RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I:Unit II-Part A- Indian Economy

RPSC RAS Mains Exam Paper-I:Unit II-Part A- Indian Economy: Rajasthan Administrative Services Mains Exams Indian Economy Study Material. RAS Mains Indian Economy

Indian Economy

  • Major Sectors of Economy: Agriculture, Industry & Service- Current Status, Issues and Initiatives
  • Banking: Concept of Money supply & High Powered Money. Role and Functions of Central Bank & Commercial Banks, issues of NPA, Financial Inclusion. Monetary Policy- Concept, objectives & Instruments
  • Public Finance: Tax reforms in India- Direct & Indirect, subsidies- Cash Transfer and other related issues. Recent Fiscal Policy of India
  • Recent Trends in Indian Economy: Role of Foreign Capital, MNCs, PDS, FDI, Exim Policy, 12th Finance Commission, Poverty alleviation schemes.
RAS-Mains-GS-Paper-1-Unit-II-Indian-Economy

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The Indian economy was in distress at the brink of the country’s independence. Being a colony, she was fulfilling the development needs not of herself, but of a foreign land. The state, that should have been responsible for breakthroughs in agriculture and industry, refused to play even a minor role in this regard. On the other hand, during the half century before India’s independence, the world was seeing accelerated development and expansion in agriculture and industry – on the behest of an active role being played by the states.

India has the world’s sixth largest economy in measures of GDP. It has the third largest purchasing power in the world. When we talk about the global economy, India is one of its fastest emerging players. Since our liberalization in 1991, the economy has opened up and given us plenty of opportunities to succeed.  RAS Mains Indian Economy

GENERAL STUDIES OF RAJASTHAN-ALL IN ONE

In the Indian economy, both private sector and public sector companies co-exist in perfect harmony. The big industries, especially those for vast public use, are public sector companies. Some examples are MTNL, Mahanagar Gas etc. And the economy has seen a huge boost in the private sector as well since the liberalization in 1991. Hence India is the perfect example of a mixed economy.

One major advantage of India’s vast population is within the scope of human capital. And most of these human resources are youths. They are educated and skilled, giving India a huge advantage in the global market. They now need adequate employment opportunities to be successful.

British rulers never made any significant changes for the benefit of the social sector, and this hampered the productive capacity of the economy. During independence, India’s literacy was only 17 percent, with a life expectancy of 32.5 years. Therefore, once India became independent, systematic organisation of the economy was a real challenge for the government of that time. The need for delivering growth and development was in huge demand in front of the political leadership – as the country was riding on the promises and vibes of national fervour. Many important and strategic decisions were taken by 1956, which are still shaping India’s economic journey.

One of the most important sectors of the Indian economy remains Agriculture. Its share in the GDP of the country has declined and is currently at 14%. However, more than 50% of the total population of the country is still dependent on agriculture. Keeping this in mind, the Union Budget 2017 – 18 gave high priority to the agricultural sector and aimed to double farmers’ incomes by 2022. RAS Mains Indian Economy

Besides these developments and reforms, it is imperative to bear in mind that in order to tap the highest potential of the economy and ensure good governance, an optimal level of synergy is required between the central and state government. This will not only add strength to our cooperative federal structure but will also strengthen India’s economy. Initiatives such as – 
•    Goods and Services Tax (GST) 
•    Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) 
•    Startup India 
•    Digital India

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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part C: History of Modern World

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part C: History of Modern World. RPSC RAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-1 Study Material.  RAS Mains General Studies

History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)

  • Renaissance and Reformation.
  • Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
  • Impact of World Wars

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The religious trends of this period witnessed the rise of the Muslim community and the Muslim world. Christians and Christendom saw the end of the Crusades. Religious Unity under the Roman Church came to an end. Moreover, in this period, the Inquisitions and Protestant reformations also took place. RAS Mains General Studies

The contemporary history includes the span of historical events starting from 1945. These events are most relevant to the present time and scenario. Many historians describe the early modern period as the time frame between 1500 and 1800. This period mainly follows the Late Middle Ages period. Further, it is marked by the initial European colonies, beginnings of recognizable nation-states as well as the rise of strong centralized governments.

Also during the early modern period, people witnessed the age of discovery and trade. This happened as a result of the collective effort of the Western European nations. Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France went on a colonial expansion. These nations took possession of lands and set up colonies in Africa, southern Asia, and North and South America. Turkey went on to colonize Southeastern Europe, and parts of the West Asia and North Africa. Russian on the other hand, took possession in Eastern Europe, Asia, and North America.

In the Ottoman Empire and Africa, the Muslim expansion took place in East and North Africa. However, in West Africa, several native nations existed. The civilizations of Southeast Asia and the Indian Empires played a pivotal role in the spice trade. In the Indian subcontinent, the presence of Great Mughal Empire was strong. Moreover, the archipelagic empires, the Sultanate of Malacca and later the Sultanate of Johor, exercised power over the southern areas. RAS Mains General Studies

In the Asian subcontinent, different Japanese shogunate and the Chinese dynasties held power. The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 in Japan is regarded as the early modern period. On the other hand, in Korea, the period from the rising of Joseon Dynasty to the enthronement of King Gojong is referred to as the early modern period.

In the Americas, Native Americans started a huge and distinct civilization which included the Aztec Empire and alliance, the Inca civilization, the Mayan Empire and cities, and the Chibcha Confederation. However, in the west, the European kingdoms and movements were in a movement of reformation and expansion. Russia made its way to the Pacific coast in 1647. It went on to consolidate the control over the  Russian Far East in the 19th century.

World History Important Questions

  1. What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression?
  2. American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate.
  3. Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse.
  4. “Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what west had experience.
  5. The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
  6. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
  7. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
  8. To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
  9. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present?
  10. The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.
  11. What problems are germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula? RAS Mains General Studies

Major changes in Europe caused the medieval period to give way to a new, livelier period.  As trade with the East increased, Europeans rediscovered the classical knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome.  This knowledge led to a period of creativity and learning called the Renaissance.  A new focus on the individual emerged, contributing to new ideas about religion.  These ideas caused a struggle in Christianity known as the Reformation. RAS Mains General Studies

The movement and displacement of people following the Black Plague and Crusades encouraged the development of a more globalized culture.  In this unit, you will discover how ideas impacted cultural and religious change in Europe after the middle Ages.

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

American Revolution was perhaps the first manifestation of this feeling. This feeling was also quite evident in France during and after French Revolution. It became contagious in Europe after ideals of French revolution spread in other states.

Nationalism is a modern movement in which loyalty of individuals is not to vested interests, a monarch or political group, but to a nation of people. Earlier loyalties were attached to land (in feudal society), territory and so on.

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RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part B: Indian History & Culture

RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I: General Knowledge and General Studies Unit-I: Part B: Indian History & Culture. RPSC RAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-1 Study Material. RAS Mains GS Paper

Indian History & Culture

  • Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
  • Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
  • History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
  • Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
  • Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
  • Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states

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We have made every effort to touch almost all spheres of Indian Art & Culture for RPSC RAS Mains Exam as per syllabus, including architectural developments in ancient, medieval & modern India, music & dances of India, development of paintings, literature, language and cinema etc.

India is a nation where you can observe an ideal merged of countless traditions and culture. Indian culture and heritage is so unique and valuable. The customs and traditions practiced in a particular area of the nation are usually influenced by the geographical and climatic conditions of that area as well as spotlight of the area to other cultures. Moreover, there are numerous regions where cultural practices are based on the local needs of the people. Overseas invaders who attacked the country also brought with them their customs and traditions which ultimately merged with the local cultures of India. This merging of cultures created new forms of art, music, dance, and structural design. It is through the art and craft that the enthusiasm, creative power and artistic quality of Indian culture, Indian heritage and Indian cultural values is manifested. Indus Valley society was followed by the Vedic era in India. Vedic era that lasted for about 1000 years from 1500 BC to 500 BC was distinguished by Indo-Aryan civilization and the Vedas, the sacred books for the Hindus. This was the era when a new social government system or kingdoms joined in the civilization known as Mahajanapadas. These were the great kingdoms which joined mostly across the Indo-Gangetic plains. Magadha grew as a main kingdom throughout this age, while Nalanda University became a great learning institution of the world. In around 6th century BC, birth of two great philosophers and thinkers on the land of India gave a new path to history of India. These two thinkers were Gautam Buddha and Mahavira. The philosophies of Buddha and Mahavira spread in main part of India which ultimately led to the birth to two new religions – Buddhism and Jainism. RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

Art and Culture plays an important role in the development of any nation. It represents a set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices. Culture and creativity manifest themselves in almost all economic, social and other activities. A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture.

The architectural styles in India have been really influenced with the overseas styles that reached India with overseas invaders. Muslim and European styles are the famous architectural styles that combined with Indian styles. Stupas, Chaityas, Stambhas, Viharas, rock-cut temples, etc., are some of types of structures that were built on a big scale in earliest India

India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ (ICH) of humanity. In order to preserve these elements, the Ministry of Culture implements a number of schemes and programmes aimed at providing financial support to individuals, groups and cultural organizations engaged in performing, visual and literary arts etc.

India is known for its penchant for creating sculptural art in caves and temples out of rocks and mountains since the earliest of times. Indian architecture, sculpture and painting went hand-in-hand, creating the beautiful synthesis in the work you see today.  The love for colour and design in painting, dance, music or drama has always been a part of the Indian soul. Miniature paintings date back to 11th and 12th Centuries AD. Indian art is deeply rooted in tradition, gods, deities, epical themes, and also warfare. Our classical dance and music is world renowned for its magnificence. Stunning handicrafts and textiles are carried home with a lot of pleasure and enthusiasm by tourists visiting India. RAS Mains GS Paper

A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture. India has one of the world’s largest collection of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ of humanity.

India is the territory where countless dance forms developed. The folk dances in India describe the specialty of a specific state or tribe. Each dance form, including the classical dance, is characterized by its ideal costume, make-up, elegance and style. The rules of classical dances are being followed for 100s of years by the dancers. Gracious postures and movements of face, eyebrow, cheeks, eyeballs, etc. make a vital part of different classical dance types in India. A classical dancer as well learns to portray different feelings with expressions of face and movements of different body parts. The main classical dance forms in India include Kuchipudi, Manipuri, Odissi, Ottan Thullal, Krishnattam, Bharatanatyam dance style developed in Tamil Nadu state., Kathak dance form developed in Hindu temples in north India and was refined for hundreds of years., Mohini Attam, Chakiarkoothu, Chhau, Koodiyattam, etc.

This painting outline started flourishing in India from very beginning periods. Indian paintings are mostly categorized as murals and miniatures. Murals are the painting works that are done on the walls of buildings. Some good examples of mural work in India include temples of Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Ajanta, Kanchipuram, etc. Miniatures, as the name suggests, are the small paintings done on papers, clothes, etc. The most excellent examples of these paintings are Mughal and Rajasthani miniatures as well Tanjore paintings and Madhubani paintings. RPSC RAS Mains Exam

India is a land of diversities. This diversity is also visible in the spheres of religion. The major religions of India are Hinduism (majority religion), Islam (largest minority religion), Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá’í Faith. India is a land where people of different religions and cultures live in harmony. This harmony is seen in the celebration of festivals. The message of love and brotherhood is expressed by all the religions and cultures of India.

Whether it’s the gathering of the faithful, bowing in prayer in the courtyard of a mosque, or the gathering of lamps that light up houses at Diwali, the good cheer of Christmas or the brotherhood of Baisakhi, the religions of India are celebrations of shared emotion that bring people together. People from the different religions and cultures of India, unite in a common chord of brotherhood and amity in this fascinating and diverse land.

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.  RPSC RAS Mains Exam

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General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of the General studies of Rajasthan, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments. General Studies Rajasthan GK

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of General studies of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration and Economy of Rajasthan in detailed with subject wise solved practice questions. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my friends, family members, Shri Kishan Diwliwal and the team members of Shubham Publishers and distributors for their effort to publishing this book. General Studies Rajasthan GK

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Features of the Book:

  1. General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One, it covered the complete syllabus of RPSC RAS/RTS and University exams.
  2. Subject wise detailed study material with practice question answer
  3. This book covered Geography, History, Polity, Economy and Art-Culture of Rajasthan.
  4. You can buy this book from anywhere in Rajasthan at district level or from Most of the Book shops in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
  5. If you want the book at your door /Home delivery than click on Buy Book
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  7. Delivery / Courier charges included in the book price.
  8. You will get free PDF of our Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 with this book.

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General Studies of Rajasthan

Index

Geography of Rajasthan

 1. Introduction of Rajasthan                                                  

2. Broad Physical Features 

  1. Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges                                      
  2. Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan                        
  3. Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain                       
  4. River system of Rajasthan                                            

(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal: Chambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland Rivers: Inland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River

(v)Lakes in Rajasthan                                                                            

(1) Salt Water Lakes: Sambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan   

(vi)Thar Desert                                                                                

3. Major Physiographic regions                                        

(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar Tract, Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract

4. Natural Vegetation and Climate                                            

Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity: Arid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic Region, Cwg Climatic Region, Rainfall Distribution, IMD forecast method, Water Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan

5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation                     

National Livestock Mission (NLM), Dairy (Milch) breeds, Draught breeds, Dual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow,  Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan. General Studies Rajasthan GK

6. Agriculture – Major Crops                                                      

Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel

Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber

7. Mineral resources                                                           

(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation

(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals

8. Energy Resources                                                            

Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.

9. Population and Tribes                                                

Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development: General Studies Rajasthan GK

10. Miscellaneous                                                        

11. Practice Questions                                                         

History of Rajasthan

1. Ancient History of Rajasthan (Stone Age to 700 AD)

2. Medieval History of Rajasthan (700 AD to 1700 AD)

3. Modern History of Rajasthan

4. Practice Questions

Rajasthan Polity & Administration

  1. Political Background
  2. Govt of India Acts
  3. Important term used in Polity
  4. Governor
  5. Chief Minister
  6. Council of Ministers
  7. State Legislature
  8. Election Commission
  9. High Court
  10. Rajasthan State Legal Service Authority
  11. Lok Adalats in Rajasthan
  12. Administration of Rajasthan
  13. Chief Secretary
  14. State Secretariat
  15. Directorates
  16. Administrative Setup
  17. Local Self Government in Rajasthan
  18. Panchayati Raj in Rajasthan
  19. Urban Local Government
  20. Important Constitutional, Statutory & Executive bodies
  21. Rajasthan Public Service Commission
  22. Advocate General of Rajasthan
  23. Inter-State Council
  24. Rajasthan State Human Rights Commission
  25. Rajasthan State Information Commission
  26. Lokayukta
  27. Rajasthan State Commission for Women
  28. Chief Minister’s Advisory Council
  29. Rajasthan Police
  30. Mewar Bhil Corps
  31. Miscellaneous
  32. Practice Questions

Economy of Rajasthan

  1. Economic Terminology
  2. Rajasthan: an introduction to Economy
  3. Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan
  4. National Income: Basic Concepts
  5. Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
  6. Fiscal Policy of India: Meaning, Objectives and Impacts on the Economy
  7. Classification and Operations of Commercial Banks in India
  8. Money Supply and Inflation
  9. National Development Council
  10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Rajasthan
  11. Special Economic Zones – SEZ-Rajasthan
  12. Transport Infrastructure of Rajasthan
  13. Urban Infrastructure in Rajasthan
  14. Rural Development in Rajasthan
  15. Special Area Development Programmes
  16. National Family Health Survey-Rajasthan
  17. Skill development in Rajasthan
  18. Unemployment in Rajasthan
  19. Poverty in Rajasthan
  20. Agriculture Sector in Rajasthan
  21. Service Sector in Rajasthan
  22. Industrial Sector in Rajasthan
  23. Industries of Rajasthan
  24. Important Departments & Organisations
  25. Policies, Concessions & Facilities for Industries in Rajasthan
  26. Public Enterprises in State
  27. Economic Planning in Rajasthan
  28. Public Distribution System
  29. Current Affairs: Economy
  30. Practice Solved MCQ

Art Culture & Heritage Of Rajasthan

  1. Introduction
  2. Language & Literature of Rajasthan
  3. Rajasthani Folk Literature
  4. Major Compositions of Literature of Rajasthan
  5. Rock Inscriptions of Rajasthan
  6. Fairs & Festivals of Rajasthan
  7. Painting Art of Rajasthan
  8. Handicraft of Rajasthan
  9. Folk Arts of Rajasthan
  10. Folk Dances of Rajasthan
  11. Folk Dramas of Rajasthan
  12. Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan
  13. Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan
  14. Lok Devta & Devis of Rajasthan
  15. Forts & Palaces of Rajasthan
  16. Temples & Mosques of Rajasthan
  17. Cenotaph & Tombs Rajasthan
  18. Havelis & Sculptures of Rajasthan
  19. Practice MCQ

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History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition & Heritage of Rajasthan

RPSC RAS/RTS Main Exam General Studies Paper-1: General Knowledge and General Studies : Unit-I, Part A – History, Art, Culture, Literature, Tradition & Heritage of Rajasthan. RPSC RAS GS Paper

  1. Major landmarks in the History of Rajasthan from Pre-historic time to close of 18th Century, Important dynasties, their administrative and revenue system.
  2. Salient events of 19th& 20th centuries: Peasant & Tribal Movements.
  3. Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration.
  4. Heritage of Rajasthan: Performing & fine Art, Handicraft and Architecture; Fairs, Festivals, Folk Music and Folk Dance
  5. Important works of Rajasthani Literature and Dialects of Rajasthan.
  6. Saints , Lok Devtas and eminent personalities of Rajasthan

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RPSC RAS GS Paper

It is a land of art, crafts and festivals which will fascinate peoples from India and foreigners also. Every fair and festival is a reflection of its rich art and craft in terms of bazaars, music, dance, cuisine, sport events which provides an opportunity to gain an insight view of the life & culture of Rajasthan. Its art can be seen in terms of handicraft items made of stone, clay, leather, wood, ivory, glass, silver, gold, brass and textiles.

Rajasthan is renowned the world over for its hand-printed textiles, jewellery, painting, furniture, leatherwork, pottery and metal craft, The use of exuberant colours and ornate, designs are some unique features of the artwork of the state. Extensive areas of Rajasthan are monotone, beige –brown desert but the dramatic spectacle and visual variety that pervade it make it one of the most vibrantly colourful of Indian states. These paradoxes are seen again and again- a recurring motif reflected in its decorative arts and crafts. Though time and again, it has been ravaged by invaders from all across the world, Rajasthan still houses the most opulent and rich treasures. Its history is a long saga of blood feuds and violent battles, but the forbidding stone battlements of its forts shield mirrored rooms and marble carvings of delicacy and grace.

Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

The high-balconies that sometimes were a deterrent to the freedom of women were also marvels of exquisite ornamentation. The jeweled belts and anklets that adorned them were not just ornaments but also rich symbols of love and pride. Needless to say, as an intimate part of everyday life, Rajasthani art and culture has withstood the vicissitudes of industrialism and tourism.  Rajasthan and its crafts are a source of endless fascination-whether one approaches them for purely visual, aesthetic pleasure or pauses to savoir the underlying history, culture and symbolism. Not all Rajasthani crafts however, have originated locally. Rajasthan was on the ancient trade route, which exposed its people to different cultures and traditions. Traces of these can be still seen in the various art forms. Sculptures that date back to 10th century has been found along with cave paintings, terracotta works in Baroli and Hadoti regions are live testimonials of Rajasthan’s allegory of love.

History reveals that kings and their kinsmen were patrons of arts and crafts and they encouraged their craftsmen in activities ranging from wood and marble carving to weaving, pottery and painting.

The constant battles amongst the Rajputs and other invaders were not only a time for change for the people but also art and culture. When a kingdom fell and a new ruler took over, it was time for change paintings depicting the new ruler’s victory, scenes from the battle and processions of the victorious march were faithfully reproduced on the walls and handmade paper. Rajputs, who sacrificed wealth, power, territory and life itself, to withstand the Mughals were also impressed by their art and aesthetics, taking styles, symbols and techniques, often stealing artisans and incorporating them into their own eclectic, rich tradition.

Clothes-their colour, design and cut-may tell people which village and caste someone comes from, but it is the jewellery in which people’s wealth is invested. In most Rajasthani villages, it is silver. Huge and heavy chunks of it are worn around ankles, waist, neck and wrists, dangling in rings from ears, nose and hair, in chains of buttons down the kurta or choli fronts. The beautiful, ornate designs of Adivasi jewellery have now become fashionable among the urban elite and can be bought everywhere. The aristocracy and the well-to-do did not wear silver. Kundan and enamel jewellery inlaid with precious stones was a speciality of Rajasthan, particularly of Jaipur. Rajasthan has abundant deposits of semi precious and precious stones that are much in demand these days. RPSC RAS GS Paper

Ivory: The ivory bangles that most Rajasthani women wear are considered auspicious. Ivory is also inlaid and shaped into intricate items of great beauty. Miniature paintings were also painted on ivory.

Lac and Glass: Lac bangles are made in bright colours and sometimes inlaid with glass. Other decorative and functional items are also available.

Sandalwood and Wood: Carved wood is presented in a wide range of objects and is simple and inexpensive.

Crafts: Stone statues on religious themes can be seen all over the state. In fact in some cities, there are still entire lanes where the stone carvers can be seen giving final touches to statues or even pillars. Other crafts like blue pottery, hand block printing, tie and dye, terracotta sculptures, painting on camel hide, embroidery, cloth painting, carpets, durries, inlay work on brass and wood are to be found all over Rajasthan.

The rich heritage of Rajasthan manifests itself in its unique art and culture. The latticed havelis, ornate palaces and intricately carved temples, the architectural beauty of forts and palaces symbolize the skills of its artists. On the other hand, its colourful fairs & festivals with traditional dance and music represent a unique culture of this vibrant state. RPSC RAS GS Paper

Rajasthan is famous for its forts, intricately carved temples, and decorated havelis, which were built by Rajput kings in pre-Muslim era Rajasthan. Rajasthan’s Jaipur Jantar Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Chittorgarh Fort, Lake Palace, miniature paintings in Bundi, and numerous city palaces and havelis are an important part of the architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the Pink City, is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sand stone dominated by a pink hue. In Bundi, maximum houses are painted blue. At Ajmer, the white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar Lake is exquisite.

Jain Temples of Rajasthan from north to south and east to west, Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu, Ranakpur Temple dedicated to Lord Adinath in Pali District, Jain temples in the fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodurva Jain temples, Mirpur Jain Temples, Sarun Mata Temple Kotputli, Bhandasar and Karni Mata Temple of Bikaner are some of the best examples.

Each region of Rajasthan has a different and diverse form of art, culture and heritage.

“Literature in Rajasthan” means all the literature works that has been created within geographical boundary of Rajasthan from start of time till now.

The Rajasthani literature written in various genres but, it is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Surajmal Mishran. His most important works are the Vansa Bhaskara and the Vir Satsai. The Vans Bhaskar contains accounts of the Rajput princes who ruled in what was then Rajputana (at present the state of Rajasthan), during the lifetime of the poet (1872–1952). The Vir Satsai is a collection of hundreds of couplets. RPSC RAS GS Paper

Medieval Rajasthani literature is mostly poetry only and it is more about the heroic poetry mentioning of the great kings and fighters of the Rajasthan as said by Rabindra Nath Tagore once, “The heroic sentiment which is the essence of every song and couplet of a Rajasthani is peculiar emotion of its own of which, however, the whole country may be proud”. Rajasthani literature is created by mostly Charans Earlier Rajasthani was known as Charani (or dingal), which was close to Gujarati. As a result, it includes Sanskrit, Prakrit, Rajasthani, Hindi and other Language works. RPSC RAS GS Paper

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