RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I:Unit II-Part A- Indian Economy

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I:Unit II-Part A- Indian Economy: Rajasthan Administrative Services Mains Exams Indian Economy Study Material. RAS Mains Indian Economy

Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.

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The Indian economy was in distress at the brink of the country’s independence. Being a colony, she was fulfilling the development needs not of herself, but of a foreign land. The state, that should have been responsible for breakthroughs in agriculture and industry, refused to play even a minor role in this regard. On the other hand, during the half century before India’s independence, the world was seeing accelerated development and expansion in agriculture and industry – on the behest of an active role being played by the states.

India has the world’s sixth largest economy in measures of GDP. It has the third largest purchasing power in the world. When we talk about the global economy, India is one of its fastest emerging players. Since our liberalization in 1991, the economy has opened up and given us plenty of opportunities to succeed.  RAS Mains Indian Economy


In the Indian economy, both private sector and public sector companies co-exist in perfect harmony. The big industries, especially those for vast public use, are public sector companies. Some examples are MTNL, Mahanagar Gas etc. And the economy has seen a huge boost in the private sector as well since the liberalization in 1991. Hence India is the perfect example of a mixed economy.

One major advantage of India’s vast population is within the scope of human capital. And most of these human resources are youths. They are educated and skilled, giving India a huge advantage in the global market. They now need adequate employment opportunities to be successful.

British rulers never made any significant changes for the benefit of the social sector, and this hampered the productive capacity of the economy. During independence, India’s literacy was only 17 percent, with a life expectancy of 32.5 years. Therefore, once India became independent, systematic organisation of the economy was a real challenge for the government of that time. The need for delivering growth and development was in huge demand in front of the political leadership – as the country was riding on the promises and vibes of national fervour. Many important and strategic decisions were taken by 1956, which are still shaping India’s economic journey.

One of the most important sectors of the Indian economy remains Agriculture. Its share in the GDP of the country has declined and is currently at 14%. However, more than 50% of the total population of the country is still dependent on agriculture. Keeping this in mind, the Union Budget 2017 – 18 gave high priority to the agricultural sector and aimed to double farmers’ incomes by 2022. RAS Mains Indian Economy

Besides these developments and reforms, it is imperative to bear in mind that in order to tap the highest potential of the economy and ensure good governance, an optimal level of synergy is required between the central and state government. This will not only add strength to our cooperative federal structure but will also strengthen India’s economy. Initiatives such as – 
•    Goods and Services Tax (GST) 
•    Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) 
•    Startup India 
•    Digital India

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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part C: History of Modern World

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part C: History of Modern World. RPSC RAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-1 Study Material.  RAS Mains General Studies

History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

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The religious trends of this period witnessed the rise of the Muslim community and the Muslim world. Christians and Christendom saw the end of the Crusades. Religious Unity under the Roman Church came to an end. Moreover, in this period, the Inquisitions and Protestant reformations also took place. RAS Mains General Studies

The contemporary history includes the span of historical events starting from 1945. These events are most relevant to the present time and scenario. Many historians describe the early modern period as the time frame between 1500 and 1800. This period mainly follows the Late Middle Ages period. Further, it is marked by the initial European colonies, beginnings of recognizable nation-states as well as the rise of strong centralized governments.

Also during the early modern period, people witnessed the age of discovery and trade. This happened as a result of the collective effort of the Western European nations. Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France went on a colonial expansion. These nations took possession of lands and set up colonies in Africa, southern Asia, and North and South America. Turkey went on to colonize Southeastern Europe, and parts of the West Asia and North Africa. Russian on the other hand, took possession in Eastern Europe, Asia, and North America.

In the Ottoman Empire and Africa, the Muslim expansion took place in East and North Africa. However, in West Africa, several native nations existed. The civilizations of Southeast Asia and the Indian Empires played a pivotal role in the spice trade. In the Indian subcontinent, the presence of Great Mughal Empire was strong. Moreover, the archipelagic empires, the Sultanate of Malacca and later the Sultanate of Johor, exercised power over the southern areas. RAS Mains General Studies

In the Asian subcontinent, different Japanese shogunate and the Chinese dynasties held power. The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 in Japan is regarded as the early modern period. On the other hand, in Korea, the period from the rising of Joseon Dynasty to the enthronement of King Gojong is referred to as the early modern period.

In the Americas, Native Americans started a huge and distinct civilization which included the Aztec Empire and alliance, the Inca civilization, the Mayan Empire and cities, and the Chibcha Confederation. However, in the west, the European kingdoms and movements were in a movement of reformation and expansion. Russia made its way to the Pacific coast in 1647. It went on to consolidate the control over the  Russian Far East in the 19th century.

World History Important Questions

  1. What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression?
  2. American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate.
  3. Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse.
  4. “Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what west had experience.
  5. The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
  6. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
  7. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
  8. To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
  9. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present?
  10. The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.
  11. What problems are germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula? RAS Mains General Studies

Major changes in Europe caused the medieval period to give way to a new, livelier period.  As trade with the East increased, Europeans rediscovered the classical knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome.  This knowledge led to a period of creativity and learning called the Renaissance.  A new focus on the individual emerged, contributing to new ideas about religion.  These ideas caused a struggle in Christianity known as the Reformation. RAS Mains General Studies

The movement and displacement of people following the Black Plague and Crusades encouraged the development of a more globalized culture.  In this unit, you will discover how ideas impacted cultural and religious change in Europe after the middle Ages.

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

American Revolution was perhaps the first manifestation of this feeling. This feeling was also quite evident in France during and after French Revolution. It became contagious in Europe after ideals of French revolution spread in other states.

Nationalism is a modern movement in which loyalty of individuals is not to vested interests, a monarch or political group, but to a nation of people. Earlier loyalties were attached to land (in feudal society), territory and so on.

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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part B: Indian History & Culture

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I: General Knowledge and General Studies Unit-I: Part B: Indian History & Culture. RPSC RAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-1 Study Material. RAS Mains GS Paper

Indian History & Culture

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

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We have made every effort to touch almost all spheres of Indian Art & Culture for RPSC RAS Mains Exam as per syllabus, including architectural developments in ancient, medieval & modern India, music & dances of India, development of paintings, literature, language and cinema etc.

India is a nation where you can observe an ideal merged of countless traditions and culture. Indian culture and heritage is so unique and valuable. The customs and traditions practiced in a particular area of the nation are usually influenced by the geographical and climatic conditions of that area as well as spotlight of the area to other cultures. Moreover, there are numerous regions where cultural practices are based on the local needs of the people. Overseas invaders who attacked the country also brought with them their customs and traditions which ultimately merged with the local cultures of India. This merging of cultures created new forms of art, music, dance, and structural design. It is through the art and craft that the enthusiasm, creative power and artistic quality of Indian culture, Indian heritage and Indian cultural values is manifested. Indus Valley society was followed by the Vedic era in India. Vedic era that lasted for about 1000 years from 1500 BC to 500 BC was distinguished by Indo-Aryan civilization and the Vedas, the sacred books for the Hindus. This was the era when a new social government system or kingdoms joined in the civilization known as Mahajanapadas. These were the great kingdoms which joined mostly across the Indo-Gangetic plains. Magadha grew as a main kingdom throughout this age, while Nalanda University became a great learning institution of the world. In around 6th century BC, birth of two great philosophers and thinkers on the land of India gave a new path to history of India. These two thinkers were Gautam Buddha and Mahavira. The philosophies of Buddha and Mahavira spread in main part of India which ultimately led to the birth to two new religions – Buddhism and Jainism. RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

Art and Culture plays an important role in the development of any nation. It represents a set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices. Culture and creativity manifest themselves in almost all economic, social and other activities. A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture.

The architectural styles in India have been really influenced with the overseas styles that reached India with overseas invaders. Muslim and European styles are the famous architectural styles that combined with Indian styles. Stupas, Chaityas, Stambhas, Viharas, rock-cut temples, etc., are some of types of structures that were built on a big scale in earliest India

India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ (ICH) of humanity. In order to preserve these elements, the Ministry of Culture implements a number of schemes and programmes aimed at providing financial support to individuals, groups and cultural organizations engaged in performing, visual and literary arts etc.

India is known for its penchant for creating sculptural art in caves and temples out of rocks and mountains since the earliest of times. Indian architecture, sculpture and painting went hand-in-hand, creating the beautiful synthesis in the work you see today.  The love for colour and design in painting, dance, music or drama has always been a part of the Indian soul. Miniature paintings date back to 11th and 12th Centuries AD. Indian art is deeply rooted in tradition, gods, deities, epical themes, and also warfare. Our classical dance and music is world renowned for its magnificence. Stunning handicrafts and textiles are carried home with a lot of pleasure and enthusiasm by tourists visiting India. RAS Mains GS Paper

A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture. India has one of the world’s largest collection of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ of humanity.

India is the territory where countless dance forms developed. The folk dances in India describe the specialty of a specific state or tribe. Each dance form, including the classical dance, is characterized by its ideal costume, make-up, elegance and style. The rules of classical dances are being followed for 100s of years by the dancers. Gracious postures and movements of face, eyebrow, cheeks, eyeballs, etc. make a vital part of different classical dance types in India. A classical dancer as well learns to portray different feelings with expressions of face and movements of different body parts. The main classical dance forms in India include Kuchipudi, Manipuri, Odissi, Ottan Thullal, Krishnattam, Bharatanatyam dance style developed in Tamil Nadu state., Kathak dance form developed in Hindu temples in north India and was refined for hundreds of years., Mohini Attam, Chakiarkoothu, Chhau, Koodiyattam, etc.

This painting outline started flourishing in India from very beginning periods. Indian paintings are mostly categorized as murals and miniatures. Murals are the painting works that are done on the walls of buildings. Some good examples of mural work in India include temples of Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Ajanta, Kanchipuram, etc. Miniatures, as the name suggests, are the small paintings done on papers, clothes, etc. The most excellent examples of these paintings are Mughal and Rajasthani miniatures as well Tanjore paintings and Madhubani paintings. RPSC RAS Mains Exam

India is a land of diversities. This diversity is also visible in the spheres of religion. The major religions of India are Hinduism (majority religion), Islam (largest minority religion), Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá’í Faith. India is a land where people of different religions and cultures live in harmony. This harmony is seen in the celebration of festivals. The message of love and brotherhood is expressed by all the religions and cultures of India.

Whether it’s the gathering of the faithful, bowing in prayer in the courtyard of a mosque, or the gathering of lamps that light up houses at Diwali, the good cheer of Christmas or the brotherhood of Baisakhi, the religions of India are celebrations of shared emotion that bring people together. People from the different religions and cultures of India, unite in a common chord of brotherhood and amity in this fascinating and diverse land.

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.  RPSC RAS Mains Exam

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments. General Studies Rajasthan GK

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book. General Studies Rajasthan GK

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the complete syllabus of RPSC RAS/RTS and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the Book shops in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
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  8. You will get free PDF of our Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 with this book.

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General Studies of Rajasthan


Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                  

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                      
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                        
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                       
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                            

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal: Chambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland Rivers: Inland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                            

(1) Salt Water Lakes: Sambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan   

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                

3. Major Physiographic regions                                        

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar Tract, Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                            

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity: Arid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic Region, Cwg Climatic Region, Rainfall Distribution, IMD forecast method, Water Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                     

National Livestock Mission (NLM), Dairy (Milch) breeds, Draught breeds, Dual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan. General Studies Rajasthan GK

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                      

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                           

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                            

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development: General Studies Rajasthan GK

10. Miscellaneous                                                        

11. Practice Questions                                                         

History of Rajasthan

1. Ancient History of Rajasthan (Stone Age to 700 AD)

2. Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 AD to 1700 AD)

3. Modern History of Rajasthan

4. Practice Questions

Rajasthan Polity & Administration

  1. Political Background
  2. Govt of India Acts
  3. Important term used in Polity
  4. Governor
  5. Chief Minister
  6. Council of Ministers
  7. State Legislature
  8. Election Commission
  9. High Court
  10. Rajasthan State Legal Service Authority
  11. Lok Adalats in Rajasthan
  12. Administration of Rajasthan
  13. Chief Secretary
  14. State Secretariat
  15. Directorates
  16. Administrative Setup
  17. Local Self Government in Rajasthan
  18. Panchayati Raj in Rajasthan
  19. Urban Local Government
  20. Important Constitutional, Statutory & Executive bodies
  21. Rajasthan Public Service Commission
  22. Advocate General of Rajasthan
  23. Inter-State Council
  24. Rajasthan State Human Rights Commission
  25. Rajasthan State Information Commission
  26. Lokayukta
  27. Rajasthan State Commission for Women
  28. Chief Minister’s Advisory Council
  29. Rajasthan Police
  30. Mewar Bhil Corps
  31. Miscellaneous
  32. Practice Questions

Economy of Rajasthan

  1. Economic Terminology
  2. Rajasthan: an introduction to Economy
  3. Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan
  4. National Income: Basic Concepts
  5. Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
  6. Fiscal Policy of India: Meaning, Objectives and Impacts on the Economy
  7. Classification and Operations of Commercial Banks in India
  8. Money Supply and Inflation
  9. National Development Council
  10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Rajasthan
  11. Special Economic Zones – SEZ-Rajasthan
  12. Transport Infrastructure of Rajasthan
  13. Urban Infrastructure in Rajasthan
  14. Rural Development in Rajasthan
  15. Special Area Development Programmes
  16. National Family Health Survey-Rajasthan
  17. Skill development in Rajasthan
  18. Unemployment in Rajasthan
  19. Poverty in Rajasthan
  20. Agriculture Sector in Rajasthan
  21. Service Sector in Rajasthan
  22. Industrial Sector in Rajasthan
  23. Industries of Rajasthan
  24. Important Departments & Organisations
  25. Policies, Concessions & Facilities for Industries in Rajasthan
  26. Public Enterprises in State
  27. Economic Planning in Rajasthan
  28. Public Distribution System
  29. Current Affairs: Economy
  30. Practice Solved MCQ

Art Culture & Heritage Of Rajasthan

  1. Introduction
  2. Language & Literature of Rajasthan
  3. Rajasthani Folk Literature
  4. Major Compositions of Literature of Rajasthan
  5. Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan
  6. Fairs & Festivals of Rajasthan
  7. Painting Art of Rajasthan
  8. Handicraft of Rajasthan
  9. Folk Arts of Rajasthan
  10. Folk Dances of Rajasthan
  11. Folk Dramas of Rajasthan
  12. Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan
  13. Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan
  14. Lok Devta & Devis of Rajasthan
  15. Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan
  16. Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan
  17. Cenotaph & Tombs Rajasthan
  18. Havelis & Sculptures of Rajasthan
  19. Practice MCQ


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History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition & Heritage of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Main Exam General Studies Paper-1: General Knowledge and General Studies : Unit-I, Part A – History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition & Heritage of Rajasthan. RPSC RAS GS Paper

  1. Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  2. Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  3. Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  4. Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  5. Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  6. Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

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It is a land of art, crafts and festivals which will fascinate peoples from India and foreigners also. Every fair and festival is a reflection of its rich art and craft in terms of bazaars, music, dance, cuisine, sport events which provides an opportunity to gain an insight view of the life & culture of Rajasthan. Its art can be seen in terms of handicraft items made of stone, clay, leather, wood, ivory, glass, silver, gold, brass and textiles.

Rajasthan is renowned the world over for its hand-printed textiles, jewellery, painting, furniture, leatherwork, pottery and metal craft, The use of exuberant colours and ornate, designs are some unique features of the artwork of the state. Extensive areas of Rajasthan are monotone, beige –brown desert but the dramatic spectacle and visual variety that pervade it make it one of the most vibrantly colourful of Indian states. These paradoxes are seen again and again- a recurring motif reflected in its decorative arts and crafts. Though time and again, it has been ravaged by invaders from all across the world, Rajasthan still houses the most opulent and rich treasures. Its history is a long saga of blood feuds and violent battles, but the forbidding stone battlements of its forts shield mirrored rooms and marble carvings of delicacy and grace.

Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

The high-balconies that sometimes were a deterrent to the freedom of women were also marvels of exquisite ornamentation. The jeweled belts and anklets that adorned them were not just ornaments but also rich symbols of love and pride. Needless to say, as an intimate part of everyday life, Rajasthani art and culture has withstood the vicissitudes of industrialism and tourism.  Rajasthan and its crafts are a source of endless fascination-whether one approaches them for purely visual, aesthetic pleasure or pauses to savoir the underlying history, culture and symbolism. Not all Rajasthani crafts however, have originated locally. Rajasthan was on the ancient trade route, which exposed its people to different cultures and traditions. Traces of these can be still seen in the various art forms. Sculptures that date back to 10th century has been found along with cave paintings, terracotta works in Baroli and Hadoti regions are live testimonials of Rajasthan’s allegory of love.

History reveals that kings and their kinsmen were patrons of arts and crafts and they encouraged their craftsmen in activities ranging from wood and marble carving to weaving, pottery and painting.

The constant battles amongst the Rajputs and other invaders were not only a time for change for the people but also art and culture. When a kingdom fell and a new ruler took over, it was time for change paintings depicting the new ruler’s victory, scenes from the battle and processions of the victorious march were faithfully reproduced on the walls and handmade paper. Rajputs, who sacrificed wealth, power, territory and life itself, to withstand the Mughals were also impressed by their art and aesthetics, taking styles, symbols and techniques, often stealing artisans and incorporating them into their own eclectic, rich tradition.

Clothes-their colour, design and cut-may tell people which village and caste someone comes from, but it is the jewellery in which people’s wealth is invested. In most Rajasthani villages, it is silver. Huge and heavy chunks of it are worn around ankles, waist, neck and wrists, dangling in rings from ears, nose and hair, in chains of buttons down the kurta or choli fronts. The beautiful, ornate designs of Adivasi jewellery have now become fashionable among the urban elite and can be bought everywhere. The aristocracy and the well-to-do did not wear silver. Kundan and enamel jewellery inlaid with precious stones was a speciality of Rajasthan, particularly of Jaipur. Rajasthan has abundant deposits of semi precious and precious stones that are much in demand these days. RPSC RAS GS Paper

Ivory: The ivory bangles that most Rajasthani women wear are considered auspicious. Ivory is also inlaid and shaped into intricate items of great beauty. Miniature paintings were also painted on ivory.

Lac and Glass: Lac bangles are made in bright colours and sometimes inlaid with glass. Other decorative and functional items are also available.

Sandalwood and Wood: Carved wood is presented in a wide range of objects and is simple and inexpensive.

Crafts: Stone statues on religious themes can be seen all over the state. In fact in some cities, there are still entire lanes where the stone carvers can be seen giving final touches to statues or even pillars. Other crafts like blue pottery, hand block printing, tie and dye, terracotta sculptures, painting on camel hide, embroidery, cloth painting, carpets, durries, inlay work on brass and wood are to be found all over Rajasthan.

The rich heritage of Rajasthan manifests itself in its unique art and culture. The latticed havelis, ornate palaces and intricately carved temples, the architectural beauty of forts and palaces symbolize the skills of its artists. On the other hand, its colourful fairs & festivals with traditional dance and music represent a unique culture of this vibrant state. RPSC RAS GS Paper

Rajasthan is famous for its forts, intricately carved temples, and decorated havelis, which were built by Rajput kings in pre-Muslim era Rajasthan. Rajasthan’s Jaipur Jantar Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Chittorgarh Fort, Lake Palace, miniature paintings in Bundi, and numerous city palaces and havelis are an important part of the architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the Pink City, is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sand stone dominated by a pink hue. In Bundi, maximum houses are painted blue. At Ajmer, the white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar Lake is exquisite.

Jain Temples of Rajasthan from north to south and east to west, Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu, Ranakpur Temple dedicated to Lord Adinath in Pali District, Jain temples in the fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodurva Jain temples, Mirpur Jain Temples, Sarun Mata Temple Kotputli, Bhandasar and Karni Mata Temple of Bikaner are some of the best examples.

Each region of Rajasthan has a different and diverse form of art, culture and heritage.

“Literature in Rajasthan” means all the literature works that has been created within geographical boundary of Rajasthan from start of time till now.

The Rajasthani literature written in various genres but, it is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Surajmal Mishran. His most important works are the Vansa Bhaskara and the Vir Satsai. The Vans Bhaskar contains accounts of the Rajput princes who ruled in what was then Rajputana (at present the state of Rajasthan), during the lifetime of the poet (1872–1952). The Vir Satsai is a collection of hundreds of couplets. RPSC RAS GS Paper

Medieval Rajasthani literature is mostly poetry only and it is more about the heroic poetry mentioning of the great kings and fighters of the Rajasthan as said by Rabindra Nath Tagore once, “The heroic sentiment which is the essence of every song and couplet of a Rajasthani is peculiar emotion of its own of which, however, the whole country may be proud”. Rajasthani literature is created by mostly Charans Earlier Rajasthani was known as Charani (or dingal), which was close to Gujarati. As a result, it includes Sanskrit, Prakrit, Rajasthani, Hindi and other Language works. RPSC RAS GS Paper

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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Rajasthan

2. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

3. Practice Questions

Rajasthan Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like RPSC and Other Rajasthan State PSC exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Rajasthan based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

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Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

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Introduction Of Rajasthan

The Rajasthan state was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.

Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar Desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest Indian state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara district.

The Aravalli ranges are India’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.

Rajasthan has its important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow /originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati, Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.

The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The Thar Desert or the Great Indian Desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar Desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar Desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus River. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions.  The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Different Regions of Rajasthan:

1. Ahirwal- This include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.

2. Bagar tract- This include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).

3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and northern part of Karauli.

4. Gorwar- South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.

5. Hadoti- districts like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.

6. Marwar- “Jodhpur region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.

7.  Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P. and some parts of Gujarat.

8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

9. Shekhawati- district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.

10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan: Important Facts

Area 342,239 km2  (Biggest state of India in terms of land)
Population 6.85 cr (2011 census)
Language Official language (Hindi), Additional official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family.
Climate Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September.
Capital  Jaipur
Election Seats    25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Legislature Unicameral
Major Cities (population) Jaipur (3,073,349), Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101), Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Famous Lakes Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm) 313-675
The Thar Desert Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”.)
Literacy 66.11 %
Districts 33
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census) 928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio 888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli Dance.
Fair and Festivals Desert Festival-Jaisalmer, Nagaur Fair-Nagaur, Pushkar Fair- Pushkar, Summer Festival-Mt. Abu, Marwar Festival-Jodhpur, Camel Race Festival-Bikaner, Gangaur Festival-Jaipur, Teej Festival-Jaipur, Mewar Festival-Udaipur, Urs Festival-Ajmer, Kaila Devi Fair-Karauli, Summer Festival-Mount Abu, Dusshera –Kota
World Heritage Sites   The six forts — Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia .
Principal Crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,  Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Principal Minerals Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%), Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%), Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas & Petroleum

District-wise Population-List (As per census – 2011)

District Population Area (km2) Po. Density Sex-ratio
Jaipur 66,26,178 11,143 595 910
Jodhpur 36,87,165 22,850 161 916
Alwar 36,74,179 8,380 438 895
Nagaur 33,07,743 17,718 187 950
Udaipur 30,68,420 11,724 262 958
Sikar 26,77,333 7,732 346 947
Barmer 26,03,751 28,387 92 902
Ajmer 25,83,052 8,481 305 951
Bharatpur 25,48,462 5,066 503 880
Bhilwara 24,08,523 10,455 230 973
Bikaner 23,63,937 30,239 78 905
Jhunjhunun 21,37,045 5,928 361 950
Churu 20,39,547 13,835 147 940
Pali 20,37,573 12,387 164 987
Ganganagar 19,69,168 10,978 179 887
Kota 19,51,014 5,217 374 911
Jalore 18,28,730 10,640 172 952
Banswara 17,97,485 4,522 397 980
Hanumangarh 17,74,692 9,656 184 906
Dausa 16,34,409 3,432 476 905
Chittaurgarh 15,44,338 7,822 197 972
Karauli 14,58,248 5,524 264 861
Tonk 14,21,326 7,194 198 952
Jhalawar 14,11,129 6,219 227 946
Dungarpur 13,88,552 3,770 368 994
SawaiMadhopur 13,35,551 4,498 297 897
Baran 12,22,755 6,992 175 929
Dhaulpur 12,06,516 3,033 398 846
Rajsamand 11,56,597 4,655 248 990
Bundi 11,10,906 5,776 192 925
Sirohi 10,36,346 5,136 202 940
Pratapgarh 8,67,848 4,449 195 983
Jaisalmer 6,69,919 38,401 17 852

Political Background of Rajasthan

The Human settlement record in Rajasthan state dates back to around 5000 years ago with sections of Rajasthan at the spirit of the Indus Valley Civilization. This area was earlier known as Gurjaratra, the area protected and ruled by the Gurjars. Later the name changed to Rajputana. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

George Thomas was the first in 1800, to term this region the Rajputana Agency. The historian John Keay in his book, India: A History stated that the Rajputana name was coined by the British but that the word achieved a retrospective authenticity: in an 1829 translation of Ferishta’s history of early Islamic India, John Briggs discarded the phrase “Indian princes”, as rendered in Dow’s earlier version, and substituted “Rajpoot princes”. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

James Tod was the first one to use the name Rajasthan. He mentioned it in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, prior to that the land was called as Rajputana by the Britishers in 1800. The place was never untied so there is no defined boundary of Rajputana. As there were more Rajput kings, this leads to the name Rajputana.

We actually do not have any other name of Rajasthan prior to Rajputana as first mentioned that they were never united and once the Britishers started ruling India they gave it a name Rajputana.

In ancient period west of western Rajasthan was called Maru. Central Rajasthan was Shakambhari, SE Rajasthan was under Malwa state and a whole it was in “Aryavarta“. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The unification of Rajasthan was completed in seven stages, and resulted in Rajasthan as we see it today.

The credit for the unification goes to the ‘Iron man of India’, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

What is unification?

The act, process, or result of bringing or coming together into or as if into a single unit or group unification of a divided state or nation.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is not only known for the unification of rajasthan but he united India by merging different princely states. He keeps forming unions, by luring the Princes of different states for the post of head of United States.

The ruler of largest state was made the Head of State and then when a new state was merged with the union, the prince of that state was made the head.

To keep others in good gesture, new posts of Deputy Head, and Prime Minister were also introduced.

Integration of Rajasthan
Seven Stages of formation of Rajasthan 

S.No. Name of Group States Date of Integration
1. Matsya Union Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli 17-03-1948
2. Rajasthan Union Banswara, Bundi, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Kishangarh, Kota, Pratapgarh, Shahpura, Tonk. 25-03-1948
3. United State of Rajasthan Udaipur also joined with the other Union of Rajasthan. 18-04-1948
4. Greater Rajasthan Bikaner, Jaipur, Jaisalmer & Jodhpur also joined with the United State of Rajasthan. 30-03-1949
5. United State of Greater Rajasthan Matsya Union also merged in Greater Rajasthan 15-05-1949
6. United Rajasthan 18 States of United Rajasthan merged with Princely State Sirohi except Abu and Delwara. 26-01-1950
7. Re-organised Rajasthan Under the State Re-organisation Act, 1956 the erstwhile part ‘C’ State of Ajmer, Abu Road Taluka, former part of princely State Sirohi which was merged in former Bombay, State and Sunel Tappa region of the former Madhya Bharat merged with Rajasthan and Sironj subdistrict of Jhalawar district was transferred to Madhya Pradesh. 01-11-1956

(1)17 March 1948: Formation of ‘Matsya Union’

The states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli Joined to form the “Matsya Sangh” and Dholpur Ruler, Udaybhan Singh was chosen as the Union Head or Rajpramukh, along with Shobaram Kumawat from Alwar of Indian National Congress was the Prime Minister of the State from 18 March 1948 till 15 May 1949.

On 15 May 1949, the Matsya Union was merged with Greater Rajasthan to form the United State of Greater Rajasthan, which later became the state of Rajasthan on 26 January 1950.

(2) 25 March 1948: Constituting of Rajasthan Union

Separate from Matsya Sangh, the states of Banswara, Bundi, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Kota, Tonk, Pratapgarh, Kishangarh and Shahpura Joined to from another union known as Rajasthan Union.

Bhim Singh of Kota was chosen as the Head of the state, Kota being the largest of the unified states. Bhadursingh of Bundi was appointed as the Deputy Head.

(3)  18 April 1948: United States of Rajasthan

Subsequently the Udaipur state (Mewar) also got united in Rajasthan union on April 18, 1948. The name was then changed to United Rajasthan. The State of Udaipur was also made to join the union, by Sardar Patel, by giving the perks of the Head of State of new union and Udaipur was also made the capital of Union.

Three days after inauguration of Rajasthan Union, the Maharana of Udaipur decided to join this Union which was accepted. The Maharana of Udaipur was appointed as Rajpramukh and the Kota Naresh was appointed as Up- Rajpramukh of this Union and the Cabinet was formed under the leadership of Shri Manikya Lal Verma. This United States of Rajasthan was inaugurated by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru on 18 April, 1948. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

(4) 30 March 1949: Greater Rajasthan

The formation of the United States of Rajasthan paved the way for the merger of big states like Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur and Jodhpur with the Union and formation of Greater Rajasthan. It was formally inaugurated on 30 March, 1949 by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. The Maharana Bhupal Singh of Udaipur was appointed as the Maha-Rajpramukh and the Kota Naresh was appointed as the Up- Rajpramukh and the Cabinet was formed under the leadership of Shri Hira Lala Shastri.

It was the most important step in Unification process, and that is why 30 March is also celebrated as the Rajasthan Day.

(5)15 May 1949: United States of Greater Rajasthan

On 15 May, 1949 Finally Matsya Union was merged with Greater Rajasthan. The post of Prime minister was discontinued and a Chief Minister office was constituted. Hiralal Shastri became the first Chief Minister of Rajasthan.

(6) 26 January 1950: United Rajasthan

18 states of United Rajasthan & princely state of Sirohi got merged with exception of Abu & Delwara. It was completed by 26 Jan 1950.

Sirohi was the last princely state to be merged into the union, and United Rajasthan came into being. The name of Rajasthan was given duly to the union.

(7)  State Re-organization Act (1956)

This stage completed the integration, formation and reorganization of state of Rajasthan and took place because of State Re-organization Act of 1956. Under this, the erstwhile part ‘C’ State of Ajmer, Abu Road Taluka, former part of princely State Sirohi which was merged in former Bombay State and Sunel Tappa region of the former Madhya Bharat merged with Rajasthan and Sironj subdistrict of Jhalawar district was transferred to Madhya Pradesh. The process got completed on 1 November 1956 and Mohanlal Sukhadia became Chief Minister and Gurumukh Nihal Singh became Governor.

Some facts related to unification process of Rajasthan:

  1. The ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, wanted to join the Union of Pakistan but due to the efforts of Patel and V.P. Menon, finally agreed to accede to India.
  2. Banswara State Maharawal, Chandra veer Singh, while signing the accession documents, commented, “I am signing on my death warrant“.
  3. Jodhpur was the largest state while Shahpura was the smallest in terms of area.
  4. Tonk was the only state under Muslim Ruler, while Bharatpur and Dholpur were under Jat Rajas, remaining was under Rajputs.

Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the “Great Indian Desert”) and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.

Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Kalibanga and Balathal, the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan’s only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range and in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site known for its bird life. Rajasthan is also home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota……………

The state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Kota, Bikaner, Ajmer and Udaipur. The economy of Rajasthan is the ninth-largest state economy in India with ₹9.24 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000, Rajasthan ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index.

Parts of what is now Rajasthan were partly part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Another archaeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilisation dating back to 3000 – 1500 BC.

Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state. Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India is said to roughly correspond to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratnagar (modern Bairat), which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata.

Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava also locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana.

The Western Kshatrapas (405–35 BC), the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, and were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with their calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state.

The Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was openly acknowledged by the Arab writers. He further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.

Traditionally the Rajputs, Gurjars, Jats, Meenas, Bhils, Rajpurohit, Charans, Yadavas, Bishnois, Meghwals, Sermals, Rajput Malis and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting their culture and the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Brahmins, according to Outlook constituted 8% to 10% of the population of Rajasthan as per a 2003 report, but only 7% in a 2007 report. According to a 2007 DNA India report, 12.5% of the states are Brahmins.

Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the invading Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. In 1192 CE, Muhammad Ghori decisively defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. After the defeat of Chauhan in 1192 CE, a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthambhore was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. The Rajputs resisted the Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput kingdoms eventually became subservient to the Delhi Sultanate.

The Rajputs put up resistance to the Islamic invasions with their warfare and chivalry for centuries. The Rana’s of Mewar led other kingdoms in its resistance to outside rule. Rana Hammir Singh defeated the Tughlaq dynasty and recovered a large portion of Rajasthan. The indomitable Rana Kumbha defeated the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat and made Mewar the most powerful Rajput Kingdom in India. The ambitious Rana Sanga united the various Rajput clans and fought against the foreign powers in India. Rana Sanga defeated the Afghan Lodi Empire of Delhi and crushed the Turkic Sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat. Rana Sanga then tried to create an Indian empire but was defeated by the first Mughal Emperor Babur at Khanua. The defeat was due to betrayal by the Tomar king Silhadi of Raisen. After Rana Sangas death there was no one who could check the rapid expansion of the Mughal Empire.

Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Macheri in Alwar District in 1501. He won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, and defeated Akbar’s forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the “Hindu Raj” in North India, albeit for a short duration, from Purana Quila in Delhi. Hem Chandra was killed in the battlefield at Second Battle of Panipat fighting against Mughals on 5 November 1556.

During Akbar’s reign most of the Rajput kings accepted Mughal suzerainty, but the rulers of Mewar (Rana Udai Singh II) and Marwar (Rao Chandra sen Rathore) refused to have any form of alliance with the Mughals. To teach the Rajputs a lesson Akbar attacked Udai Singh and killed Rajput commander Jaimal of Chittor and the citizens of Mewar in large numbers. Akbar killed 20 – 25,000 unarmed citizens in Chittor on the grounds that they had actively helped in the resistance.

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RPSC RAS Mains Paper-II Unit-3 World Geography Notes

RAS WORLD GEOGRAPHY NOTES : General Studies Paper-II- RAS/RTS Mains Examination
Unit III- Earth Science (Geography & Geology)
Part A- World
• Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers
• Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact
• Earth and its Geological time scale
• Current Geopolitical Problems – RAS WORLD GEOGRAPHY NOTES