fort built by Kumbha- (1) Kumbhalgarh (2) Achalgarh (3) Basantgarh
  • Important books written by Kumbha- (1) Rasik Priya (2) Sudha Prabhandh (3) Sangeet Raj (5 part) (6) Sangeet Sudha (7) Kamaraj Ratisaar
  • He gave patronage to many scholars in his court. Important are- (a) Mandan (b) Kanh Vyas (c) Ramabai (d) Muni Sundar Suri etc.
  • He was a musician as well.
  • He was killed by his son Ooda Singh or Udai Singh.

  Rana Udai Singh (1468-73)

  • He killed his father Rana Kumbha and came to the throne.
  • Ramuel, his brother, defeated him and ascended the throne.

  Rana Sanga (1508-1528)

  • In 1517 and 1519, he fought the battle of Khatoli and Bari respectively with Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in both the battles.
  • In 1519, he defeated MehmudKhilji in the battle of Gagron.
  • In 1527, he was defeated in the battle of Khanwa by Babur.
  • The important king who took part in the battle of Khanwa (Maldev- Marwar, Medini Rai- Chanderi, Mahmood Lodhi (small brother of Ibrahim Lodhi)
  • He died at Kalpi (M.P.)

   Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572)

  • Saved by Panna Dhai in the childhood
  • In 1557, fought the battle of Harmada with Haji Khan Pathan who was governor of Ajmer.
  • In 1559, he founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake.
  • In 1568 Akbar attacked and Jaimal and Fatta was killed

    Maharana Pratap (1572-1597)

  • In 1576, He fought the battle of Haldighati with Akbar and was defeated by Akbar. Akbar deputed Man Singh against Maharana Pratap.
  • Thermopylae of Rajasthan – James Tod
  • Kumbhalgarh war (1577, 1578, 1579) between (Sahbaz v/s Pratap)
  • His horse’s name was Chetak who was injured in this battle and later died. Chetak’s cremation is in Balicha Village.
  • In 1582, he fought Battle of Diver.
  • In 1597. He died in Chawand.

  Karan Singh (1620-1628)

  • He started construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.

 Jagjit Singh I (1628-52)

  • He finished the construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  • He constructed Jagdish Temple of Udaipur.

Raj Singh (1652-80)

  • He protested against Jajiya Tax by Aurangzeb
  • Supported Aurangzeb in the fight of Successor

Jai Singh (1680-98)

  • He built Jaisamand Lake.

Rathod Dynasty of Marwar

    Rao Siyaji

  • He founded this dynasty.
  • In 1273, he died protecting cows in Bithu village.

    Rao Chunda

  • The real founder of Rathod dynasty in Mewar.
  • He was killed in a battle with Salim Shah of Multan.

 Rao Jodha (1438-89)

  • He established city Jodhpur.
  • He constructed Mehrgarh Fort.
  • His 5th son Bika established Bikaner.

    Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)

  • He killed his father and ascended the throne.
  • In 1541, he defeated Jaitasi of Bikaner.
  • In 1543, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in Battle of Sumail.

    Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)

  • He was defeated by the Mughal but still denied to form an alliance with them.
  • He is called Pratap of Marwar.

    Raja Udai Singh (1583-1595)

  • He established a marital relation with Mughals.
  • His daughter Mani Bai was married to Jahangir.

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)

  • He wrote BhasaBhusan, Anand Vilas, Prabodh Chandrodaya and AparokshaSidhanta Saar.

Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)

Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)

Rathod of Bikaner

Rao Bika (1465-1504)

  • In 1465, he established Rathod dynasty in Bikaner region.
  • In 1488, established Bikaner.

   Rao Naroji (1504-05)

   Rao Lunkaran (1505-1526)

    Rao Jait Singh (1526-1542)

    Rao Kalyan Singh (1542-1571)

    Raja Raj Singh I (1571-1611)

Maharaja Rao Anup Singh (1669-1698)

  • He wrote ‘Anup Vivek’, ‘Kaam Prabodh’,’ ShraddhPrayog Chintamani’, ‘Anupodaya.’

    Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh (1698-1700)

    Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh (1943-1950)

  • He was the last ruler of Bikaner and merged in present Rajasthan state and signed the instrument of accession to the dominion of India.

Kachwaha of Amber

    Prithviraj

  • He was feudal of Rana Sanga; therefore, he fought Battle with Babur in the Battle of Khanwa.

Bharamal

  • The accepted sovereignty of Akbar.
  • The first king of Rajasthan to accept sovereignty and establish a marital relation with Mughal.

Bhagwantdas

  • Suppress Mirza revolt in Sarnal Battle. Thus he was given Nagada and Parcham by Akbar as the award.
  • His daughter was married to Jahangir.

    Maan Singh

  • He was made Subedar of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal.
  • Established Maanpur city in Bihar
  • He established Akbarnagar city in Bengal.
  • Began the construction of forts of Amber
  • Constructed Radha Govind Temple in Vrindavan

Mirza Raja Jaisingh

  • Ruled for the maximum period in Jaipur (46 Years)
  • Shah Jahan titled him ‘Mirza Raja’.
  • On 11 June 1665, Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh.
  • He constructed Jaigarh Fort in Jaipur.

    Sawai Jai Singh

  • He saw the reign of seven Mughal Badshah.
  • Changed the name of Amber to Islamabad.
  • His Purohit was ‘PundarikRatnagar’.

    Ishwari Singh

  • In 1747, he defeated Madho Singh in the Battle of Rajmahal on the bank of river Banas.
  • 1748, he was defeated by Madho Singh in the Battle of Bagru.
  • After this defeat, he committed suicide.

Chauhan Dynasty

    Vasudev

  • In 551 A.D. he established Chauhan dynasty.
  • According to Bijoliya inscription, he constructed Sambhar Lake.

    Ajayraj

  • In 1113 he established Ajmer city.
  • He built Ajmer fort.

    Arnoraj

  • He constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Also constructed Varah Temple in Pushkar.

    Vigraharaj IV

  • He took away Delhi from Tomar dynasty.
  • He constructed a school later QutubuddinAibak built Dhai Din Ka Jhopda in place of this school.

    Prithviraj III

  • In 1182, he defeated Chandel ruler Parmarardidev in Battle of Mahoba.
  • 1191, he defeated Mohammad Ghori in First Battle of Panipat.
  • 1192, he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in Second Battle of Panipat.
  • Moinuddin Chisti came to India during his reign.
  • He constructed Pithoragarh near Delhi.
  • Kaimash and Bhuvanmalla were his two ministers.

Chauhan of Ranthambore

  • After the death of Prithviraj III, his son Govindraj established his rule in Ranthambore.

    Hammir Dev

  • In 1299, he defeated the army of Alauddin Khilji led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan.
  • Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle.
  • After that Allauddin Khilji raids the Ranthambore fort with his army and defeats them.
  • 1301, first Siege of Ranthambore took place. This was the first Siege of Rajasthan.
  • He fought 17 battle in his life in which he only lost the last one.

Chauhan of Jalore

  • Founder of this branch of Chauhan was Kirtipal.
  • In inscriptions, Jalore is mentioned as Jabalipur.
  • Allauddin Khilji changed the name of Siwana to Khairabad.

Hada Chauhan of Bundi

  • In 1241, Deva Hada defeated Jait Meena and occupied Bundi.
  • 1354, Barsingh constructed Taragarh fort of Bundi.
  • Rao Surjan constructed Ranchhod Temple in Dwarika.
  • Budhhasingh wrote ‘Nehtarang’.
  • Maratha interference took place during the reign of Budhhasingh.

Hada Chauhan of Kota

  • In 1631, Madho Singh founded this state.
  • Mukund Singh constructed AbaliMeeni Palace in Kota.

Battles of Rajasthan

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Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD

The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles), taken place in 738 A.D., somewhere on borders on modern Sind-Rajasthan. In this battle, the Gurjar-Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India.

The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were:

  • Gurjara-Pratihara King Nagabhatt I
  •  Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire
  • Bappa Rawal of Hindu Kingdom of Mewar

Background:

By the end of 7th century A.D Islam had become a powerful religion and Arabs a power force. Muhammad Ibn Qasim captured Iran & Afghanistan. . His successor, Junayd Ibn Abd al- Rahman al-Murri, led a large army into the Hindustan region in early 730 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat.

Realizing the power of Arab forces, Pratihara king, Nagabhatta appealed for showing a united front with Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire. Jaysimha acknowledged and sent his son Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin to support Nagabhatta. The two forces, united with the already fighting Rajput forces under Bappa Rawal, at the border of Rajasthan.

The final battle of Rajasthan & Result: The battle was fought between 5,000-6,000 Rajput-Gurjar Infantry and cavalry facing more than 30,000 Arabs. The Rajputs under Bappa Rawal managed to kill the Arab leader Emir Junaid during the war. In the words of the Arab chronicler Suleiman, “a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found.”

The Arabs took a long time to recover from their defeat. Junayd’s successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi organized fresh campaigns against Rajasthan but failed to get hold of any territories. Thus, the triple alliance of Indian Kingdoms saved Hindustan from Arab invaders, at-least for next 200 years.

  • Khumar (753 – 773 )
  • Mattat (773 – 793 )
  • Bhratrabhat (773 – 813 )
  • Sinha (813 – 828)
  •  Khuman II (828 – 853)
  • Repelled up to 24 Muslim attacks.
  •  Ruled a Golden Age in Mewar.
  • Mahayak (853 – 878)
  •  Khuman III (878 – 942)
  •  Bhratrabhat II (942 – 943)
  • Allat (943 – 953)

 Possibly near start of his reign, Allat is driven from Chittor by the Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja, who then rules Chittor and is succeeded by his nephew, Raja Bhoj. Allat establishes a new capital at ancient Ahar.

  • (953 – 971)

 The death of Allat leaves a gap in the succession, and there is no Guhilot leader at all for a total of eight years while the Paramara attack Ahar. The Paramara king, Vakpati Raj of Malwa, rules Chittor. It takes until 971 for a new Guhilot king to reign.

  • Naravan / Narvahan (971 – 973)
  •  Shalivahan (973 – 977)
  • Shakti kumar (977 – 993 )
  •  Amba Prasad (993 – 1007)
  • Fought against Mahmud Ghazni (Yamin-ud-Dawlah Mahmud).
  • Suchivarma (1007 – 1021)
  • Narvarma (1021 – 1035)
  •  Kirtivarma (1035 – 1051)
  • Yograj (1051 – 1068)
  • Bairat / Vairat(1068 – 1088)
  •  Hans pal (1088 – 1103)
  • Vairi Singh (1103 – 1107)
  • Vijay Singh (1107 – 1127)
  • Ari Singh I (1127 – 1138)
  • Chittor is again captured by Malwa.
  • Chaur Singh (1138 – 1148)
  • The Western Chalukyas attack the Parmaras who hold Chittor.
  • Vikram Singh / Vikramaditya I (1148 – 1158)
  • Karan Singh (1158 – 1168)
  • The royal family divides, possibly near the end of Karan Singh’s reign. His son Rahap establishes the Sisodia branch of the family while another son, Mahap, establishes the Dungarpur kingdom.
  • Kshem Singh (1168 – 1172)
  • Samant Singh (1172 – 1179)
  • Samant Singh occupies Bagar (in the Dungarpur area) during his reign. After seven years on the throne he is slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadole in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
  • Kumar Singh(1179 – 1191)
  • Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at end of his reign.
  • Mathan Singh (1191 – 1211)
  • 1191 – 1192 – Mathan Singh fights in the Battles of Tarain, in which the Chauhan ruler, Prithviraj III, and the Rajput confederation which includes Mewar (the Hindu League) are defeated by the Ghurid Sultan Mohammed Ghuri.
  • 1207 – Chittor is taken and ruled by the Western Chalukyas just as they are facing their own terminal decline.
  • Padam Singh (1211 – 1213)
  • Jait Singh / Jaitra Singh (1213 – 1253)
  • During his reign, Jait Singh defeats the Malwa Rajputs who rule Chittor, reinstating its fort as the capital of Mewar. This probably occurs shortly after Sultan Iltumish of Delhi has destroyed Nagda.
  •  1234 – Sultan Iltumish of Delhi is defeated by Mewar when he invades the region.
  • 1253 – 1261
  • There is an apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, although the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. The relation of the next known ruler of Mewar to his predecessor is also unknown.
  • Tej Singh (1261 – 1267)
  • 1267 – 1273
  • There is a second apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, and the fate of Tej Singh is unknown, as are the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. It takes six years for Tej Singh’s son to ascend the throne.
  • Samar Singh (1273 – 1302)
  • Samar Singh builds wall around Mahasati in Chittor. His son, Kumbh Karan, migrates to Nepal (where his descendants become the Nepalese royal family).
  • Ratan Singh (1302 – 1303)
  • Last Guhilot king to rule.
  • 1303 – 1st Jauhar of Chittor
  • Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her.
  • After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre).
  • Administration of the captured state is handed to the ruler of the Neighboring state of Jalore, Maldeo.

List of battles of Rajasthan

Several significant battles are recorded to have taken place in what is now known as Rajasthan.

  1. Battle of Rajasthan (738) – Triple alliance of Nagabhata I, Jaysimha Varman and Bappa Rawal defeated Arabs on modern Rajasthan-Sind Border.
  2. The First Battle of Tarain (1191) – Prithviraj Chauhan of Ajmer defeated Mohammad Gori.
  3. Second Battle of Tarain (1192) – Muhammad Gori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
  4. Battle of Ranthambore (1299) – Hammir deo defeated a Khilji army under Nusrat Khan.
  5. Siege of Ranthombore (1301) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Hammir deo.
  6. Siege of Chittor (1303) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Rawal Ratan Singh (Rani Padmini and other ladies committed Jauhar)
  7. Battle of Jalore (1310–14) – Alauddin Khilji defeated Kanhad deo after a long and bloody war.
  8. Battle of Siwana (1308) – Malik Kamaluddin a general of Alauddin Khilji defeated Sheetal deo.
  9. Battle of Mandalgarh and Banas (1442-1446) – A series of battles that took place between Mahmud Khilji of Malwa and Rana Kumbha of Mewar. Bloodied by these engagements the Sultan did not attack Mewar for another ten years.
  10. Battle of Nagaur (1456) – Rana Kumbha defeated the combined armies of Shams Khan (sultan of Nagaur) and Qutbuddin (Sultan of Gujarat) and captured Nagaur, Kasili, Khandela and shakambhari.
  11. Battle of Khatoli (1517) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  12. Battle of Dholpur (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  13. Battle of Gagron (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Mahmud Khilji of Malwa.
  14. Invasion of Mewar (1520) – Sultan Muzaffar Shah II sent an army under Malik Ayaz but failed and retreated to Gujarat.
  15. Battle of Khanwa (1527) – Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
  16. Battle of Sammel (1544) – Sher Shah Suri’s Pyrrhic victory against the army of Jaita and Kumpa.
  17. Siege of Ranthambore (1558) – Mughal Emperor Akbar besieged Ranthambore Fort but failed due to Rajput rebellions in Gwalior.
  18. Battle of Merta (1562) – Akbar with the help of princes from Bikaner and Amer defeated Rao Chandra Sen and advanced towards Jodhpur.
  19. First Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1562-1583) – Akbar invaded Marwar and occupied Jodhpur. The ruler Rao Chandra Sen continued his struggle until his death in 1581 after which Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583.
  20. Siege of Chittorgarh (1567) – Emperor Akbar defeated Rao Jaimal and Patta (Udai Singh II escaped with his family to Udaipur)
  21. Siege of Ranthambore (1568) – A successful siege by Mughal Emperor Akbar causes the Rajput leader Rao Surjan Hada to surrender Ranthambore Fort.
  22. Battle of Haldighati (1576) – Man Singh (the commander of Akbar) defeated Maharana Pratap.
  23. Battle of Dewair (1582) – Maharana Pratap attacked a Mughal stronghold this resulted in the flight of the Mughal soldiers and the closing of all the 36 Mughal posts in Mewar.
  24. Second Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1679-1707) – Aurangzeb took Marwar under his direct control after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. The Rathore army under Durgadas Rathore carried out a relentless struggle against the occupying forces. In 1707 after the death of Aurangzeb Durgadas defeated the local Mughal force and reoccupied Jodhpur and their lost territories.
  25. Battle of Aravalli hills (1680) – Three separate armies, under Aurangzeb’s sons Akbar, Azam and Muazzam, penetrated the Aravalli hills from different directions but Akbar defected to the Rajputs resulting in the defeat of the Mughals by the armies of Rana Raj Singh I and Durgadas Rathore.
  26. Battle of Maonda and Mandholi (1767) – Jaipur forces defeat the forces of Bharatpur.
  27. Battle of Tunga or Battle of Lalsot (1787) – Combined forces of Jaipur and Jodhpur result in a stalemate with the Maratha forces of Mahadaji Shinde.
  28. Battle of Malpura (1800) – Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh defeated Daulat Rao Sindhia

Guhils of Chittorgarh: History of Rajasthan

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Guhils of Chittorgarh

Guhil

He is known as the founder of Guhil dynasty.

Originally he was born in Anandnagar, Gujarat but in 565 C.E, he established independent city at Nagda (Udaipur).

Bappa Rawal

Born as Kalbhoj

 Is said to have defeated Maan Mori and laid foundation of Guhilot Dynasty rule in Mewar.

Formed triple alliance with Nagabhatta & Jaysimha to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan.

The Kingdom of Mewar: History of Rajasthan

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 The Kingdom of Mewar

The kingdom of Mewar includes present day districts of Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara. The region was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, the Name Medhpaat became Mewar.

The creators of Mewar’s ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation Stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the Seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.

The Guhilot had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested. The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud. According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

The Chauhan Dynasty: History of Rajasthan

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The Chauhan Dynasty

The Raja Saheb of Mainpuri, Head of all Chauhan clans

1. Songara Chauhan: Kuldevi is Chandi Devi. They are descended from the Rajas of Jalore, and had one branch, viz. Bhadoria

2. Khichi Chauhan: Kuldevi is Bhagwati. They are descended from Raja Bhagwat rai, Raja Gugalsingh and Raja Jaisingh of Khinchipur.

3. Hada Chauhan: Kuldevi is Ashapura. They are descended from Raja Manik Rai of Sambhar, and have the following branches, Udawat, Devra, Devre, Jaitawat and Chandrawat.

4. Bhadauria Chauhan: Their Kingdom was Bhadawar and are said to be a branch of the Songara Chauhan.

5. Bachgoti: Their name is derived from Vatsa Gotri and has two branches viz. Rajkumar and Rajwar.

The word Chauhan is the vernacular form of the Sanskrit term Chahamana. While the earlier versions of Chandbardai work Prithviraj Raso does not mention Chauhan as born from Agnikunda, the later versions do.

The 15th-century Hammira Mahakavya of Nayachandra Suri & Jayanayak’s Prithviraj Vijay considers Chauhans as Suryavanshi. Pandit Gaurishankar Ojha seconds this opinion.

Based on Bijloia Inscription (1170 CE), Dr. Dasrath Sharma considers that early ancestor of Chauhan was born at Ahichchhatrapura in the gotra of sage Vatsa. Ahichchhatrapura can be identified with modern Nagaur.

Chahamanas probably started out as petty rulers of Ahichchhatrapura. As the Chahamana territory expanded, the entire region ruled by them came to be known as Sapadalaksha. In course of time Chauhans formed ruling dynasties at various places.

Major Chauhan dynasties include:

  • Chauhans of Shakambhari
  • Chauhans of Ranthambore
  • Chauhans of Jalore

Apart from these, there are other ruling dynasties that claim Chauhan descent including:

  • Haras of Hadoti

Chauhans of Shakambhari:

Raja Guvaka I, 1st Raja of the Chahamana Dynasty at Harsha from 809 to 836, also known as Govindraj I, his predecessors were rulers at their capital of Purnatallakapura, initially he was the Samanta of Raja Nagabhata II of Kannauj, who had married his sister Kalavati Devi; he took part in a battle against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata II, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa; at some time he probably declared himself independent, and made his capital at Harsha, married and had issue. He lived around 815.

 Vasu-deva (c. 6th century CE)

  • Considered as founder of Shakambhari branch of Chauhans around 551 CE
  •  According to a mythical account in Prithviraja Vijaya, he received the Sambhar Salt Lake as a gift from a vidyadhara (a supernatural being).
  • Samanta-raja (c. 684-709 CE); identified as the legendary Manik Rai by R. B. Singh
  • Nara-deva (c. 709-721 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja I (c. 721-734 CE), alias Jayaraja or Ajayapala
  • Vigraha-raja I (c. 734-759 CE)
  • Chandra-raja I (c. 759-771 CE)
  • Gopendra-raja (c. 771-784 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja I (c. 784-809 CE)
  • Govinda-raja I (c. 809-836 CE), alias Guvaka-I: Constructed Harshnath Temple in Sikar
  • Chandra-raja II (c. 836-863 CE)
  • Govindaraja II (c. 863-890 CE), alias Guvaka II
  • Chandana-raja (c. 890-917 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja (c. 917-944 CE)
  • Simha-raja (c. 944-971 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja II (c. 971-998 CE)
  • Durlabha-raja II (c. 998-1012 CE)
  •  Govinda-raja III (c. 1012-1026 CE)
  • Vakpati-raja II (c. 1026-1040 CE)
  • Viryarama (c. 1040 CE)
  • Chamunda-raja (c. 1040-1065 CE)
  •  Durlabha-raja III (c. 1065-1070 CE), alias Duśala
  • Vigraha-raja III (c. 1070-1090 CE), alias Visala
  • Prithvi-raja I (c. 1090-1110 CE)
  • Ajaya-raja II (c. 1110-1135 CE): Moved the capital to Ajayameru (Ajmer) and Repulsed a Ghaznavid attack, and also defeated the Paramara king Naravarman.
  • Arno-raja (c. 1135-1150 CE), alias Ana: Defeated Turkish invaders and Constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • Jagad-deva (c. 1150 CE)
  • Vigraha-raja IV (c. 1150-1164 CE), alias Visala deva: Expanded the Chauhan territories, and captured Delhi from The Tomaras.
  • Apara-gangeya (c. 1164-1165 CE)
  • Prithvi-raja II (c. 1165-1169 CE)
  •  Someshvara (c. 1169-1178 CE)
  •  Prithvi-raja III (c. 1178-1192 CE): Better known as Prithviraj Chauhan and Defeated Mohd. Ghori in first Battle of Tarain in 1191

Battles of Tarain: 1191 & 1192 :-The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were series of two battles fought in 1191 and 1192 A.D between Prithviraj Chauhan III of Ajmer and Ghurid ruler Mu’izz al-Din Muhammad or Mohammed  Ghori. The battles were fought near the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana.

  1. To extend the boundaries of his empire Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori entered into India in 1175 CE.
  2. He advanced to Gujarat in 1178 CE and advanced further by seizing Peshawar and Lahore and he ended the rule of Ghaznavid in Punjab with the help of the ruler of Jammu.
  3. As a result of successive conquests the boundaries of Ghori’s kingdom extended to the border of Prithviraj’s kingdom. In 1191, Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. Prithviraj’s along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. This is how the First war of Tarain began.
  4. Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.
  5. In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhammad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhammad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him.
  6. Prithviraj Chauhan cease-fired.  Muhammad Ghori deceived Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput arm mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious.
  7. About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi. 

Muhammad Ghori: Muhammad Ghazni established the Ghaznavid Empire with capital at Ghazni. After his death, Ghazni was Oghuz Turks. Ghori defeated the Turks and laid foundation of Ghurid Empire. After having made his position strong and secure at Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori turned his attention to India.

In 1175, Muhammad Ghori captured Multan and occupied whole of Sind in his subsequent expeditions. He turned south across the desert towards Anhilwara (modern day Patan, in Gujarat). In 1178, suffered defeat in the Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), from ruler of Gujarat, Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). As a result, Ghori retreated back to Multan.

In 1186 he attacked Punjab, and defeated Khusru Malik and added Malik’s empire to his dominions. Ghori returned back to Ghanzi to help his brother, only to return in 1191.

The first Battle of Tarain (1191): In 1191, Ghori proceeded towards India through the Khyber Pass and captured a fortress of Bathinda.

This brought him on northwestern frontier of Prithviraj Chauhans kingdom. Realizing their grave situation, the Hindu princes of north India formed a confederacy under the command of Prithiviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj’s army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai marched on to Bathinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori).

Ghori was wounded in personal battle with Govind Tai and so Ghori’s army retreated, giving victory to Prithviraj Chauhan. However, Prithviraj did not pursue Ghori’s army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori’s ambition, instead electing to retake the fortress of Bathinda.

Alternatively it has also been mentioned that, Ghori’s army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner.

Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him. Hence, Prithviraj Chauhan won the First Battle of Tarain, held in 1191.

After the First Battle:

Ghori return to Ghazni, and started preparations to avenge the defeat. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to Prithviraj to demand his submission, but the Chauhan ruler refused to comply.

The Second Battle of Tarain (1192): In 1192, Ghori challenged Prithviraj and a battle ensued at the same place (Tarain). Both Ghori and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. But Ghori changed his tactics as he did not want to engage in melee combat with disciplined Rajput warriors. He divided his huge troop into 5 parts and four units were sent to attack the Rajput flanks and rear. Hoping for Rajput attack, Ghori ordered his fifth unit to fast retreat. As Ghori expected, the Rajput’s charged the fleeing Ghurid unit. The Ghurids then sent a fresh cavalry unit of 12,000 and they managed to throw back the Rajput advance. Muhammad Ghori won the second Battle of Tarain.

Regarding, fate of Prthiviraj after second battle, two stories emerge.

  • The first story says that Prthivraj Chauhan was captured in the battle field and executed.
  • The second story, the more famous one in Rajasthan, is based on poem written by Prithviraj’s court poet Chandbardai. The story says that Mohammad Ghori attacked Prithviraj Chauhan unfairly at night, defeated his armies and captured him. Later Chauhan was taken to Ghor and presented in the court. Ghori ordered Prithvi to lower his eyes to which Prithvi retorted that the eyelids of Rajputs are lowered only on his death. Feeling insulted, Ghori blinded the Rajput prince.
  • Chandbardai entered the court of Mahmud of Ghori in a disguise. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was a very skilled archer, and he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look at his target. Ghori disdained to believe this and asked for the display.

When Prithviraj was given a bow and arrows into his hand and asked to take aim. Sighting opportunity, Chandbardai recited in a poetic stanza the location where Ghori sat. The stanza is: “Char bans, Chaubis Gaj, angul ashta Praman, Ta Upar sultan hai, Chuke mat Chauhan.” (Four measures ahead of you and twenty four yards away as measured with eight finger measurement, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).

  • Getting the direction and location Prithviraj shot his arrow through Ghori and killed him.

Consequences of Second Battle of Tarain on India: The second battle of Tarain was a decisive battle. It was a major disaster for the Rajputs and their political prestige suffered a serious setback. In 1193, Ghori’s general Qutub-Din Aibak took over Ajmer and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. Son of Prithviraj was moved to Ranthambore (laid foundation of Chauhan kingdom there). Further, in 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place, in which Aibak defeated Gahadavala ruler Jayachandra. In conlusion, the Battles of Tarain and Chandwar laid the foundation for establishment of Turkish rule in India.

Bakhtiyar Khilji extended the domain of empire to Bihar destroying Universities of Nalanda & Vikramsila in the process. Later in 1202, his army completed the occupation of Hindustan by taking the province of Bengal.

Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms: The most important cause for the downfall of Hindu Kingdoms was that the lack unity. They were divided by factions and Rajput Kingdoms were engaged in eternal mutual conflicts. It was the result of these conflicts that Jai Chandra did not help, Prithvi Raj Chauhan in putting up a united front against invaders.

Secondly, the military methods of Indian Kingdoms were also out of date and inferior to those of Muslims. Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry. More importantly, Ghori had spent the time carefully planning his campaign and his tactics proved a major winner in war.

1. Govinda-raja IV (c. 1192 CE): Banished by Hari-raja for accepting Muslim suzerainty and established the Chauhan branch of Ranthambore

2. Hari-raja (c. 1193-1194 CE): Hewas a king from the Shakambhari Chahamana dynasty of north-western India. After the Ghurid invaders defeated his brother Prithviraja III in 1192 CE, he dethroned his nephew Govindaraja IV, who had been appointed as a vassal ruler by the Ghurids. He ruled a part of his ancestral kingdom (in present-day Rajasthan) for a brief period, before being defeated by the Ghurids in 1194 CE.

Hariraja was a son of the Chahamana king Someshvara and Queen Karpura Devi. He and his elder brother Prithviraja III were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chalukya court by his maternal relatives. Prithviraja ascended the Chahamana throne after Someshvara death, but his reign ended in 1192 CE with a Ghurid conquest of the kingdom. The Ghurids appointed Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV as a vassal ruler in return for a heavy tribute.

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chauhan lost Ranthambore as a result of defeat of Prithviraja III in battle of Tarain 1192. By Mahmud of Ghori But, Prithviraj’s son Govindaraja IV accepted the Ghurid suzerainty, and ruled Ranthambore as his vassal.

  • Govinda-raja
  • Son of Prthvi Raja Chauhan III
  • Balhana-deva or Balhan
  • Prahlada or Prahlad,
  •  Viranarayana or Vir Narayan,
  • Vagabhata, son of Balhana;
  • Known as Bahar Deo in bardic chronicles
  • Jaitra-simha or Jaitra Singh
  •  Hammira-deva or Hammir Dev

In 1299, he defeated Allauddin Khilji’s army led by Ulugh Khan & Nusrat Khan.

  • In 1301, Allauddin Khilji again invaded his kingdom, which resulted in his defeat and death.

The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Delhi Sultans: After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja Chauhans son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja rule over Ajmer was not favoured by Hariraja, probably due to his acting as a Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by Prithviraj’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-installed on the throne of Ajmer.

  1. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan (Jaitra – perhaps his general) towards Delhi. The second attempt to failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja immolated himself.
  2. By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an independent kingdom.
  3. The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin strategy and farsightedness won the day in battle and the Rajputs forces were completely routed. After the victory, Aibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too was completely sacked. The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms, notably, the Chalukyas, Chandellas and Gahadavalas.
  4. In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to his policy of non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly bring any significant change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.

Chauhans of Jalore: Prathihar king VatsaRaja was the ruler of Jalore during 8th century. Towards the end of 12th Century, Parmars ruled here. Historians believe that the Jalore fort was built by Parmar rulers. It is known from a stone inscription of 1238 A.D. of fort that Parmar King Biral’s-queen Maludevi Powered Gold wins on Sindhu King.

Nadole king, Arhan’s, youngest son Kirtipala started Chouhan tradition in Jalore. The Chauhan lineage of Jalore is as under:

  • Kirtipala (c. 1160-1182 CE)
  • Samara-Simha (c. 1182-1204 CE)
  • Udaya-Simha (c. 1204-1257 CE)
  • Chachiga-deva (c. 1257-1282 CE)
  • Samanta-Simha (c. 1282-1305 CE)
  • Kanhada-deva (c. 1292-1311 CE)
  • Wrote Kanha-Prabhandha: Epic elaborating war between Kanha Dev & Alaudin Khilji.

Subsequent Rulers:

  • Rathore king Rao Maldev ruled the fort of Jalore in 15th Century.
  •  During Akbar’s rule, Abdul Rahim Khan Khana took it infinitely from Gazni Khan.
  • Jahangir built the walls of the fort.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb it permanently became a part of Jodhpur.

The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is credited with having taken possession of several adjoining territories (in possession of the Chalukyas and the Paramaras).

  • The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert capital.
  • According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being hard pressed sued for peace.
  • The terms included the offer of one hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did not yield the desired result, probably because of its geographical position.
  • Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the Guhilot of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an encounter.
  • The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.

Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore): History of Rajasthan

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Pratiharas of Bhinmal (Jalore)

The strongest of the Gurjara-Prathira branch was the one at Bhinmal, under king Vyaghramukh. The Gurjar clan, which ruled at Bhinmal, was known as Chapas (this name is a short version of Chapotkrisht, Sanskrit word which means excelled in archery or strong bowmen). As per the records of Heun Tsang, the famous astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta was in the court of Vyaghramukh.

Kings of Bhinmal branch of Gurjara- Pratihara:

1. Raja Nagabhatt I Pratihara: He was the founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihara. He formed a triple alliance with Jaysimha & Bappa Rawal to defeat Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan

2. Raja Yashovardhana Pratihara

3. Raja Watsraj Pratihara: He was the first Pratihara ruler who occupied the Kanauj.He defeated Dharmapala of Gauda country but he was defeated in the hands of Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

 4. Raja Nagabhatt II Pratihara: He got victory over Kannauj.He was defeated in the hands of Govinda of Rashtrakuta dynasty.He defeated Dharmapala and Chakrayudha in the battle of Mudgagiri.

 5. Raja Mihir Bhoj Pratihara: During the period of Mihir Bhoja Kanauj was restored to its former glory.Mihir Bhoja defeated Devapala of Bengal.Suleiman, Arab traveller visited the court of Mihir Bhoja in 851 A.D.

6. Raja Mahendrapal Pratihara

7. Raja Mahipal Pratihara

8. Raja Vinayakpal Pratihara

9. Raja Mahendrapal II Pratihara

10. Raja Vijay pal Pratihara

 11. Raja Rajyapal Pratihara

 12. Raja Trilochnpal Pratihara

 13. Raja YashPal Pratihara: He was the last ruler of the dynasty. He ruled from 1027 to 1036. Prathihara dynasty came to end with the invasion of Muhammad of Ghazni.

After the downfall of Prathiharas, their capital Kannauj was occupied by Gahadwalas (Rathores). Chandradeva, who belonged to Rathore clan of Rajput warriors, defeated Gopala and established the Gahadavala dynasty.

  • After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad of Ghuri attacked Jaychand. In 1194, Battle of Chandwar took place in which Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaychand. Soon the kingdom of Gahadwalas was destroyed.
  • Rao Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, of Kannauj, came to Marwar during his pilgrimage to Dwarka.
  • His Son, Rao Asthan conquered Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately got killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.
  • Rao Chanda/Chundarji, 10th in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas – and established rule of Rathores in Marwar. Jodhpur was the primary state of Rathores but different states (Bikaner, Kishangarh etc) were also founded by different Rathore rulers.

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs: History of Rajasthan

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The Origin of Rajputs

The term Rajput starts coming in use from the 6th Century AD. The origin of the Rajputs is the subject of debate. There are four main streams of thought on origin of Rajputs:

Foreign origin theory of Rajputs:

This theory says that the Rajputs are descendents of the races like Sakas, Kushanas, and Hunas etc. Dr. VA Smith, Col. James Todd, William Crooks supported this theory. The main argument of James Todd behind the foreign origin of the Rajputs was that these people worshipped Fire and Fire was the main deity of the Sakas and Hunas.

Mixed Origin Theory

This theory as put forward by Dr. DP Chatterjee says that Rajput is a mixed race. Some of them were descendents of the Aryans while some of them were from the foreign races such as Hunas, Sakas etc.

Kshatriyas theory of origin

This theory was propounded by Gauri Shankar Ojha and says that the Rajputs are NOT from the foreign origin and they are descendents of the mythological Khatriya Heroes like Rama. The theory divides the Rajput based on their lineage as Suryavanshi & Chandravanshi, which they trace from Surya and Chandra. They worship fire as the Aryans did and worship of fire was not the tradition of the Foreigners only.

Agnikula Theory

This theory comes from the Prithvi of Chandrabhardai. According to this theory, Rajputs were the result of Yagya performed by Hrishi Vashistha at “Guru Shikhar” in Mount Abu. The four Rajput clans from Agnikunda are Chauhans, Chalukyas, Parmaras and Pratiharas. Muhnot Nainsi & Suryamal Mishran also support this theory

Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

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Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion (326 BC)

Because of Alexander’s invasion in 326 BCE tribes of South Punjab especially Malav, Shivi and Arjunayan migrated to Rajasthan. Punjab and Rajasthan became the nucleus of a number of oligarchies, or tribal republics whose local importance rose and fell in inverse proportion to the rise and fall of larger kingdoms. According to coins recovered, the most important politically were the Audambaras, Arjunayanas, Malavas, Kunindas, Trigartas, Abhiras, Yaudheyas and Shibis (Shivi).

Arjunayana

The Arjunayanas flourished in the Agra Jaipur tract from c. 200 BC TO 400 AD. Their coins have been found, which do not bear the name of any king or general, the legend is simply ‘Arjunayanam Jayah’, victory to the Arjunayanas. The coins belong to C 100 BC, but the Arjunayana state must have been much more ancient, for the ruling class believed that it descended from Arjuna, the epic hero. They worked in close cooperation with the Yaudheyas, their northern neighbours, who believed themselves to be the descendants of Dharma, the eldest brother of Arjuna.

  • Arjunayanas had their base in the present-day Bharatpur-Alwar region.
  • They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period (c. 185 – c. 73 BCE).

Rajnaya

  • Different scholars have ascribed different regions to Rajnaya janapadas; based on coins Cunningham suggested their region as near Mathura, Smith suggested former Dholpur state as original home of Rajnaya and Rapson ascribed them in same region as of Arjunayanas & Kings of Mathura.

Shivi

  • Shivi gana covered present districts of Udaipur & Chittorgarh.
  • The Shibis (Shivi) migrated from the Punjab to Rajasthan and settled at Madhyamika (later Nagri), located near Chittorgarh.
  • Nagri was excavated in 1904 A.D by D. R. Bhandarkar Malavas
  • The Malavas are actually mentioned in the Mahabhashya of Patanjali.
  • According to D. R. Bhandarkar, they initially lived in the Punjab; later, they migrated to eastern Rajasthan (Jaipur & Tonk), and finally to region in Madhya Pradesh, which is known as Malwa after them.
  •  Their capital in Rajasthan was Nagar, located in Tonk.

Shalvya: It was situated in Alwar district

Yodheya or Yaudheyas: Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana was an ancient confederation who lived in the area between the Indus River and the Ganges River. Present Ganganagar & Hanumangarh districts formed part of their gana

  • They find mention in Pāṇini’s Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha.
  • Later, the Junagarh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas.

The name itself is derived from ‘Yodha’ and signifies ‘warrior’. Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing upto the time of Samudragupta. They survived the onslaught of the Mauryan imperialism and closed their ranks in face of the Machiavellian Magadhan statecraft.

They disillusioned the Sunga ambitions and subsequently defied the alien Sakas and Kushans, resisted their advance and were instrumental in bringing about their downfall. Their country is called Bahudhanyaka and their capital is Rohtak in Mahabharata. According to Dr Altekar, we find from the spots where its coins have been discovered, that it extended from Saharanpur in the east to Bahawalpur in the west, from Ludhiana in the North West to Delhi in the south east. It was a confederation of three republics. Rohtak in Punjab was the capital of one of them, the northern Panchala known as Bahudhanyaka country was the centre of power for the second. Northern Rajputana seems to have been the jurisdiction of the third. The powerful Trans Beas state, mentioned by Alexander’s historians, which possessed fertile territory and virile inhabitants, and which was governed by an aristocracy exercising its powers with justice and moderation was the Yaudheya republic.

Vedic Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan during Vedic Period (1500 BC – 500 BC)

The cities of the Harappan Culture had declined by 1500 B.C. Around this period, the speakers of Indo- Aryan language, Sanskrit, entered the north-west India from the Indo-Iranian region. Initially they would have come in small numbers through the passes in the northwestern mountains. Their initial Settlements were in the valleys of the north-west and the plains of the Punjab.

Later, they moved into Indo-Gangetic plains. As they were mainly a cattle-keeping people, they were mainly in search of pastures. By 6th century B.C., they occupied the whole of North India, which was referred to as Aryavrata. The original home of the Aryans is a debatable question and there are several views.

 Period between 1500 B.C and 600 B.C may be divided into:

  • Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 B.C -1000 B.C)
  • The Later Vedic Period (1000B.C – 600 B.C).

Why it is called Vedic Period?

The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the root ‘vid’, which means to know. In other words, the term ‘Veda’ signifies ‘superior knowledge’. The Vedic literature consists of the four Vedas – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva.

  • The Rig Veda is the earliest of the four Vedas and it consists of 1028 hymns.
  •  The Yajur Veda consists of various details of rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice.
  •  The Sama Veda is set to tune for the purpose of chanting during sacrifice. It is called the book of chants and the origins of Indian music are traced in it.
  •  The Atharva Veda contains details of rituals.

Rig Vedic or Early Vedic Period (1500-1000 BC)

During the Rig Vedic period, the Aryans were mostly confined to the Indus region. The Rig Veda refers to Saptasindhu or the land of seven rivers. This includes the five rivers of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej along with the Indus and Saraswati.

Political System:

  • Family was called as kula.
  • Several families joined together on the basis of their kinship to form a village or grama.
  • The leader of grama was known as gramani.
  • A group of villages constituted a larger unit called visu. It was headed by vishayapati.
  • The highest political unit was called Jana or tribe.
  • There were several tribal kingdoms during the Rig Vedic period such as Bharatas, Matsya,Yadus and Purus.
  •  The head of the kingdom was called as rajan or king.

 The Rig Vedic polity was normally monarchical and the succession was hereditary. The king was assisted by Purohitas or priest and senani or commander of the army in his administration.

  • There were two popular bodies called the Sabha and Samiti. The Sabha seems to have been a council of elders and the latter, a general assembly of the entire people.

Social Life:

  • The Rig Vedic society was patriarchal. The basic unit of society was family or graham. The head of the family was known as grahapathi.
  • Monogamy was generally practiced while polygamy was prevalent among the royal and noble families.
  • Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and intellectual development.
  • There were women poets like Apala, Viswavara, Ghosa and Lopamudra during the Rig Vedic period.
  • Women could even attend the popular assemblies. There was no child marriage and the practice of sati was absent.
  • Both men and women wore upper and lower garments made of cotton and wool.
  • Chariot racing, horse racing, dicing, music and dance were the favourite pastimes.
  • The social divisions were not rigid during the Rig Vedic period as it was in the later Vedic Period.

Economic Condition:

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing. Their wealth was estimated in terms of their cattle.
  • When they permanently settled in North India they began to practice agriculture. With the knowledge and use of iron they were able to clean forests and bring more lands under cultivation.
  • Carpentry was another important profession and the availability of wood from the forests cleared made the profession profitable. Carpenters produced chariots and ploughs.
  • Workers in metal made a variety of articles with copper, bronze and iron. Spinning was another important occupation and cotton and woolen fabrics were made. Goldsmiths were active in making ornaments.
  • The potters made various kinds of vessels for domestic use.
  • Trade was another important economic activity and rivers served as important means of transport. Trade was conducted on barter system. In the later times, gold coins called nishka were used as media of exchange in large transactions.

Religion:

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans worshiped the natural forces like earth, fire, wind, rain and thunder.
  • The important Rig Vedic gods were Prithvi (Earth), Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), Varuna (Rain) and Indra (Thunder).
  • There were also female gods like Aditi and Ushas.
  • There were no temples and no idol worship during the early Vedic period.
  • Prayers were offered to the gods in the expectation of rewards. Ghee, milk and grain were given as offerings.

      Later Vedic Period or Iron Age (1000-600 BC)

  • The Aryans further moved towards east in the Later Vedic Period. The Satpatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains.
  •  Kuru and Panchala kingdoms flourished in the beginning. After the fall of Kurus and Panchalas, other kingdoms like Kosala, Kasi and Videha came into prominence.
  • The later Vedic texts also refer to the three divisions of India – Aryavrata (northern India), Madhyadesa (central India) and Dakshinapatha (southern India).

Political System:

  • Larger kingdoms were formed during the later Vedic period. Many Jana or tribes were amalgamated to form janapadas or Rashtras in the later Vedic period.
  • The king performed various rituals and sacrifices to strengthen his position. They include Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race).
  • The kings also assumed titles like Rajavisvajanan, Ahilabhuvanapathi, (lord of all earth), Ekrat and Samrat (sole ruler).
  •  In the later Vedic period, a large number of new officials were involved in the administration in addition to the existing Purohitas, senani and gramani. They include the treasury officer, tax collector and royal messenger.
  • At the lower levels, the village assemblies carried on the administration. The importance of the Samiti and the Sabha had diminished during the later Vedic period.

Social System:

  • The four divisions of society (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras) or the Varna system was thoroughly established during the Later Vedic period.
  • Position of women declined, they were still considered inferior and subordinate to men. Women also lost their political rights of attending assemblies.
  • Child marriages had become common.

Economic Condition:

  • Iron was used extensively in this period and this enabled the people to clear forests and to bring more land under cultivation. Agriculture became the chief occupation. Improved types of implements were used for cultivation. Besides barley, rice and wheat were grown.
  • Metal work, leather work, carpentry and pottery made great progress. In addition to internal trade, foreign trade became extensive. The Later Vedic people were familiar with the sea and they traded with countries like Babylon.
  • Vaishyas also carried on trade and commerce. They organized themselves into guilds known as ganas.
  • Besides nishka of the Rig Vedic period, gold and silver coins like satamana and krishnala were used as media of exchange.

Religion:

  • Gods of the Early Vedic period like Indra and Agni lost their importance.
  • Prajapati (the creator), Vishnu (the protector) and Rudra (the destroyer) became prominent during the Later Vedic period.
  • Sacrifices were still important and the rituals connected with them became more elaborate. The importance of prayers declined and that of sacrifices increased.
  • Priesthood became a profession and a hereditary one. The formulae for sacrifices were invented and elaborated by the priestly class. Therefore, towards the end of this period there was a strong reaction against priestly domination and against sacrifices and rituals. The rise of Buddhism and Jainism was the direct result of these elaborate sacrifices.
  • Also, the authors of the Upanishads, which is the essence of Hindu philosophy, turned away from the useless rituals and insisted on true knowledge (jnana) for peace and salvation.

Vedic Age or Iron Age in Rajasthan

From 1000 BC, Iron was used in Gandhara in Pakistan. Around same time, use of iron appeared in eastern Punjab, Western UP and Rajasthan. The Vedic literature mentions the Matsya and the Salvas as located near the river Saraswati and there is evidence to believe that by the close of the Vedic age Rajasthan had become fully colonized by the Vedic tribes.

The relics of Painted Grey ware culture have been reported from the dried- up beds of Saraswati and Drishadwati rivers. There is also evidence of Painted Grey Ware (PGW) from Noh (Bharatpur), Jodhpura (Jaipur), Viratnagar (Jaipur) and Sunari (Jhunjhunu). These sites represent the growth of Iron Age in Rajasthan.

Rajasthan at a Glance

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

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ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

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Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

Thank You!!

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RPSC RAS Mains Exam 2018-19 Question Paper

RAS Mains Test Series

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Examination 2018-19 General Studies Paper

Rajasthan Public Service Commission Ajmer (RPSC) has conducted the Rajasthan State and Subordinate Services Combined (RAS / RTS) Examination which is successfully held on June 25 and June 26, 2019. Tremendous contenders have appeared in the examination and they are now searching to get Answer Key of RPSC RAS Mains Examination 2019.

Rajasthan RAS Solved Question Paper Sheet

The first shift of the examination will be held from 09:00 to 12:00 in the morning and the second shift will be held from 02:00 to 05:00, in the Sato divisional headquarters of Rajasthan (Ajmer, Jaipur, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Kota, Bharatpur and Udaipur).

The RAS Mains Exam is of descriptive type. There is of 4(four) Papers in the exam and total marks for each paper are 200 marks as per RPSC RAS Mains Exam Pattern 2019. Time of duration to complete the exam is 3-Hours.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-I

  1. History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition and Heritage of Rajasthan
  2. Indian History & Culture
  3. History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)
  4. World Economy
  5. Indian Economy
  6. Economy of Rajasthan
  7. Sociology, Management & Business Administration

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-II

  1. Administrative Ethics
  2. General Science & Technology
  3. Earth Science (Geography & Geology)World Geography, Geography of India, Rajasthan Geography

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-III

  1. Indian Political System, World Politics and Current Affairs
  2. Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management
  3.  Sports and Yoga, Behavior and Law

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam 2019 General Studies Paper-IV

  1. General English & Hindi

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Material with Practice Questions

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Economy of Rajasthan Study Notes with Practice Questions, Schemes including Budget. This is useful for RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims, Mains and Other Competitive Exams of Rajasthan.

Index

  1. Economic Terminology
  2. Rajasthan: an introduction to Economy
  3. Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan
  4. National Income: Basic Concepts
  5. Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
  6. Fiscal Policy of India: Meaning, Objectives and Impacts on the Economy
  7. Classification and Operations of Commercial Banks in India
  8. Money Supply and Inflation
  9. National Development Council
  10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Rajasthan
  11. Special Economic Zones – SEZ-Rajasthan
  12. Transport Infrastructure of Rajasthan
  13. Urban Infrastructure in Rajasthan
  14. Rural Development in Rajasthan
  15. Special Area Development Programmes
  16. National Family Health Survey-Rajasthan
  17. Skill development in Rajasthan
  18. Unemployment in Rajasthan
  19. Poverty in Rajasthan
  20. Agriculture Sector in Rajasthan
  21. Service Sector in Rajasthan
  22. Industrial Sector in Rajasthan
  23. Industries of Rajasthan
  24. Important Departments & Organisations
  25. Policies, Concessions & Facilities for Industries in Rajasthan
  26. Public Enterprises in State
  27. Economic Planning in Rajasthan
  28. Public Distribution System
  29. Current Affairs: Economy
  30. Practice Solved MCQ

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Economy-of-rajasthan

Rajasthan History Complete Study Book with Practice Questions

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Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan Study Notes with Practice Solved MCQ for RPSC, RAS/RTS Prelims,Mains, RSMSSB, Lecturer, SI and University Exams.

  • Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan
  • Practice MCQ
  • Stone Age
  • Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan
  • Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan
  • Neolithic Age in Rajasthan
  • Practice MCQ
  • Kalibangan Civilizations
  • Ahar-Banas Culture
  • Chalcolithic Phase
  • OCP Culture of Rajasthan
  • Rajasthan during Vedic Period
  • Iron Age in Rajasthan
  • Rajasthan during Mahajanapads
  • Practice MCQ
  • Rajasthan after Alexander Invasion
  • Foreign origin theory of Rajputs
  • Pratiharas of Bhinmal
  • The Chauhan Dynasty
  • The Kingdom of Mewar
  • Guhils of Chittorgarh
  • Battle of Rajasthan
  • Mauryan Period
  • Post Mauryan Period
  • Practice MCQ
  • Gupta Period
  • Post Gupta Period
  • Praja Mandal Movement
  • Modern History of Rajasthan (1707-1964)
  • Princely State
  • Revolt of Rajasthan 1857
  • Practice MCQ
  • Peasant & Tribal Movement
  • Some Famous Peasant Movement
  • Some famous Tribal movements
  • Terms Related to Land Revenue System in Rajasthan
  • Land rights in Khalsa system
  • Practice MCQ
  • Land rights in Jagir system
  • Famous Freedom Fighter of Rajasthan                     
  •  Gurjar-Pratihar of Bhinmal
  • Guhil Dynasty of Mewar
  • Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
  • Practice MCQ
  • Rathod Dynasty of Marwar
  • Kachwaha of Amber
  • Chauhan Dynasty
  • Chauhan of Jalore
  • Hada Chauhan of Bundi
  • Practice MCQ
  • Hada Chauhan of Kota
  • Parmar of Abu
  • Practice MCQ

 

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History of Rajasthan

 

The Ochre Colored Pottery or OCP culture: Ancient History of Rajasthan

Gupta Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

Mauryan Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan: Ancient History of Rajasthan

Stone Age: Ancient History of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes Free pdf

History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes

History of Rajasthan in Hindi

Ancient-Medieval-Modern History of Rajasthan

Major Landmarks in the History of Rajasthan, Major Dynasties, their Administrative and Revenue System

(Notes) RAS RPSC Medieval History of Rajasthan

(Notes) Modern History of Rajasthan (1707-1964)

History of Rajasthan with Practice MCQ

History of Rajasthan: Practice Solved Papers

Archaeological Sites in Rajasthan: Ancient History

(PDF) History and Culture of Rajasthan: State Gazetteer

Rajasthan : History,Arts,Culture,Literature : Useful For RAS,RJS,Lecturers Etc.

Rajasthan Gk Test-1

National Parks in Rajasthan

Rajasthan

Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan

Lakes in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

River system: Geography of Rajasthan

Humidity in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Classification and distribution of soils in Rajasthan

Distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Weather Seasons of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Temperature Variation in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

National Parks in Rajasthan

National Parks of Rajasthan

S. No. Name of National Park Year of Notification Total Area (Sq.Km)
1 Mukundra Hills (Darrah)   2006 200.54
2 Desert National Park   1992 3162
3 Keoladeo Ghana National Park 1981 28.73
4 Ranthambhore National Park 1980 282
5 Sariska National Park   1982 273.8

Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park

Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.

Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955andvisitors now require seeking permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 sq. km.

In past, Darrah sanctuary was the royal hunting ground of the Maharaja of Kota. This place is located at a distance of about 50 km from Kota. It is located on the eastern bank of Chambal River and is drained by its tributaries.

The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 sq. km. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.

The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve.

The name Darrah is taken as the ‘Pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.

The park is situated between two parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gagrola which run across a length of about 80 km (from Murlipura to Rawatbhata). The four rivers which form the boundary of this valley are Ramzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.

The densely wooded Darrah Sanctuary is spread all over the hilly terrain. The forest of the sanctuary is very thick and dense.

Ranthambore National Park

Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.

Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957andcame under the “Project Tiger “as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 sq. km.

The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 sq. km.

Ranthambore was a hunting reserve of the Maharajas of Jaipur, the park at Ranthambore was once the scene of royal hunting parties in the past.

Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.

  • Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
  •  It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from the gentle to the steep slopes; from flat topped hills of the Vindhayas to the conical hillocks and the sharp ridges of the Aravallis.
  • An important geological feature the ‘Great Boundary Fault’ where the Vindhayas plateaus meet the Aravalli hill ranges.

The Rivers Chambal in the South and the Banas in the North bound the National Park. Pure stands of the Dhok interspersed with open grasslands of the plateaus, six large lakes – Gilai Sagar, Mansarovar, Malik talao, Raj Bagh and Padam Talao with in the National Park.

The rugged park terrain alternates between dry deciduous forest, open grassy meadow, dotted by several lakes and rivers that are only made passable by rough roads built and maintained by the Forest Service.

There are many water bodies located all over the park, which provide perfect relief during the extremely hot summer months for the forest inhabitants.

A huge fort, after which the park is named, towers over the park atop a hill. There are many ruins of bygone eras scattered all over the jungle, which give it a unique, wonderful and mixed flavour of nature, history and wildlife.

Tigers at Ranthambore National park have been known to even hunt in full view of human visitors. These tigers are famous for being seen in the daytime too, due to their lack of fear of human presence in vehicles. This lack of fear of humans is excellent for tourists, as they get to see the tigers often.

Desert National Park

Desert National Park is a beautiful place located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.

The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.

The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert.

  1. Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and fauna species.
  2. It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
  3. It also has fossil evidences dating back to the Jurassic Period indicating hot and humid climate characterized by dense forests. 180 million years old fossils of animals and plants are preserved at Wood Fossil Park at Akal, situated 17 km away from Jaisalmer.
  4. The Desert National Park is a unique and fragile ecosystem. More than 60 per cent of it is simply semi-arid desert.
  5. The seemingly barren lands gradually dissolve at the horizon touching Pakistan.
  6. But the warm sands of the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer form a fertile micro broth hiding an astounding variety of animals and birds.
  7. Desert National Park is an excellent example of the desert ecosystem.
  8. The landform primarily comprises rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
  9. The topography of Desert National Park supports sandy, gravelly, rocky and compact salt lake bottoms. Sandy areas dominate the western parts of Jaisalmer district, while gravelly and rocky areas are scattered throughout central, southern and eastern areas.
  10. The Desert National Park is barren with several sand dunes and a few hills in the north-western region. The Park forms a vast sandy and undulating terrain.

Dominant fauna

Birds – Great Indian Bustard, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, Bee-Eaters, Shrikes, Larks, Demoiselle Crane, Macqueen’s Bustard, Sand grouse, Long-Legged, Honey Buzzards, chats, babblers, kites etc.

Mammals – Camel, Desert Fox, Bengal Fox, Chinkara, Wolf, Desert Cat, Blackbuck, Hedgehog, Nilgai

Reptiles – Russell’s viper, Saw Scaled Viper, Monitor Lizard, Spiny tailed lizard, Saw scaled viper, Common Krait, Spiny Tailed Lizard, Gecko, Persian Gecko etc.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park

Detail:

 Bird Sanctuary-1971   

National Park-1981           

Ramsar site Oct-1981

World Heritage Site-1985                 

 Reserve forest

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.

Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
  2. Keoladeo was declared a Bird Sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981.
  3. Total area of the National park is about 28.7 sq. km.
  4. Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
  5. Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO.
  6.  It is a Reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
  7. The park was a hunting ground for the maharaja of Bharatpur, who turned his personal hunting domain into a bird sanctuary in 1956.
  8. Maharaja of Bharatpur setting up the sanctuary, building a dam and an artificial lake to store the rains that would fall in torrents during the monsoons.
  9. Duck shoots were organized yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, about 4,250 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972.
  10. Grazing of village cattle was banned in this area in 1982, which led to clashes between government and local farmers.

Sariska National Park

Detail:

Wildlife Reserve-1955                                      

Wildlife Sanctuary-1958   

(1979) Sariska Tiger Reserve        

National Park-1982

  1. Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
  2. The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range.
  3. Sariska was declared a wildlife Reserve in 1955.
  4. The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979.
  5. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 sq. km.
  6. The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 sq. km.
  7. The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
  8. The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
  9. The area of Sariska is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
  10. Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991.
  11.  Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.

Sariska was a hunting reserve for royal families in past. Its plentiful tiger population supported by large herds of Sambhar and Nilgai was the ideal place for the royals of the state as well as their visiting guests to go on shikaars. The broad range of wildlife here is a wonderful example of ecological adoption and tolerance, for the climate here is variable as well as erratic.

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
Geography of Rajasthan

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Wildlife and its Conservation in Rajasthan

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Wildlife and its Conservation

Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.

Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden and allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife Sanctuary as the name suggests, is the place that is reserved exclusively for the use of wildlife, which includes animals, reptiles, insects, birds etc. Otherwise called as wildlife refuges it provides habitat and safe & healthy living conditions to the wild animals especially to the endangered and rare ones so that they can live peacefully for their entire life and maintain their viable population.

For proper management of the sanctuary the rangers or guards are appointed to patrol the region. They ensure the safety of animals from poaching, predating or harassing.

  • International Union of Conservation of Nature, shortly called as IUCN has grouped wildlife sanctuaries in Category IV of protected areas.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.

Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.

Definition of National Park: National Park implies an area that is exclusively designated by the government for the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity due to its natural, cultural and historical significance. It is home to millions of animals, birds, insects, microorganisms, etc. of different genes and species, which provides a healthy and safe environment to them.

National Parks, not only conserve wildlife, but it also provides an amusement of the environmental and scenic heritage, in a way and by those means that does not cause harm to it, so as to provide enjoyment to the future generations. The plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting and predating of animals, destruction of flowers are highly prohibited.

Key Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park:

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

Difference between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park

Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a consecrated place where sacred species are kept. It is not open for general public, unlike zoo. In other words, it tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries.

Characteristics of Wildlife Sanctuary

1. It is natural area which is reserve by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species.

2. Area is designated for the protection of wild animals.

3. Only animals are conserved, Could be private property also, outside activities allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has defined its Category IV type of protected areas.

National Parks: It is a home to many species of birds and animals which is established by central and state government for the conservation.

Characteristics of National Park

1. Reserve area of land, owned by the government.

2. Area is protected from human exploitation, industrialization and pollution.

3. There is no cutting or Grazing allowed and no any Outside Species Allowed

4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

5. Conservation of ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.

6. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas has defined its Category II type of protected areas.

Biosphere Reserve: The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO designated of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas from November, 1971.

Characteristics of Biosphere Reserve:

1. Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well.

2. Areas are meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.

3. Three areas: Core, Buffer & Marginal. No outside Species allowed Conservation & research purpose.

4. It is internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.

5. The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage.

Wildlife Sanctuary of Rajasthan

S.No. Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) Established Year Area  (In km²)
1 Bandh Baratha WLS 1985 199.5
2 Bassi WLS 1988 138.69
3 Bhensrodgarh WLS 1983 229.14
4 Darrah WLS 1955 80.75
5 Jaisamand WLS 1955 52
6 Jamwa Ramgarh WLS 1982 300
7 Jawahar Sagar WLS 1975 153.41
8 Kailadevi WLS 1983 676.38
9 Kesarbagh WLS 1955 14.76
10 Kumbhalgarh WLS 1971 608.58
11 Mount Abu WLS 1960 112.98
12 Nahargarh WLS 1980 50
13 National Chambal WLS 1979 274.75
14 Phulwari Ki Nal WLS 1983 692.68
15 Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS 1982 252.79
16 Ramsagar WLS 1955 34.4
17 Sajjangarh WLS 1987 5.19
18 Sariska WLS 1955 219
19 Sawaimadhopur WLS 1955 131.3
20 Sawai Man Singh WLS 1984 103.25
21 Shergarh WLS 1983 98.71
22 Sitamata WLS 1979 422.94
23 Tal Chhapper WLS 1971 7.19
24 Todgarh Raoli WLS 1983 495.27
25 Van Vihar WLS 1955 25.6

Source – Wildlife Institute of India

Main wildlife found in Protected Areas

Protected Area           Main Wild Life
DamDamp-baretha Resident and migratory Birds
Sariska  Tiger, Panther, Chital, Sambhar, Porcupine 
Sariska ‘A’  Sambhar, Chital, Panther
Desert National Park  Chinkara, Desert Cat, Fox, Great Indian Bustard 
Ramgarh- Vishdhari  Panther, hyena, Sloth Bear, jackal, Fox, Chital 
Kesar Bagh  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital
Ram Sagar  Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital 
Van Vihar  Bear, Wolf, Chital, hyena, Fox, Wild Cat
Keoladevi  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Bear, hyena, Wild Boar, Wolf 
Sitamata  Flying Squirrel, Panther, Wild Cat, Sambhar, hyena, Civet 
Bhensrodgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Four horned antelope, Chinkara, hyena, Fox 
Shergarh  Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar 
Darrah  Panther, Wolf, Jackal, Chital, Fox, Sambhar, Sloth Bear, Porcupine 
Jawahar Sagar  Panther, Bear, Wolf, Ghariyal, Crocodile, Chital, Hyena, Fox, Jackal 
National Chambal Ghariyal  Ghariyal, Crocodile, Tortoise, Dolphin, Bear, Chinkara, Otter 
Bassi  Chital, Chinkara, Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat
Tal-Chapar  Black Buck, Resident birds, 
Nahar-Garh  Hyena, Jackal, Fox, Hare 
Jamwa-Ramgarh  Panther, Chital, Wild Boar, Hyena, Jackal 
Sajjan-Garh  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Phulwari- ki- Naal  Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox
Tatgarh Ravli  Panther, Hyena, Wolf, Green Pigeon, Jungle fowl 
Jaisamand  Resident Birds, Hyena, Jackal, Chinkara 
Kumbhalgarh  Panther, Sloth Bear, Hyena, wild boar, Four Horned antelope, Sambhar
Mount Abu  Panther, Bear, Hyena, Wolf, Porcupine
Sawai Man Singh  Tiger, Panther, Hyena, Fox, Bear, Chital, Sambhar

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan
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BREEDS OF GOAT LIVESTOCK IN RAJASTHAN

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BREEDS OF GOAT IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Goat          Distribution Area
  1.   Sirohi Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat.
  2.   Marwari Marwar region of Rajasthan, comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Barmer districts. The breed also extends into certain areas of Gujarat, especially Mehsana district.
  3.   Jhakrana Jhakrana and a few surrounding villages near Behror, in the Alwar district of Rajasthan.
  4.   Barbary Etah, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

Geography of Rajasthan
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Breeds of Cow – Livestock in Rajasthan

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BREEDS of COWS IN RAJASTHAN

S.No. Breeds of Cow Area (Mainly Found)
  1.   Nagauri 1. Origin from Suhalak area Nagaur 2. This species gives less milk.
  2.   Kankrej 1. Found in Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore. 2. Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk 3. The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.
3. Tharparkar Breed 1. Origin from Malani (barmer) 2. Cows excellent production of milk
4. Rathi Breed  Sri Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer. Good at milk production, males lack draught power.
5.   Gir Breed Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. In Rajasthan it is found in Southeastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi and Kota

  • .
Geography of Rajasthan
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Mountains, Peaks and Aravalli Ranges- Geography of Rajasthan

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Rajasthan is bisected by Aravali range into two major parts: Southeast Rajasthan and Northwest Rajasthan. The northwest consists of a series of sand dunes covers nearly two-thirds of the area. Aravali range is approximately 692 Kms long which is running across Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

The Aravali Mountain in Rajasthan is divided into following Ranges:

Geography of Rajasthan- Mountain,Peak and Aravali Ranges

What is Mountain?

Mountains are landforms that stick up high above the surrounding land. Mountains are much taller than hills, mountains can often be found together in groups or mountain ranges.

Mountains are prominent landforms that have significant heights above sea level and/or the surrounding land. They are steeper than hills. A mountain or mountain range usually has a peak, which is a pointed top. Mountains have different climates than land at sea level and nearby flat land.

The literal meaning of Aravalli Range is ‘line of peaks’. It is the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world which stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest which extends from Delhi to Ahmadabad. Guru Shikhar is the highest point which is located in Mount Abu. The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise of numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni and Sabarmati. This region is also famous for heavily forested consisting of large areas of sand and stone and of masses of rose-coloured quartzite.

1. North-Eastern Aravalli Range

  • This range is also known as Alwar hill range.
  • In North-Eastern Aravalli Range all the hill ranges are eroded.
  • It stretches from delhi to isolated hills of Alwar & Jaipur.
  • Average elevation of this range is approx. 300-670 meters.
  • Towards north & east it merges with Ganga-Yamuna plains.
  • Torawati hills, Malkhet & Khetri Group of hills are also part of north eastern Aravali range.

Important Peaks of North-Eastern Aravalli Region:

Peak Name District Height (meters)  
Raghunathgarh Sikar 1055
Khoh Jaipur 920
Bhairach Alwar 792
Barwara Jaipur 786
Babai   Jhunjhunu 780
Bilali Alwar 775
Manoharpur Jaipur 747
Baraith Jaipur 704
Sariska Alwar 677

2. Central Aravali Range

The Average height of Central Aravali Range is 700 meter but in the valley it is approx 550m. Four famous ghats of this range are Bar, Pakheria, Shivpur and sura ghat. Shekhawati lower hills and Marwar hills are part of Central Aravali range.

It includes districts of Ajmer, south-western Tonk and Jaipur Surrounded:-

(1)  North by Alwar hills

(2)  East by Karauli table-land

(3)  South by Banas plains and

(4)  West by Sambhar basin

Important Peaks of Central Aravalli Region

Peaks District Height (m)  
Goramji Ajmer 934
Taragarh Ajmer 870
 Naag Pahar Ajmer 795

3. Southern Aravali Range

The southern Aravali expansion of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and Aravali quartzite also found in this range and it formed 8-10 hill ranges are in parallel. The Southern Aravali range includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur & South-eastern margin of Pali district.

Physiographically it is a dominant part of Aravallis which falls in Mewar. The general altitude of the region is above 650 metre and it extends longitudinally from Bhim tehsil in the north to the Dungarpur tehsil in the south. The region separates Marwar in the west from the Mewar in the east, extending along the western border of Udaipur district. The Aravalli within Mewar appears like a triangular shaped land form, having greates width as well as height in the south. Thus the whole western portion of the Mewar is part of Aravalli and widely known as south Aravalli region.

Peaks of Southern Aravali Range                                                            

Peak Name District Height (m)
Guru Shikhar Sirohi 1722
Ser Sirohi 1597
Dilwara Sirohi 1442
Jarga Sirohi 1431
Achalgarh Sirohi 1380
Kumbhalgarh Rajsamand 1224
Dhoniya Abu Block 1183
Hrishikesh Abu Block 1017
Kamalnath Udaipur 1001
Sajjangarh Udaipur 938
Lilagarh   — 874

Main hill ranges of southern Aravali are:

  • Girwa Hills
  • Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  • Merwara Hills
  • Abu block & Oria plateau
Geography of Rajasthan

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Introduction:Geography of Rajasthan

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General Introduction

The term “geography” comes from the ancient Greeks. In Greek, geo means earth and graphy means to write. Greeks developed an understanding of where their homeland was located in relation to other places and how people and environments were distributed by using geography.

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way those locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there and how they develop and change over the time.

The natural resources of a country are of primary importance for the economic development. As a matter of fact, natural resources determine the economic life of a nation.

Man may grow rich in knowledge and intelligence, however much he may have overcome nature but ultimately he will have to depend on the materials supplied by Mother Nature for the development of his economic life.

The physical factors like topography, soils, geologic formation, climate and the available flora and fauna are the basic influences which lead to differences in land-use, cropping pattern, settlement and density of population and occurrence of minerals, water and power resources in different parts of the country.

Geography also became an important part of other academic disciplines, such as chemistry, economics and philosophy. In fact every academic subject has some geographic connection and the study where certain chemical elements such as gold or silver can be found. Economists examine which nations trade with other nations and what resources are exchanged.

Some people have trouble to understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic. The geography is concerned with many different topics—people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, land forms and much more.

What distinguishes geography is that, it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way. Geography asks spatial questions—how and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. It also asks questions about how the interaction of different human and natural activities on earth’s surface shape the characteristics of the world in which we live.

Geography seeks to understand where things are found and why they are present in those places; how things that are located in the same or distant places influence one another over time; and why places and the people who live in them develop and change in particular ways. Raising these questions is at the heart of the “geographical perspective.”

The study of geography is so broad; the discipline is typically divided into specialties. At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography, human geography, geographic techniques and regional geography.

The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems. Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, Pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography and oceanography.

Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists investigate the nature and impact of wind, ice, rivers, erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes, living things, and other forces that shape and change the surface of the Earth.

Glaciologists focus on the Earth’s ice fields and their impact on the planet’s climate. Glaciologists document the properties and distribution of glaciers and icebergs. Data collected by glaciologists has demonstrated the retreat of Arctic and Antarctic ice in the past century.

Pedologists study soil and how it is created, changed and classified. Soil studies are used by a variety of professions from farmers analyzing field fertility to engineers investigating the suitability of different areas for building heavy structures.

Hydrology is the study of Earth’s water: its properties, distribution and effects. Hydrologists are especially concerned with the movement of water as it cycles from the ocean to the atmosphere then back to Earth’s surface. Hydrologists study the water cycle through rainfall into streams, lakes, the soil and underground aquifers.

Climatologists study Earth’s climate system and its impact on Earth’s surface. For example: climatologists make predictions about El Nino- a cyclical weather phenomenon of warm surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. They analyze the dramatic worldwide climate changes caused by El Nino, such as flooding in Peru, drought in Australia and in the United States, the oddities of heavy Texas rains or an unseasonably warm Minnesota winter.

Biogeographers study the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants and animals. For example: a biogeographer might document all the places in the world inhabited by a certain spider species and what those places have in common.     

Oceanography is a related discipline of physical geography, focuses on the creatures and environments of the world’s oceans. The discovery and tracking of the Gulf Stream helped communications and travel between Europe and the Americas.

Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. They also might look at how consumers in China and India adjust to new technology and markets and how markets respond to such a huge consumer base.

Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers.

The Republic of India is a vast country. It lies entirely in the northern hemisphere. The mainland of the country extends between latitudes 8°4′ and 37°6′ north, longitude 68°7′ and 97°25′ east.

Why everyone should read Geography?

  1. To understand basic physical systems that affect everyday life.
  2. To learn the location of places and the physical and cultural characteristics of those places.
  3. To develop a mental map of your community, province or territory, country and the world so that you can understand the “where” of places and events.
  4. To explain how the processes of human and physical systems have arranged and sometimes changed the surface of the Earth.
  5. To understand the spatial organization of society, people and places.
  6. To understand the geography of past times and how geography has played important roles in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and our environments.
  7. To recognize spatial distributions at all scales- local and worldwide -the complex connectivity of people and land places.
  8. To be able to make sensible judgements about matters involving relationships between the physical environment and our society.
  9. To appreciate Earth as the homeland of humankind and provide insight for wise management decisions about how the planet’s resources should be used.
  10. To understand global interdependence and to become a better global citizen.
  11. To understand earth-sun relationships, water cycles and wind and ocean currents).
  12. To understand the rich natural resources and how peoples are depend on our environment and ecology.

Geography is a focus within the curriculum for understanding and resolving issues about the environment and sustainable development. It is also an important link between the natural and social sciences. As students study geography, they encounter different societies and cultures.

Introduction of Rajasthan

The Rajasthan state was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.

Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau.

The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest indian state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara district.

The Aravalli ranges are india’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges.

The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake.
Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.

Rajasthan has its important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow /originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati, Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.

The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found.

The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane.

The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus river.

The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here.

Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions.  The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C.

Different Regions of Rajasthan: 1. Ahirwal- This include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.

2. Bagar tract- This include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).

3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and northern part of Karauli.

4. Gorwar- South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.

5. Hadoti- districts like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.

6. Marwar- “Jodhpur region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.

7.  Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P. and some parts of Gujarat.

8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P.

9. Shekhawati- district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.

10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara.

Rajasthan: Important Facts

Area 342,239 km2  (Biggest state of India in terms of land)
Population 6.85 cr (2011 census)
Language Official language (Hindi), Additional official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family.
Climate Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September.
Capital  Jaipur
Election Seats    25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Legislature Unicameral
Major Cities (population) Jaipur (3,073,349), Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101), Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Famous Lakes Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm) 313-675
The Thar Desert Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”.)
Literacy 66.11 %
Districts 33
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census) 928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio 888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli Dance.
Fair and Festivals Desert Festival-Jaisalmer, Nagaur Fair-Nagaur, Pushkar Fair- Pushkar, Summer Festival-Mt. Abu, Marwar Festival-Jodhpur, Camel Race Festival-Bikaner, Gangaur Festival-Jaipur, Teej Festival-Jaipur, Mewar Festival-Udaipur, Urs Festival-Ajmer, Kaila Devi Fair-Karauli, Summer Festival-Mount Abu, Dusshera –Kota
World Heritage Sites   The six forts — Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia .
Principal Crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,  Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Principal Minerals Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%), Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%), Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas & Petroleum

District-wise Population-List (As per census – 2011)

District Population Area (km2) Po. Density Sex-ratio
Jaipur 66,26,178 11,143 595 910
Jodhpur 36,87,165 22,850 161 916
Alwar 36,74,179 8,380 438 895
Nagaur 33,07,743 17,718 187 950
Udaipur 30,68,420 11,724 262 958
Sikar 26,77,333 7,732 346 947
Barmer 26,03,751 28,387 92 902
Ajmer 25,83,052 8,481 305 951
Bharatpur 25,48,462 5,066 503 880
Bhilwara 24,08,523 10,455 230 973
Bikaner 23,63,937 30,239 78 905
Jhunjhunun 21,37,045 5,928 361 950
Churu 20,39,547 13,835 147 940
Pali 20,37,573 12,387 164 987
Ganganagar 19,69,168 10,978 179 887
Kota 19,51,014 5,217 374 911
Jalore 18,28,730 10,640 172 952
Banswara 17,97,485 4,522 397 980
Hanumangarh 17,74,692 9,656 184 906
Dausa 16,34,409 3,432 476 905
Chittaurgarh 15,44,338 7,822 197 972
Karauli 14,58,248 5,524 264 861
Tonk 14,21,326 7,194 198 952
Jhalawar 14,11,129 6,219 227 946
Dungarpur 13,88,552 3,770 368 994
SawaiMadhopur 13,35,551 4,498 297 897
Baran 12,22,755 6,992 175 929
Dhaulpur 12,06,516 3,033 398 846
Rajsamand 11,56,597 4,655 248 990
Bundi 11,10,906 5,776 192 925
Sirohi 10,36,346 5,136 202 940
Pratapgarh 8,67,848 4,449 195 983
Jaisalmer 6,69,919 38,401 17 852

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan

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Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

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Geography of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice/Mock/Solved/Test Papers in Both Hindi and English.

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Test in EnglishHindi
RPSC RAS Mains Exam Solved Test Paper-1
RAS Mains Exam Practice Test – 1
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Test Paper-1RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-2
Geography of Rajasthan Solved Question for RAS MainsRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -3
(Economy) RAS Mains Solved Test PapersRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -4
RAS Mains-Art and Culture Practice Solved PaperRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -5
Polity & Administration of Rajasthan Solved Practice QuestionRPSC RAS Mains Exam Test – 6
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -7
RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -8
RAS Mains Exam Full Length Solved Questions-2RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -9
RAS Mains Exam 2018 Test Paper-3RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test-4RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test -11
RAS Mains Practice Solved Question Test – 5RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-12
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Test- 6RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-13
RAS/RTS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test- 7RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-14
RAS Mains Practice Question Test – 8RPSC RAS Mains Exam Test-15
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test-9
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 10
RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Test – 11

Ahar – Banas Culture of Rajasthan

A number of Chalcolithic cultures have been discovered in northern, central and western India. The Ochre-Colored Pottery (OCP) culture in the Punjab, Haryana, north-east Rajasthan and upper Ganga-Yamuna doab

  •  The Narhan culture and its variants in the northern Vindhyas and the middle and lower Ganga valley.
  • The Ahar culture in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.
  • The Kayatha and Malwa cultures in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Jorwe culture in western Maharashtra.

The Ahar culture, also known as the Banas culture, is a Chalcolithic Culture of southeastern, Rajasthan, lasting from 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley Civilization. The Main distribution of this culture seems to be concentrated in the river valleys of Banas and its tributaries namely Berach and Ahar. More than 90 sites of the culture have been identified till date, out of which, Gilund, Ahar, Ojiyana and Balathal are prominent sites. These sites of Ahar culture provide important information about the transformation of life from hunting-gathering to agriculture in the Mewar region.

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture:

Houses: People lived in single, double & multi-roomed rectangular, square or circular houses and the houses were made of stones, mud bricks, the walls being plastered with mud.

Pottery: Typical Ahar pottery is a Black-and-Red ware (BRW) with linear and dotted designs painted on it in white pigment and has limited range of shapes, which include bowls, bowls-on-stands, elongated vases and globular vases.

Economy & Subsistence: The subsistence of Ahar-Banas people was based on cultivation, animal rearing and hunting. They sustained on a number of crops, including wheat and barley. The people of Ahar culture had trade links with the Harappans.

Technology: The technology of Ahar people was mostly based on copper. They exploited the copper ores of the Aravalli Range to make axes and other artefacts.However, the Neolithic trend of using polished stone tools continued in this period also and Microlithic tools of Silicious material were also very common.

Important Sites of Ahar-Banas Culture:

  1. Gilund
  2. Ahar
  3. Ojiyana
  4. Balathal
  5. Pachamta (Because, Excavation done in 2015)

Ahar-Banas is Culture and not Civilization. So what is the difference between Civilization & Culture?

  • Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization. Civilization includes (technology, forms of government etc, and even culture)
  •  Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture. Hence, Culture is earlier or a pre-condition for civilization to develop.
  • All Societies have culture but only a few have Civilization (example, Indus Valley Civilization).

1. Gilund (Rajsamand):

Gilund is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by

B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labeled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds. The site is part of Ahar-Banas Chalcolithic culture. The archaeological site is also known as “Modiya Mangari“. Gilund is also famous for its celebration of “Khehkhara Utsav” (Next day of Diwali).

Features of Ahar-Banas Culture at Gilund: Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation can be divided into two Periods: Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2000 BCE and Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE

Period I:

  • Period I is Chalcolithic in character on account of the presence of a few Microlith along with copper.
  •  All through the period the residential houses are made of mud brick, the walls being plastered with mud. Within the houses are noticed circular clay-lined ovens and open mouthed chulhas.
  • The characteristic Pottery of Period-I is Black-and-Red Ware, painted over with linear and curvilinear designs in a creamish-white pigment, other wares include plain and painted black, burnished grey and red wares.
  •  Among the Terracotta figurines particularly noteworthy are the bull figurines with a prominent hump and long horns.

Period II

  • Period II of Gilund seems to have begun about the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., as indicated by the presence of bowls and dishes of grey ware.
  •  In the successive strata have been found Sunga and Kushana bowls in red ware, sprinklers in the Red Polished Ware, and bowls in kaolin ware and knife-edged bowls in red ware, indicating that this occupation continued up to the end of the 1st millennium A.D.

2. Balathal (Udaipur)

Balathal is an archaeological site of Ahar-Banas Culture located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. It is located on banks of Katar River. The site was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63. There were various ethno botanical remains recovered at Balathal and these include wheat, barley, Indian jujube, okra and Job’s tears as well as several varieties of millet, lentils and peas. The excavated remains also included domesticated animals such as sheep, goat and cattle. Archaeologists also discovered several burial sites where the earliest evidence of leprosy in South Asia was found. Apart from manufacturing of

Iron objects, Balathal people cultivated rice, Kodo millet and Bengal gram. They also bred animals, but their reliance over on wild animal was less. The Early Historic pottery of Balathal is generally drab and poor quality in comparison to Chalcolithic pottery. It consists four wares, namely Red, Grey, Black and Red, and Black. A number of stone objects made of locally available quartz or granite, and comprising saddle querns, rotary querns, hammer stones, mullers, pounders and sling balls have been found. Ornaments of the Balathal people included glass, terracotta and copper bangles and beads of terracotta, glass, shell and steatite and semi precious stones, including etched ones. A tiny piece of cotton cloth with matting-type weaving pattern was found. A number of terracotta human and animal figurines, the latter comprising bull, dog, goat and tortoise have been found. Other terracotta objects included weights, lamps, wheels and discs.

This was identified in the remains of an adult male buried sometime between 2500 and 2000 B.C. Balathal was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the Early Historic.

This ancient site was occupied during two cultural periods: the Chalcolithic and the early historic. Excavation at Balathal revealed a Chalcolithic period stretching from 3000 to 1500 BC and an early historic period dated to 5-3 century BC.

Chalcolithic Phase (3000 -1500 BC): Balathal was part of the Ahar-Banas Complex and can be connected to other Ahar-Banas culture sites through artifacts that have been discovered.

  •  The period is characterized by well-planned structures. The houses found at the site are square or rectangular made of mud brick and stones.
  •  Stone objects including saddle querns, mullers, rubber stone, hammer stone and copper objects including choppers, knives, razors, chisels and tanged arrowhead have been found.
  •  It has been determined that the people practiced agro-pastoralism, which is a mixture of both farming and herding animals. Pottery at the site has been thoroughly analyzed and tells much about life at this ancient site.

After the Chalcolithic period the site was abandoned for a long time till the early historic period.

Early Historic Phase (5 – 3 BC):

  • Excavation of early historic phase produced the evidence of large-scale use of iron implements, suggesting its important role in the economy of that period.
  • The people lived in wattle and daub houses and the floors were made of mud and stone rammed together.
  • Iron working in the form of furnaces with iron slags and abundant objects like nails, arrow head, lamps, needle, hoe, spatula, knife etc. are found on site.

Most peculiar item: A skeleton was found buried at Balathal believed to be 4,000 year old skeleton of a man believed to be 37 years when he died. The skeleton it provides the oldest evidence of leprosy in human beings.

3. Pachamta:

Recently in 2015, excavation was carried out at Pachamta, a village 100 km from Udaipur in Rajasthan, under a project called the Mewar Plains Archaeological Assessment.

Pachamta belongs to the Ahar-Banas culture in the Mewar region, which was contemporaneous with the early and mature Harappan culture. The Ahar culture, datable to 3,000-1,700 BCE, was Chalcolithic and its people had trade links with the Harappans.

Artefacts such as perforated jars, shell bangles, terracotta beads, shells and the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, different types of pottery and two hearths have been found during excavation.

Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan

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Different Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan are:-

  1. Kalibangan Civilizations
  2. Bhinmal Civilizations
  3. Gilund Civilizations
  4. Ganeshwar Civilizations
  5. Ishwal Civilizations
  6. Bairath Civilizations
  7. Balathal Civilizations
  8. Aahar River Civilizations
  9. Bagore Civilizations
  10. Rangmahal Civilizations
  11. Ojiyana Civilizations
  12. Nagari Civilizations
  13. Tilwara Civilizations
  14. Barore Civilizations

1. Kalibangan Civilizations

Kalibangan lies along the left bank of the dried-up bed of River Ghaggar (ancient name Saraswati. It is older than 4000 B.C. approx.

It was first discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1952 AD It comprises of three mounds, the larger one in the middle, the smaller in the west and the smallest in the east .

  • The excavations brought to light grid layout of a Harappan metropolis, perhaps truly it is the first city of the Indian culture heritage.
  • The significant part of the evidence, however, relates to the discovery of an early-Harappan settlement, immediately underlying the occupational remains of the Harappan citadel.
  • The pre-Harappan settlement was a fortified parallelogram, the fortification wall being made of mud-bricks.
  • The houses within the walled area were also made of mud-bricks. The distinctive trait of this period was the pottery which was significantly different from that of the succeeding Harappans.
  • An outstanding discovery was a ploughed field, showing a cross-grid of furrows, the southeast of the settlement outside the town-wall.
  • This is perhaps the earliest ploughed field excavated so far.  During the Harappan period, the structural pattern of the settlement was changed.
  • There were now two distinct parts: the citadel on the west and the lower city on the east. The former was situated atop the remains of the preceding occupations to gain an eminence over the lower city which was laid out on the natural plain towards the east.  The citadel complex was a fortified parallelogram, consisting of two equal but separately patterned parts.
  • The fortification was built throughout of mud-bricks.
  • The southern half of the citadel contained some five to six massive platforms, some of which may have been used for religious or ritual purposes.  The northern half of the citadel contained residential buildings of the elite.
  • The lower city was also fortified. Within the walled city, was a gridiron plan of streets running north-south and east-west, dividing the area into blocks.  The houses were built of mud-bricks, baked bricks being confined to drains, wells, sills, etc.   Beside the above two principal parts of the metropolis, there was also a third one, situated 80 m east of the lower city.
  • It consisted of a modest structure, containing four to five fire-altars and as such could have been used for ritualistic purposes.  Of the finds obtained from this excavation, a cylindrical seal and an incised terracotta cake are quite significant.
  • The cemetery of the Harappans was located to the west-southwest of the citadel
  • Three types of burials were attested: extended inhumation in rectangular or oval grave-pits- pot-burials in a circular pit and rectangular or oval grave-pits containing only pottery and other funerary objects.
  •  The Later two methods were unassociated with skeletal remains.

 2. Bhinmal Civilizations

  • It was explored by the Ratna Chandra Agrawal in 1953 -54 A.D.
  • The original name of Bhinmal was bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils.
  • It was the early capital of the kingdom of Gurjaradesa, a name derived from the Gurjara people.
  • The kingdom is first attested in Bana’s Harshacharita (7th century AD).
  • Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha’s father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD). The surrounding kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.
  • Located in Jalore district and reflects about the trade relations with Unani civilization.
  • Huen Shang has visited the ancient city.

3. Gilund Civilizations

At the ancient site of Gilund, two mounds labelled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’, measuring 45 ft and 25 ft respectively above the surrounding fields in height and covering an area of 500 X 250 yards were partially excavated by a team under the direction of B. B. Lal during 1959-60. Excavation was carried out at three different areas, designated as GLD-1 (with its extension GLD-1A), GLD-2 and GLD-3. The site was later revisited from 1999 to 2005 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania and the Deccan College in Pune, India.

Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation are divided into three phases: Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE, Middle Ahar-Banas 2500-2000 BCE, and Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2500 BCE. Here various housing structures have been uncovered, as well as large buildings with long parallel walls, workshops; refuse heaps, and an exterior wall surrounding the site. The workshop area has revealed that the occupants practiced small-scale craft production. Further analysis of the areas also shows that the inhabitants were agro-pastoralists, meaning that they mixed agricultural practices with livestock herding practices.

Artefact analysis has linked objects found at Gilund to the other sites in the Ahar-Banas Complex, as well as the site of Bagor. In addition, lithics at Gilund and Bagor were produced using the same techniques.

4. Ganeshwar Civilizations: – Excavations in the area revealed the remains of a 4,000-year-old civilization. Historian Ratan Lal Mishra writes that Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found there. Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period. Ganeshwar mainly supplied copper objects to Harappa.

The copper was obtained in the nearby Aravalli Range

5. Ishwal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Five stage settlement, Iron was melted about 500 B.C.

6. Bairath Civilizations: – Jaipur District near Beejak hills, Explored by Dayaram Sahani in 1937.

7. Balathal Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored by V.N. Mishra in 1993. Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar Tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India.This site, located 6 km from Vallabhnagar town and 42 km from Udaipur. It’s famous for Ahar Culture.

8. Aahar River Civilizations: – Udaipur, Explored by Kirti Vyas in 1953.

9. Bagore Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Explored by V.N. Mishra in 1967. Three stages of Settlements, ie 4480-3285 BC, 2765 BC -500 BC and 500 BC to 400 AD. The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic (pre-Harappa) archaeological site located on the Kothari River in the Bhilwara District of the Rajasthan region of western India. Bagor was excavated by Deccan College scholars such as Virendra Nath Misra and Vasanta Shinde in the 1960s and 1970s, who found evidence for the domestication of sheep, cattle and goats by the nomadic pastoralists of Bagor dating as early as 5000 to 3000 BC.

10. Rangmahal Civilizations: – This early historical site was excavated by the Swedish Archaeological Expedition, during 1952-4. The first settlement was laid around A.D. 250 during Kushana period and flourished up to the sixth or seventh century A.D. During excavations, coins of Kanishka III, besides the Murundas and three earlier coins of Kanishka I, Huvishka and Vasu-deva and a seal paleographical datable to A.D. 300, have been found. Excavation has revealed eight structural phases. The structures were built of mud-bricks of varying sizes but the normal size was about 32 x 23 x 7 cm. The bricks were laid in the English bond system. The floors were paved with mud-bricks. The houses were rectangular with north-south orientation. The site is famous for the manufacture of typical ceramic industry termed as Rang Mahal Ware culture. This distinctive pottery is wheel-made, reddish or pinkish in colour. The types include globular or oval jars and handy with pronounced rims, externally rusticated showing wavy ribs. In some cases the shoulder and the neck are painted in black-on-red polished surface, other types are spouted vase, sprinkler, cooking vessels, storage jars, beaker with or without handle, bowls of different varieties, lamp, incense-burner, etc. A few carinated handis have textile marks on the body. Moulded pottery is represented by the bowl and miniature basin. The decorations on the pottery are applied and incised patterns and paintings. The cultural assemblage also includes figurines in faience, terracotta animal figurines, carts and wheels, weights, balls, flesh-rubbers, discs, dice, votive tanks, potters stamps, pendants, ear-orinaments, beads of coral, paste, lapis lazuli and shell; rotary querns, mullers, pestles and bone and iron objects.

11. Ojiyana Civilizations:-Bhilwara, Previously the site was excavated in the season 1999-2000 which had revealed remains of Chalcolithic cultures. The recent excavation conducted at the site in 2000-01 has yielded white painted black and red wares, white painted terracotta bulls, cow figurines, copper chopper and beads of faience, carnelian, agate, shell, steatite, stone and terracotta and bangles and pendant of copper belonging to Chalcolithic cultures ranging from 3rd millennium B.C. to 2nd millennium B.C.

12. Nagari Civilizations: – It was one of the most important townships of the Mauryan era in Rajasthan, situated on the banks of river Bairach. It was formerly known as Majhimika/Madhyamika, which flourished from the Maurya to Gupta era. The excavations over here have unearthed many interesting facts and have showed signs of strong Hindu and Buddhist influence.

13. Tilwara Civilizations: – Tilwara is an archeological site from where evidence for the Mesolithic culture has been excavated.Its in Barmer district at the bank of river Luni.

14. Barore Civilizations: – Baror is situated on the right bank of dried up river Sarasvasti (modern Ghaggar) in Anupgarh Tehsil of Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. It is located about 13 km. north-east of Anupgarh and about 100 km. south-west of Kalibangan.

L.P. Tessitore (1916-17), Aurel Stein (1940-41) and A. Gosh surveyed this area and identified the archaeological importance of this region.

The excavation work at Baror added new chapter in the study of Harappan Civilization.

The mound of Baror roughly measures 200× 150 mts. and rises to a height of 11 mts. from its surrounding plain. The western portion of the mound is higher and seems to be the citadel whereas the eastern portion is lower indicating lower town.

On the basis of ceramic industries, antiquities and other material culture, recovered from the field-season’s work, a three-fold cultural sequence was established.

Archaeological Sites in Rajasthan: Ancient History

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Indus Valley Civilization: The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak. Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus and at Harappa further upstream. The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system. The social conditions of the citizens were comparable to those in Sumeria and superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These cities display a well-planned urbanization system.

Kalibangan:

Located on the bank of river Ghaghhar in Hanumangarh District.

Discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1953.

Excavated by Brijvasilal in 1961.

Evidence of ploughed field is found.

Evidence of growing Barley and Mustard are found.

Cylindrical seal of Mesopotamia is found here.

Houses were made from Raw bricks (Kachhi Int).

The drainage system was not properly developed.

Evidence of Earthquake.

Sothi (Sothi Civilization):

It was a rural civilization.

Located in Ganganagar District.

Situated on the plain of Ghaghhar and Chautang River.

It is also called Kalibanga 1st.

Historian mentioned it as the origin place of Harappan civilization.

Other Archaeological Sites

1. Ganeshwar: It isLocated on the bank of river Kantali in Sikar District.

Ganeshwar is located near the copper mines of the Sikar-Jhunjhunu area of the Khetri copper belt in Rajasthan. The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture group has over 80 other sites currently identified. The period was estimated to be 2500–2000 BC. Historian Ratna Chandra Agrawal wrote that Ganeshwar was excavated in 1977. Excavations revealed copper objects including arrowheads, spearheads, fish hooks, bangles and chisels. With its microliths and other stone tools, Ganeshwar culture can be ascribed to the pre-Harappan period.

Ganeshwar saw three cultural phases: Period 1 (3800 BCE) which was characterized by hunting and gathering communities using chert tools; Period II (2800 BCE) shows the beginnings of metal work in copper and fired clay pottery; Period III (2000 BCE) featured a variety of pottery and copper goods being produced. Nearly one thousand pieces of copper were found here. Red pottery was found here with black portraiture.

2. Sunari: It islocated in Jhunjhunu district, as at other sites, the PGW culture (period I) issucceeded by Period II which is represented by unslipped ware though Black and Redand Black slipped wares of PGW period continue and a few NBP sherds are alsopresent. The important antiquities include a stone plaque bearing auspicious Buddhistsymbol, iron implements and copper objects. Period III is represented by typical potteryof the Sunga Kushana period and important finds include a seal with an inscription inBrahmi characters, terracotta animal figurines, and copper cast coins. It is situated on the bank of river Kantali in Jhunjhunu district and It is a Iron Age site.

3. Kurada

  • It is in Nagaur district and also Called Town of Tools.

4. Iswaal

  • Located in Udaipur district and Industrial Town (Because of Iron Mine in Ancient time)

5. Gardara

  • Located in Bundi district and Rock paintings of ancient India are found.

6. Jodhpura

The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Rajasthan, undertook excavation at Jodhpura located on Jaipur-Delhi highway. At Jodhpura Period III, represented by the PGW culture, is succeeded by periods of IV and V both Early Historic age. Period IV is marked by occurrence of NBP ware and unslipped red ware. Important finds of this period include iron arrow heads and nails, shell bangle, terracotta humped bull and stone bead. Period V is represented by Sunga Kushana pottery. The common shapes are bowl, lid cum bowl, and lipped bowl with small spouted channel. Some sherds are stamped with Triratna and Swastika symbols. Other finds of the period comprise iron implements, a terracotta ghata shaped bead, a stone bead and a copper coin.

  • It is located on the bank of river Sabi in Jaipur district.
  • This site is known for incised ware, Reserved Slipware, Copper Arrow heads and Celts.

Gupta Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Gupta Empire in Rajasthan                

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is called the Golden Age of India (there was peace, development and prosperity in the country) by some historians.

  • According to Prayag Prashashthi (Allahabad Inscription), Samundragupta defeated many republican kingdoms.
  • Samundra Gupta defeated Rudradaman II in 351 A.D. and captured southern Rajasthan.
  • Vikramaditya Defeated last Shaka ruler and whole Rajasthan came under Gupta dynasty.
  • Maximum Gupta period coins are found from Bayana (Bharatpur) belonging to Kumar Gupta.
  • Baran (Rajasthan) inscription mention about Gupta period.
  • Durga Temple (Kota) and Shiv Temple (Chachanura) are the best examples of Gupta Architecture.

Post Gupta Period (Huns, Vardhan and Gurjars)

  1. In 503 A.D, Toranmal of Hun Dynasty defeated Guptas and captured Rajasthan.
  2. Mihirkula built Shiva temple in Badauli.
  3. Later Mihikula was defeated by Narsingh Baladitya Gupta and Rajasthan was preoccupied by Guptas.
  4. The capital of Gurjar-Pratihar was Bhinmal.
  5. Chinese traveller Huang Tsang visited Bhinmal during his period.
  6. Brahmagupta belongs to Bhinmal.
  7. Gurjar Pratihar stopped Arab invasion from North West.

Mauryan Period: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Mauryan Period – Rajasthan

The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, 2,000 years back when he overthrew the Nanda King. His assistant was Chanakya, a shrewd advisor and strategic thinker. He has written a book called Arthashastra that comprises his thoughts on politics, economics, foreign affairs, administration, military arts, war and religion.

Chandragupta was succeeded by Bindusara, his son who extended the Mauryan Empire till Mysore. Bindusara was succeeded by his son Ashoka, who is regarded as the greatest ruler of the empire by many historians. He extended the Mauryan Empire till the modern-day Afghanistan, with Patliputra as capital.

The Mauryan Emperors appointed the family members to control the large empire. Only the capital Patliputra was controlled by the emperor while states like Ujjain and Taxila were governed by royal princes. The Emperors also appointed officials for collecting taxes, maintaining law and order and keeping a check on the activities of the subjects.

  1. Bairat (Viratnagar)

Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, Director of Archaeology and Historical Research of former Jaipur state, conducted excavations at Bairat sometime in the thirties of the last century. we know that the so called Bhabru Rock Edict found by Captain Burt in 1840 must have come from Bijak ki Pahari because this place alone has provided evidence of Mauryan period and also another Ashokan edict. This edict is the only known edict of Ashoka, which is inscribed on a stone slab (Shila phalaka) as distinguished from stone pillar (Shila Stambha) or rock. It also provides definite proofs of Ashoka’s faith in Buddhist religion and his consequent exhortation to monks and nuns and to laymen and laywomen to listen to and to study seven select passage from the Buddhist scriptures.

The principle monuments brought to light are numerous remnants of two Ashoka pillars, a temple of an entirely new type and a monastery both of which latter monuments must have been erected by Ashoka himself. It was capital of Matsya Mahajanapada.

  • It was a part of Mauryan Empire.
  • In 1837, Ashoka’s Rock Edict was discovered by Capt. Burj from Bijak-ki-Pahadi.
  • Evidence of the Buddhist stupa sites was found here.
  • In 634 A.D Huang Tsang visited Bairat.
  • Sculptures, coins, pottery, seals and metal objects were found from the excavation.
  • It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1936.
  • According to Maan Sarovar inscription of 713 A.D., Maan Maurya was the ruler of Bairat. This inscription also mentions the name of 4 rulers. Maheshwar, Bhoj, Bhim and Maan.

Post Mauryan Period

Post-Mauryan coinage refers to the period of coinage production in India, following the breakup of the Maurya Empire. The centralized Mauryan power ended during a Coup d’état in 185 BCE leading to the foundation of the Shunga Empire. King Ashoka ruled for 50 years and after the war of Kalinga, he led the path of peace and Buddhism. Since the successor of king Ashoka wasn’t capable of ruling the kingdom.

  • Greek ruler Menander attacked Rajasthan in 150 B.C.
  • 16 Greek coins were found from Bairat.
  • Coins were found from the Rang Mahal of Hanumangarh belonging to Kushan period.
  • The first Saka king in India was Maues who ruled in Gandhar and extended his power in northwest India.

Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan

  1. Matsya
  • Capital: – Viratnagar
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur
  1. Saurasena (Brajmandala)
  • Capital: – Mathura
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Karauli.
  1. Kuru
  • Capital: – Indraprastha (Delhi)
  • Present: – Delhi and northern Region of Rajasthan.
  1. Some Other Janapada Of Rajasthan

Shivi Janapada

  • Capital: – Madhyamika (Present name Nagari)
  • Present region: – Chittorgarh And Udaipur district
  • Rajasthan’s first excavated site.
  • Excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar.

Arjunayana Janapada

  • Present Alwar and Bharatpur District.
  • They emerged as political power During Sunga Period.

Malav Janapada

  • Present Jaipur and Tonk district.
  • Capital: – Nagar (Tonk)
  • They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali

Yaudheyas

  • Present Hanumangarh and Ganganagar district.
  • Kushana power was stopped by them.
  • They are mentioned in Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha of Panini.

Shalvya

  • Present Alwar district.

Rajanya

  • Present Jodhpur and Bikaner region.

Stone Age: Ancient History of Rajasthan

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Stone Age: a prehistoric period when weapons and tools were made of stone or of organic materials such as bone, wood or horn.

  1. Paleolithic age: Paleolithic, The cultural period of the Stone Age that began about 2.5 to 2 million years ago, marked by the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone. The Paleolithic Period ended at different times in different parts of the world, generally around 10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East.

Paleolithic site in Rajasthan: Nagaur and Didwana.

  1. Mesolithic Age: Mesolithic, also called Middle Stone Age, ancient cultural stage that existed between the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), with its chipped stone tools, and the Neolithic (New Stone Age), with its polished stone tools. Most often used to describe archaeological assemblages from the Eastern Hemisphere, the Mesolithic is broadly analogous to the archaic culture of the Western Hemisphere. Mesolithic material culture is characterized by greater innovation and diversity than is found in the Paleolithic. Among the new forms of chipped stone tools were microliths, very small stone tools intended for mounting together on a shaft to produce a serrated edge.

Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan:

1. Bagor

  • On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwara District.
  • Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Tools are excavated in large numbers.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
  • Biggest Mesolithic Site in India.

2. Tilwara

  • On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
  • Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.

3. Chalcolithic Age: Chronology of Chalcolithic Settlement. The first metal age of India is called Chalcolithic Age which saw the use of copper along with stone. It was also called Stone-Copper Age.

 Paleolithic-Old Stone Age in Rajasthan (5, 00, 00 BC – 10,000 BC)

Man is said to have appeared in the early Pleistocene in Africa about 3 million (30 lakh) years ago. In India, based on recent evidence, man is said to have appeared 1.4 million (14 lakh) years back at Bori, Maharashtra.

  • This Man had no knowledge of cultivation and house building till 9000 years B.C. From there first appearance to beginning of 3000 BC man used tools & implements only made up of stone and so early phase of human existence has been Called as Stone-Age. Based on nature of stone tools and nature of change in climate the stone-age is divided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic age period to study history till 1000B.c.

The Paleolithic age has been divided into 3 sub-ages namely:

  • 5,00,000 BC – 1,00,000 BC: Lower Paleolithic or Early Old Stone Age
  • 1,00,000 BC – 40,000 BC: Middle Paleolithic or Middle Old Stone Age
  • 40,000 BC – 10,000 BC: Upper Paleolithic or Later Old Stone Age

1. Lower Paleolithic or Early Old Stone Age (5, 00,000 BC – 1, 00,000 BC)

Acheulian-Handaxes: These areSpecial characteristic stone tools – Hand axe and cleaver.Raw materials used for making stone tools included – quartzite, quartz and basalt. The sites of early Stone Age discovered in Rajasthan have been identified as belonging to Acheulian culture, named after French site of St. Acheul which was the first effective colonization of the Indian subcontinent.The Acheulian culture was a hunter-gatherer culture.Sites of lower-Paleolithic age are located in Nagaur and Didwana of Rajasthan, Barkhera, Bhimbetka and Putlikarar in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh.

2. Middle Paleolithic or Middle Old Stone Age (1, 00,000 BC – 40,000 BC)

 The Acheulian culture of Old Stone Age was slowly transformed into the middle Paleolithic by giving some of the tool types and by developing new tools & technology. Special characteristic of stone tools – Flakes.

  • In comparison to the lower Paleolithic era, the tools in middle Paleolithic became smaller, thinner and lighter.
  • The New raw materials used for making stone tools included fine-grained siliceous rocks like chert and jasper.
  • In our Rajasthan, sites of Middle Paleolithic age are located at Luni valley, around Didwana, Budha Pushkar.

3.  Upper Paleolithic or Later Old Stone Age (40,000 BC – 10,000 BC)           

 The tools of Upper Paleolithic Era are further refined upon the lower and middle periods and show a marked regional diversity with respect to the refinement of techniques and standardization of finished tool forms.

1. Special characteristic of stone tools of Upper Paleolithic age – Flakes and blades.

2. One important discovery is of the Ostrich egg shells at over 40 sites in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, which shows that ostrich, a bird adapted to arid climate.

3. The upper Paleolithic settlements also show a distinct trend of being associated with permanent sources of waters.

4. Society was ‘Band Society‘- small communities, usually consisting of less than 100 people. They were nomadic to some extent moving from one place to another.

5. The earliest form of art by humans also belongs to upper Paleolithic period in the form of rock Paintings (Bhimbetka).

6. Sites of Upper Paleolithic age in Rajasthan included Chittorgarh, Kota and basins of rivers Wagoon, kadamli, Sabarmati & Mahi.

4. Mesolithic-Middle Stone Age in Rajasthan (10,000 BC – 5,000 BC)

The last stage of Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age was followed by Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age in Rajasthan (in India). The transition from the Paleolithic period to Mesolithic period is marked by transition from Pleistocene period (2.58 million years ago – 10,000BC) to Holocene (10,000 BC – till now) and favorable changes in the climate. The climate became warmer and humid and there was expansion of flora and fauna contributed by increased rainfall. This led to availability of new resources to humans.

Tools of Mesolithic Age: The tools are Mesolithic age were smaller in size and better in finishing (more geometric) than the Paleolithic age and are called as Microlith.

  • The main tool types are backed blades, obliquely truncated blades, points, crescents, triangles and trapezes.
  • Some of the Microlith were used as components of spearheads, arrowheads, knives, sickles, harpoons and daggers.
  • Use of bow and arrows for hunting has been documented by Mesolithic man in rock art of the period.

Changes in Society of Mesolithic Age:

1. Domestication of Animals & Farming: The early period of Mesolithic age was based on the hunting, fishing and food gathering, slowly domestication of animals and cultivation of crops made their way into human life.

  •  The earliest evidence of domestication of animals has been provided by Adamagarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bagor in Rajasthan.
  • The first animals to be domesticated were dog, cattle, sheep and goat and the first crops to be cultivated were wheat and barley.

2. Nomadism to Sedentary settlements:

The favourable climate, better rainfalls, warm atmosphere and increased food security led to reduction in Nomadism to seasonally sedentary settlement and increased population.

They moved to new areas such as nearby rivers which provided water and First human colonization of the Ganga plains took place during this period.

 3. Beginning of customs

  • The Mesolithic age saw beginning of the tradition of various ways of intentional disposal of the dead.
  • Mesolithic human burials have been found at Bagor in Rajasthan, Langhnaj in Gujarat, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh etc.

 4. Emergence of Arts:

  • The rock painting of Mesolithic period is found in Adamagarh, Bhimbetka of Madhya Pradesh and Pratapgarh, Mirzapur of Rajasthan.
  • The paintings are made mostly in red and white pigments, made from the nodules found in rocks and earth. (Red made by minerals of iron oxide and white by limestone).
  • The subject matter of the paintings are mostly wild animals and hunting scenes, though there are some related to human social and religious life such as sex and child birth.

Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan:

  • The Pachpadra basin, Sojat Area & Tilwara of Rajasthan is rich Mesolithic sites and lot of Microlith has been discovered.
  • However, Bagor is the largest Mesolithic site in India.

Neolithic Age in Rajasthan (5,000 BC – 1,000 BC)

Neolithic or new Stone Age, which followed Mesolithic age, was the last phase of Stone Age. The Neolithic period began around 10700 to 9400 BC in Tell Qaramel in Northern Syria. In South Asia the date assigned to Neolithic period is 7000 BC and the earliest example is Mehrgarh Culture.

  Neolithic Revolution:

  • The human settlements in the Mesolithic era got more sedentary and people began settle down in agricultural communities which led to establishment of villages.
  • Man for first time domesticated cattle, sheep and goats.
  •  As efficiency of agriculture improved, man was able to produce surplus food. As a consequence, some people moved away from agriculture and new occupations like dancers, musicians, masonry came up.
  •  The people of this age used tools & implements of polished stone. Neolithic tool kit was composed of heavy ground tools – pestles, mortars, grinders and pounders – as also axes and sickles which have a characteristic sheen on them, the result of harvesting wild or domesticated plants and grasses.

The use of pottery and the wheel and the subsequent invention of crafts like spinning, weaving and bead making also serve to demonstrate the uniqueness of the Neolithic phase. This transition from hunting gathering to food production is called the Neolithic revolution.

Causes of Neolithic Revolution: Factors that pushed humans in vastly separated parts to adopt agriculture and animal domestication included:

i. Climatic change at the beginning of the Holocene period

ii. Increasing population density

iii. Evolving cultural and technological strategies of human groups.

Features of Mehrgarh Neolithic Culture:

Mehrgarh is located on bank of the Bolan River, a tributary of the Indus, at the eastern edge of the Baluchistan plateau overlooking the Indus plain. It is considered as the oldest agricultural settlement in the Indian subcontinent.

  • The main domesticated animals in Mehrgarh were cattle, sheep, goat and water buffalo while the main cultivated plants were wheat and barley.
  •  Houses made in mud and mud-bricks, created rooms to store grains, buried dead under floors of houses where they lived, used ornaments of steatite, turquoise, sea shells etc.
  • Domesticated cotton for the first time. Used pottery decorated with images of birds, animals.
  • Learnt use of making stone beads, copper smelting, timber, terracotta, commercial transactions.
  • The first evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in a living person was found in Mehrgarh.

Neolithic Age in Rajasthan

There are no significant Neolithic sites that fall in modern Rajasthan.

Economy of Rajasthan Study Notes with Practice MCQ

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                                    Economy of Rajasthan

Index

  1. Economic Terminology
  2. Rajasthan: an introduction to Economy
  3. Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan
  4. National Income: Basic Concepts
  5. Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
  6. Fiscal Policy of India: Meaning, Objectives and Impacts on the Economy
  7. Classification and Operations of Commercial Banks in India
  8. Money Supply and Inflation
  9. National Development Council
  10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Rajasthan
  11. Special Economic Zones – SEZ-Rajasthan
  12. Transport Infrastructure of Rajasthan
  13. Urban Infrastructure in Rajasthan
  14. Rural Development in Rajasthan
  15. Special Area Development Programmes
  16. National Family Health Survey-Rajasthan
  17. Skill development in Rajasthan
  18. Unemployment in Rajasthan
  19. Poverty in Rajasthan
  20. Agriculture Sector in Rajasthan
  21. Service Sector in Rajasthan
  22. Industrial Sector in Rajasthan
  23. Industries of Rajasthan
  24. Important Departments & Organisations
  25. Policies, Concessions & Facilities for Industries in Rajasthan
  26. Public Enterprises in State
  27. Economic Planning in Rajasthan
  28. Public Distribution System
  29. Current Affairs: Economy
  30. Practice Solved MCQ

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Lakes in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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 In Rajasthan, Lakes are divided into two categories

  • Saltwater Lake and
  • Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

Salt Water Lakes

Sambhar Lake

  • It is India’s largest inland Salt Water Lake.
  • It has been designated as a Ramsar site because this wetland is a favourite spot for migratory birds like Pink Flamingo.
  • The total area of the lake is 150 sq. km.
  • The lake receives water from five rivers Merta, Samand, Mantha, Roopangarh and khandel.

Didwana Lake

  • It is a natural lake, is located at Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
  • It is 2km broad and 4km long.
  • The Production of salt produced is non-edible grade because of high fluoride.

Pachpadra Lake

  • It is located in Barmer district.
  • This is also a Natural Lake, is a salt lake near Pachpadra in Barmer, Rajasthan.
  • Its sodium chloride level is marked at Approx 98%.
  • The total area of this Lake is 25 Sq. km.

      Lunkaransar Lake

  • It is located in Lunkaransar, 80 km away from Bikaner.
  • It is also Natural and a salt water lake.
  • Some other famous Salt Water Lakes are Phalodi, Kuchaman, Kovaad, Kachhor, Rewasa, etc.

2. Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake

  • Due to the scarcity of water in Rajasthan, this freshwater lakes act as boons for people of Rajasthan.

Important Fresh Water Lakes of Rajasthan

Jaisamand Lake

  • It was constructed by Maharana Jaising by building the dam on Gomati River from 1685 to 1691.
  • It is located 51 km southeast of Udaipur.
  • It is also called Dhebar Lake.
  • It is the biggest natural lake of Rajasthan.

Rajsamand Lake

 It was constructed by Maharana Rajsingh in 1662.

On the bank of this, lakes many inscriptions are there which tells about the history of Mewar.

Pichhola Lake

  • Lake Pichhola, an artificial fresh water lake, situated on the heart of the Udaipur city in Rajasthan.
  • It was built in 1362 AD by a Banjara and & named after the nearby Picholi village.
  • There are four islands on the lake: Jag Niwas, where the Lake Palace is built, Jag Mandir, with the palace of the same name, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Vilas.
  • The Pichhola Lake and the Swaroop Sagar Lake are connected by an arched bridge built by Maharana Swaroop Singh during 1842-1861.
  • One has Jag Mandir (Temple) and second has Jag Nivas named palaces.

Fateh Sagar Lake

This is an artificial lake was initially built by Maharana Jai Singh in north-west of Udaipur in the year 1678 but it was reconstructed by Maharana Fateh Singh in 1888.

It was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught and was initially called Connaught Bundh.

There are Udaipur Solar Observatory, impressive water-jet fountain and Nehru Park – Popular picnic spot.

Anasagar Lake

It is an artificial lake situated in the city of Ajmer.

It was built by Arnoraja alias Anaji, the grandfather of Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1135 -1150 AD and is named after him.

The five Baradari or pavilions, between the garden and the lake, were built by Shahjahan in 1637. On its bank, there’s a garden called “Daulat Baug by Jehangir.

Pushkar Lake

  • It is located in Ajmer district surrounded by mountains.
  • This is also known as Pushkar Sarovar, is located in Pushkar.
  • Pushkar Lake is a sacred lake of the Hindus. The Hindu scriptures describe it as “Tirtha-Raj” – the king of Pilgrimage sites related to a water-body and relate it to the mythology of the creator-god Brahma, whose most prominent temple stands in Pushkar.
  • The Pushkar Lake finds mention on coins as early as the 4th century BC.

Siliserh Lake

  • It is located in Alwar district in between Aravalli Range.

Some other famous lakes are Navlakkha Lake (Bundi), Kolayat Lake (Bikaner), Shaiva Sagar (Dungarpur), Galati and Ramgarh (Jaipur), Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur), Kailana Lake (Jodhpur), etc.

River system: Geography of Rajasthan

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The Location of the great Indian watershed and the existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past Udai sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to Pratapgarh.

Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along with its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and Berach, Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.

The inland drainage system is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin, Barrah basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage basins. The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these rivers.

The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri, Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near the Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.

The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south, southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and has some important streams.

The river Chambal is the largest stream and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.

The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about 325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at 505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.

The river Chambal is joined by its first major tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj, after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas join the Chambal River on the left bank.

The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.

1. Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal

Chambal River

  • In the ancient time, it was called “Charmanyavati”.
  • It originates from Janapao Hills near Maanpur in Mahu, Madhya Pradesh.
  • It enters in Rajasthan near Chaurasigarh and makes the border of Kota and Bundi.
  • It passes through Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur and finally meets in Yamuna River.
  • Gandhi sagar, Jawahar sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Kota Barrage Dam are built on this river.
  • Banas, Kalisindh and Parvati are its tributaries.
  • Length- 965 Km & Length in Rajasthan-370Km

Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link

      The proposed Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link is one of the big projects being planned in the basin which will divert surplus waters of Parwati and Kalisindh to the Rana Pratap Sagar or Gandhi Sagar dam.

Banas River

  • It originates from Khamnor Hill near Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand.
  • It travels through Gogunda Plateau, Nathdwara, Rajsamand, Rel Magara, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Tonk and in Sawai Madhopur, it join the Stream of Chambal River.
  • It is also called ‘Hope of Forest (Van Ki Asha)’.
  • Bedach, Kothari, Khari, Mainal, Bandi, Dhundh and Morel are the tributaries of Banas River.

Banas River Basin

Banas lies completely within Rajasthan and has the largest catchment area (45,833 square km) in Rajasthan. Banas drains the east slope of the central portion of the Aravalli Range, and the basin includes all or part of Pali, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Tonk, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Dausa, Jaipur and Sawai Madhopur districts.

Kali Sindh River

  • It originates in dewas in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It passes through Jhalawar and Baran districts and meets Chambal River in Narena.
  • It is tributary of Chambal & it meet near Nonera village in Baran.
  • Paravan, Ujaad, Niwai and Aahu are its tributary rivers.

      Parban River is a tributary of Kali Sindh and it originates in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. Parban flows through Sehore, Shajapur and Rajgarh districts in Madhya Pradesh. It covers Jhalawar, Kota; Baran districts of Rajasthan and meets Kali Sindh in Baran district of Rajasthan.

Parvati River

  • It originates in Sihor region of Madhya Pradesh and flows in Baran and meets Chambal River near Paliya, Sawai Madhopur.
  • Origin- Northern slopes of Vindhyan Range Length in State- 65 Km
  • It is the tributary of Chambal and it meet near Poh village

Berach River

  • It Originates from Gogunda Hills, North of Udaipur
  • Districts- Udaipur, Chittorgarh
  • It is also known as Aayar River
  • It is a tributary of Banas River & it meet near Bigod.

It is known by name of Aayar River. It is called Berach after appearing from Udai Sagar Lake near Udaipur. It flows northeast through Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Bhilwara districts, joining the Banas near Bigod village of Bhilwara district.

Berach has significant historical significance with banks of Ahar having thrown up evidences of settlements dating back to the Harappan and pre-Harappan era’s cultural levels, thus exhibiting connection with Indus Valley civilization. Additionally, evidences of big palaces were found at Nagri, an ancient site around 16 km from Chittorgarh.         

Mez River

  • Originates from Bhilwara and meets Chambal near Lakheri in Bundi.
  • Mej River is a left bank tributary of Chambal River.
  • It originates near Mandalgarh in Bhilwara and joins Chambal in Kota. The catchment area of Mej River extends over Bhilwara, Bundi and Tonk districts of Rajasthan.

Vapani (Bahyani) River

  • Originates near Haripura village of Chittorgarh district and meets Chambal near Bhaisroadgarh.

Gambhiri River

Origin- Hills of Sawai Madhopur district

Districts- Karauli and Bharatpur

Dam- Panchna Dam in Sawai Madhopur Band Baretha has been built over it to tame its water.

It is a tributary of Yamuna River & it meet in Agra district.

It changes its course in many years.

Banganga River

  • It originates from Bairath Hills of Jaipur district.
  • Then it moves towards the east in Sawai Madhopur and then in Bharatpur meets in the Yamuna.
  • Banganga River Basin is located in the northeastern part of Rajasthan state with a total catchment area of 8,878.7 sq km. It is bounded by Ruparail and Sabi in its north; and the Shekhawati Basin in its west and the Gambhir and Banas River Basins in its south-southwest. The eastern border of the basin is marked by the Yamuna River Basin in Uttar Pradesh. Administratively, Banganga River Basin extends over parts of Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur Districts.

2. Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea

Luni River

  • It originates from Naag Hills of Ajmer, after that it moves towards Jodhpur, Pali, Barmer, and Jalore and enters in Gujarat in Kutchh.
  • It travels almost 320 km.
  • Its water is sweet up to Balotara and then it becomes salty.
  • Jawai, Liladi, Mithadi, Sukhadi, Bandi and Saagi are its tributaries.
  • Pali city is situated on the bank of Bandi River.
  • Sheoganj city is on the banks of Jawai River.
  • Jalore is on the bank of Sukri River

Mahi River

  • It began its journey from Mahu Hills of Madhya Pradesh and enters Rajasthan in Banswara district.
  • The  Mahi Bajaj  Sagar  Multipurpose project has been constructed on it near Borkhera village
  • It forms the border between Banswara and Dungarpur and enters Gujarat and ends its journey in Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay).
  • Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is constructed on this river near Banswara.
  • Its main tributaries are Soma, Jakham, Anas, Chap and Moren.

Sabarmati River

  • It originates near Udaipur and flows in Sirohi and then enters in Gujarat and ends its journey in Gulf of Cambay.
  • At the initial stage, it is called Vakal River.

3. Inland Rivers

Kantali River

  • It originates from Khandela Hills of Sikar district.
  • District-    Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Churu.
  • Finally terminates in the sand dunes of Churu
  • It travels 100 km and flowing from Sikar and Jhunjhunu, disappeared in the desert land.

Sota Sabi River

  • Origin- Sota from the hills of Bairath, Sabi from Sewar hills
  • In Rewari & Gurgaon it causes floods.
  • It originates from Sevar Hills and flows in banasur, Bahrod, Kishangarh, Mandawar and Tijara and disappeared in Haryana.

Kakani or Kakneya River

  • Originates from Kotari village and disappear after travelling some distance.
  • Origin- Kotari village
  • District- Jaisalmer
  • Fall into- Bhuj Lake.
  • It flows only during rainy season

Ghaghar River

  • It is considered the oldest river of India, i. e. Saraswati.
  • It flows from Haryana to Hanumangarh, Ganganagar Suratgarh, and Anupgarh and enters in Pakistan.
  • Origin- Kalka Hills (Himachal Pradesh) Length- 465 Km
  • It often causes floods during heavy rainfall It enters Rajasthan in Tibbi Tehsil (Ganganagar)
  • It finally enters into the Bhawalpur district of Pakistan where it lost in the vast array of sand dune.
  • It is also called Dead River.

Other Rivers

Khari River- Origin- Hills of Bijral village, North of Rajsamand district and it meets near Banas River near Deoli (Tonk).

Dai River

            Dai River originates in the southeastern slopes of the Aravalli Range, near Nasirabad Tehsil of Ajmer. It flows southeast and then east in Ajmer District and for a short distance through Tonk District, before joining Banas River near Bisalpur village in Tonk District.

Dheel River

            Dheel River originates in the plains near Bauli village in Tonk District. It flows generally from north to south through Jaipur, Tonk and Sawai Madhopur. It joins the Banas near Philpura village in Sawai Madhopur district. River Gudia is its tributary.

Morel River

            One branch of River Morel originates in the hills near Dharla and Chainpura villages in Bassi Tehsil of Jaipur District and the second branch makes by receiving water from the catchment area of foothills of Paplaj Mataji mountains, district Dausa.

            It flows southeast and then southwest to meet river Dhund, and then again southeast through Jaipur, Dausa and Sawai Madhopur, joining Banas river near Hadoli of Sawai Madhopur District.

 Kalisil River

            The River Kalisil originates in the hills near Rajpura village in Sawai Madhopur District. The river flows generally southwest, partly through hills and partly in the plains of Sawai Madhopur District, finally joining the Morel River.

Sarasvati and Drishadvati:  Ancient Indian River

Sarasvati River

(O Sarasvati, you the best of mothers, the best of rivers, the best of gods! Although we are of no repute, mother, grant us distinction.)

            During the vedic civilization, Aryans developed Rigveda, which describes about the ” Sapta Sindhu ” the seven rivers of NW India , traced from east to west as Sarasvati, Satadru ( Sutlej ), Vipasa (Beas), Parosni (Ravi) , Asikni (Chenab) Vitasta (Jhelum) and Sindhu (Indus) which started flowing consequent on the melting of the Himalayan glaciers at the end of Pleistocene.

Sarasvati River system is sequenced as Sutlej-Markanda-Drishadvati-Ghaggar-Hakra river channels which constituted the hydrological flows of Vedic Sarasvati River system traceable upstream: from

  • Sarasvati creek starting from Ad Badri at the foothills of the Siwalik ranges and Extending into the Bata Valley in upper reaches of the Himalayas, traceable into the Rupin-Supin glaciers close to Yamunotri glaciers.
  • Another glacier source from ManaSarovar yielded the River Sutlej which was a tributary of Vedic Sarasvati River System joining the latter southwards from Ropar at Shatrana (50 km. South of Patiala).

Humidity in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Humidity in Rajasthan

The relative humidity in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.

During the monsoon months, July to September the relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.

The annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.

The variation in the relative humidity is low during the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid region.

The main reason in this decline is the deforestation and other activities.

The diurnal variation in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the diurnal variation is highest.

Air temperature and relative humidity conditions

The pleasant winters in the state witness mean night temperatures above 4.7 C to 10.6 C. During summers the western Rajasthan becomes the hottest place in the country with mean maximum air temperatures varying from 38.6 C to 42.6 C in May. The recorded extreme temperatures in the state were -4.4 C to 50.0 C in the western Rajasthan and -2.8 C to 47.8 C in the eastern Rajasthan (as per Indian Meteorological Department, 2010).

The relative humidity in the arid region of Western Rajasthan is also quite high because of the unfavorable circulations of the atmosphere and low precipitation that occurs in the arid region as compared to other semi-arid and sub-humid regions.

Classification and distribution of soils in Rajasthan

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What is Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme?

It is a Government of India’s scheme promoted by the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture. It will be implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments. A SHC is meant to give each farmer soil nutrient status of his holding and advice him on the dosage of fertilizers and also the needed soil amendments, that he should apply to maintain soil health in the long run.

What is a Soil Health Card?

SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients) ; S (Secondary- nutrient) ; Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients) ; and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.

How can a farmer use a SHC?

The card will contain an advisory based on the soil nutrient status of a farmer’s holding. It will show recommendations on dosage of different nutrients needed. Further, it will advise the farmer on the fertilizers and their quantities he should apply, and also the soil amendments that he should undertake, so as to realize optimal yields.

Will the farmer get a card every year and for every crop?

It will be made available once in a cycle of 3 years, which will indicate the status of soil health of a farmer’s holding for that particular period. The SHC given in the next cycle of 3 years will be able to record the changes in the soil health for that subsequent period.

What are the norms of sampling?

Soil samples will be drawn in a grid of 2.5 ha in irrigated area and 10 ha in rain- fed area with the help of GPS tools and revenue maps.

Who will draw the soil sample?

The State Government will collect samples through the staff of their Department of Agriculture or through the staff of an outsourced agency. The State Government may also involve the students of local Agriculture / Science Colleges.

What is the ideal time for soil sampling?

Soil Samples are taken generally two times in a year, after harvesting of Rabi and Kharif Crop respectively or when there is no standing crop in the field.

How will soil samples be collected from a farmer’s field?

Soil Samples will be collected by a trained person from a depth of 15-20 cm by cutting the soil in a “V” shape. It will be collected from four corners and the centre of the field and mixed thoroughly and a part of this picked up as a sample. Areas with shade will be avoided. The sample chosen will be bagged and coded. It will then be transferred to soil test laboratory for analysis.

What is a soil test laboratory?

It is a facility for testing the soil sample for 12 parameters as indicated in reply to question number 2. This facility can be static or mobile or it can even be portable to be used in remote areas.

Who and Where will the soil sample be tested?

The soil sample will be tested as per the approved standards for all the agreed 12 parameters in the following way:

  • At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture and by their own staff.
  • At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture but by the staff of the outsourced agency.
  • At the STLs owned by the outsourced agency and by their staff.
  • At ICAR Institutions including KVKs and SAUs.
  • At the laboratories of the Science Colleges/Universities by the students under supervision of a Professor/ Scientist.

1.   Old System of Soil Classification:

This system of soil classification is based on the soil as a natural body concept and has a strong genetic bias. According to this classification soils of Rajasthan are classified into eight soil groups.

1. Desert Soils

2. Dunes and Associated Soils

  • This type of soil covers most part of Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Churu.
  • These soils are yellowish brown in colour sandy to sany loam, deep and well drained
  • Calcium carbonate, sometime occur in the form of Kankar nodules which increases with depth.
  • Texture- loamy fine sand to coarse sand and may or may not be calcareous.
  • Cultivation is practiced in rainy season on the slopes of low to medium high dunes and usually rainfed Bajra or Kharif pulse are grown.
  • These have been grouped separately from desert soils as they are only deposited sand and little profile development has taken place.

3. Brown Soils

The brown soil covers most area of Tonk, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Chittorgarh district and the colour of soils ranges from grayish brown to yellow brown. Rabi crops are grown under irrigation.

Annual Rainfall- 50 cm to 75 cm is sufficient for Kharif crops and Texture- Sandy loam to clay loam.

Major area of these soils is in the catchment area of Banas River and they are rich in calcium salts but have poor organic matter Use of fertilizers becomes essential to get good harvest.

As the ground waters are saline, soils irrigate with these waters have accumulated salts and the Tank irrigated soils have also developed problem of high water table.

4. Sierozems

The Sierozems soil is found in most of the part of Pali, Nagaur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa districts it means this type of soil lies on both the side of Aravalli Hills and they are mostly yellowish brown.

  • The Annual Rainfall range is 50 cm to 70 cm and Texture- Sandy loam to Sandy clay
  • These soils are suitable for cultivation but for low rainfall and high evaporation.
  • Kharif crops are rainfed and Rabi crops are grown through well irrigation.
  • In the Kharif crops Bajra, Jowar, pulses are grown and in Rabi crops wheat, mustard & vegetables are grown.

5. Red Loams

This Soil Covered Part of Dungarpur, Banswara, Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Parent material of these soils is the red sandstone or yellow sandstone which is found in Vindyan rocks. Rainfall- 70 cm to 100 cm and Texture- Sandy loam to sandy.

These soils have rich content of iron-oxide and devoid of calcium salts because calcium salts soluble in water and are easily washed away.

These soils are reddish in colour with granular/crumb structure & well drained and it is suitable for maize, chilies, wheat, and barley and rapeseed cultivation.

6.   Hill Soils (Litho sols)

This type of soil found at the foot hills of Aravalli in Sirohi, Pali, Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara and Ajmer and its Colour is – Reddish to yellowish red to yellowish brown but the problem isSoil erosion due to water is another problem of these types of soils.

  • Texture- Sandy loam to clay and well drained.
  • Cultivation of crops in these soils is very much restricting due to shallow nature of these soils and presence of stones on the surface.

 7. Saline Sodic Soils (Solonchaks)

This type of soil found in the natural depressions like the Pachpadra, Sambhar, Deedwana, Ranns of Jalore and Barmer and Saline Sodic soils are seen in the far flood plains of river Ghaggar and in Luni Basin.

The Colour is dark grey to pale brown and Water table is sometime close to surface but Cultivation is not possible due to the impeded drainage and high degree of salinity and the only vegetation consists of some salt tolerant grasses and shrubs.

8. Alluvial Soils:

These soils cover a vast area in north western and south eastern plains of the State. These soils have been brought down by different modern and ancient rivers; therefore, different areas have soils of different characteristics depending upon the source from which the alluvium has been brought and deposited. In Rajasthan alluvial soils are found in the valleys of Ghaggar River, Banas and Chambal river basins and covered part of Sriganganagar, Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jaipur.

Soil Conversation Methods / Techniques in Rajasthan

Soil Conservation methods adopted in Rajasthan:

1.   Adequate Drainage: The solution for salinity & Alkanity of soil is to provide of soil is to provide adequate drainage.

2.   Afforestation: Large scale planting of saplings which act as wind breaks

3. Use of Gypsum: Use of gypsum which is abundantly and cheaply available in Rajasthan, is economical and long term solution to the problem

4.   Shelter Belts: In dry regions rows of trees are planted to check wind movement to protect soil cover.

5.   Grass Development: Plantation of trees & grasses on marginal and sub marginal land.

6.   Contour Barriers: Stone, gross, soils are used to build barrier along contours. Trenches are made in front of the boomers to collect water.

7.   Wind strip cropping: Grass and crop strip at right angle to wind direction.

8.   Stubble Mulching: Crop stubbles are left in the field and next crop planted with minimum tillage.

9.   Contour Bonding: Ravine land can be made cultivable by leveling followed by contour bonding. The medium and deep gullies can also be converted into productive wood lands.

10. Proper Drainage System in canal Project Area: The problem of water logging can be checked and overcome by introducing proper drainage system in the canal project area.

11. Rock Dam: Rock Dam is built to slow down its flow of water.

12. Dry Farming: D.F in and region is a method of conserving soil moisture preventing soil erosion.

13. Mulching: A layer of organic matter is made on soil. It helps to retain soil moisture.

14. Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternative rows to protect the soil form rain wash.

15. Contour Plugging: Plugging parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

16. Terrace Farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They reduce surface run off & soil erosion.

Distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.

There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of earlier.

The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.

The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.

The districts of Eastern plains i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur, South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.

The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur, Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.

The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.

The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e. Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.

The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43 cm in West Rajasthan.

In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.

The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100 years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.

Weather Seasons of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

The geographical diversity of the state causes varied weather conditions even during same season. However, Rajasthan has four distinct weather seasons:

1.   The Hot weather season (March to Mid June)

2.   The Season of general Rains or Rainy Season (June to September)

3.   The Season of Retreating Monsoon (October – November)

4.   The Cold Season (December to February)

The Hot Weather Season

The Hot whether season starts with movement of Sun toward the Tropic of Cancer in March. It ends in the month of June-July, when rainy seasons starts. In the months, the Sun overhead tropic of cancer so the temperature is Maximum in the month of June. The mean temperature of Rajasthan at this time is 38-39°C. However, the maximum temperature in western districts reaches at 45-50°C in day and minimum temperature 15-16°C.

  • The difference in temperature in sandy region is generally found 32-35°C. The Aravalli Range has lower temperature (30°C) due to its high elevation.

       Due to high temperature, the surface becomes very hot. Due to this, the hot and dry winds, known as ‘Loo’, blow from west to east direction.

Dry and hot winds known as ‘Loo’, blow in the afternoon, and very often, they continue to well into midnight. Dust storms in the evening are very common in May for south-eastern areas and in June for north-western part of state.

Average Mean Temperature: The maximum daily temperature in the western parts of Marusthali mainly at Bikaner, Phalodi, Barmer, and Jaisalmer goes upto 40-45 deg C.

Rainfall: Sometimes, the dust storms bring a welcome respite from the oppressing heat since they bring with them light rains and a pleasant cool breeze.

The Season of General Rains or Rainy Season

Due to high temperature in India in May – June, a center of low air pressure is created in the west and north-west India. While is temperature is low in Southern Hemisphere at this time, creates the high air pressure region.

The low air pressure created in the west and north-west India becomes so strong that it attracts the trade wind of Indian ocean coming from Southern hemisphere.

This southeast trade wind passes over the equatorial warm currents and brings the moisture in abundance. Then these winds enter the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and caught in the air circulation over India.

These trade winds follow the south-west direction. So monsoon created by these winds is known as South-west monsoons.

However these branches tries to reach low air pressure area, west and north-west India, the Rajasthan gets very less rainfall because of the following reasons:-

  • The Bay of Bengal branch already gives up its moisture during its passage through Ganga plain. Further, as Aravali range stretches from south-west to north-east direction, so western part of Rajasthan lies in leeward side of the Bay of Bengal branch and receives little or no rain from this branch.
  • The same Aravalli Range lies parallel to the direction of Arabian Sea branch and fails to interrupt this branch of monsoon. However, in the southern Aravallis, the mountains have slight east-west span thus Mount Abu in south receives highest rainfall.

The Season of Retreating Monsoon

The Months of October and November are known for Retreating Monsoons and it withdraws from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Ganga plain and the Central Highlands by the end of the month.

 By the end of September, the southwest monsoon becomes weak as the low Pressure trough of the Ganga plain starts Moving Southward in response to the Southward Movement of the Sun.

After 22nd September, the Sun begins to overhead in Southern Hemisphere. Due to this high air pressure area is created in southern hemisphere and low air pressure area in north and north-west India and due to this air Pressure difference, the monsoon retreat from western Rajasthan by the month of October.

The retreating south-west monsoon season is marked by clear sky and rise in temperature. The land is still moist. Due to this high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes oppressive. This Process is commonly known as ‘October heat’.

Average Mean Temperature: The temperature maximum ranging from 33-37 deg C and minimum ranging from 18 – 22 deg C.

The Cold Weather Season

This Season starts from December and continuous till February.

Average Mean Temperature: Ranges from 12 deg. C in North of State to 16 deg. C in the south in January.

Due to high air pressure in west and north-west India and low air pressure in Indian Ocean, the air flow from west and north-west India to Indian Ocean.

During this time, the north-western parts of India get the rainfall from shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the East Mediterranean Sea. This rainfall is also called ‘Mavath’.

During the cold season, the sun migrates to the southern hemisphere and creates high-pressure condition over the northern plain. As a result, winds start blowing from northwestern high pressure zone to the low air pressure zone over the Indian Ocean in the South.

shallow cyclonic depressions  at certain time interval originating over the East Mediterranean Sea and travelling eastwards across West Asia, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan before they reach the northwestern parts of India. On their way, the moisture content gets augmented from the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf in the south.

Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan: Geography of Rajasthan

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Climate and Climatic Regions of Rajasthan

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time.

Climatology or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography which is one of the Earth sciences.

Rajasthan Action Plan on Climate Change (RAPCC) builds on the key areas as identified Under the CCAR by prioritizing urgent areas of action in a phased and time-bound manner and it is in coherence with the Rajasthan State Environment Policy and Environment Mission while the RAPCC primarily focuses on risk reduction and adaptation measures. It also looks in to the co-benefits offered by specific strategies in the form of mitigation.

Task Force Constitution: The Rajasthan State Government established a ‘Climate Change and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Cell’ in the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB) to act as a nodal agency for coordinating issues related to climate change in the state. The Cell was constituted in April 2010 and was involved in the drafting of the CCAR. A Steering Committee has also been formed, headed by the Chief Secretary and Principal Secretaries of various key departments as members to monitor the implementation of various actions proposed under the Rajasthan Environment Mission. The state of Rajasthan has constituted a team to review the implementation of the Environment Mission. The composition of the Environment Mission includes:-

Chairperson: Chief Minister

 Convener: Principal Secretary, Environment

 Members: Ministers of the under-mentioned departments, Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries and Secretaries in-charge of the under mentioned departments:

1. Environment

2. Forests

3. Mines and Petroleum

4. Industries

5. Water Resources

6. Command Area Development

7. Agriculture

8. Urban Governance

9. Transport

10. Energy, renewable energy

11. Science and Technology

12. Plan

13. Finance

14. Policy Planning

The Steering Committee is chaired by the Chief Secretary, headed by the Principal Secretary of Environment and members from each designated department mentioned above. The Steering Committee includes participation from the non-governmental bodies. Their role is to review the implementation of each of the mission. For the implementation of the environment policy, Rajasthan environment mission and climate change agenda task forces have been constituted for different sectors viz.,

1. Industry

2. Water

3. Forestry and bio-diversity

4. Urban governance and sustainable habitat

5. Enhanced energy efficiency including solar energy

6. Strategic knowledge for climate change

The climate of Rajasthan state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus parameters have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.

However, three main approaches to climatic regions of Rajasthan are:

  1. Climatic regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity
  2. Koeppen’s classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan
  3. Thornthwaite’s classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on rainfall intensity

The distribution of climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature variations includes following divisions:

Arid Region:  A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Arid land or an arid climate is very dry because it has very little rain Water

The Arid region includes Jaisalmer district, northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and Southern parts of Ganganagar district and climate of the region is very severe and arid.

  1. Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.
  2. The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 35degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16 Deg Celsius.

Semi-arid Region: A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration but not as low as a desert climate; Semi-arid regions are those where rainfall is not enough to cover the growth needs of the vegetation all year round. That is aridity index (rainfall/potential evapotranspiration) is below 0.5 per cent.

The average temperature during winter season ranges between 10 deg C and 17 deg C and the summer season temperature range 32 deg C to 37 deg C.

  1. As the region has erratic as well as torrential rainfall it brings floods too each time and rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.
  2. The winter season is very short and arid in the northern parts of this region.
  3. This region comprises the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and Barmer districts.

Sub-humid Region: Regions where moisture in normally less than under humid conditions but still sufficient for the production of many agricultural crops without irrigation or drylands farming.

In the semi arid humid region, rainfall is meager and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few monsoon months only.

  1. The rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average temperature during summer season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is recorded 12 Deg C in northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.
  2. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi districts are included in this category.
  3. This region has Steppe type of vegetation.

Humid Region: A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined as large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters. This region receives winter rainfall associated with cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which varies from 60 to 80 cm and the deciduous trees dominate the region.

  • Humid region is found at the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and Rajsamand and the north-eastern parts of Udaipur.

Very Humid Region: Very humid region includes south-east Kota, Baran and Jhalawar, Banswara, south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the summers are very hot and winters are cold and dry.

  • Rainfall received is between 80 cm to 150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna type of vegetation is present in the region.

2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

Koeppen’s classification for the world climatic regions is totally based on the vegetation, as the effects of temperature and rainfall are directly evident and visible it. Here, the three categories are associated with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid) climates and Mild temperate climates respectively.

The classification of Rajasthan according to Koeppen’s is as follows:

Aw or Tropical Humid Region

  1. Winter season is arid and cool whereas summers experience scorching heat.
  2. Rainfall also mainly occurs in summer season.
  3. The temperature is more than 18 deg. C in the coldest month records.
  4. The southern parts of Dungarpur district and Banswara come under the region.
  5. Arid tropical grasslands and Savanna like region are found along with deciduous trees of monsoon type.

Bshw Climatic Region

  1. Vegetation is of steppe type characterized with thorny bushes and grasses.
  2. Region comprises the districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
  3. This climatic region is semi-arid, where winters are dry and even in summers there is no sufficient amount of rainfall.

Bwhw Climatic Region

  1. The region has arid-hot desert climate with very scanty rainfall.
  2. On the contrary the process of evaporation is very active.
  3. North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district are included in this category.
  4. Thus, these areas are known as desert region limited to western parts of Thar Desert.

Cwg Climatic Region

  1. The south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the part of the region.
  2. Seasonal winds do not bring rains to this region during winters.
  3. Rains are limited to few monsoon months only.

Aravalli Range & Hilly Region: Geography of Rajasthan

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Aravalli Range & Hilly Region

Aravalli: The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.

The principal and most dominant mountain range of Rajasthan is the Aravalli range. The geological history of the Aravalli range can be traced back probably close of the Dharwar times.

Rajasthan is the largest state in the Union of India and has more physical variations than any other state. It has regions of rolling sand dunes in the west to lofty rocks in the middle to fertile plains in the east. This range runs diagonally across the state from northeast near delhi and extends to southwest up to the Plains of Gujarat for a distance of about 692 km. The range runs from Khetri in the northeast to Khed Brahma in the Southwest within Rajasthan for a length of about 550 kilometers. It is composed of rocks belonging originally to the Delhi system, folded in a synclinorium occupying the site of the geosynclines which have been deeply eroded.

The whole of this Aravalli range and Hilly Region has been further subdivided into two physiographic units:

(i) Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau

This division constitutes east Sirohi, nearly the whole of Udaipur except a narrow belt in the east and whole of Dungarpur district.

The highest section of the Aravalli range known as ‘Bhorat’ Plateau lies northwest of Udaipur between Kumbhalgarh – Gogunda and the average elevation of this plateau is 1,225 metres.

(ii) North-Eastern Hilly Tract

Northern edge of Bhorat plateau marks the boundary of north eastern hilly tract in the southwest. North of Kumbhalgarh, especially at the Alwar hills the elevation varies between 550m to 670m.

Further north and northeast, the hills are broken and their elevation decreases in the final extension of hills south of delhi to about 306m above sea level. This level is about 60m to 90m above the surrounding plain.

Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau: Geography of Rajasthan

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Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau:

The eastern part along the Chambal River is covered by the Hadoti plateau. Four districts Kota, Baran, Bundi and Jhalawar are the part of this plateau. The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border. River Chambal drains in the large part of this area.

  • This region locally called Pathar and Uppermal
    • It comprises of the eastern & south-eastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti.
    • Bhilwara, Bundi, Kota, Baran and Jhalawar are the districts contain about 9.6% of the area of whole Rajasthan.
    • East of the plateau has a general slope toward Gwalior & catchment of Betwa river
    • The eastern, southern and south-west part bordered with Madhya pradesh.

The Plateau has been divided into two units

(a) Vindhyan Scrap Land

The scarp lands formed by massive sandstones separated by shale have an average elevation between 350m to 580m. The scarps are facing towards the south-southeast between the Banas and the Chambal and then it extend towards the east over Bundelkhand. A scarp block occupies the areas of Dholpur and Karauli. The region presents an undulating topography strewn with blocks, depressions and boulders.

(b) Deccan Lava Plateau

The Deccan Lava Plateau is also known as Pathar or Uppermal plateau. It is a wide stony upland including Kota-Bundi plateau section. The Chambal along with its tributaries Kali Sindh and Parbati form a triangular alluvial basin of 210m-275m at Kota and mostly black soil found in this region.

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                              

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                     
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                                 
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                                
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                                      

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of BengalChambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland RiversInland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                                            

(1) Salt Water LakesSambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan      

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                                     

3. Major Physiographic regions                                                                  

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar TractPlain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                                         

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall IntensityArid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic RegionCwg Climatic RegionRainfall Distribution, IMD forecast methodWater Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                         

National Livestock Mission (NLM)Dairy (Milch) breedsDraught breedsDual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                                

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                                          

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                                             

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                              

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:

10. Miscellaneous                                                                       

11. Practice MCQ

Geography of Rajasthan

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Western Sandy Plains                            

(a) Sandy Arid Plains

  • Marusthali
  • Dune free Tract

(b) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar

  • Luni Basin or Godwar Tract
  • Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

Western Sandy Plain

The western Plain covers a large part of Rajasthan in the west and the northwest of the Aravalli axis. Its northern boundary is marked by Punjab and the southwest by Gujarat and the western boundary is the international boundary between India and Pakistan. The eastern boundary of the western sandy plain is marked by the Aravalli range’s western sub-montane zone up to the northern point of Udaipur district. Beyond which the boundary is marked by the great Indian watershed and 50cm isohyets.

The surface of western Rajasthan is covered with vast stretches of sand occasionally interrupted by rocky protruding right up to the Pakistan border.

The Northwestern division is sandy, poorly watered and sterile. The Rajasthan desert in the west has been subdivided into several natural regions because of the Aravalli hills and the rocky terrain of Barmer-Jaisalmer-Bikaner tract.

Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Jalore, Sirohi, Pali, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar district are part of western sandy plain and the Luni, Sukri & Jawai rivers flow in rainy season in this area.

Its eastern portion is known as Thar desert which is perfectly dry & with desert Plants and Western Sandy Plain & Pakistan face each other across International boundary for about 1070 Km.

The Western Sandy Plains are subdivided into two units:

 (a) Sandy Arid Plain: Minimum rainfall- 50 Cm

There are vast expanses of sand & rock outcrops mainly limestone are found in Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar.

It further divided in two small sub groups:

1. Marusthali

2. Dune Free Tract

1. Marusthali – (Thar Desert)  

  1. It covered Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Churu Area
  2. Height of sand dunes varies from 6 m to 60 m
  3. Length of sand dunes – 3 km to 5 km
  4. Towards west this sandy arid Marushthali is known as Thar Desert.
  5. The Shifting of sand dunes is locally terms as Dharians.

What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.

Dunes: In geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by Aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.

1. Longitudinal Dunes

  • These are mostly run from south west to north east
  • Parallel to the prevailing winds & mostly sword-shaped type.
  • Its Longer axis is parallel to the direction of wind

 2. Transverse Dunes

  • These types of dunes are formed across the wind direction.
  • Commonly found in eastern & northern parts of Marusthali.
  • Windward side is long & gently sloping, while leeward side is steep and abrupt.
  • These are also called U-shaped dunes.

 3. Crescent Shaped Dunes

  • The Width of these types of dunes varies from 100 m to 200 m height of dunes-10 m to 20 m.
  • The dunes have a gently sloping convex windward side & steep leeward
  • These are found in isolation or occasionally side by side in lines.

 2. Dune Free Tract

  • It is rocky but dune free tract.
  • Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Phalodi & Pokhran are known as dune free areas.
  • Limestone & Sandstone rocks exposes here belong to Jurassic & Eocene formations.
  • Gneiss, Grid conglomerate, schist & granite rocks are also exposed at places. 

(b) Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar

The line dividing the Sandy Arid Plains and the Semi-Arid Transitional Plain is climatic, i.e. 25cm isohyets. The western-most belt which is ‘The Great Desert’ is covered by sand dunes which stretch from the Great Rann along the Pakistan border to Punjab. The degree and extent of sand dunes greatly influence the economic activity in this area. 63 per cent sand dune area of Rajasthan is concentrated in the desert districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

  • Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer districts covered in semi arid.
  • Area – 7500 Sq. Km
  • Rainfall – 20 cm
  • Gullying has given rise to conglomerate landscape. Its eastern part is covered with superficial sand deposits.

Towards north lies the Shekhawati tract which is semi arid transitional plain characterized by inland drainage & stream with salt lakes. Ghaggar Plain lies in extreme north.

Semi-Arid Transitional Plain or Rajasthan Bagar divided into:

1. Luni Basin: This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and flood occurs during the rainy season in Luni River.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga hills of Aravalli Range near Ana sagar lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Nagaur districts are part of this basin and the total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni river & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari river meets it.   

2. Shekhawati Region: Aravalli hills runs through this region from south to north, cutting into almost two halves and Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu & Nagaur districts are part of this region; the main occupation of this region is live stock, Milk production & dairy.

Topography of the Shekhawati tracts is characterized by an undulating sandy terrain traversed by longitudinal sand dunes. Kantli is the only seasonal river.

3. Ghaggar Plain: Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar river which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

4. Nagauri Upland: Average height of this region from sea level is 300 m to 500 meter and the rainfall in this region is 25 cm in west to 50 cm in east. This region is full of sand hills & low depressions and the temperature being high, the evaporation of the saline flood water results in the deposits of the Salt & Soda in the depression.

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Geography of Rajasthan

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