The Indian economy was in distress at the brink of the country’s independence. Being a colony, she was fulfilling the development needs not of herself, but of a foreign land. The state, that should have been responsible for breakthroughs in agriculture and industry, refused to play even a minor role in this regard. On the other hand, during the half century before India’s independence, the world was seeing accelerated development and expansion in agriculture and industry – on the behest of an active role being played by the states.
India has the world’s sixth largest economy in measures of GDP. It has the third largest purchasing power in the world. When we talk about the global economy, India is one of its fastest emerging players. Since our liberalization in 1991, the economy has opened up and given us plenty of opportunities to succeed. RAS Mains Indian Economy
In the Indian economy, both private sector and public sector companies co-exist in perfect harmony. The big industries, especially those for vast public use, are public sector companies. Some examples are MTNL, Mahanagar Gas etc. And the economy has seen a huge boost in the private sector as well since the liberalization in 1991. Hence India is the perfect example of a mixed economy.
One major advantage of India’s vast population is within the scope of human capital. And most of these human resources are youths. They are educated and skilled, giving India a huge advantage in the global market. They now need adequate employment opportunities to be successful.
British rulers never made any significant changes for the benefit of the social sector, and this hampered the productive capacity of the economy. During independence, India’s literacy was only 17 percent, with a life expectancy of 32.5 years. Therefore, once India became independent, systematic organisation of the economy was a real challenge for the government of that time. The need for delivering growth and development was in huge demand in front of the political leadership – as the country was riding on the promises and vibes of national fervour. Many important and strategic decisions were taken by 1956, which are still shaping India’s economic journey.
One of the most important sectors of the Indian economy remains Agriculture. Its share in the GDP of the country has declined and is currently at 14%. However, more than 50% of the total population of the country is still dependent on agriculture. Keeping this in mind, the Union Budget 2017 – 18 gave high priority to the agricultural sector and aimed to double farmers’ incomes by 2022. RAS Mains Indian Economy
Besides these developments and reforms, it is imperative to bear in mind that in order to tap the highest potential of the economy and ensure good governance, an optimal level of synergy is required between the central and state government. This will not only add strength to our cooperative federal structure but will also strengthen India’s economy. Initiatives such as – • Goods and Services Tax (GST) • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) • Startup India • Digital India
The religious trends of this period witnessed the rise of the Muslim community and the Muslim world. Christians and Christendom saw the end of the Crusades. Religious Unity under the Roman Church came to an end. Moreover, in this period, the Inquisitions and Protestant reformations also took place. RAS Mains General Studies
The contemporary history includes the span of historical events starting from 1945. These events are most relevant to the present time and scenario. Many historians describe the early modern period as the time frame between 1500 and 1800. This period mainly follows the Late Middle Ages period. Further, it is marked by the initial European colonies, beginnings of recognizable nation-states as well as the rise of strong centralized governments.
Also during the early modern period, people witnessed the age of discovery and trade. This happened as a result of the collective effort of the Western European nations. Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France went on a colonial expansion. These nations took possession of lands and set up colonies in Africa, southern Asia, and North and South America. Turkey went on to colonize Southeastern Europe, and parts of the West Asia and North Africa. Russian on the other hand, took possession in Eastern Europe, Asia, and North America.
In the Ottoman Empire and Africa, the Muslim expansion took place in East and North Africa. However, in West Africa, several native nations existed. The civilizations of Southeast Asia and the Indian Empires played a pivotal role in the spice trade. In the Indian subcontinent, the presence of Great Mughal Empire was strong. Moreover, the archipelagic empires, the Sultanate of Malacca and later the Sultanate of Johor, exercised power over the southern areas. RAS Mains General Studies
In the Asian subcontinent, different Japanese shogunate and the Chinese dynasties held power. The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 in Japan is regarded as the early modern period. On the other hand, in Korea, the period from the rising of Joseon Dynasty to the enthronement of King Gojong is referred to as the early modern period.
In the Americas, Native Americans started a huge and distinct civilization which included the Aztec Empire and alliance, the Inca civilization, the Mayan Empire and cities, and the Chibcha Confederation. However, in the west, the European kingdoms and movements were in a movement of reformation and expansion. Russia made its way to the Pacific coast in 1647. It went on to consolidate the control over the Russian Far East in the 19th century.
World History Important Questions
What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression?
American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate.
Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse.
“Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what west had experience.
The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present?
The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.
What problems are germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula? RAS Mains General Studies
Major changes in Europe caused the medieval period to give way to a new, livelier period. As trade with the East increased, Europeans rediscovered the classical knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome. This knowledge led to a period of creativity and learning called the Renaissance. A new focus on the individual emerged, contributing to new ideas about religion. These ideas caused a struggle in Christianity known as the Reformation. RAS Mains General Studies
The movement and displacement of people following the Black Plague and Crusades encouraged the development of a more globalized culture. In this unit, you will discover how ideas impacted cultural and religious change in Europe after the middle Ages.
American Revolution was perhaps the first
manifestation of this feeling. This feeling was also quite evident in France
during and after French Revolution. It became contagious in Europe after ideals
of French revolution spread in other states.
Nationalism is a modern movement in which loyalty of individuals is not to vested interests, a monarch or political group, but to a nation of people. Earlier loyalties were attached to land (in feudal society), territory and so on.
We have made every effort to touch almost all spheres of Indian Art & Culture for RPSC RAS Mains Exam as per syllabus, including architectural developments in ancient, medieval & modern India, music & dances of India, development of paintings, literature, language and cinema etc.
India is a nation where you can observe an ideal merged of countless traditions and culture. Indian culture and heritage is so unique and valuable. The customs and traditions practiced in a particular area of the nation are usually influenced by the geographical and climatic conditions of that area as well as spotlight of the area to other cultures. Moreover, there are numerous regions where cultural practices are based on the local needs of the people. Overseas invaders who attacked the country also brought with them their customs and traditions which ultimately merged with the local cultures of India. This merging of cultures created new forms of art, music, dance, and structural design. It is through the art and craft that the enthusiasm, creative power and artistic quality of Indian culture, Indian heritage and Indian cultural values is manifested. Indus Valley society was followed by the Vedic era in India. Vedic era that lasted for about 1000 years from 1500 BC to 500 BC was distinguished by Indo-Aryan civilization and the Vedas, the sacred books for the Hindus. This was the era when a new social government system or kingdoms joined in the civilization known as Mahajanapadas. These were the great kingdoms which joined mostly across the Indo-Gangetic plains. Magadha grew as a main kingdom throughout this age, while Nalanda University became a great learning institution of the world. In around 6th century BC, birth of two great philosophers and thinkers on the land of India gave a new path to history of India. These two thinkers were Gautam Buddha and Mahavira. The philosophies of Buddha and Mahavira spread in main part of India which ultimately led to the birth to two new religions – Buddhism and Jainism. RPSC RAS Mains Exam
Art and Culture plays an
important role in the development of any nation. It represents a set of shared
attitudes, values, goals and practices. Culture and creativity manifest
themselves in almost all economic, social and other activities. A country as
diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture.
The architectural styles
in India have been really influenced with the overseas styles that reached
India with overseas invaders. Muslim and European styles are the famous
architectural styles that combined with Indian styles. Stupas, Chaityas,
Stambhas, Viharas, rock-cut temples, etc., are some of types of structures that
were built on a big scale in earliest India
India has one of the
world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions,
performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as
the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ (ICH) of humanity. In order to preserve
these elements, the Ministry of Culture implements a number of schemes and
programmes aimed at providing financial support to individuals, groups and
cultural organizations engaged in performing, visual and literary arts etc.
India is known for its penchant for creating sculptural art in caves and temples out of rocks and mountains since the earliest of times. Indian architecture, sculpture and painting went hand-in-hand, creating the beautiful synthesis in the work you see today. The love for colour and design in painting, dance, music or drama has always been a part of the Indian soul. Miniature paintings date back to 11th and 12th Centuries AD. Indian art is deeply rooted in tradition, gods, deities, epical themes, and also warfare. Our classical dance and music is world renowned for its magnificence. Stunning handicrafts and textiles are carried home with a lot of pleasure and enthusiasm by tourists visiting India. RAS Mains GS Paper
A country as diverse as
India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture. India has one of the
world’s largest collection of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions,
performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known as
the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ of humanity.
India is the territory where countless dance forms developed. The folk dances in India describe the specialty of a specific state or tribe. Each dance form, including the classical dance, is characterized by its ideal costume, make-up, elegance and style. The rules of classical dances are being followed for 100s of years by the dancers. Gracious postures and movements of face, eyebrow, cheeks, eyeballs, etc. make a vital part of different classical dance types in India. A classical dancer as well learns to portray different feelings with expressions of face and movements of different body parts. The main classical dance forms in India include Kuchipudi, Manipuri, Odissi, Ottan Thullal, Krishnattam, Bharatanatyam dance style developed in Tamil Nadu state., Kathak dance form developed in Hindu temples in north India and was refined for hundreds of years., Mohini Attam, Chakiarkoothu, Chhau, Koodiyattam, etc.
This painting outline started flourishing in India from very beginning periods. Indian paintings are mostly categorized as murals and miniatures. Murals are the painting works that are done on the walls of buildings. Some good examples of mural work in India include temples of Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Ajanta, Kanchipuram, etc. Miniatures, as the name suggests, are the small paintings done on papers, clothes, etc. The most excellent examples of these paintings are Mughal and Rajasthani miniatures as well Tanjore paintings and Madhubani paintings. RPSC RAS Mains Exam
India is a land of
diversities. This diversity is also visible in the spheres of religion. The
major religions of India are Hinduism (majority religion), Islam (largest
minority religion), Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism,
Judaism and the Bahá’í Faith. India is a land where people of different
religions and cultures live in harmony. This harmony is seen in the celebration
of festivals. The message of love and brotherhood is expressed by all the
religions and cultures of India.
Whether it’s the gathering
of the faithful, bowing in prayer in the courtyard of a mosque, or the
gathering of lamps that light up houses at Diwali, the good cheer of Christmas
or the brotherhood of Baisakhi, the religions of India are celebrations of shared
emotion that bring people together. People from the different religions and
cultures of India, unite in a common chord of brotherhood and amity in this
fascinating and diverse land.
MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. RPSC RAS Mains Exam
It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments. General Studies Rajasthan GK
This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book. General Studies Rajasthan GK
Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.
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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the complete syllabus of RPSC RAS/RTS and University exams.
Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
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(1)Rivers that drain in
the Bay of Bengal: Chambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal
link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach
River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2)
Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati
River (3) Inland Rivers: Inland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi
River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari
River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and
Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River
(v)Lakes in Rajasthan
(1) Salt Water Lakes: Sambhar
Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand
, Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake,
NLCP in Rajasthan
3. Major Physiographic
(1) Aravalli Range and
Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau,
Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains-
Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan
Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar Tract, Plain of Interior Drainage or
4. Natural Vegetation and
Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed
Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise
forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall
Intensity: Arid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region,
Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of
Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic
Region, Cwg Climatic Region, Rainfall Distribution, IMD forecast
method, Water Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity,
Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity
conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of
Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan
5. Livestock, wildlife and
National Livestock Mission (NLM), Dairy (Milch) breeds, Draught breeds, Dual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow, Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan. General Studies Rajasthan GK
6. Agriculture – Major
Major Irrigation Projects:
Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada
Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation
system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank
Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel
Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi,
Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar,
Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber
7. Mineral resources
(1) Metallic Minerals – Types,
Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation
(2) Non-Metallic Minerals
Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other
8. Energy Resources
Classification of Power
Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional:
Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major
power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major
projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
9. Population and Tribes
Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development: General Studies Rajasthan GK
11. Practice Questions
1. Ancient History of Rajasthan (Stone Age to 700 AD)
2. Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 AD to 1700 AD)
3. Modern History of Rajasthan
4. Practice Questions
Rajasthan Polity & Administration
Govt of India Acts
Important term used in Polity
Council of Ministers
State Legal Service Authority
Adalats in Rajasthan
Government in Rajasthan
Raj in Rajasthan
Constitutional, Statutory & Executive bodies
Public Service Commission
General of Rajasthan
State Human Rights Commission
State Information Commission
State Commission for Women
Minister’s Advisory Council
Economy of Rajasthan
Rajasthan: an introduction to Economy
Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan
National Income: Basic Concepts
Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
Fiscal Policy of India: Meaning, Objectives and Impacts on the Economy
Classification and Operations of Commercial Banks in India
Money Supply and Inflation
National Development Council
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Rajasthan
Special Economic Zones – SEZ-Rajasthan
Transport Infrastructure of Rajasthan
Urban Infrastructure in Rajasthan
Rural Development in Rajasthan
Special Area Development Programmes
National Family Health Survey-Rajasthan
Skill development in Rajasthan
Unemployment in Rajasthan
Poverty in Rajasthan
Agriculture Sector in Rajasthan
Service Sector in Rajasthan
Industrial Sector in Rajasthan
Industries of Rajasthan
Important Departments & Organisations
Policies, Concessions & Facilities for Industries in Rajasthan
RPSC RAS/RTS Main Exam General Studies Paper-1: General Knowledge and General Studies : Unit-I, Part A – History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition & Heritage of Rajasthan. RPSC RAS GS Paper
Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan
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It is a land of
art, crafts and festivals which will fascinate peoples from India and
foreigners also. Every fair and festival is a reflection of its rich art and
craft in terms of bazaars, music, dance, cuisine, sport events which provides
an opportunity to gain an insight view of the life & culture of Rajasthan.
Its art can be seen in terms of handicraft items made of stone, clay, leather,
wood, ivory, glass, silver, gold, brass and textiles.
Rajasthan is renowned the world over for its hand-printed textiles, jewellery, painting, furniture, leatherwork, pottery and metal craft, The use of exuberant colours and ornate, designs are some unique features of the artwork of the state. Extensive areas of Rajasthan are monotone, beige –brown desert but the dramatic spectacle and visual variety that pervade it make it one of the most vibrantly colourful of Indian states. These paradoxes are seen again and again- a recurring motif reflected in its decorative arts and crafts. Though time and again, it has been ravaged by invaders from all across the world, Rajasthan still houses the most opulent and rich treasures. Its history is a long saga of blood feuds and violent battles, but the forbidding stone battlements of its forts shield mirrored rooms and marble carvings of delicacy and grace.
that sometimes were a deterrent to the freedom of women were also marvels of
exquisite ornamentation. The jeweled belts and anklets that adorned them were
not just ornaments but also rich symbols of love and pride. Needless to say, as
an intimate part of everyday life, Rajasthani art and culture has withstood the
vicissitudes of industrialism and tourism.
Rajasthan and its crafts are a source of endless fascination-whether one
approaches them for purely visual, aesthetic pleasure or pauses to savoir the
underlying history, culture and symbolism. Not all Rajasthani crafts however, have
originated locally. Rajasthan was on the ancient trade route, which exposed its
people to different cultures and traditions. Traces of these can be still seen
in the various art forms. Sculptures that date back to 10th century has been
found along with cave paintings, terracotta works in Baroli and Hadoti regions
are live testimonials of Rajasthan’s allegory of love.
that kings and their kinsmen were patrons of arts and crafts and they
encouraged their craftsmen in activities ranging from wood and marble carving
to weaving, pottery and painting.
battles amongst the Rajputs and other invaders were not only a time for change
for the people but also art and culture. When a kingdom fell and a new ruler
took over, it was time for change paintings depicting the new ruler’s victory,
scenes from the battle and processions of the victorious march were faithfully
reproduced on the walls and handmade paper. Rajputs, who sacrificed wealth,
power, territory and life itself, to withstand the Mughals were also impressed
by their art and aesthetics, taking styles, symbols and techniques, often
stealing artisans and incorporating them into their own eclectic, rich
Clothes-their colour, design and cut-may tell people which village and caste someone comes from, but it is the jewellery in which people’s wealth is invested. In most Rajasthani villages, it is silver. Huge and heavy chunks of it are worn around ankles, waist, neck and wrists, dangling in rings from ears, nose and hair, in chains of buttons down the kurta or choli fronts. The beautiful, ornate designs of Adivasi jewellery have now become fashionable among the urban elite and can be bought everywhere. The aristocracy and the well-to-do did not wear silver. Kundan and enamel jewellery inlaid with precious stones was a speciality of Rajasthan, particularly of Jaipur. Rajasthan has abundant deposits of semi precious and precious stones that are much in demand these days. RPSC RAS GS Paper
Ivory: The ivory
bangles that most Rajasthani women wear are considered auspicious. Ivory is
also inlaid and shaped into intricate items of great beauty. Miniature
paintings were also painted on ivory.
Lac and Glass: Lac
bangles are made in bright colours and sometimes inlaid with glass. Other
decorative and functional items are also available.
Wood: Carved wood is presented in a wide range of objects and is simple and
statues on religious themes can be seen all over the state. In fact in some
cities, there are still entire lanes where the stone carvers can be seen giving
final touches to statues or even pillars. Other crafts like blue pottery, hand
block printing, tie and dye, terracotta sculptures, painting on camel hide,
embroidery, cloth painting, carpets, durries, inlay work on brass and wood are
to be found all over Rajasthan.
The rich heritage of Rajasthan manifests itself in its unique art and culture. The latticed havelis, ornate palaces and intricately carved temples, the architectural beauty of forts and palaces symbolize the skills of its artists. On the other hand, its colourful fairs & festivals with traditional dance and music represent a unique culture of this vibrant state. RPSC RAS GS Paper
Rajasthan is famous
for its forts, intricately carved temples, and decorated havelis, which were
built by Rajput kings in pre-Muslim era Rajasthan. Rajasthan’s Jaipur Jantar
Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Chittorgarh Fort, Lake Palace, miniature paintings in
Bundi, and numerous city palaces and havelis are an important part of the
architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the Pink City, is noted for the
ancient houses made of a type of sand stone dominated by a pink hue. In Bundi,
maximum houses are painted blue. At Ajmer, the white marble Bara-dari on the
Anasagar Lake is exquisite.
Jain Temples of
Rajasthan from north to south and east to west, Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu,
Ranakpur Temple dedicated to Lord Adinath in Pali District, Jain temples in the
fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodurva Jain temples,
Mirpur Jain Temples, Sarun Mata Temple Kotputli, Bhandasar and Karni Mata
Temple of Bikaner are some of the best examples.
Each region of Rajasthan has a different and diverse form of art, culture and heritage.
“Literature in Rajasthan” means all the
literature works that has been created within geographical boundary of
Rajasthan from start of time till now.
The Rajasthani literature written in various genres but, it is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Surajmal Mishran. His most important works are the Vansa Bhaskara and the Vir Satsai. The Vans Bhaskar contains accounts of the Rajput princes who ruled in what was then Rajputana (at present the state of Rajasthan), during the lifetime of the poet (1872–1952). The Vir Satsai is a collection of hundreds of couplets. RPSC RAS GS Paper
Medieval Rajasthani literature is mostly poetry only and it is more about the heroic poetry mentioning of the great kings and fighters of the Rajasthan as said by Rabindra Nath Tagore once, “The heroic sentiment which is the essence of every song and couplet of a Rajasthani is peculiar emotion of its own of which, however, the whole country may be proud”. Rajasthani literature is created by mostly Charans Earlier Rajasthani was known as Charani (or dingal), which was close to Gujarati. As a result, it includes Sanskrit, Prakrit, Rajasthani, Hindi and other Language works. RPSC RAS GS Paper
It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for RPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Rajasthan Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like RPSC and Other Rajasthan State PSC exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Rajasthan based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.
Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, RPSC and Other exams across the State. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever
necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts,
mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process
flexible and interesting.
Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Rajasthan General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The Rajasthan state
was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.
Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar Desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest Indian state with an
area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area
of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches
lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The
Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara
The Aravalli ranges
are India’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range
continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.
The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state
is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky
terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with
thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.
Rajasthan has its
important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow
/originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati,
Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.
The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The Thar Desert or the Great Indian Desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar Desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar Desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus River. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions. The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Different Regions of Rajasthan:
1. Ahirwal- This
include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in
Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.
2. Bagar tract- This
include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar
3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur
region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and
northern part of Karauli.
South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati
and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.
5. Hadoti- districts
like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.
6. Marwar- “Jodhpur
region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.
7. Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In
this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand,
Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P.
and some parts of Gujarat.
8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.
10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
Rajasthan: Important Facts
342,239 km2 (Biggest
state of India in terms of land)
6.85 cr (2011 census)
Official language (Hindi), Additional
official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the
Indo-Aryan languages family.
Rajasthan has a tropical desert
climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching
sun tortures the land from March to September.
25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative
Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Major Cities (population)
Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101),
Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai
Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh
Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj
Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm)
The Thar Desert
Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and
Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of
total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert
State of India”.)
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census)
928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio
888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances
Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum
Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi
dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli
The six forts — Chittorgarh,
Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and
Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th
session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil
Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,
Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%),
Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%),
Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas &
Population-List (As per census – 2011)
Political Background of Rajasthan
The Human settlement record in Rajasthan state dates back to around 5000 years ago with sections of Rajasthan at the spirit of the Indus Valley Civilization. This area was earlier known as Gurjaratra, the area protected and ruled by the Gurjars. Later the name changed to Rajputana. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
George Thomas was the first in 1800, to term this region the Rajputana Agency. The historian John Keay in his book, India: A History stated that the Rajputana name was coined by the British but that the word achieved a retrospective authenticity: in an 1829 translation of Ferishta’s history of early Islamic India, John Briggs discarded the phrase “Indian princes”, as rendered in Dow’s earlier version, and substituted “Rajpoot princes”. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
James Tod was the first one to use the name Rajasthan. He
mentioned it in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the
Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, prior to that the land was called
as Rajputana by the Britishers in 1800. The place was never untied so
there is no defined boundary of Rajputana. As there were more Rajput kings,
this leads to the name Rajputana.
We actually do not have any other name of Rajasthan prior
to Rajputana as first mentioned that they were never united and once the
Britishers started ruling India they gave it a name Rajputana.
In ancient period west of western Rajasthan was called Maru. Central Rajasthan was Shakambhari, SE Rajasthan was under Malwa state and a whole it was in “Aryavarta“. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
The unification of Rajasthan was completed in seven
stages, and resulted in Rajasthan as we see it today.
The credit for the unification goes to the ‘Iron man
of India’, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
What is unification?
The act, process, or result of bringing or coming
together into or as if into a single unit or group unification of a divided
state or nation.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is not only known for the
unification of rajasthan but he united India by merging different princely
states. He keeps forming unions, by luring the Princes of different states for
the post of head of United States.
The ruler of largest state was made the Head of State and
then when a new state was merged with the union, the prince of that state was
made the head.
To keep others in good gesture, new posts of Deputy
Head, and Prime Minister were also introduced.
Integration of Rajasthan Seven Stages of formation of Rajasthan (1948-1956)
Udaipur also joined with the other Union of Rajasthan.
Bikaner, Jaipur, Jaisalmer & Jodhpur also joined with the United State of Rajasthan.
United State of Greater Rajasthan
Matsya Union also merged in Greater Rajasthan
18 States of United Rajasthan merged with Princely State Sirohi except Abu and Delwara.
Under the State Re-organisation Act, 1956 the erstwhile part ‘C’ State of Ajmer, Abu Road Taluka, former part of princely State Sirohi which was merged in former Bombay, State and Sunel Tappa region of the former Madhya Bharat merged with Rajasthan and Sironj subdistrict of Jhalawar district was transferred to Madhya Pradesh.
(1)17 March 1948: Formation of ‘Matsya Union’
The states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli
Joined to form the “Matsya Sangh” and Dholpur Ruler, Udaybhan Singh was
chosen as the Union Head or Rajpramukh, along with Shobaram Kumawat from Alwar
of Indian National Congress was the Prime Minister of the State from 18 March
1948 till 15 May 1949.
On 15 May 1949, the Matsya Union was merged with Greater Rajasthan to form the United State of Greater Rajasthan, which later became the state of Rajasthan on 26 January 1950.
(2) 25 March 1948: Constituting of Rajasthan Union
Separate from Matsya Sangh, the states of Banswara,
Bundi, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Kota, Tonk, Pratapgarh, Kishangarh and Shahpura
Joined to from another union known as Rajasthan Union.
Bhim Singh of Kota was chosen as the Head of the state, Kota being the
largest of the unified states. Bhadursingh of Bundi was appointed as the
(3) 18 April 1948:
United States of Rajasthan
Subsequently the Udaipur state (Mewar) also got united in
Rajasthan union on April 18, 1948. The name was then changed to United
Rajasthan. The State of Udaipur was also made to join the union, by Sardar
Patel, by giving the perks of the Head of State of new union and Udaipur
was also made the capital of Union.
Three days after inauguration of Rajasthan Union, the Maharana of Udaipur decided to join this Union which was accepted. The Maharana of Udaipur was appointed as Rajpramukh and the Kota Naresh was appointed as Up- Rajpramukh of this Union and the Cabinet was formed under the leadership of Shri Manikya Lal Verma. This United States of Rajasthan was inaugurated by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru on 18 April, 1948. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020
(4) 30 March 1949: Greater Rajasthan
The formation of the United States of Rajasthan paved the
way for the merger of big states like Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur and Jodhpur
with the Union and formation of Greater Rajasthan. It was formally
inaugurated on 30 March, 1949 by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. The Maharana Bhupal
Singh of Udaipur was appointed as the Maha-Rajpramukh and the Kota Naresh was
appointed as the Up- Rajpramukh and the Cabinet was formed under the leadership
of Shri Hira Lala Shastri.
It was the most important step in Unification process, and that is why 30 March is also celebrated as the Rajasthan Day.
(5)15 May 1949: United States of Greater Rajasthan
On 15 May, 1949 Finally Matsya Union was merged with
Greater Rajasthan. The post of Prime minister was discontinued and a Chief
Minister office was constituted. Hiralal Shastri became the first Chief
Minister of Rajasthan.
(6) 26 January 1950: United Rajasthan
18 states of United Rajasthan & princely state of
Sirohi got merged with exception of Abu & Delwara. It was completed by 26
Sirohi was the last princely state to be merged into the
union, and United Rajasthan came into being. The name of Rajasthan was given
duly to the union.
Re-organization Act (1956)
This stage completed the integration, formation and
reorganization of state of Rajasthan and took place because of State
Re-organization Act of 1956. Under this, the erstwhile part ‘C’ State of Ajmer,
Abu Road Taluka, former part of princely State Sirohi which was merged in
former Bombay State and Sunel Tappa region of the former Madhya Bharat merged
with Rajasthan and Sironj subdistrict of Jhalawar district was transferred to
Madhya Pradesh. The process got completed on 1 November 1956 and Mohanlal
Sukhadia became Chief Minister and Gurumukh Nihal Singh became
Some facts related to unification process of Rajasthan:
The ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, wanted to join the Union of Pakistan but due to the efforts of Patel and V.P. Menon, finally agreed to accede to India.
Banswara State Maharawal, Chandra veer Singh, while signing the accession documents, commented, “I am signing on my death warrant“.
Jodhpur was the largest state while Shahpura was the smallest in terms of area.
Tonk was the only state under Muslim Ruler, while Bharatpur and Dholpur were under Jat Rajas, remaining was under Rajputs.
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the “Great Indian Desert”) and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.
Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Kalibanga and Balathal, the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan’s only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range and in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site known for its bird life. Rajasthan is also home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota……………
The state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Kota, Bikaner, Ajmer and Udaipur. The economy of Rajasthan is the ninth-largest state economy in India with ₹9.24 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000, Rajasthan ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index.
Parts of what is now Rajasthan were partly part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Another archaeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilisation dating back to 3000 – 1500 BC.
Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state. Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India is said to roughly correspond to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratnagar (modern Bairat), which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata.
Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava also locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana.
The Western Kshatrapas (405–35 BC), the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, and were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with their calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state.
The Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was openly acknowledged by the Arab writers. He further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Gurjars, Jats, Meenas, Bhils, Rajpurohit, Charans, Yadavas, Bishnois, Meghwals, Sermals, Rajput Malis and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting their culture and the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Brahmins, according to Outlook constituted 8% to 10% of the population of Rajasthan as per a 2003 report, but only 7% in a 2007 report. According to a 2007 DNA India report, 12.5% of the states are Brahmins.
Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the invading Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. In 1192 CE, Muhammad Ghori decisively defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. After the defeat of Chauhan in 1192 CE, a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthambhore was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. The Rajputs resisted the Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput kingdoms eventually became subservient to the Delhi Sultanate.
The Rajputs put up resistance to the Islamic invasions with their warfare and chivalry for centuries. The Rana’s of Mewar led other kingdoms in its resistance to outside rule. Rana Hammir Singh defeated the Tughlaq dynasty and recovered a large portion of Rajasthan. The indomitable Rana Kumbha defeated the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat and made Mewar the most powerful Rajput Kingdom in India. The ambitious Rana Sanga united the various Rajput clans and fought against the foreign powers in India. Rana Sanga defeated the Afghan Lodi Empire of Delhi and crushed the Turkic Sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat. Rana Sanga then tried to create an Indian empire but was defeated by the first Mughal Emperor Babur at Khanua. The defeat was due to betrayal by the Tomar king Silhadi of Raisen. After Rana Sangas death there was no one who could check the rapid expansion of the Mughal Empire.
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Macheri in Alwar District in 1501. He won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, and defeated Akbar’s forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the “Hindu Raj” in North India, albeit for a short duration, from Purana Quila in Delhi. Hem Chandra was killed in the battlefield at Second Battle of Panipat fighting against Mughals on 5 November 1556.
During Akbar’s reign most of the Rajput kings accepted Mughal suzerainty, but the rulers of Mewar (Rana Udai Singh II) and Marwar (Rao Chandra sen Rathore) refused to have any form of alliance with the Mughals. To teach the Rajputs a lesson Akbar attacked Udai Singh and killed Rajput commander Jaimal of Chittor and the citizens of Mewar in large numbers. Akbar killed 20 – 25,000 unarmed citizens in Chittor on the grounds that they had actively helped in the resistance.
RAS WORLD GEOGRAPHY NOTES : General Studies Paper-II- RAS/RTS Mains Examination Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology) Part A- World • Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers • Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact • Earth and its Geological time scale • Current Geopolitical Problems – RAS WORLD GEOGRAPHY NOTES