UPSC IAS Mains 2020 Practice Questions

UPSC IAS Mains 2020 Practice Questions – Mains Answer writing practice The Civil Services Examination is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by the Union Public Service Commission for recruitment to various Civil Services of the Government of India, including the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, and Indian Police Service. Answer Writing Practice – UPSC IAS Mains 2020 Practice Questions

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UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 GS Paper Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

UPSC IAS Mains 2020 Practice Questions

  1. Crimes against women in the country are on the rise. Suggest reasons and provide solutions to tackle the situation.
  2. While foreign envoys are allowed to visit Kashmir, the members of the opposition are not. Examine the need for constructive opposition in the light of the statement.
  3. Fast Track courts are only a half-hearted solution to stopping heinous crimes. Comment.
  4. 24X7 electricity availability is the next big step in digitizing India. Examine the statement.
  5. What are FasTags? How are they being implemented, and what are the benefits expected?
  6. Elucidate upon the need of government assistance to the North Eastern India for development. Examine alternatives to government support.
  7. Examine the possibility of privatization of routes of the Indian Railways. What are some of the alternatives to privatisation?
  8. Examine the federal impact of the GST council. Mention the issues it faces and suggest reforms for the same.
  9. What is the Mutual Legal Assistance treaty? What are the issues associated with it and solutions to those?
  10. While e-Commerce threatens brick-and-mortar shops, it is because of them that the customer has emerged a winner. Comment. Also, highlight the issues related to ecommerce and suggest solutions.
  11. Solar power is important, but it has almost become unviable to sustain solar projects in India. Comment
  12. Capital punishments have seen equal support and resistance. Highlight the utility of capital punishment, and examine if it must be continued in India.
  13. Reducing IMR remains a persistent challenge in India. Mention the reasons and suggest the solutions for it.
  14. While secularism may work for the west, India needs pluralism. Comment
  15. Nobody seems happy with the crop insurance scheme in India. Highlight the issues and suggest solutions to improve it.
  16. US-Iran crisis can lead to significant consequences on India. Comment
  17. What are the PCA norms? Mention the importance of these in protecting the health of the banks.
  18. Climate change has the potential to impact all life forms. Comment
  19. Minority institutions must be granted the freedom, but the same must be accompanied with regulations. Comment
  20. Examine the utility of blockchain and AI in transforming governance. Highlight the constraints in achieving them.
  21. What are smog towers and how do they work? Mention some more innovative solutions to fight smog.
  22. Explain the impact of the double burden of malnutrition on demographic dividend in India. Examine some solutions to it.
  23. Government scheme implementation needs proper auditing. Highlight the role to be played by CAG. Examine the need for better provisions related to third party auditing and social audit.
  24. The WTO system needs complete overhaul. Comment
  25. The dark spots on the streets have become a hub for crimes against women. Highlight the steps taken and a way forward to improve the situation.
  26. Critically comment on the need for the Indian Laws to be gender-neutral.
  27. Discuss the need and the feasibility of All India Judicial Services. How is it different from the NJAC?
  28. What was Savitribai Phule’s impact on women’s education in India? Discuss.
  29. Critically comment on granting special rights to the UT of Jammu and Kashmir.
  30. What is NHRC? Critically comment upon its functions and powers.
  31. More programs are required on the lines of project tiger in the country. Comment
  32. Defection has become a major problem despite having a strong anti-defection law. Suggest the reforms required to improve the situation.
  33. Hunger and poverty in India stand as one of the major challenges. Highlight the strategy to eliminate them.
  34. Since criminals are getting smart, the police have to become smarter. Examine the statement through examples.
  35. While we have reached 100% rural ODF status, we remain far from total cleanliness. Comment on the statement and examine the need for cleanliness in India.
  36. Analyse the reasons and impacts of the forest fires. Suggest the measures to control them.
  37. Examine the need for creating a single energy ministry. Highlight the issues in achieving it.
  38. Elucidate upon the need for vaccinating the cattle in India. Mention the challenges and reform required to achieve 100% cattle vaccination.
  39. The poor financial health of the sugar factories has a direct impact on the rural economy of India. Comment
  40. Air India has become a burden, but it must not simply be sold off. Critically comment.
  41. Highlight the need for centre-state cooperation for sustainable development. Mention the role envisioned for the NITI Aayog.
  42. Dissent is the essence of democracy. In the light of the statement highlight the constitutional provisions to protect the freedom of speech in the country. Also mention some of the constraints and suggest a way forward.
  43. India’s green cover has been rising steadily. Mention the key steps in ensuring that the green cover keeps rising.
  44. What are open market operations? What is their impact on the economy?
  45. Artificial Intelligence can solve many of the problems that Indian railways face today. Critically comment.
  46. Digital payments have the potential to revolutionise the socio-economic framework of India. Comment
  47. Foreign investments are like double edged sword, which need to be handled cautiously. Comment
  48. “Good Governance” and “minimum government” go hand in hand. Do you agree? Justify your answer with suitable examples.
  49. Effective fund utilisation remains a key challenge in India. In the light of the statement, examine the need to reform Indian government’s fund utilisation for efficient service delivery.
  50. What is the need to insure the depositor’s money in the banks? What are the current provisions and what are the reforms suggested in the system?
  51. What is Arya samaj? Highlight Swami Shraddhanad’s role in Arya samaaj.
  52. Chief of defence can bring better coherence among the forces, but it can also lead to rise in friction among them. Critically comment.
  53. What are zero waste cities? Mention the challenges and benefits of achieving zero waste status in Indian cities.
  54. Northeastern India needs special economic zones, but with special protection of native culture. Comment
  55. MGNREGA has been a key legislation, but it needs drastic reforms. Comment.
  56. What is the basic structure of the Indian constitution, and why is it important to protect it. Explain with greater influence on secularism and freedom of expression.
  57. Examine the need to empower rural women. Highlight the role of self help groups in doing so.
  58. Indian businesses suffer due to stiff exit rules. Examine the prevailing situation and suggest reforms.
  59. Artificial intelligence is the key to future. Examine its importance in innovation and startup India programme.
  60. What is desertification? Highlight national and international efforts to limit it.
  61. Fiscal responsibility and discipline are required to ensure sustainable economic growth. Comment
  62. Cancer in India has become a major challenge, but the medical facilities are not apt enough to handle the crisis. Explain the issues and suggest reforms in ensuring cancer care in India.
  63. Disasters have been threatening the native ecosystems by bringing the foreign species. Comment
  64. What is the role of good governance in democracy? What steps need to be taken for improving the quality of governance in India?
  65. Groundwater conservation remains a major challenge in India. Explain the traditional and modern methods to improve the conservation in India.
  66. What is the post of Chief of Defence Staff? Examine the need for the post in the country?
  67. Examine the importance of India’s military co-operation with the world in the growing stature of India.
  68. What is Atal Bhujal Yojana? How is it significant amid the growing water crisis in the country?
  69. What is the National Population Register (NPR)?
  70. Railways’ workforce has been lurking for reforms and streamlining for too long. Critically comment.
  71. Mental disorders in India have become social disorder. Comment.
  72. Write a note on the Vaikkom Satyagraha. Mention the role played by Mahatma Gandhi in it.
  73. Accidents have not only dented the vehicles, but also Indian economy. In the light of the statement, explain the steps to improve the quality of roads in India.
  74. Indian steel sector is in dire needs of reforms. Comment.
  75. Elucidate upon the need to indigenise the defence production in India.
  76. India needs to resolve its boundary disputes for better collaboration with its neighbours. Comment.
  77. What are open market operations? How do they influence the economic situation in the country? How are they different from twist operations?
  78. Prevailing manual scavenging shows the deep inequality of the Indian society. Comment.
  79. What connects the NPR, NRIC, and Census? Evaluate the need of NRC in India.
  80. Fast food in India lacks in proper labelling. Mention the reason for latency and explain the solutions for the same.
  81. Road infrastructure plays a key role in ensuring all round regional development. Comment.
  82. Inequality adds to climate change. Critically analyse.
  83. Civil liberty goes much beyond freedom of speech. Elucidate.
  84. What is operation twist? What is its expected impact on the Indian economy?
  85. Highlight the impact of citizenship amendment act on India’s relationship with Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
  86. Indigenous production will have manifold impact on the defence as well as economy of the country. Comment.
  87. Critically comment on the voluntary population control program in India. 
  88. Highlight the issues caused by water pollution, and suggest solutions to tackle it. 
  89. Railways remains lifeline of the nation, but the lifeline is in dire need of reforms. Comment. 
  90. Indian medical system faces a unique challenge of poor diagnostics. Comment. 
  91. What is middle income trap and how can it threaten Indian economy?
  92. Evaluate the role of SEZ in regional development. 
  93. Critically analyse the system of reviews and appeals in the Indian criminal justice system.
  94. Critically analyse the recent amendments to the right to information act.
  95. No refugee crisis presents a deep humanitarian crisis. Critically evaluate in the light of recent developments.   
  96. Explain the impact of inflation on employment. Suggest how hyper-inflation can further degrade employment situation. 
  97. Internet revolution has the potential of transforming Indian villages. Comment
  98. Evaluate the need for increasing the size of the lok sabha. 
  99. Deputations must be done for learning and coherence, not vacancy filling. Critically comment. 
  100. What is GEM Samvaad? How is it going to influence the economic scenario in the country? 
  101. We need to ensure energy efficiency after ensuring energy availability to all. UPSC IAS MAINS 2020
  102. RTI must allow for the transparency in system, but it must also not hamper the already burdened officials. Comment
  103. Explain why has the world’s longest climate conference come on the verge of collapse.
  104. What is Ease of Doing Business report? Why is it important for India to rank higher in it?
  105. Shutting down the internet has multidimensional impacts. Comment
  106. Suggest methods to improve the fertiliser delivery systems in India efficient.
  107. India is well on the path of achieving its IMR and MMR targets. Mention the achievements made and the challenges remaining to completely eliminate these issues
  108. India’s manufacturing sector faces quality issues that hamper exports. Find these issues and highlight solutions to them.
  109. Natural disasters have a potential of overhauling the ecology of any region completely. Comment
  110. Modern transportation technology is required to deal with congestion and pollution. Comment
  111. AI can help learning in developed countries. Highlight its importance with respect to rural India.
  112. Critically evaluate the performance of the fast-track courts in India. Suggest solutions to improve them.
  113. Differently abled are yet to find social and systemic acceptance. Comment
  114. Ganga is not only the holiest for the humans, but also for other life forms. Comment
  115. Savings and Investments have a scalable impact on the growth prospects of a country. Comment
  116. Climate change can no longer be tackled with traditional solutions. It requires new approaches. Comment
  117. India’s research and development faces challenges on various levels. Mention the challenges and suggest reforms in the same.
  118. Forensics is a key aspect of investigation, but there are a lot of challenges in correct forensic analysis in India. Comment
  119. Leakages have reduced the effectiveness of government schemes. Explain. UPSC IAS MAINS 2020
  120. Water management is crucial, and remains a key feature of the sustainable development goals. Comment
  121. Custodial killings put a dark spot on the democracy. Explain.
  122. Social security in India is still a distant dream. Examine the statement in the light of the new Social security bill tabled in Lok sabha.
  123. Examine the IBC (second amendment) bill, 2019. Analyse the amendments and suggest a way forward.
  124. Citizenship amendment bill can have stark implications on the unique culture of the North East. Comment
  125. Congestion in Delhi is a leading cause of the city’s woes. Comment
  126. Examine the feasibility of delivering justice in rape cases within 21 days. Mention the reforms that would be required in the criminal justice system.
  127. Judicial appointments have been delayed due to structure and will. Critically comment.
  128. Elaborate the benefits and challenges of making the mid-day meal diverse.
  129. NPA crisis has shattered Indian banks. Mention the need to identify and address the challenge of NPAs.
  130. Identify the key factors behind citizen-centric governance.
  131. Encounters, like the one in Telangana, call attention to a criminal justice system in need of urgent reform. Critically comment.
  132. Lokpal has been a silent institution. Critically comment.
  133. Criminal Justice System in India is in dire need of structural and policy reforms. Comment
  134. Geriatric care must not only come from the family, but also from the state. Explain.
  135. The citizenship amendment bill can either heal, or scratch the wounds of partition. Comment
  136. What is trade protectionism? Explain its impact on the global economy.
  137. Crimes against women have put a question on the legal and social order of India. Critically comment. 
  138. Write a short note on the Paika rebellion. UPSC IAS MAINS 2020
  139. Analyse the growing need for effective healthcare delivery in the country. Mention the role immunisation can play in this.
  140. India China relations go far beyond border disputes. Comment
  141. Land reforms process was initiated at the time of independence, but it still haunts the economic growth. Critically analyse.
  142. Elaborate upon the need of FDI in economic growth of the country. Suggest issues with the FDI.
  143. India has been following a balanced approach between Israel and Palestine. Comment
  144. Jails in India are manufacturers of criminals. Explain and suggest methods to improve the jails in India. UPSC IAS MAINS 2020
  145. Indian criminal justice system needs significant reforms to reduce crime against women. Comment
  146. India’s diversity is displayed by the languages in India. Elaborate the statement in the light of various constitutional provisions.
  147. Have electoral bonds made a bad system worse? Critically comment.
  148. Rise of social media has been accompanied with the fake news. Mention the steps required to tackle fake news.
  149. Banking sector has been in rumbles, but its revival is necessary for economic growth of the nation. Comment
  150. Privacy is not only a legal, but a natural right. Critically comment.
  151. India needs both; police and policy reforms for women’s safety. Comment
  152. The economic offences have been killing the growth efforts of the government.
  153. Data protection is akin to protection of fundamental rights. Mention challenges and suggest measures in enabling data protection in India.
  154. School education needs to go beyond textbooks. Mention the flaws in the education system in India and suggest how New Education Policy can change that.
  155. Explain the evolution of India’s education policy since Independence. Suggest way forward.
  156. Disaster management must factor-in the role of climate change. Comment on the statement, and explain upon the need for disaster resilient infrastructure in India.
  157. Tribal culture can give a significant boost to the tourism programs in the country. Critically comment.
  158. There is a need to prevent the MSMEs from becoming dwarfs. Comment
  159. There is a dire need to reform the political parties in India. Critically comment. 
  160. Indian economy has been marred by financial frauds. Mention the steps taken to improve the situation and suggest more reforms. 
  161. Analyse the direct tax code of India. Suggest issues and reforms to address the same.  UPSC IAS MAINS 2020
  162. E-commerce is the future of shopping, but some sectors need better regulation for selling online. Critically comment.
  163. The clarion of ‘Gareebi Hatao’ has not yet reached rural India completely. Comment.

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UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

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MYUPSC! INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB: 20 NOVEMBER 2019

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Insights Revision through MCQs – 20 November 2019

Insights Current Affairs Quiz- 20 November 2019

Insights Static Quiz – 20 November 2019

Must Read Books for UPSC Civil Services Examination

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1,2,3,4 Book PDF Download

Economics Optional for UPSC IAS Mains & State PSC Exams

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All PDF which are provided here are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don’t make them Commercial. We request you to respect our Hard Work.

Unacademy Mrunal Economy 2020 Notes Part 1 to 14 Complete PDF

Baliyans IAS Gist of Economic Survey 2019 Volume 1 and 2 PDF

Vision IAS Gist of Economic Survey 2019 Volume 1 and 2 PDF

GS Score Gist of Economic Survey 2019 Volume 1 PDF

Unacademy Mrunal Economy Notes

Sriram IAS Indian Economy PDF

Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh 10th Edition Updated PDF

The decision of selection of the optional paper for IAS exam is an age old dilemma for Civil Services aspirants. As per the latest syllabus, the number of optional subjects to be selected is reduced to one, but aspirants are still confused if they make right choice or not. Though the weightage of the optional paper is only 500 marks out of 2025 marks as per the latest pattern of UPSC Civil Services exam, it is still a deciding factor in the final ranks due to the unpredictability associated with General Studies Papers (1000 marks  GS + 250 marks essay) and Interview (275 marks).

If we analyse the question papers and mark-list of last 5-10 years of UPSC Civil Services Exams, we can collect a lot interesting and valuable data. The UPSC questions have evolved and now the bias is more towards current related aspects of polity, economy, international relations etc than conventional topics. (Please also keep in mind that there is no guarantee by UPSC that the case will remain the same for future exams!) Due to high standard of questions and valuation, the marks scored by top candidates are coming down every year. The percentage of top ranks in IAS exam has come down from 58-60% in 3-4 years back to 50%, while the last rank of a successful candidate in General category is around 40% marks.

Geography Books for UPSC & State PSC Exams Free PDF

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Nitin Sangwan Complete Notes PDF

Vajiram and Ravi GS Handwritten Notes 2019 PDF 

PMF IAS Geography Notes 2019 PDF

Vajiram and Ravi Geography Handwritten Notes

La Excellence Ready Reckoner Indian Geography PDF

Indian Geography Subjective Download PDF

Indian Geography Objective For all competitive Exams
Orient BlackSwan School Atlas PDF Download
Oxford Student Atlas Hindi Bharat Sanskaran PDF
How do I prepare for geography for UPSC ?
GC Leong Geography Latest edition PDF Download
(Hindi) Indian Geography by Ankur Yadav
World Geography Objective For all competitive Exams
Tutorials Point Geography PDF Download
Civils Daily (CD) Indian Geography Compilation
Bhugol – Mahesh Barnwal free Book Download
India A Comprehensive Geography by DR Khullar

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES PRELIMINARY EXAM 2020 COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL GS PAPER-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Solved Test 1-15 GS Paper-I

India Yearbook Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Practice Test 1-12

Indian History Question Bank

Indian Geography Question Bank

Indian Polity Topic Wise Question Bank

Science & Technology Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20 Updated

2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020

Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12th

TEST SERIES: UPSC IAS PRELIMS EXAM 2020

Geography- Prelims Question Bank

Polity- Prelims Question Bank

History- Prelims Question Bank


History of India Free Books/Notes for UPSC IAS & State PSC Exams

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Updated link Nitin Sangwan Complete Notes PDF Download

Vajiram and Ravi GS Handwritten Notes 2019 Free PDF

Vajiram and Ravi Medieval Indian History Printed Notes

Vajiram and Ravi Ancient India Printed Notes Download

Vision IAS GS Complete Notes PDF Download

Ancient Indian History Notes Free PDF Download

UPSC Topper Anudeep Durishetty Complete Notes Pdf Download

Indian History Subjective Download PDF

Indian History Objective Questions For all competitive Exams

Vision IAS Modern History English Printed Notes PDF

Medieval History Hand Written Notes (90 Pages) PDF
Ancient History Hand Written Notes 78 Pages PDF
Modern History Hand Written Notes (135 Pages) PDF
New NCERT Updated 2018 Hindi Complete PDF Download
Pratiyogita Darpan Modern History Extra Issue PDF
Vajiram and Ravi Modern India Printed Notes
आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास [Modern Indian History] Hand written Notes
Modern History by Abhishek Srivastava Unacademy PDF Download
Medieval History by Abhishek Srivastava Unacademy PDF Download
Ancient History by Abhishek Srivastava Unacademy PDF Download
World History Hand Written Notes (156 Pages) PDF
Tutorials Point Modern Indian History PDF Download
Tutorials Point Medieval Indian History PDF Download
Tutorials Point Ancient Indian History PDF Download

Download UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Complete Study Material

UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES PRELIMINARY EXAM 2020 COMPLETE STUDY MATERIAL GS PAPER-1

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Solved Test 1-15 GS Paper-I

India Yearbook Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Practice Test 1-12

Indian History Question Bank

Indian Geography Question Bank

Indian Polity Topic Wise Question Bank

Science & Technology Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20

Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20 Updated

2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020

Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12th

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Test -10

Geography & Environment Current issues yearbook 2019

Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20

UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year Solved Paper 2010-19

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Practice Test 9

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-4 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-3 Complete Study Notes

UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes

UPSC IAS Main exam GS Paper-1 Complete study notes

Art & Culture of India

Indian History Complete Study Notes

Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination

Physical Economic and Human Geography of India

UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam 2020 GS Paper Study Material

UPSC IAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper 1,2,3,4 Complete Study Material in English.

You will get the following Books:

1. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1 – Indian Heritage and Culture and History and Geography of the World and Society

2. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2 – Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations

3. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 3 – Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

4. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 4 – Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

Click Here to download the Complete Study Notes for UPSC Mains Exam GS Paper 1-4.

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts IAS Mains Examinations with an aim to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of understanding of the candidates aspiring to be a part of the coveted Indian Civil Services. The IAS Mains Examinations test much more that the mere range of information and memory of the aspirants. These 2020 completely revised editions of study guides for General Studies Papers consist of in-depth coverage of all the topics in the syllabi at one place with the conceptual clarity to fulfill the needs and demands of the aspirants.

The present box set contains books for IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 3 and IAS Mains General Studies Paper 4.These books have been designed according to the syllabus for IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2, IAS Mains General Studies Paper 3 and IAS Mains General Studies Paper 4. The books have been designed with a special exam-oriented structure in accordance with the UPSC syllabus. We have have designed on the lines of questions asked in previous years’ IAS Mains General Studies exams. As the combination contains in-depth coverage of the various aspects of Indian Heritage and Culture and History and Geography of the World and Society, Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations, Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management and Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude along with a freebie to help the aspirants master their essay writing skills, it for sure will prove to be an impeccable resource for the upcoming IAS Mains Exam General Studies Papers 2020.

How to Prepare Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Examination

Current Events/Affairs has become a very prominent component and its role in Civil services examination. In exams many questions are asked from this section, so prepare thoroughly. Because your efforts will be useful for you in all stages of the competition and make it a part of your daily routine.

 

Current Events

Make an aerial view of Newspaper by making Political Administrative, Socio-Cultural, Economic, Technical, and Geographical News.

Now majority of objective questions are conceptual and asked in the negative terms, e.g., which is/are not true regarding Right to Information Act, 2005? It means you have to know each and every aspect of the law. So, no short cut is sustainable for Prelims examination.

 

Here is the list of those important events or affairs:

  1. Which become the headlines of the newspapers and editorial are written.
  2. Which have a negative/positive effects on the society?
  3. Which remain in topic or discussion in society and people for a long time?
  4. Which find a special attention in reputed newspapers for a long time?
  5. Which have a quality in making exam oriented notes under national/international issues and Bilateral Relation?

 

General Knowledge

In GK section, very few questions are usually asked. Remember “Do not study exhaustively and spending too much time in memorizing unneeded topics or facts”. Keep yourself updated and aware broadly about various fields. At in meantime, explore and focus more on those areas, which have been asked in the previous exams from online & offline resources like exam preparation articles, books, newspapers etc.

  • Good News Paper (preferably The Hindu/Indian Express)
  • Books and Authors
  • Sports/Games & Awards
  • Important Days and Years
  • Awards and Honours
  • Popular and Great Personalities in News
  • Indian Defence and Space Programmes in News
  • Technology and Computers

 

India Year Book

This book is an essential tool for aspirants as well as important for the CSAT and in two marks questions part of the Mains exam. Reading this book needs logical and concentrated approach on the basic notes, which can be usually asked in competition? One should prepare own notes in regard with various terms/topics explained in the book. Remember there are loads of unnecessary facts given in the book. Do not spend much time on them. You can buy this book online. Click Here to Order This Book.

 

Current affairs sources for UPSC Civil services examination: The Hindu, Indian express, PIB, PRS, Yojana, Kurukshetra, RSTV, Magazine.

 

Explained in detail: Watch our video         

Current Events/Affairs has become a very prominent component and its role in Civil services examination. In exams many questions are asked from this section, so prepare thoroughly. Because your efforts will be useful for you in all stages of the competition and make it a part of your daily routine.

UPSC Civil Services Mains 2019: IAS Aspirants Can Maximise Marks with Correct Strategy

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Civil Services Mains Examination

As the UPSC Civil Services Mains exam draws closer, it is important for aspirants to maintain a good time-table and practice regime. The aspirants need to prioritise between different subjects, answer writing practice and reading new material.

Since less than a month remains in the exam, the aspirants should focus more on practising full-length papers, at least one every day. This will help build the speed as well as the habit of being able to think and structure the thoughts quickly. If one goes in the exam without answer-writing practice, it is highly likely that even if one is well-read, he won’t be able to perform well.

This time is not for starting new material, books or making new notes. Students should have faith in themselves and revise the material they have already studied. In case, they have skipped substantial portions of a subject (or a subject altogether), they should pick the most concise and structured source to read it quickly. Hand-written notes of coaching classes should come handy.

The exam involves two papers of three hours each with small lunch-break in between. So, candidates are required to write continuously at a fast pace for six hours. This cannot be accomplished without practice.

Strategy to attempt Mains papers

Ultimately, it comes down to what one is able to write in the paper. The students should aim to attempt all the questions instead of trying to write lesser number of questions ‘perfectly’. At most, two questions – the ones that the aspirant knows nothing about, can be skipped. The goal should remain to attempt as many questions as possible.

The paper is divided into two kinds of questions – 10 marks and 15 marks. Optional subjects have 20-marks questions too. Students must stick to the word limit. The answer should consist of three parts – the introduction, main body, and conclusion. If the second one is lengthy, the other two can be done briefly. This minimum structure should be visible in every answer, whether written in paragraphs or point wise.

Making comparison tables, figures, point-wise writing etc can save you space therefore should be incorporated in the answer. However, these shouldn’t be redundant, as in, they shouldn’t just repeat what the text says and else they will just waste time.

One way to attempt the paper to finish it completely is to finish a few 10 markers and then a few 15 markers. These must be the ones that the candidate is most confident in. This way, you have given your best in these questions where you have the capability.

Next, candidates should finish 10-markers which are less well prepared, or require more thinking. Here, the candidates should leave some space for the introduction and conclusion, and write the main body.

The candidate should then proceed to complete remaining 20 mark-questions. At the end, the candidate should finish the introduction and conclusion part of the above questions.

Whenever ready to write an answer, the candidate should think what he/she would be able to write if the word limit was 50. This way, the candidate will know what are the important points and keywords not to be missed.

General Studies Paper II is one of the dynamic papers of the UPSC IAS Mains Exam and it requires an empirical study habit during IAS preparation. Particularly, this paper looks complex but not a difficult nut to crack. However, an aspirant with better understanding of questions asked in each section can perform better in this paper.

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

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upsc ias mains exam General Studies Paper 1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Main Exam-2019

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Must Read Topics for Civil Services Main Exam – 2019

1.         Social Empowerment

2.         INA and the freedom struggle

3.         Regionalism in India (New)

4.         Globalization

5.         Salient features of the Indian Society

6.         The science of Monsoon

7.         Debates around Secularism

8.         Role of Civil Society in the Development Process

9.         Press Developments during freedom struggle

10.       Revolutionary Movements 

11.        Educational Reforms during the British Era

12.       Architecture during the Mughal Period  

13.       Architecture during Delhi Sultanate

14.       Geomorphic Processes

15.       Puppetry, Musical Instrument and Theatre Forms

16.       Decriminalising of section 377 of the IPC

17.       Trump and the New Trade Order

18.       Afghanistan and the need for stability in the region

19.       Wuhan Spirit

20.      Lateral entry into the services

21.       Changes in the Indian political system

22.       Indus Water Treaty in the aftermath of Pulwama Attack

23.       Undernourishment and the need for fortified food

24.       Bimal Jalan Committee Report

25.       Lokpal and Lokayukta

26.       J & K: Article 35 A

27.       J & K: Article 370

28.      Foreign Policy Architecture

29.       Strategic Autonomy

30.      Soft Power

31.       Dynamics of Foreign Policy

32.       India’s Role in Future

33.       Nuclear Doctrine

34.       Big Brother

35.       Historical Events in International Relations

36.       Systemic Challenges

37.       India-Afghanistan: Challenges; Geo-Political Developments

38.      India-Australia: AUSIDEX

39.       India-Bangladesh: Boundary Settlement; Relations; Legacy of Pakistan; Illegal Immigration

40.      India-Bhutan: Growth of Democracy

41.       India-China: Comparison; China’s Foreign Policy; Boundary Issues; Relations; Arunachal Pradesh; Tibet; One Belt One Road; China – Superpower?; China-Pak-India; Counter Terrorism Drills; Dam on Brahamaputra; China’s West Asia Policy

42.       India-Pakistan: Confidence Building Measures; Kashmir Dispute; Terrorism; Peace Proposal; Gilgit-Baltistan; Nuclear India-Pak-US

43.       India-Sri Lanka: Overview; Elections in Sri Lanka; Sri Lanka PM visit; Sri Lanka War Crimes; Tamil Issue; OHCHR Resolution on Sri Lanka;

44.       India-USA: Overview; BIT President’s Visit; Chinese Angle; Nuclear Deal Defence Ties – DTTI; Strategic and Commercial Dialogue; S & T; US or China; People to People; US-China vis-a-vis Pakistan; Climate; FATCA-Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act; LEMA-Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement

50.       India-Saudi Arabia: Overview; India-Saudi-Iran

51.       India-Canada: Uranium Deal       

52.       India-Israel: Overview; Palestine

53.       India-Italy: Italian Marine Case

54.       India-Mauritius: DTAC

55.       India-Myanmar: Buddhist Chauvinism

56.       India-North Korea: Relations; North Korea Events

57.       India-Pacific Islands: Papua New Guinea

58.       India-South Korea: Overview; Strategic Partnership

59.       India-Russia: Relations

60.      India-Mongolia: Relations

61.       India-Sudan: Overview; Arrest of President

62.       India-Sweden: Relations; Sustainable Urban Development

63.       India-Turkey: Kurdish Movement

64.       India-UAE: Strategic Partnership

65.       India-Netherlands: Relations

66.       India-UAE: Strategic Partnership

67.       India-Netherlands: Relations

68.      India-Cambodia: Overview

69.       India-Chile: Overview

70.       India-France: Overview

71.       India-Ireland: Overview

72.       India-Jordan: Overview

73.       India-Maldives: Overview

74.       India-Morocco: Overview

75.       India-Mozambique: Overview

76.       India-Singapore: Overview

77.       ASEAN – The Association of Southeast Asian Nations

78.       Central Asia

79.       SAARC – The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

80.      BBIN – The Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal

81.       Indo-Pacific Issues

82.      West Asia

83.      India-EU

84.      SCO – The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

85.       BRICS – Brazil, Russia, India and China

86.      EEU – The Eurasian Economic Union

87.       BCIM – Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar

88.      IBSA – India, Brazil and South Africa

89.      APEC – Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

90.      IAFS – The India–Africa Forum Summit (Bilateral & Multilateral)

91.       NSS – Nuclear Security Summit

92.       RCEP – Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

93.       APEC – Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

94.       BIT – Bilateral Investment Treaty

95.       CTBT – The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

96.       IBRD – The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

97.       ICC – The International Chamber of Commerce

98.      ICJ – The International Court of Justice

99.       IDA – The International Development Association

100.    IMF – The International Monetary Fund

101.     ISA – International Solar Alliance

102.     MTCR – The Missile Technology Control Regime

103.     NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

104.     NDB – New Development Bank

105.     NPT – The Non-Proliferation Treaty and its failure

106.     NSG – Nuclear Suppliers Group

107.     PCA – Permanent Court of Arbitration

108.    TPP – The Trans-Pacific Partnership

109.     TFA – Trade Facilitation Agreement

110.     TTIP – Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

111.      UN – United Nations

112.     UNSC – The United Nations Security Council

113.     WHO – The World Health Organization

114.     WTO – The World Trade Organization

115.      WIPO – The World Intellectual Property Organization

116.     Diplomatic Immunity – Saudi Diplomat Rape case

117.      East Asia

118.     Syrian Crisis

119.     South China Sea

120.     UK Referendum – Brexit

121.     Refugee problem

122.     Israeli Settlement

123.     Diaspora

124.     Internet Governance

125.     World Trade Pattern

126.     Global Hunger

127.     China Currency Devaluation and its impact

128.     China – Economic Slowdown

129.     Currency Wars

130.     Quantitative Easing

131.     Japan’s Pacifism

132.     Europe Crisis

133.     Venezuela-Columbia Border Issue

134.     Catalonia – Spain

135.     Greece Crisis

136.     One World One Sun One Grid

137.     Food processing industry in India

138.     Low female workforce participation in India

139.     Living Planet Index Report 2018

140.     UNFCCC COP 24

141.     Mariculture in India

142.     Universal Basic Income

143.     Artificial Intelligence

144.     National Environmental Organisations

145.     Important International Conventions and Conferences related to Environment

146.     Coral Reefs

147.     Environmental Pollution

148.     Functions of Ecosystem

149.     Generalised System of Preference

150.     World Trade Organisation

151.      Union Budget 2019-2020 Highlights

152.     Economic Survey 2018-2019

153.     Acid Rain

154.     Ocean Acidification

155.     Ozone Depletion

156.     Terrorism

157.     Biotechnology and Its Applications

158.     Economic Planning in India

159.     BIMSTEC Summit 2019

160.     SAARC vs BIMSTEC

161.     India & Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

162.     Interstate water disputes

163.     Artificial Intelligence

164.     Triple Talaq Bill

165.     Issues concerning Elections in India

166.     Impact of Social Media

167.     Increasing Heat Waves

168.     Swachh Bharat Mission

169.     National Register of Citizens (NRC)

170.     Ease of Doing Business

171.      International Criminal Court

172.     US & China Trade war

173.     Data Protection – Technology and Privacy

174.     #MeToo Movement in India

175.     India’s air pollution

176.     Supreme Court Judgements

177.     Reconstitution of Cabinet Sub-committees

178.     Decriminalisation of Politics

179.     Iran nuclear deal

180.    Ayushman Bharat – PMJAY Scheme

181.     Draft Model Contract Farming Act 2018

182.     Environment Performance Index

183.     Women Safety

184.     Cyber Security

185.     Election funding

186.     Cryptocurrency

187.     Rural Women Empowerment

188.    Jobless growth in India

189.     Extreme Weather and Health Hazards

190.     Police Reforms in India

191.     India’s growing underwater capability

192.     Malimath Committee report

193.     Current & future prospect of Indian economy

194.     Digital Economy

195.     Kashmir unrest & dispute

196.     US withdrawals from various International alliances

197.     Parliamentary disruptions

198.     Uniform civil code

199.     Privatisation of certain Healthcare Services

200.    Marital rape

201.     The merger of PSU banks

202.    Privatisation of Air India

203.    Capital Punishment/death sentence

204.    Politics and Economics of farm loan waiver

205.    National Medical Commission Bill

206.    Barring MPs from practising law

207.    Controversy over changing the Constitution

208.    Section 377: Constitutionality Vs Morality

209.    Data Localisation

210.     Crisis in the sugar sector

211.     National Policy on Biofuels

212.     Live streaming of SC proceedings

213.     Doubling the Farmer’s income

214.     Mob lynching

215.     RTI amendments

216.     Minimum Support Price

217.     Non Performing Assets

218.     Lokpal

219.     Power & Role of RBI

220.    Aadhaar and Privacy issues

221.     The ban on cow slaughter/ Beef Ban

222.    Cashless Economy

223.    Economic growth Vs Environmental conservation

224.    Election Funding

225.     Free Speech: Rights & Limits

226.    Frequent promulgation of Ordinance

227.     Full statehood to Delhi: Should it be granted or not?

228.    Interstate water disputes: Focus on Cauvery Water Dispute

229.    Judicial activism and judicial Overreach

230.    Judicial appointment: Collegium Vs NJAC

231.     Kashmir Unrest

232.    Media freedom and Responsible reporting

233.    Muslim Personal law: Polygamy/ Triple talaq

234.    Nationalism vs Regionalism

235.     NGOs and Development/ Crackdown on NGOs

236.    Dalit assertion and Politics of reservation

237.     Restriction on the entry of women in places of worship

238.    Should India spend more on science or Social welfare?

239.    Supreme Court judgement on Caste, Religion in Polls

240.    Parliamentary disruptions

241.     Uniform civil code

242.    Privatization of certain Healthcare Services

243.    Agrarian crisis: Issues in farmer economy

244.    Issues related to Social Media

245.     Criminalisation of politics

246.    Stubble burning in the neighbourhood of Delhi

247.     Marital rape

248.    ‘Living wills’/ Euthanasia

249.    Separate State Flag in Karnataka

250.    Net neutrality

251.     The merger of PSU banks

252.     Privatization of Air India

253.     Capital Punishment/death sentence

254.     Politics and Economics of farm loan waiver

255.     Laws to ban certain social practices

256.     Entry of foreign universities in India

257.     Respecting national anthem

258.    The special court for trying politicians

259.     FRDI bill

260.    National Medical Commission Bill

261.     Barring MPs from practising law

262.    Controversy over changing the Constitution

263.    Lateral entry: Professionalizing Governance or Committed Bureaucracy?

264.    Section 377: Constitutionality Vs Morality

265.     Institutions of Eminence: Can the tag help to create world-class universities?

266.    Higher Education Commission of India

267.     Bad bank: Is it a good idea?

268.    Data protection: Privacy Vs Innovation

269.    Ayushman Bharat: Can it make India healthier?

270.    SC/ST Act judgment: Protecting the innocent or diluting the Protection?

271.     Crisis in the sugar sector

272.     Khap Panchayats and honour killing

273.     National Policy on Biofuels

274.     Should the SC proceedings be live streamed?

275.     Doubling the Farmer’s income

276.     Is AI a danger to humanity?

277.     What prevents women from working in India?

278.    Special category status

279.     National Register of Citizens

280.    Price Deficiency Payment mechanism

281.     Death penalty for raping minor

282.    Mob lynching: Is it becoming a new normal?

283.    RTI amendments

284.    India in SCO: Benefits and challenges

285.    Minimum Support Price

286.    Reservation in promotion for SC/ST employees

287.    No detention under RTE

288.    Interlinking of rivers

289.    Compensatory Afforestation

290.    Non Performing Assets

291.     Amendments to the prevention of Corruption Act

292.    Issues related to the appointment of Lokpal

293.    Does RBI need more power to monitor Banks?

294.    Office of the Speaker: Powers and Issues

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Industry 4.0, also known as the intelligent industry, is considered to be the fourth industrial revolution, a term coined by Professor Schwa band seeks to transform a company into an intelligent organization to achieve the best business results. To some, it will seem too soon to talk about the next industrial revolution, i.e., the fourth industrial revolution, but the adoption of Artificial Intelligence has reached a point where we are ready for another radical change, the digital transformation of the industry or what we call industry 4.0. The change is based on the adoption of Artificial Intelligence for the progressive automation of the production process.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • AI is the science of building computers that can solve problems the way humans do. With intelligent machines enabling high­ level cognitive processes like thinking, perceiving, learning, problem solving and decision making, coupled with advances in data collection and aggregation, analytics and computer processing power, AI presents opportunities to complement and supplement human intelligence and enrich the way people live and work.
  • The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • It encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics.
  • Recently it has become widely popular and gained prominence due to its multifaceted application ranging from healthcare to military devices.
  • AI is a constellation of technologies that enable machines to act with higher levels of intelligence and emulate the human capabilities of sense, comprehend and act.
  • The natural language processing and inference engines can enable AI systems to analyse and understand the information collected.
  • An AI system can also take action through technologies such as expert systems and inference engines or undertake actions in the physical world.

 Machine Learning  Deep Learning
 This term was coined by Artur Samuel in 1959, meant “the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.”  It is a technique for implementing Machine Learning. It was inspired by the structure and function of the brain, specifically the interconnecting of many neurons.
 It involves the use of algorithms to parse data and learn from it, and making a prediction as a result.  Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are algorithms that are based on the biological structure of the brain.
 The machine gets “trained” using large amounts of data and algorithms, and in turn gains the capability to perform specific tasks.  In ANNs, there are ‘neurons’ which have discrete layers and connections to other “neurons”. Each layer picks out a specific feature to learn. It’s this layering that gives deep learning its name.

What is the philosophy and ethics of Artificial Intelligence?

  • The R&D of AI started with the intention of creating intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Self-driving Cars: Advances in artificial intelligence have brought us very close to making the decades-long dream of autonomous driving a reality. AI algorithms are one of the main components that enable self-driving cars to make sense of their surroundings, taking in feeds from cameras installed around the vehicle and detecting objects such as roads, traffic signs, other cars, and people.
  • Digital assistants and smart speakers: Siri, Alexa, Cortana, and Google Assistant use artificial intelligence to transform spoken words to text and map the text to specific commands. AI helps digital assistants make sense of different nuances in spoken language and synthesize human-like voices.
  • Translation : For many decades, translating text between different languages was a pain point for computers. But deep learning has helped create a revolution in services such as Google Translate. To be clear, AI still has a long way to go before it masters human language, but so far, advances are spectacular.
  • Facial recognition: Facial recognition is one of the most popular applications of artificial intelligence. It has many uses, including unlocking your phone, paying with your face, and detecting intruders in your home. But the increasing availability of facial-recognition technology has also given rise to concerns regarding privacy, security, and civil liberties.
  • Medicine: From detecting skin cancer and analyzing X-rays and MRI scans to providing personalized health tips and managing entire healthcare systems, artificial intelligence is becoming a key enabler in healthcare and medicine. AI won’t replace your doctor, but it could help to bring about better health services, especially in underprivileged areas, where AI-powered health assistants can take some of the load off the shoulders of the few general practitioners who have to serve large populations.
  • Agriculture Sector : AI can be used to predict advisories for sowing, pest control, input control can help in ensuring increased income and providing stability for the agricultural community. Image classification tools combined with remote and local sensed data can bring a revolutionary change in utilisation and efficiency of farm machinery, in areas of weed removal, early disease identification, produce harvesting and grading.
  • Business Sector: To take care of highly repetitive tasks Robotic process automation is applied which perform faster and effortlessly than humans. Further, Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to provide better customer service. Chat bots being used into the websites to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies such as Gartner and Forrester.
  • Education Sector: AI can make some of the educational processes automated such as grading, rewarding marks etc. therefore giving educators more time. Further, it can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI may change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
  • Financial Sector: It can be applied to the personal finance applications and could collect personal data and provide financial advice. In fact, today software trades more than humans on the Wall Street.
  • Legal Sector: Automation can lead to faster resolution of already pending cases by reducing the time taken while analyzing cases thus better use of time and more efficient processes.
  • Manufacturing sector: Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now, however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.
  • Intelligent Robots: Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Further, they are capable of learning from their errors and therefore can adapt to the new environment.
  • Gaming : AI has a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
  • Cyber Security: In the 20th conference on e-governance in India it was discussed that AI can provide more teeth to cyber security and must be explored.
  • Smart Cities and Infrastructure: Use of AI to monitor patronage and accordingly control associated systems such as pavement lighting, park maintenance and other operational conditions could lead to cost savings while also improving safety and accessibility.

Global Developments

  • China and U.K. estimate that 26% and 10% of their GDPs respectively in 2030 will be sourced from Air elated activities and businesses.
  • There has been tremendous activity concerning AI policy positions and the development of an AI ecosystem in different countries over the last 18 to 24 months.
  • Infrastructural supply side interventions have been planned by various countries for creating a larger ecosystem of AI development.
  • Not just national governments, but even local city governments have become increasingly aware about the importance and potential of AI and have committed public investments.
  • For building the future workforce for AI, countries are also significantly increasing the allocation of resources for Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) talent development through investment in universities, mandating new courses (e.g., AI and law), and offering schemes to retrain people.
  • AI technology development and applications are evolving rapidly with major implications for economies and societies. A study by EY and NASCCOM found that by 2022, around 46% of the workforce will be engaged in entirely new jobs.


                   Advantages of AI                        Disadvantages of AI
No leisure time requiredLower error rate compared to humans. Better precision and accuracy. Eg: Robotic radio surgeryBetter speedNot affected by surrounding environmentReplace humans in repetitive, tedious tasksBetter user experience through predictive technology e.g. Help in predicting what a user will type, ask, search, and do. Can easily act as assistants and recommend actions.Interact with humans for entertainment or a task. E.g. Sophia robotLogical – devoid of emotions. Can make rational decisions with less or no mistakes. The decrease in demand for human labour due to machines and intelligent robots taking over the jobs in the manufacturing and the services sectors. For Example: In China some customs officers are now robots, In Japan robots as housemaid is emerging trend.Existential risks: Stephen Hawkins has once said “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded”.AI technologies falling into terrorist hands may unleash modern terror network including machine and therefore vulnerability of humans may magnify.It may lead to moral degradation in society due to decreased human to human interactions.

Possible areas for AI applications in Indian conditions

  • India has the potential to position itself among leaders on the global AI map – with a unique brand of #AIforAll.
  • It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data analysis which is not possible without using AI.
  • Targeted delivery of services, schemes, and subsidy can be further fine-tuned.
  • Smart border surveillance and monitoring to enhance security infrastructure.
  • Weather forecasting models may become proactive and therefore preplanning for any future mishaps such as floods, droughts and therefore addressing the farming crisis, farmer’s suicide, crop losses etc.
  • By analyzing big data of road safety data and NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) data for crimes, new policies can be formulated.
  • Disaster management can be faster and more accessible with the help of robots and intelligent machines.
  • In the counterinsurgency and patrolling operations, we often hear the loss of CRPF jawans which can be minimized by using the robotic army and lesser human personnel.
  • AI can be used to automate government processes, therefore, minimizing human interactions and maximizing transparency and accountability.
  • It can be applied to study ancient literature upon medicines and therefore help in modernizing the health care with the juxtaposition of modern machines and ancient techniques.
  • In the remotest areas where the last leg of governance is almost broken, AI can do the job. For Example: in the tribal areas and the hilly areas of the northeast.

Nodal organization of the government for the research work on AI

  • Centre for artificial intelligence and robotics (CAIR), is the primary laboratory of DRDO for research and development in different areas of defense, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and is located in Bangalore. It is involved in the Research & Development of high-quality Secure Communication, Command, and Control, and Intelligent Systems.
  • Projects: NETRA- software to intercept online communication, SECOS- Secure operating system.

Challenges India’s Artificial Intelligence Development is facing

  • Lack of enabling data ecosystems
  • Low intensity of AI research
  • Inadequate availability of AI expertise, manpower and skilling opportunities
  • High resource cost and low awareness for adopting AI in business processes
  • Unclear privacy, security and ethical regulations
  • Unattractive Intellectual Property regime to incentivise research and adoption of AI.

Way Forward

  • Incentivising creation of jobs that could constitute the new service industry
  • Recognition and standardisation of informal training institutions
  • Creation of open platforms for learning and financial incentives for reskilling of employees
  • Lack of qualified faculty that poses a serious problem in the present scenario can be addressed through innovative initiatives like credit­bearing MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses).
  • Acceptability and adoption of these decentralised teaching mechanisms can be ensured through prescribed certification in collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions.
  • Additional investment and collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions in order to meet the market demand.
  • To encourage the development of sustainable AI solutions at an appropriate price point for sectors such as health, education, and agriculture, it is necessary that a level playing field be ensured and a supportive environment be created for all players in the value chain.
  • AI is a highly collaborative domain, and any framework aimed at promoting AI needs to be aligned accordingly. A multi­pronged approach, involving various stakeholders and promoting a collaborative approach is required for promoting development of AI tools as well as adoption of AI in different fields of activity.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Interstate water disputes

The Inter-State River Water Disputes are one of the most contentious issues in the Indian federalism today. The recent cases of the Cauvery Water Dispute and the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal are some examples. Various Inter-State Water Disputes Tribunals have been constituted so far, but they had their own problems.

Constitutional Provisions

Entry 17 of State List deals with water i.e. water supply, irrigation, canal, drainage, embankments and water storage and water power.

Entry 56 of Union List empowers the Union Government for the regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys to the extent declared by Parliament to be expedient in the public interest.

According to Article 262, in case of disputes relating to waters:

Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter-State river or river valley.

Parliament may, by law provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as mentioned above.

Major Inter-State River Disputes
River (s) States
Ravi and Beas Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
Narmada Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Krishna Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana
Vamsadhara Andhra Pradesh & Odisha
Cauvery Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry
Godavari Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha
Mahanadi Chhattisgarh, Odisha
Mahadayi Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka
Periyar Tamil Nadu, Kerala

Mechanism for Inter-State River Water Disputes Resolution

  • The resolution of water dispute is governed by the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956.
    • According to its provisions, if a State Government makes a request regarding any water dispute and the Central Government is of opinion that the water dispute cannot be settled by negotiations, then a Water Disputes Tribunal is constituted for the adjudication of the water dispute.
  • The act was amended in 2002, to include the major recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.

    • The amendments mandated a one year time frame to setup the water disputes tribunal and also a 3 year time frame to give a decision.

Active River Water Dispute Tribunals in India

  • Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal II (2004) – Karnataka, Telangana, Andra Pradesh, Maharashtra
  • Mahanadi Water Disputes Tribunal (2018) – Odisha & Chattisgarh
  • Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal (2010) – Goa,Karnataka, Maharashtra
  • Ravi & Beas Water Tribunal (1986) – Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
  • Vansadhara Water Disputes Tribunal (2010) – Andra Pradesh & Odisha.

Issues with Interstate Water Dispute Tribunals

  • Protracted proceedings and extreme delays in dispute resolution.
    • For example, in the case of Godavari water dispute, the request was made in 1962, but the tribunal was constituted in 1968 and the award was given in 1979 which was published in the Gazette in 1980.
    • The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal, constituted in 1990, gave its final award in 2007.
  • Opacity in the institutional framework and guidelines that define these proceedings; and ensuring compliance.
  • Though award is final and beyond the jurisdiction of Courts, either States can approach Supreme Court under Article 136(Special Leave Petition) under Article 32 linking issue with the violation of Article 21 (Right to Life).
  • The composition of the tribunal is not multidisciplinary and it consists of persons only from the judiciary.
  • The absence of authoritative water data that is acceptable to all parties currently makes it difficult to even set up a baseline for adjudication.
  • The shift in tribunals’ approach, from deliberative to adversarial, aids extended litigation and politicisation of water-sharing disputes.
  • The growing nexus between water and politics have transformed the disputes into turfs of vote bank politics. 
    • This politicisation has also led to increasing defiance by states, extended litigations and subversion of resolution mechanisms.
    • For example, the Punjab government played truant in the case of the Ravi-Beas tribunal.
  • Too much discretion at too many stages of the process.
    • Partly because of procedural complexities involving multiple stakeholders across governments and agencies.
    • India’s complicated federal polity and its colonial legacy.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

BRICS-Brazil-Russia-India-China and South Africa

BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

The BRICS Leaders’ Summit is convened annually.

Structure

BRICS does not exist in form of organization, but it is an annual summit between the supreme leaders of five nations.

The Chairmanship of the forum is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.

BRICS cooperation in the past decade has expanded to include an annual programme of over 100 sectoral meetings.

Salient Features

Together, BRICS accounts for about 40% of the world’s population and about 30% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product), making it a critical economic engine.

It’s an emerging investment market and global power bloc.

Genesis

The acronym “BRICS” was initially formulated in 2001 by economist Jim O’Neill, of Goldman Sachs, in a report on growth prospects for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China – which together represented a significant share of the world’s production and population.

In 2006, the four countries initiated a regular informal diplomatic coordination, with annual meetings of Foreign Ministers at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly (UNGA).

This successful interaction led to the decision that the dialogue was to be carried out at the level of Heads of State and Government in annual Summits.

The first BRIC Summit took place in 2009 in the Russian Federation and focused on issues such as reform of the global financial architecture.

South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the group adopted the acronym BRICS. South Africa subsequently attended the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, in March 2011.

Objectives

The BRICS seeks to deepen, broaden and intensify cooperation within the grouping and among the individual countries for more sustainable, equitable and mutually beneficial development.

BRICS takes into consideration each member’s growth, development and poverty objectives to ensure relations are built on the respective country’s economic strengths and to avoid competition where possible.

BRICS is emerging as a new and promising political-diplomatic entity with diverse objectives, far beyond the original objective of reforming global financial institutions.

Areas of Cooperation

1. Economic Cooperation

There are rapidly growing trade and investment flows between BRICS countries as well as economic cooperation activities across a range of sectors.

Agreements have been concluded in the areas of Economic and Trade Cooperation; Innovation Cooperation, Customs Cooperation; strategic cooperation between the BRICS Business Council , Contingent Reserve Agreement and the New Development Bank.

These agreements contribute to realisation of the shared objectives of deepening economic cooperation and fostering integrated trade and investment markets.

2. People-to-People exchange

BRICS members have recognised the need for strengthening People-to-People exchanges and to foster closer cooperation in the areas of culture, sport, education, film and youth.

People-to-People exchanges seek to forge new friendships; deepen relations and mutual understanding between BRICS peoples in the spirit of openness, inclusiveness, diversity and mutual learning.

Such People to people exchanges include the Young Diplomats Forum, Parliamentarian Forum, Trade Union Forum, Civil BRICS as well as the Media Forum.

3. Political and Security Cooperation

BRICS member political and security cooperation is aimed at achieving peace, security, development and cooperation for a more equitable and fair world.

BRICS provides opportunities for sharing policy advice and exchanges of best practices in terms of domestic and regional challenges as well as advancing the restructuring of the global political architecture so that it is more balanced, resting on the pillar of multilateralism.

BRICS is utilised as a driver for South Africa’s foreign policy priorities including the pursuit of the African Agenda and South-South Cooperation.

4. Cooperation Mechanism

Cooperation among members is achieved through:

Track I: Formal diplomatic engagement between the national governments.

Track II: Engagement through government-affiliated institutions, e.g. state-owned enterprises and business councils.

Track III: Civil society and People-to-People engagement.

Impacts of BRICS on global institutional reforms

The main reason for co-operation to start among the BRICs nation was the financial crises of 2008. The crises raised doubts over sustainability of the dollar-dominated monetary system.

The BRICs called for the “the reform of multilateral institutions in order that they reflect the structural changes in the world economy and the increasingly central role that emerging markets now play”.

BRICs managed to push for institutional reform which led to International Monetary Fund (IMF) quota reform in 2010. Thus the financial crises had momentarily reduced western legitimacy and briefly let the BRICs countries become “agenda setters” in multilateral institutions.

New Development Bank

  • NDB is headquartered in Shanghai.
  • At the Fourth BRICS Summit in New Delhi (2012) the possibility of setting up a new Development Bank was considered to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging economies, as well as in developing countries.
  • During the Sixth BRICS Summit in Fortaleza (2014) the leaders signed the Agreement establishing the New Development Bank (NDB).
  • Fortaleza Declaration stressed that the NDB will strengthen cooperation among BRICS and will supplement the efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global development thus contributing to sustainable and balanced growth.
  • NDB’s key areas of operation are clean energy, transport infrastructure, irrigation, sustainable urban development and economic cooperation among the member countries.
  • The NDB functions on a consultative mechanism among the BRICS members with all the member countries possessing equal rights.

Contingent Reserve Arrangement

Considering the increasing instances of global financial crisis, BRICS nations signed BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) in 2014 as part of Fortaleza Declaration at Sixth BRICS summit.

The BRICS CRA aims to provide short-term liquidity support to the members through currency swaps to help mitigating BOP crisis situation and further strengthen financial stability.

The initial total committed resources of the CRA shall be one hundred billion dollars of the United States of America (USD 100 billion).

It would also contribute to strengthening the global financial safety net and complement existing international arrangements (IMF).

Challenges

The marked dominance of big three Russia-China-India is challenge for the BRICS as it moves ahead. To become a true representative of large emerging markets across the world, BRICS must become pan-continental. Its membership must include more countries from other regions and continents.

The BRICS will need to expand its agenda for increasing its relevance in the global order. As of now, climate change and development finance, aimed at building infrastructure dominate agenda.

As BRICS moves forward foundational principles of BRICS i.e. respect for sovereign equality and pluralism in global governance are liable to be tested as the five member countries pursue their own national agendas.

The military standoff between India and China on the Doklam plateau, which has effectively brought to an end the naive notion that a comfortable political relationship is always possible amongst the BRICS members

China’s efforts to co-opt nation states, which are integral to its Belt and Road Initiative, into a broader political arrangement has potential to cause conflict among BRICS members especially China and India.

Importance for India

India can benefit from collective strength of BRICS by way of consultation and cooperation on economic issues of mutual interests, as well as topical global issues, such as, international terrorism, climate change, food and energy security, reforms of global governance institutions, etc.

India remains engaged with the other BRICS countries on its NSG membership.

The NDB will help India to raise and avail resources for their infrastructure and sustainable development projects. The NDB has approved its first set of loans, which included a loan of US$ 250 million in respect of India for Multitranche Financing Facility for Renewable Energy Financing Scheme’.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

What is SCO?

  • SCO is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation.
  • It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.
  • It was created in 2001.
  • The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003.
  • It is a statutory document which outlines the organization’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.
  • The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.

Genesis

Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five.

Shanghai Five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders.

Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organisation in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO.

India and Pakistan became members in 2017.

Membership

  1. Kazakhstan
  2. China
  3. Kyrgyzstan
  4. Russia
  5. Tajikistan
  6. Uzbekistan
  7. India
  8. Pakistan

Observer states

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Belarus
  3. Iran
  4. Mongolia
  5. Dialogue Partner
  6. Azerbaijan
  7. Armenia
  8. Cambodia
  9. Nepal
  10. Turkey
  11. Sri Lanka

Objectives

  • Strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states.
  • Promoting effective cooperation in -politics, trade & economy, research & technology and culture.
  • Enhancing ties in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, etc.
  • Maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region.
  • Establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political & economic order.

Guiding Principle – Based on Shanghai Spirit

  • Internal policy based on the principles of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, mutual consultations, respect for cultural diversity, and a desire for common development.
  • External policy in accordance with the principles of non-alignment, non-targeting any third country, and openness.

Structure of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:

Heads of State Council – The supreme SCO body which decides its internal functioning and its interaction with other States & international organisations, and considers international issues.

Heads of Government Council – Approves the budget, considers and decides upon issues related economic spheres of interaction within SCO.

Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs – Considers issues related to day-to-day activities.

Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) – Established to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism

SCO Secretariat – Based in Beijing to provide informational, analytical & organisational support.

Operations

Initially, the SCO focused on mutual intraregional efforts to curb terrorism, separatism and extremism in Central Asia.

In 2006, SCO’s agenda widened to include combatting international drug trafficking as a source of financing global.

In 2008, SCO actively participated in bringing back stability in Afghanistan.

At the same time, the SCO took up a variety of economic activities:

In 2003, SCO member states signed a 20-year Programme of Multilateral Trade and Economic Cooperation for the establishment of a free trade zone within the territory under the SCO member states.

Strengths of SCO

The SCO covers 40%of the global population, nearly 20% of the global GDP and 22% of the world’s land mass.

The SCO has a strategically important role in Asia due to its geographical significance – this enables it to control the Central Asia and limit the American influence in region.

SCO is seen as counterweight to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

BANGLADESH-BHUTAN-INDIA-NEPAL (BBIN) INITIATIVE

The Bhutan government has decided to send the bill for ratification of the Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN) initiative for road and rail connectivity to its upper senate.

Background:

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) had signed a framework MVA in June 2015 to enable movement of passenger and cargo vehicles across borders among the four countries. Bhutan has not yet ratified the pact for its entry to come into force. However, Bhutan had given its consent for the BBIN MVA to enter into force amongst the other 3 countries i.e. Bangladesh, India and Nepal, who have already ratified it.

About BBIN MVA:

What is it? The landmark MVA was signed by Transport Ministers of the BBIN countries in Thimphu, Bhutan on 15 June 2015. As per the agreement, member countries would allow vehicles registered in the other countries to enter their territory under certain terms and conditions. Customs and tariffs will be decided by the respective countries and these would be finalised at bilateral and trilateral forums.

Objective: The main objective of the agreement is to provide seamless people-to-people contact and enhance economic interaction by facilitating cross border movement of people and goods.

Benefits: It would permit unhindered movement of passenger and cargo vehicles among the four countries. Cargo vehicles do not have to be changed at the border, a practice that has prevailed until now. The BBIN agreement will promote safe, economical efficient and environmentally sound road transport in the sub-region and will further help each country in creating an institutional mechanism for regional integration.

Assistance from ADB: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been providing technical, advisory, and financial support to the BBIN MVA initiative as part of its assistance to the South Asia Sub regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) program, a projects-based economic cooperation initiative that brings together the BBIN countries, Maldives, Sri Lanka and more recently, Myanmar. ADB is the secretariat of SASEC.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was first mooted in May 1980. The Foreign Secretaries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981. The Committee of the Whole, which met in Colombo in August 1981, identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. New areas of cooperation were added in the following years. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation was set up when its Charter was formally adopted on 8 December 1985 by the Heads of State or Government of India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

  • The organisation offers an arena for the peoples of South Asia to work with one another in a spirit of friendship, trust and understanding. Its objective is to advance the welfare of the people of the region, to enhance the quality of life via faster economic growth, cultural development and social progress.
  • In SAARC, cooperation is based on respect for the principles of sovereign equality, political independence, territorial integrity, mutual benefit and non-interference in the internal affairs of the member states. Regional cooperation is seen as a complement to the bilateral and multilateral relations of SAARC Member States.
  • Decisions are taken on the basis of unanimity. Disputable and bilateral issues are not taken up for discussions in SAARC. Before the first summit was held at Dhaka, Bangladesh, preparatory meetings were conducted. In 1981, Colombo, the foreign secretaries of the nations met. The foreign ministers met in New Delhi in 1983 and identified areas for cooperation.

Objectives of SAARC

The areas of cooperation under the reconstituted Regional Integrated Programme of Action which is pursued through the Technical Committees now cover the following:

  • Agriculture and Rural Development
  • Women, Youth and Children
  • Health and Population Activities
  • Science and Technology and Meteorology
  • Environment and Forestry
  • Human Resource Development, and
  • Transport

Working Groups have also been established in the following areas:

  • Biotechnology
  • Information and Communications Technology
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Energy
  • Tourism

The highest authority in the SAARC is the summits and they are held yearly once. The Chair of the Association would be the host country where the summit is held in a particular year. The Council of Ministers comprises of the foreign ministers and they meet generally two times annually.

Functions of the Council of Ministers

  • Policy formulation
  • Reviewing the progress of regional cooperation
  • Identifying newer areas of cooperation, and
  • Setting up additional mechanisms as required

The Standing Committee is composed of the foreign secretaries. It monitors and coordinates the programmes of cooperation, approves various projects including their funds, and gathers regional as well as external resources. This committee meets as and when required and reports to the Council of Ministers. SAARC also calls for meetings at the ministerial level on special issues or themes. There is also a Committee on Economic Cooperation which comprises of the Secretaries of Commerce. This Committee supervises regional cooperation in the economic domain.

SAARC Regional Centres

The SAARC Secretariat is supported by Regional Centers established in Member Countries to promote regional cooperation. These Centers are managed by Governing Boards comprising representatives from Member States, SAARC Secretary-General and the Ministry of Foreign/External Affairs of the host government. The Director of the Centre acts as Member Secretary to the Governing Board which reports to the Standing Committee.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

ASEAN:The Association of Southeast Asian Nations

What is ASEAN?

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional organization which was established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the Asia-Pacific’s post-colonial states.

  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.
  • 8th August is observed as ASEAN Day.
  • ASEAN Secretariat – Indonesia, Jakarta.

Member Nations

  1. Indonesia
  2. Malaysia
  3. Philippines
  4. Singapore
  5. Thailand
  6. Brunei
  7. Vietnam
  8. Laos
  9. Myanmar
  10. Cambodia

Genesis of ASEAN

1967 – ASEAN was established with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by its founding fathers.

– Founding Fathers of ASEAN are: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

1990s – Membership doubled after the changing conditions in the region following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 and the Cold War in 1991.

–          Addition of Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Laos and Myanmar (1997), and Cambodia (1999).

1995 – Members signed a deal to create a nuclear-free zone in Southeast Asia.

1997 – Adoption of ASEAN Vision 2020.

2003 – Bali Concord II for the establishment of an ASEAN Community.

2007 – Cebu Declaration, to accelerate the establishment of ASEAN Community by 2015.

2008 – ASEAN Charter comes into force and becomes a legally binding agreement.

2015 – Launch of ASEAN Community.

ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars:

  1. ASEAN Political-Security Community
  2. ASEAN Economic Community
  3. ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

Objectives

– To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.

– To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

– To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.

– To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, the improvement of transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of peoples.

– To promote Southeast Asian studies.

– To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

India-Bangladesh Relations

Sheikh Hasina’s party, which leads the Grand Alliance, has romped back to power for an unprecedented fourth term in office.

The general election has given the Grand Alliance, or, more specifically, the Awami League, a huge majority in the Jatiyo Sangshad, the country’s Parliament, to a point where no effective Opposition is in sight.

Bilateral relations between Bangladesh and India have witnessed unprecedented heights over the last few years.

For India, Bangladesh is important for numerous reasons:

Connectivity

Perhaps on top of the list is connectivity between India’s mainland and the crucial northeast, which is part of India’s “Look East” Policy.

The only connection between India’s mainland and the northeast was the Chicken’s Neck – a narrow strip of land that has always been a huge security concern. Snap the chicken’s neck and a huge part of the country is cut off.

India and Bangladesh have signed several pacts, so India can actually send goods and passengers over land across Bangladesh, connecting Bengal to Tripura.

Chittagong port, too, is now open to Indian vessels and will ease supply of goods, meaning India is much more connected to the northeast than before.

Akhaura-Agartala rail project will provide a major boost to development and economy of eastern Bangladesh and north eastern India. The rail project will go a long way promoting the Indian Prime Minister’s “Act East policy”.

Security

The other part of ensuring the security of the northeast is by ensuring that Bangladesh does not become a shelter for its insurgents.

It had played a sterling role, flushing out northeastern terrorists from Bangladesh and even handing over the once-dreaded ULFA terrorist Anup Chetia to India.

The other big security concern for India is that Bangladesh should not turn into the frontline of Islamic terror in the southeast — something that looked possible in the early 2000s when the Jamaat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh, or the JMB, ruled the roost and its leaders like Bangla Bhai terrorized not just Bangladesh but India too. Bangladesh turned into a launch pad for Islamic terror activities in India.

It was Sheikh Hasina who proactively cracked down on groups like the JMB that had a free-run in the previous regime of Begum Khalida Zia of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party.

India’s relationship with Bangladesh is also linked to its relationship with China. India does not want Bangladesh to become a pearl in China’s “String of Pearls” strategy to hem in India by using its neighbours.

Industry

Given Bangladesh’s GDP and economic growth, the Indian industry is taking a serious interest in investing in the country. Sheikh Hasina has helmed an economic upswing in the country which the industry hopes will continue.

India has ensured duty-free access of Bangladeshi goods to Indian market, an increase of Bangladesh ready-made garments exports to India last year by 115 per cent (from $ 130 million to $ 280 million), and an increase in Indian investment, including in process, from $ 3 billion to $ 10 billion.

A number of welfare measures and schemes have been introduced to commemorate the spirit of Liberation War of 1971 and honour the invaluable contribution of Muktijoddhas towards building a better future for Bangladesh.

Some notable initiatives like- five-year multiple entry visa for all Muktijoddhas, free of cost treatment of all Muktijoddhas patients in Indian Armed Forces hospitals and Nutan Muktijoddhas Sanatana scholarship scheme.

A delegation of Muktijoddhas is invited to invite to participate in Victory Day celebrations in Kolkata every year.

Border Issues

Illegal immigration has always been a primary problem for India since the partition of Bengal. In view of this, recently, the Supreme Court asked the Centre complete the fencing of the India-Bangladesh border soon to check illegal immigration from Bangladesh into Assam.

Cattle smuggling is also an issue, which is considered to be one of the losses for India of losing its indigenous variety and trade. Cattle haats along the India-Bangladesh border are becoming a source of cattle for smuggling

Terrorist Infiltration has been a matter of concern of late. Recently a report sent by the Bangladesh Government to India’s Ministry of Home Affairs noted that approximately 2,000 operatives of the Harkat ul Jihad al Islami – Bangladesh (HUJI-B) and Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) had entered India through the porous India-Bangladesh border.

Dumping of Fake Indian Currency Notes, recently several duplicate notes have been found along the border, which cripple the Indian Economy severely.

River Water Sharing – Teesta

India and Bangladesh, as good neighbours, have moved forward on other sectors like power, investment and security but the Teesta waters issue remains a big problem due to continuous protest by the Mamata Banerjee led West Bengal government. Bangladesh is unhappy about the lack of resolution on all the common rivers.

While India did put the river Teesta on the bilateral discussion table, the federal political dynamics has prevented the Centre from resolving the issue of water-sharing overruling Bengal’s position. Mamata Banerjee is of the view that with Bangladesh having its largest irrigation project, the Teesta Barrage, running, they do not deserve more water.

The treaty is particularly important for the Hasina government (which has often been accused by critics as leaning towards India) to show that there has been genuine progress in bilateral relations.

The Teesta waters issue apart, the Bangladesh side is also very keen about a Ganga Barrage and talks in this regard are expected during the summit.

Trade and Connectivity

Trade has been growing steadily between the two countries. At about 17% in the last 5 years

A bus service and a train service between Kolkata and Khulna will also be launched as a rail link from Radhikapur in north Bengal.

Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) has been signed on the development of Ashuganj-Zakiganj stretch of Kushiyara river and Sirajganj-Daikhawa stretch of the Jamuna river to improve connectivity between the two countries and this will help reduce logistics cost of cargo movement to northeast India and also reduce congestion through the Siliguri’s Chicken’s Neck corridor.

Connectivity is issue of mutual interest these initiatives on passenger and goods trains which will be of benefit to both Bangladesh and northeast India.

Dhaka also has the central role in shaping the future of sub-regional cooperation with Bhutan, Burma, India and Nepal. It is also a land bridge to East Asia and the fulcrum of a future Bay of Bengal community.

However, the most important issue in contemporary Asian geopolitics is transit and connectivity. In 2016 when Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Bangladesh, the smaller country agreed to join the One Belt, One Road Project (OBOR).

China is already investing in a number of infrastructure projects in the country including the deep sea port at Chittagong. It is likely that these projects will now be subsumed under the OBOR project.

Energy Cooperation

Energy cooperation between the two sides has also shown a lot of positivity with Indian state Tripura supplying a total of 160 MW of power to Bangladesh in addition to the 500 MW the country is receiving from West Bengal since 2013.

Bangladesh has sought extra 100 MW electricity from India to solve its power crisis, and will be likely on the negotiating table in this state visit by Sheikh Hasina.

Defence Cooperation

There are talks that a defence treaty is to be signed between India and Bangladesh; it will be a long-term defence deal that will allow for increased defence cooperation, information sharing, joint exercises, training and so on. However, India needs to figure out where it can meet Bangladesh’s security concerns, considering Bangladesh’s largest defence partner is China.

Expanding security cooperation with India could only enhance Dhaka’s global leverage. For India, a strong partnership with Bangladesh will help boost the prospects of peace and prosperity in the eastern subcontinent.

Defence deal between us in the basis of sovereign equality and geopolitical realities will take us a long way ahead.

Analysis of election-

The election holds significance not only for Bangladesh but is being watched keenly by all regional and extra regional powers. India is no exception in this regard. Any political development in Bangladesh directly impinges on its largest neighbour.

The significance of this election

First, for the first time in a decade, all the political parties took part in the election (the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, or the BNP, boycotted the 2014 election). In other words, this time voting was based on an inclusive election.

Second, this was the first time a general election was held under a political government since the fall of the Hussain Muhammad Arshad military regime in 1990. The earlier stipulation of elections being supervised by a caretaker administration

It stuck to the justified position that a government elected for five years cannot morally and logically hand over power to an unelected administration for three months before a new elected government comes into office.

What are the challenges for Hasina?

Even as she consolidated her grip on the country, Hasina has been accused of human rights violations, cracking down on the media and muzzling dissent, and the eventual disappearance of dissenters.

Even as she faces the task of bringing a country wracked by violence back on its feet, the Awami League has faced allegations of targeting activists and stifling democratic voices.

Recent reports trickling in about the killings of a couple of liberals indicate that the extremist forces may have bounced back and resorted to a renewed killing spree targeting liberals and minority communities.

Draconian laws that heavily censor and control online content and blogs have been passed and used against targets, the most recent being photographer Shahidul Alam for his criticism of the government.

Does Hasina face any opposition?

For now, she stands unopposed. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party is rudderless with its chief and former Prime Minister Khalida Zia in prison on graft charges.

How does her win impact India?

Hasina’s victory is a positive development for India, which has been a stable ally during her term. The return of a trustworthy ally in economic cooperation and in the fight against terrorism bodes well for New Delhi.

Bangladesh is key to India’s plans to connect with South-East Asia, as well as developing the landlocked Northeast. India’s plans to forge a viable alternative to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation rest on Bangladesh, given its location bridging South Asia and South-East Asia.

What will be the impact on terrorism?

Hasina has assured that no anti-India activity would be allowed on Bangladeshi soil. Since being elected to office for the first time in 2008, she has been determined to fight terrorism.

While the two countries share a 4,000km border, it has been peppered by ethnic conflicts, sporadic infiltration and smuggling of fake currency.

Under her rule, insurgency dipped in the Northeast, with kingpins of militant groups such as the United Liberation Front of Assam general secretary Anup Chetia being handed over to India.

There is need to seriously re-examine Bangladesh policy in the light of a number of recent developments. Some of India’s policy options include:

Shared cultural affinity could be a liability if there is no holistic Indian policy towards Dhaka. The border states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura share geography and cultural linkages with Bangladesh and they also have greater economic and trade interactions with it.

The understanding and experience of these states could provide valuable inputs to New Delhi to enhance bilateral co-operation. At the same time, bilateral relations should not be governed exclusively by the needs of and pressures from these Border States, and especially that of West Bengal.

Security issues would need tangible action and not declaration of intention. An elected government in Bangladesh, by its very nature, would be less accommodative than the caretaker government of technocrats. India therefore should be willing to scale down its expectations once an elected government takes over in Bangladesh.

Leaders from Bangladesh should not be allowed to use Indian territory for political campaigns. In recent years, New Delhi has allowed visiting Awami leaders to criticise the BNP government and its leaders. This has generated unnecessary controversies and ill-will in Bangladesh and generated an impression that India was indulging in partisan politics.

Unilateral trade concessions offered by India would have to be implemented and strengthened. It is in India’s interest to facilitate trade and economic engagement with Bangladesh. Even if the outcomes are limited, they offer a strong economic constituency in that country and could strengthen bilateral ties. This is so even if Bangladesh is unable to reciprocate Indian economic concessions.

The strengthening of private entrepreneurship: Long-term economic co-operation alone could provide substance to bilateral relations and might enable both countries to overcome their political differences. Economic interactions would have to be promoted primarily through private and non-governmental enterprises because perceived official patronage proved to be problematic for large projects (for example, Tata investments).

India should continue the current policy of remaining neutral and uninvolved. Without appearing to be overtly pro-Indian, key Western players such as the US, UK and EU have worked closely with New Delhi while dealing with Bangladesh. Such a posture serves India well and New Delhi should continue to maintain a correct distance vis-à-vis various constituencies within Bangladesh.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

India – Australia Relations

Recently India-Australia bilateral relationship reached a historic moment when they undertook their third joint naval exercise which saw the largest ever peacetime deployment of Australian defence assets and personnel to India.

India and Australia has shared a cordial relation with each other since a very long time and has witnessed an increased commitment in recent past. Multiple engagement in fields such as bilateral trade, strategic relations, student exchange programs, similar commitments towards sustainable development has made this relationship all the more dynamic.

As the global momentum is markedly shifting towards the Indo-Pacific region it becomes imperative for both the nations to stand in unison and provide the stability the region desires owing to the over-indulging nature of China.

Historical Ties

India and Australia have built strategic trust over the years, slowly yet steadily. Australia and India for the first time established diplomatic relations in the pre-Independence period, when the Consulate General of India was first opened as a Trade Office in Sydney in 1941.

In March 1944, Lieutenant-General Iven Mackay was appointed Australia’s first High Commissioner to India. India’s first High Commissioner to Australia arrived in Canberra in 1945.

India-Australia relations touched a historic low when the Australian Government condemned India’s 1998 nuclear tests. The relations since then has witnessed a significant thaw and when in 2014, Australia signed a uranium supply deal with India, the first of its kind with a country that is a non-signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, in recognition of India’s “impeccable” non-proliferation record it became evident what type of relation Australia wanted with India.

Bilateral economic and trade relationship

The India-Australia economic relationship has grown significantly in recent years. India’s growing economic profile and commercial relevance to the Australian economy is recognized, both at the federal and state level in Australia.

India’s exports to Australia stood approximately at US$ 4.6 billion (A$6.1 bn) in 2016 while India’s import from Australia during the same period stood at US$ 11 billion (A$14.6 bn). India’s main exports to Australia are Passenger Motor Vehicle & machinery, Pearls, Gems and Jewellery, Medicaments and Refined Petroleum while India’s major imports are Coal, Non-monetary Gold, Copper, Wool, Fertilizers and Education related services.

India-Australia also has a Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC) which was established in 1989 to enable interaction at a government and business level on a broad range of trade and investment related issues.

The two countries are currently discussing a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) which will provide greater market access to exporters of goods and services. The two sides have exchanged their goods and services offer lists. The conclusion of the CECA will expand the base of merchandise trade, remove non-tariff barriers, encourage investment and address the border restrictions to trade.

Defence relation

India–Australia both borders the Indian Ocean and has a shared interest in the maintenance of freedom of navigation and trade.

Australia recognises India’s critical role in supporting security, stability and prosperity of the Indian Ocean region. Australia and India are committed to working together to enhance maritime cooperation and has a formal bilateral naval exercise (AUSINDEX) since 2015.

Civil Nuclear Co-Operation

A Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement was signed in September 2014 which came into force in November 2015 and provides the framework for substantial new trade in energy between Australia and India.

The deal ensures that Uranium mining companies of Australia can supply Australian uranium to India for civil use with confidence that exports would not be hindered by domestic legal action challenging the consistency of the safeguards applied by the IAEA in India and Australia’s international non-proliferation obligations.

It also ensures that any future bilateral trade in other nuclear-related material or items for civil use will also be protected.

Consular Cooperation

India and Australia signed The Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) and the Extradition Treaty in June 2008, which has been ratified by both the Governments, and has come into force since January 2011.

Importance of the Deepening Ties

The strategic trust on display during AUSINDEX is representative of a deepening strategic alignment between the two countries. It emphasizes on the shared outlook of both the nations as free, open and independent democracies, as champions of international law, as supporters of an open and inclusive Indo-Pacific and as firm believers that ‘might is not right’.

As India has emerged as a leader in this region working closely with Australia can work in the favour of both the nations as both can effectively address the shared challenges such as combating transnational crime, terrorism, people smuggling, and illegal fishing.

As India looks set on its agenda of Make in India it can significantly use Australian expertise in the field of health, education and tourism as these are areas in which Australia has a comparative advantage.

India which will have the largest working population in the world by 2027 will need to up-skill 400 million people. Australia is well-equipped to assist with this huge need for knowledge-sharing, education and skill development. The two countries also have enormous potential to build on their people-to-people links and thus their soft power influence. India is the third largest source of immigrants to Australia and the second largest source for skilled professionals. This should give sufficient impetus to build a public understanding of each other and thereby improve public policy.

Both India and Australia are situated in the most dynamic region on the planet (the centre of economic and strategic gravity is shifting to the Indo-Pacific as we speak). India and Australia are also wary of China’s assault on maritime security and freedom of navigation in the Indo-Pacific region. Both the nations can therefore serve together as the net security provider in the region.

There is a great scope for regional economic integration in the Indo-Pacific, one of the most flourishing trade zones in the world. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a good platform for India to work towards the goal of regional economic development, since India is not yet a part of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP-11 or CPTPP).

Trilateral engagements with crucial nations like Indonesia and Japan and deeper engagement with regional groups like the Indian Ocean Rim Association and East Asia Summit will also strengthen the ties between India and Australia.

Areas of Cooperation

Water – Australia and India face some similar challenges in water resources management, particularly in managing over-allocation and water quality, while balancing the water needs of the community, industry and maintaining system flows. Both the nations can come together in finding a novel solution to this common problem.

Energy – Meeting the energy needs of 240 million people, which currently lack access to electricity, is a key priority for India. Australia is a natural partner for India in the energy sector as it is a world leader in energy and the sector contributes around 10% to Australia’s GDP.

Science and Technology – India and Australia have a strong track record of collaborating in research and innovation. The $84 million Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF) is Australia’s largest.

Challenges

The region faces a range of traditional security challenges that relate to issues of trust in the form of China which has emerged as a regional power and has little faith in rule based order. There are also a growing number of non-traditional and trans-boundary security challenges, including terrorism, natural disasters and pandemics.

Also, India faces unfavourable trade with Australia and despite opening talks for a comprehensive economic cooperation agreement in 2011, the agreement which would have significantly lowered the trade balance in favour of India, has remained elusive.

Way Forward

The India-Australia bilateral relationship has been largely a case of “one step forward, two steps back” — though one witnesses a positive shift in relations since 2014 — after a gap of 28 years. India no longer sees Australia at the periphery of India’s vision but at the centre of its thoughts.

The opportunity as well as challenge is that the two nations are at very different levels of development. There can be converging and diverging interests. Therefore, the future must be woven around the three pillars, which are economic relationship, geostrategic congruence and people-to-people ties, and the glue that can bind this is a sustained momentum.

Source: The Hindu

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India-Afghanistan: Challenges; Geo-Political Developments

India-Afghanistan Relations: Gaining Strategic Bonding

Reflecting on the history of Afghanistan-India relations spanning over thousands of years, the enduring bond of the two nations is an effort and determination of the people of both the countries for an ever flourishing comprehensive strategic partnership. Focusing on India’s cooperation with Afghanistan reaffirms the shared understanding that is indeed playing key role and making significant contributions to development, peace and stability thus bringing about brighter future for the two nations.

Through trilateral partnership cooperation between US, India and Afghanistan reflects how the two countries support changes the landscape of the war-torn country and building human capacity for sustenance. The real progress will only show the marked improvement and possibilities generated over the course of time for the welfare of the Afghan people. US imply on increase cooperation in Afghanistan, viewing India’s pioneering engagement creating levers for sustenance of human lives. The recent conversation of President Donald Trump with Prime Minister Narendra Modi for increasing cooperation in Afghanistan spells greater assimilation for inclusive development.

Recognizing the age-old relation of Afghanistan-India’ enduring cultural ties, friendship and the shared vision of both the nations has paved the way for ever flourishing comprehensive strategic partnership. Afghanistan-India relations are at the developed phase and continuous efforts are required for greater achievements to live up to the expectations of the two nations. India’s more than $3 billion assistance to Afghanistan since 2001 is setting forth enduring social foundation for bilateral ties of the two nations. Nonetheless, development cooperation and joint efforts in education, training, culture, and people-to people contact are dynamic in itself. The recent signing of 11 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) worth $ 9.5 million between India and Afghanistan in reinvigorating infrastructure development like establishing health clinics and government related projects is a witness of continued support of India for inclusive and sustainable growth of the war-torn nation. India’s ambitious target of $ 3 billion support to Afghanistan is creating major scope in creating Afghanistan’s potential at this crucial juncture.

India’s Support to Afghanistan over the Years – an Insight

With the passage of time India’s relation with Afghanistan has grown magnificently. The Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) of 2011 is the finest framework of India’s neighbourhood policy that weaves together the deep rooted association with Afghanistan. Over the past 17 years the relationship of the two nations are anchored on mutual trust and goodwill which is set off from humanitarian assistance to capacity building programmes as vital drivers for the benefit of Afghanistan. Reflecting on the insights and recent developments it is observed that the relation between the two nations has realised greater achievements and live up to the expectations of the people of India and Afghanistan.

The development partnership of India-Afghanistan is based on the principles of mutual sharing and solidarity which is branched into five founding modalities of development cooperation that includes capacity building, trade and investment, technology cooperation and others. The prominent one is the development of Chabahar port project connecting India, Iran and Afghanistan with Central Asian countries. The Chabahar port will promote connectivity through sea as well as improve the rail, road route bringing in investment and development in the region especially boosting railway, infrastructure and energy projects. In a recent development Afghanistan will be sending its goods to India every two weeks via Chabahar port starting from February creating opportunities for increased trade removing the obstacle of Afghanistan being landlocked. Among India’s support effort is the Air Freight Corridor programme with Afghanistan in 2017 which has grown exponentially with Kabul- Delhi, Kabul-Mumbai, Kabul-Kolkata, and Kabul-Amritsar cargo flights exchanged every week. There are more than 166 flights exchanged between India and Afghanistan. Last year Spice Jet has signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for connecting Kabul with Indian metro cities. Connectivity via land, sea and air will help seize opportunities with new and emerging markets.

Further the International Solar Alliance (ISA) an intergovernmental organisation to boost solar energy development with its headquarters in India aims to mobilize $ 1 trillion funds to achieve one terra watts of solar energy capacity by 2030. In the first General Assembly of International Solar Alliance (ISA) Afghanistan became the partner country last year will provide ample opportunity for solar rich country to build new ties by focusing on scientific collaborations under the ambit of neighbourliness.

The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has been playing a prominent role in enhancing and building educational capacities of Afghanistan through its various scholarship programmes. The initiatives taken by ICCR spell impressive growth in mobilizing education system and helping the students to contribute in the work force and for the development of Afghanistan. Education and cultural exchange programme has increased and it is believed that having received support from India will help Afghanistan in a big way. At present 1000 scholarship is provided to Afghan students and almost 16000 students are studying in various universities in India. Education has been the greatest single factor catalysing Afghanistan’s transformation. India’s cooperation in education and culture will help to achieve the great potential for development in Afghanistan.

The New Development Partnership of Afghanistan and India under the Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) signed in 2017 to the tune of $1 billion, in which India took up hundreds of development projects in Afghanistan in areas including agriculture, water, education, health, etc.

India’s security cooperation with Afghanistan has been strengthened by providing Mi-24 helicopters to Afghanistan which was announced last year. India delivered four Mi-25 (Mi-24D) helicopters and three HAL Cheetah light utility helicopters to the Afghan Air Force (AAF) in December 2016.

India-Afghanistan Foundation promotes cultural and people to people contacts. To harness India’s sports potential, India has built Kandahar International Cricket Stadium.

Women Empowerment is another important aspect in which India is extending tremendous support. India’s Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) imparting training on sustainable livelihood generation and to be the part of inclusive growth and to be self-reliant. India-Afghanistan relations are aimed at a comprehensive development strategy that will foster and establish bilateral and multilateral relations which is better equipped to deal tough situations and bring peace and prosperity in the country and across the region.

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Source

Lokpal and Lokayukta

What are Lokpal and Lokayukta?

The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 provided for the establishment of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States

These institutions are statutory bodies without any constitutional status.

They perform the function of an “ombudsman” and inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for related matters.

Why do we need such institutions?

Maladministration is like a termite which slowly erodes the foundation of a nation and hinders administration from completing its task. Corruption is the root cause of this problem.

Most of the anti-corruption agencies are hardly independent. Even Supreme Court has been termed CBI as a “caged parrot” and “its master’s voice”.

Many of these agencies are advisory bodies without any effective powers and their advice is rarely followed.

There is also the problem of internal transparency and accountability. Moreover, there is not any separate and effective mechanism to put checks on these agencies.

In this context, an independent institution of Lokpal has been a landmark move in the history of Indian polity which offered a solution to the never-ending menace of corruption.

Background

In 1809, the institution of ombudsman was inaugurated officially in Sweden.

In the 20th century, Ombudsman as an institution developed and grew most significantly after the Second World War.

New Zealand and Norway adopted this system in the year 1962 and it proved to be of great significance in spreading the concept of the ombudsman.

In 1967, on the recommendations of the Wyatt Report of 1961, Great Britain adopted the institution of the ombudsman and became the first large nation in the democratic world to have such a system.

In 1966, Guyana became the first developing nation to adopt the concept of the ombudsman. Subsequently, it was further adopted by Mauritius, Singapore, Malaysia, and India as well.

In India, the concept of constitutional ombudsman was first proposed by the then law minister Ashok Kumar Sen in parliament in the early 1960s.

The term Lokpal and Lokayukta were coined by Dr. L. M. Singhvi.

In 1966, the First Administrative Reforms Commission recommended the setting up of two independent authorities- at the central and state level, to look into complaints against public functionaries, including MPs.

In 1968, Lokpal bill was passed in Lok Sabha but lapsed with the dissolution of Lok Sabha and since then it has lapsed in the Lok Sabha many times.

Till 2011 eight attempts were made to pass the Bill, but all met with failure.

In 2002, the Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution headed by M.N. Venkatachalliah recommended the appointment of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas; also recommended that the PM be kept out of the ambit of the authority.

In 2005, the Second Administrative Reforms Commission chaired by Veerappa Moily recommended that the office of Lokpal should be established without delay.

In 2011, the government formed a Group of Ministers, chaired by Pranab Mukherjee to suggest measures to tackle corruption and examine the proposal of a Lokpal Bill.

“India Against Corruption movement” led by Anna Hazare put pressure on the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government at the Centre and resulted in the passing of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2013, in both the Houses of Parliament.

It received assent from President on 1 January 2014 and came into force on 16 January 2014.

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas (Amendment) Bill, 2016

This Bill was passed by Parliament in July 2016 and amended the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013.

It enables the leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha to be a member of the selection committee in the absence of a recognized Leader of Opposition.

It also amended section 44 of the 2013 Act that deals with the provision of furnishing of details of assets and liabilities of public servants within 30 days of joining the government service.

The Bill replaces the time limit of 30 days, now the public servants will make a declaration of their assets and liabilities in the form and manner as prescribed by the government.

It also gives an extension of the time given to trustees and board members to declare their assets and those of their spouses in case of these are receiving government funds of more than Rs. 1 crore or foreign funding of more than Rs. 10 lakh.

Structure of Lokpal

Lokpal is a multi-member body that consists of one chairperson and a maximum of 8 members.

Chairperson of the Lokpal should be either the former Chief Justice of India or the former Judge of Supreme Court or an eminent person with impeccable integrity and outstanding ability, having special knowledge and expertise of minimum 25 years in the matters relating to anti-corruption policy, public administration, vigilance, finance including insurance and banking, law and management.

Out of the maximum eight members, half will be judicial members and minimum 50% of the Members will be from SC/ ST/ OBC/ Minorities and women.

The judicial member of the Lokpal either a former Judge of the Supreme Court or a former Chief Justice of a High Court

The non-judicial member should be an eminent person with impeccable integrity and outstanding ability, having special knowledge and expertise of minimum 25 years in the matters relating to anti-corruption policy, public administration, vigilance, finance including insurance and banking, law and management.

The term of office for Lokpal Chairman and Members is 5 years or till the age of 70 years.

The members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of a Selection Committee.

The selection committee is composed of the Prime Minister who is the Chairperson; Speaker of Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha,  Chief Justice of India or a Judge nominated by him/her and One eminent jurist.

For selecting the chairperson and the members, the selection committee constitutes a search panel of at least eight persons.

Lokpal Search Committee

Under the Lokpal Act of 2013, the DoPT is supposed to put together a list of candidates interested to be the chairperson or members of the Lokpal.

This list would then go to the proposed eight-member search committee, which would shortlist names and place them before the selection panel headed by the Prime Minister.

The selection panel may or may not pick names suggested by the search committee.

In September 2018, the government had constituted a search committee headed by former Supreme Court judge Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai.

The 2013 Act also provides that all states should set up the office of the Lokayukta within one year from the commencement of the Act.

Lokpal Jurisdiction and Powers

Jurisdiction of Lokpal includes Prime Minister, Ministers, members of Parliament, Groups A, B, C and D officers and officials of Central Government.

Jurisdiction of the Lokpal included the Prime Minister except on allegations of corruption relating to international relations, security, the public order, atomic energy and space.

The Lokpal does not have jurisdiction over Ministers and MPs in the matter of anything said in Parliament or a vote given there.

Its jurisdiction also includes any person who is or has been in charge (director/ manager/ secretary) of anybody/ society set up by central act or any other body financed/ controlled by central government and any other person involved in act of abetting, bribe giving or bribe taking.

The Lokpal Act mandates that all public officials should furnish the assets and liabilities of themselves as well as their respective dependents.

It has the powers to superintendence over, and to give direction to CBI.

If Lokpal has referred a case to CBI, the investigating officer in such case cannot be transferred without the approval of Lokpal.

The Inquiry Wing of the Lokpal has been vested with the powers of a civil court.

Lokpal has powers of confiscation of assets, proceeds, receipts and benefits arisen or procured by means of corruption in special circumstances.

Lokpal has the power to recommend transfer or suspension of public servant connected with allegation of corruption.

Lokpal has the power to give directions to prevent the destruction of records during the preliminary inquiry.

Limitations

The institution of Lokpal has tried to bring a much needed change in the battle against corruption in the administrative structure of India but at the same time, there are loopholes and lacunae which need to be corrected.

Five years have passed since the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013 was passed by parliament, but not a single Lokpal has been appointed till date indicating the lack of political will.

The Lokpal act also called upon states to appoint a Lokayukta within a year of its coming to force. But only 16 states have established the Lokayukta.

Lokpal is not free from political influence as the appointing committee itself consists of members from political parties.

The appointment of Lokpal can be manipulated in a way as there is no criterion to decide who is an ‘eminent jurist’ or ‘a person of integrity.’

The 2013 act did not provide concrete immunity to the whistle blowers. The provision for initiation of inquiry against the complainant if the accused is found innocent will only discourage people from complaining.

The biggest lacuna is the exclusion of judiciary from the ambit of the Lokpal.

The Lokpal is not given any constitutional backing and there is no adequate provision for appeal against the Lokpal.

The specific details in relation to the appointment of Lokayukta have been left completely on the States.

To some extent, the need for functional independence of the CBI has been catered to by a change brought forth in the selection process of its Director, by this Act.

The complaint against corruption cannot be registered after a period of seven years from the date on which the offence mentioned in such complaint is alleged to have been committed.

In order to tackle the problem of corruption, the institution of the ombudsman should be strengthened both in terms of functional autonomy and availability of manpower.

Greater transparency, more right to information and empowerment of citizens and citizen groups is required along with a good leadership that is willing to subject itself to public scrutiny.

Appointment of Lokpal in itself is not enough. The government should address the issues based on which people are demanding a Lokpal. Merely adding to the strength of investigative agencies will increase the size of the government but not necessarily improve governance. The slogan adopted by the government of “less government and more governance”, should be followed in letter and spirit.

Moreover, Lokpal and Lokayukta must be financially, administratively and legally independent of those whom they are called upon to investigate and prosecute.

Lokpal and Lokayukta appointments must be done transparently so as to minimize the chances of the wrong sorts of people getting in.

There is a need for a multiplicity of decentralized institutions with appropriate accountability mechanisms, to avoid the concentration of too much power, in any one institution or authority.

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General Studies Paper-I

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Wuhan sprit

Informal summit held between Indian PM Narendra Modi and Chinese president Xi in April 2018 at Wuhan. It has following outcomes which are said to be Wuhan spirit.

  • Prime Minister of India, H.E. Shri Narendra Modi and President of People’s Republic of China, H.E. Mr. Xi Jinping held their first Informal Summit in Wuhan on April 27-28, 2018, to exchange views on overarching issues of bilateral and global importance, and to elaborate their respective visions and priorities for national development in the context of the current and future international situation.
  • They believe that the simultaneous emergence of India and China as two large economies and major powers with strategic and decisional autonomy has implications of regional and global significance. They shared the view that peaceful, stable and balanced relations between India and China will be a positive factor for stability amidst current global uncertainties. They also agreed that proper management of the bilateral relationship will be conducive for the development and prosperity of the region, and will create the conditions for the Asian Century. To this end, they decided to strengthen the Closer Development Partnership in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner, in pursuit of national modernization and greater prosperity for their peoples.
  • Prime Minister Modi and President Xi reviewed developments in India-China relations from the strategic and long-term perspective. They agreed to significantly enhance efforts to build on the convergences through the established mechanisms in order to create the broadest possible platform for the future relationship. They also agreed that both sides have the maturity and wisdom to handle the differences through peaceful discussion within the context of the overall relationship, bearing in mind the importance of respecting each other’s sensitivities, concerns and aspirations.
  • The two leaders expressed their support for the work of the Special Representatives on the India China Boundary Question and urged them to intensify their efforts to seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement. The two leaders underscored the importance of maintaining peace and tranquility in all areas of the India-China border region in the larger interest of the overall development of bilateral relations. To this end, they issued strategic guidance to their respective militaries to strengthen communication in order to build trust and mutual understanding and enhance predictability and effectiveness in the management of border affairs. The two leaders further directed their militaries to earnestly implement various confidence building measures agreed upon between the two sides, including the principle of mutual and equal security, and strengthen existing institutional arrangements and information sharing mechanisms to prevent incidents in border regions.
  • The two leaders agreed to push forward bilateral trade and investment in a balanced and sustainable manner by taking advantage of complementarities between their two economies. They also discussed ways to promote greater cultural and people-to-people exchanges and agreed to explore establishing new mechanisms in this direction.
  • Prime Minister Modi and President Xi underlined that as two major countries India and China have wider and overlapping regional and global interests. They agreed on their need to strengthen strategic communication through greater consultation on all matters of common interest. They believe that such strategic communication will have a positive influence on enhancing mutual understanding and will contribute to regional and global stability.
  • The two leaders agreed that India and China have separately made major contributions to global peace and prosperity through their respective growth and economic development, and would continue to act as engines for global growth in the future. They reiterated the importance of building an open, multipolar, pluralist and participatory global economic order which will enable all countries to pursue their development and contribute to the elimination of poverty and inequality in all regions of the world. They spoke of their respective efforts to contribute to the regional and global economic development.
  • The two leaders also shared views on their respective foreign policy visions of achieving global prosperity and security. They agreed to jointly contribute in a positive and constructive way in facilitating sustainable solutions for global challenges including climate change, sustainable development, food security etc. They underscored the importance of reform of multilateral financial and political institutions to make them representative and responsive to the needs of developing countries.
  • The two leaders agreed that as two major countries and emerging economies, India and China, given their vast developmental experiences and national capacities, should join hands to take lead in offering innovative and sustainable solutions to challenges faced by humankind in the 21st century. These include combating diseases, coordinating action for disaster risk reduction and mitigation, addressing climate change and ushering digital empowerment. They agreed to pool together their expertise and resources in these areas and create a global network dedicated to these challenges for the larger benefit of humanity.
  • Prime Minister Modi and President Xi recognized the common threat posed by terrorism, and reiterated their strong condemnation of and resolute opposition to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. They committed themselves to cooperate on counter-terrorism.
  • The two leaders highly assessed the opportunity for direct, free and candid exchange of views offered by the Informal Summit and agreed on the utility of holding more such dialogues in the future. The forward-looking dialogue raised the level of strategic communication about the perspective, priorities and vision that guide their respective policy choices domestically, regionally and globally. It also helped them in forging a common understanding of the future direction of India-China relations built upon mutual respect for each other’s developmental aspirations and prudent management of differences with mutual sensitivity.

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Puppetry, , Musical Instrument and Theatre Forms

The performing arts range from vocal and instrumental music, dance and theatre to pantomime, sung verse and beyond. They include numerous cultural expressions that reflect human creativity and that are also found, to some extent, in many other intangible cultural heritage domains.

Music is perhaps the most universal of the performing arts and is found in every society, most often as an integral part of other performing art forms and other domains of intangible cultural heritage including rituals, festive events or oral traditions. It can be found in the most diverse contexts: sacred or profane, classical or popular, closely connected to work or entertainment. There may also be a political or economic dimension to music: it can recount a community’s history, sing the praises of a powerful person and play a key role in economic transactions. The occasions on which music is performed are just as varied: marriages, funerals, rituals and initiations, festivities, all kinds of entertainment as well as many other social functions.

Dance, though very complex, may be described simply as ordered bodily movements, usually performed to music. Apart form its physical aspect, the rhythmic movements, steps and gestures of dance often express a sentiment or mood or illustrate a specific event or daily act, such as religious dances and those representing hunting, warfare or sexual activity.

Traditional theatre performances usually combine acting, singing, dance and music, dialogue, narration or recitation but may also include puppetry or pantomime. These arts, however, are more than simply ‘performances’ for an audience; they may also play crucial roles in culture and society such as songs sung while carrying out agricultural work or music that is part of a ritual. In a more intimate setting, lullabies are often sung to help a baby sleep.

The instruments, objects, artefacts and spaces associated with cultural expressions and practices are all included in the Convention’s definition of intangible cultural heritage. In the performing arts this includes musical instruments, masks, costumes and other body decorations used in dance, and the scenery and props of theatre. Performing arts are often performed in specific places; when these spaces are closely linked to the performance, they are considered cultural spaces by the Convention.

Many forms of performing arts are under threat today. As cultural practices become standardized, many traditional practices are abandoned. Even in cases where they become more popular, only certain expressions may benefit while others suffer.

Music is perhaps one of the best examples of this, with the recent explosion in the popularity of ‘World Music’. Though it performs an important role in cultural exchange and encourages creativity that enriches the international art scene, the phenomenon can also cause problems. Many diverse forms of music may be homogenized with the goal of delivering a consistent product. In these situations, there is little place for certain musical practices that are vital to the process of performance and tradition in certain communities.

Music, dance and theatre are often key features of cultural promotion intended to attract tourists and regularly feature in the itineraries of tour operators. Although this may bring more visitors and increased revenue to a country or community and offer a window onto its culture, it may also result in the emergence of new ways of presenting the performing arts, which have been altered for the tourist market. While tourism can contribute to reviving traditional performing arts and give a ‘market value’ to intangible cultural heritage, it can also have a distorting effect, as the performances are often reduced to show adapted highlights in order to meet tourist demands. Often, traditional art forms are turned into commodities in the name of entertainment, with the loss of important forms of community expression. In other cases, wider social or environmental factors may have a serious impact on performing art traditions. Deforestation, for example, can deprive a community of wood to make traditional instruments used to perform music.

Many music traditions have been adapted to fit western forms of notation so they may be recorded, or for the purpose of education, but this process can be destructive. Many forms of music use scales with tones and intervals that do not correspond to standard western forms and tonal subtleties may be lost in the process of transcription. As well as music being homogenized, changes to traditional instruments to make them more familiar or easier to play for students, such as the addition of frets to stringed instruments, fundamentally alter the instruments themselves.

Safeguarding measures for traditional performing arts should focus mainly on transmission of knowledge and techniques, of playing and making instruments and strengthening the bond between master and apprentice. The subtleties of a song, the movements of a dance and theatrical interpretations should all be reinforced.

Performances may also be researched, recorded, documented, inventoried and archived. There are countless sound recordings in archives all around the world with many dating back over a century. These older recordings are threatened by deterioration and may be permanently lost unless digitized. The process of digitisation allows documents to be properly identified and inventoried.

Cultural media, institutions and industries can also play a crucial role in ensuring the viability of traditional forms of performing arts by developing audiences and raising awareness amongst the general public. Audiences can be informed about the various aspects of a form of expression, allowing it to gain a new and broader popularity, while also promoting connoisseurship which, in turn, encourages interest in local variations of an art form and may result in active participation in the performance itself.

Safeguarding may also involve improvements in training and infrastructure to properly prepare staff and institutions for preserving the full range of performing arts. In Georgia, students are trained in anthropological fieldwork methods as well as how to record polyphonies, allowing them to create the foundations of a national inventory by creating a database.

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General Studies Paper-I

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Role of Civil Society in development process

Civil society is the ecosystem that influences social change outside of the family, market or government. Often referred to as the space where we act for the common good, civil society aims to connect poor or marginalized people with groups that can mobilize support to help.

Examples of civil society organizations include:

  • Churches and other faith-based organizations
  • Online groups and social media communities
  • Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other nonprofits
  • Unions and other collective-bargaining groups
  • Innovators, entrepreneurs and activists
  • Cooperatives and collectives
  • Grassroots organizations

At various points throughout history, civil society has taken on the role of leading great movements of change, including civil rights, gender equality and other parity movements. Civil society is at its best when people at all levels of society adopt an idea. Over time, this fosters changes in power structures and infuses the new prevailing wisdom into family, society, courts and businesses.

The role of civil society

Societies are always changing. They’re shaped by world events, struggles, and creative, technological and economic advances. Civil society provides a way to engage productively in this process — to keep tabs on new developments and partner with other organizations working for the common good.

Some of the most critical jobs involve:

Social accountability: Hold corporations, faith-based and other organizations accountable for their actions (or inactions). Social accountability prizes transparency and honesty and makes sure everyone — from government officials to local school children — follows the same rules.

Empowering communities: Civil society organizations give voice to the disorganized, voiceless segments of society. They raise awareness of social issues and advocate for change, empowering local communities to develop new programs to meet their own needs.

Ensuring good governance: Civil society works hand-in-hand with the government, striving to develop policy and implement new strategies. Beyond that, civil society builds so-called social capital by providing a way for participants to build relationships and make connections based on their values, behaviors and beliefs.

Getting involved in civil society: Civil society organizations have a long history of advocating for social change, There are many ways to get involved in social change efforts. Think about ways that you or your organization may become an:

Expert: Study, research and develop deep knowledge in a field you care about. Experts can be single people, groups or entire organizations, and in those capacities they straddle work across fields — serving as research councils, consultants and members of think tanks. In addition to providing knowledge, they may train, advocate for education, teach or build new communication networks in their areas of expertise.

Ambassador: An ambassador is a liaison to the people, functioning as a voice for under-represented communities. Like experts, ambassadors can be either single people or large groups connected by a shared purpose. They often take on the role of delivering services and aren’t afraid to get their hands dirty working on huge social issues such as disaster management, security or hunger.

Innovator: Innovators trust their instincts. They’re energized by the idea of developing new solutions to intractable social issues. Part of their role is to serve as society’s idea incubator, keeping faith for causes that may take a long time to resolve. Innovators may work on practical solutions (such as a new way of working) or they may devote their creative energy to technology (such as creating a new social media platform).

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Globalisation and Impact on India

Greater Number of Jobs: The advent of foreign companies and growth in economy has led to job creation. However, these jobs are concentrated more in the services sector and this has led to rapid growth of service sector creating problems for individuals with low level of education. The last decade came to be known for its jobless growth as job creation was not proportionate to the level of economic growth.

More choice to consumers: Globalisation has led to a boom in consumer products market. We have a range of choice in selecting goods unlike the times where there were just a couple of manufacturers.

Higher Disposable Incomes: People in cities working in high paying jobs have greater income to spend on lifestyle goods. There has been an increase in the demand of products like meat, egg, pulses, organic food as a result. It has also led to protein inflation.

Protein food inflation contributes a large part to the food inflation in India. It is evident from the rising prices of pulses and animal proteins in the form of eggs, milk and meat.

With an improvement in standard of living and rising income level, the food habits of people change. People tend toward taking more protein intensive foods. This shift in dietary pattern, along with rising population results in an overwhelming demand for protein rich food, which the supply side could not meet. Thus resulting in a demand supply mismatch thereby, causing inflation.

In India, the Green Revolution and other technological advancements have primarily focused on enhancing cereals productivity and pulses and oilseeds have traditionally been neglected.

Shrinking Agricultural Sector: Agriculture now contributes only about 15% to GDP. The international norms imposed by WTO and other multilateral organizations have reduced government support to agriculture. Greater integration of global commodities markets leads to constant fluctuation in prices.

This has increased the vulnerability of Indian farmers. Farmers are also increasingly dependent on seeds and fertilizers sold by the MNCs.

Globalization does not have any positive impact on agriculture. On the contrary, it has few detrimental effects as government is always willing to import food grains, sugar etc. Whenever there is a price increase of these commodities.

Government never thinks to pay more to farmers so that they produce more food grains but resorts to imports. On the other hand, subsidies are declining so cost of production is increasing. Even farms producing fertilizers have to suffer due to imports. There are also threats like introduction of GM crops, herbicide resistant crops etc.

Increasing Health-Care costs: Greater interconnections of the world have also led to the increasing susceptibility to diseases. Whether it is the bird-flu virus or Ebola, the diseases have taken a global turn, spreading far and wide. This results in greater investment in healthcare system to fight such diseases.

Child Labour: Despite prohibition of child labor by the Indian constitution, over 60 to a 115 million children in India work. While most rural child workers are agricultural laborers, urban children work in manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs. Globalization most directly exploits an estimated 300,000 Indian children who work in India’s hand-knotted carpet industry, which exports over $300 million worth of goods a year.

Socio-Cultural Impact on Indian Society

Nuclear families are emerging. Divorce rates are rising day by day. Men and women are gaining equal right to education, to earn, and to speak. ‘Hi’, ‘Hello’ is used to greet people in spite of Namaskar and Namaste. American festivals like Valentines’ day, Friendship day etc. are spreading across India.

Access to education: On one hand globalisation has aided in the explosion of information on the web that has helped in greater awareness among people. It has also led to greater need for specialisation and promotion of higher education in the country.

On the flip side the advent of private education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a gap between the haves and have-nots. It has become increasingly difficult for an individual to obtain higher education.

Growth of cities: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.

Indian cuisine: is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.

Clothing: Traditional Indian clothes for women are the saris, suits, etc. and for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta. Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it is no more a compulsion. Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, mini skirts have become common among Indian girls.

Indian Performing Arts: The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India’s classical music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.

Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world’s oldest martial art. There have been many great practitioners of Indian Martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China.

The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally. The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet have become common among Indian youngsters.

Nuclear Families: The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.

Old Age Vulnerability: The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individuals.

Pervasive Media: There is greater access to news, music, movies, videos from around the world. Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India. India is part of the global launch of Hollywood movies which is very well received here. It has a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.

McDonaldization: A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life. It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.

Walmartization: A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box department store Walmart. It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society.

Psychological Impact on Indian Society

Development of Bicultural Identity: The first is the development of a bicultural identity or perhaps a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.

The development of global identities is no longer just a part of immigrants and ethnic minorities. People today especially the young develop an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. Media such as television and especially the Internet, which allows for instant communication with any place in the world, play an important part in developing a global identity.

A good example of bicultural identity is among the educated youth in India who despite being integrated into the global fast paced technological world, may continue to have deep rooted traditional Indian values with respect to their personal lives and choices such as preference for an arranged marriage, caring for parents in their old age.

Growth of Self-Selected Culture: means people choose to form groups with like-minded persons who wish to have an identity that is untainted by the global culture and its values. The values of the global culture, which are based on individualism, free market economics, and democracy and include freedom, of choice, individual rights, openness to change, and tolerance of differences are part of western values. For most people worldwide, what the global culture has to offer is appealing. One of the most vehement criticisms of globalization is that it threatens to create one homogeneous worldwide culture in which all children grow up wanting to be like the latest pop music star, eat Big Macs, vacation at Disney World, and wear blue jeans, and Nikes.

Emerging Adulthood: The timing of transitions to adult roles such as work, marriage and parenthood are occurring at later stages in most parts of the world as the need for preparing for jobs in an economy that is highly technological and information based is slowly extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties, Additionally, as the traditional hierarchies of authority weaken and break down under the pressure of globalization, the youth are forced to develop control over their own lives including marriage and parenthood. The spread of emerging adulthood is related to issues of identity.

Consumerism: Consumerism has permeated and changed the fabric of contemporary Indian society. Western fashions are coming to India: the traditional Indian dress is increasingly being displaced by western dresses especially in urban areas. Media- movies and serials- set a stage for patterns of behavior, dress codes and jargon. There is a changing need to consume more and more of everything.

Globalisation is an age old phenomenon which has been taking place for centuries now. We can experience it so profoundly these days because of its increased pace. The penetration of technology and new economic structures are leading to an increased interaction between people. As with other things there have been both positive and negative impacts on India due to it.

Conclusion: We cannot say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture.

Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation. This should be checked, to preserve the rich culture and diversity of India.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Regionalism in India

Regionalism is the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose by people within a specific geographical region, united by its unique language, culture, language, etc.

In a positive sense, it encourages people to develop a sense of brotherhood and oneness which seeks to protect the interests of a particular region and promotes the welfare and development of the state and its people.

In the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one’s region which is a great threat to the unity and integrity of the country. In the Indian context generally, the term ‘regionalism’ has been used in the negative sense.

History of Regional Movements in India

  • The roots of regional consciousness in India can be found in the colonial policies.
  • Differential attitudes and treatment by the British towards princely states and those of the presidencies developed regionalist tendencies among them.
  • British exploitative economic policies completely neglected some regions, giving way to economic disparities and regional imbalances.
  • On the other side, the Indian national movement furthered a pluralistic idea of India.
  • The history of regional movements in India can be traced back to the 1940s Dravida Movement or the Non-Brahmin movement that started in the present day Tamil Nadu.
  • Later, the movement was resulted into the demand of a separate and independent Tamil state.
  • This, in turn, led to several other parties like the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) springing up in the Andhra region, with the demands of separate statehood.
  • The decades of 1950s and 1960s witnessed intense mass mobilisation, often taking on a violent character for the demands of statehood.
  • In 1954, the revolt for the separate state of Andhra for Telugu – speaking people spearheaded by Potti Sri Ramulu and his eventual death triggered the wave of political regionalism in India with many princely states and other states making a demand for a separate state.
  • This resulted in formation of the States Reorganisation Committee (headed by Faisal Ali) which recommended re-organisation of Indian states on linguistic lines, thus reinforcing the regionalist tendencies.
  • With the enactment of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, linguistic states became a reality.
  • During 1970s and 1980s, owing to the intensification of tribal insurgency for separation and statehood, the Union government passed the North-eastern States Reorganisation Act, 1971.
  • It upgraded the Union Territories of Manipur and Tripura, and the Sub-State of Meghalaya to full statehood, and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (then Tribal Districts) to Union Territories which became states in 1986.
  • The decade of 2000s, witnessed vigorous movements for the creation of separate states due to a rising sense of regional deprivation.
  • It resulted in the formation of the three new states – Chhattisgarh out of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand out of Bihar and Uttarakhand out of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The latest addition to this is the state of Telangana created by the division of Andhra Pradesh in 2014.

Types of Regional Movements

Secessionism is a form of regionalism that involves militant and fundamentalist groups advocating a separation from India on the basis of ethnicity or any other factor.

Isac Muivah’s National Socialist Council of Nagaland, the Islamic fundamentalist groups in J&K, ULFA in Assam are examples of such an extreme dimension of regionalism.

Separatism is a demand for separate statehood within the Indian Union. Many times, linguistic or ethnic minorities within the states come together and unite against the majority community in that state.

This kind of sub-regionalism was validated by the State Reorganisation Act of 1956. The most recent examples include the formation of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.

Meanwhile, there have been many demands including the creation of Bodoland for the Bodo-speakers in Assam; Gorkhaland for ethnic Gorkha (Nepali) people in West Bengal; a Bundelkhand state (covering part of Madhya Pradesh and part of Uttar Pradesh) for promoting the development of the region.

Demand for Full Statehood, the union territories have been forwarding such demands like the NCT of Delhi.

  • Most of such demands have already been accepted. In 1971, Himachal Pradesh got the status of a full state and thereafter Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh (former NEFA) and Sikkim got full statehoods

The Demand for Autonomy, since 1960’s, with the emergence of regional parties, the demand for state autonomy has been gaining more and more strength due to the central political interferences.

  • In Tamil Nadu the DMK, in Punjab the Akali Dal, in Andhra Pradesh the Telgu Desham, in Assam the Assam Gana Parishad, the National conference in J&K and in West Bengal the Forward Bloc have been continuously demanding a larger share of powers for the states.

Demand for Regional Autonomy within a State, in some of the states, people belonging to various regions have been demanding recognition of their regional identities.

  • The genesis of such demands lies in the regional imbalances resulting from inefficient planning for instance in J & K, the Ladakhis are demanding a regional status.

Reasons behind Growth of Regionalism in India

  • Historical and geographical isolation
  • Lop-sided development
  • Continuous neglect of a region
  • Insider-outsider complex that nurturers nativism and son-of-the-soil ideology
  • Internal colonialism, i.e., despite being rich in natural resources some regions remain economically underdeveloped.
  • The reasons being either ill-conceived top-down approach or survival of one region at the cost of the other region. Chhota Nagpur plateau is an example of this type of underdevelopment.
  • Political vested interests can accentuate and exploit regional loyalties.
  • Reaction to an imposed ideology that can make its appearance as a reaction against the perceived imposition of a particular ideology, language or cultural pattern on all people and groups.
  • Linguistic aspirations that have remained a formidable basis of regionalism.
  • Expression of ethnicity.

Impact of Regionalism on Indian Polity

  • Rise of regional parties.
  • Re-focus on regional issues.
  • Regionalist tendencies often stir inter-state hostility as its spillover effect.
  • Regional movements often result in violent agitations, disturbs not only the law and order situation but also have negative implications on the economy of the state as well as the nation.
  • Regionalism sometimes undercuts the national interest by being a hurdle in international diplomacy.
  • For instance- the opposition of regional/state parties of Tamil against the stand of the central government had a direct implication on the relation of India with Sri Lanka.
  • The disagreement of political leadership in West Bengal with the central government over the Land Boundary Agreement and Teesta River Water sharing treaty with Bangladesh resulted in increased tensions between the two nations.
  • Regionalism can become a shield for militancy, extremism to create an internal security threat. Kashmir militancy is an example of this type of regionalism.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Social empowerment

Social empowerment is understood as the process of developing a sense of autonomy and self-confidence, and acting individually and collectively to change social relationships and the institutions and discourses that exclude poor people and keep them in poverty. Poor people’s empowerment, and their ability to hold others to account, is strongly influenced by their individual assets (such as land, housing, livestock, savings) and capabilities of all types: human (such as good health and education), social (such as social belonging, a sense of identity, leadership relations) and psychological (self-esteem, self-confidence, the ability to imagine and aspire to a better future). Also important are people’s collective assets and capabilities, such as voice, organisation, representation and identity.

Poor people’s involvement in local associations and inter-community cooperation mechanisms can contribute to social empowerment by improving their skills, knowledge and self-perception. Local associations also act as self-help mechanisms through which poor people organise their economic activities, such as farming cooperatives, or microfinance groups.

The study examines the multiple dimensions of accountability and surveys the experiments that have sought to implement a new, expanded accountability agenda. The new agenda seeks a more direct role for ordinary people and their associations in demanding accountability across a more diverse set of jurisdictions. It uses a broader repertoire of methods, and is based on a more exacting standard of social justice. However, this agenda must be actively shaped if it is to have a positive impact on human development.

Vulnerable groups, such as the very poor, women and marginalised communities can often lack the skills and confidence to engage in community decision-making. It may therefore be important to support mechanisms designed to specifically target marginalised groups in order to ensure that they can participate. It is argued that participation in local associations can empower poor people to engage in public politics and collective action. However, research shows that building individual and collective capacities to engage is a long-term process.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

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General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Cancer Preparedness Index 2019 – India Ranks 19th

  • India was ranked 19th out of 28 countries in the Index.
  • Index is released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
  • Top 3 countries are Australia (1st), Netherlands (2nd) and Germany (3rd).
  • Bottom three are Saudi Arabia (28th), Romania (27th) and Egypt (26th)

Current Affairs Study Magazine January-August 2019

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

We have covered current affairs from January to August 2019 for competitive exams:

The Current affair of the following topics:

  1. ART AND CULTURE
  2. SOCIAL ISSUES
    a) Education
    b) Health and Sanitation
    c) Women and Child
    d) Vulnerable Groups
  3. POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
  4. ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    a) Indian Economy
    b) Banking and Finance
    c) Agriculture
    d) Industry
    e) Infrastructure
    f) Human Resource Development
  5. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND BILATERAL ISSUES
  6. DEFENCE AND SECURITY
  7. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
  8. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    a) Space
    b) Biotechnology
    c) Meets and programs
    d) IT and ICT
    e) Health, Medicine and Diseases
  9. MISCELLANEOUS
  10. General Budget 2019-20

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ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

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Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

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UPSC IAS Mains Previous Year Papers

2. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India.

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Reconstruction of Indian history of the ancient and medieval era is a daunting task owing to lack of chronological records, and subjectivity in the interpretation of archaeological and literary sources.

In this context, accounts of foreign travellers, who were eye witnesses to the events that occurred at that time, become an important source to corroborate other sources of history.

Chinese Accounts

Accounts of Fa-hien, Hsuan Tsang, and I-tsing have proved to be a valuable source of information on the Gupta period and the years following the end of Gupta rule. They provided vital information about:

Socio-economic conditions in India – For example, Fa-hien mentions about the Chandalas (untouchables) living outside the village. This shows that untouchablility was prevalent in the society as early as 5th Century AD.

Existing political conditions – For example, Hsuan Tsang’s account shows that during Harsha’s reign (7th Century AD), Pataliputra was in a state of decline and on the other hand, Prayag and Kannauj in the doab had emerged important.

Nature of Buddhist doctrines, rituals, and monastic institutions in India – For example – Hsuan Tsang and I-tsing provided vivid accounts of Nalanda.

Arab Accounts

Arab travellers such as the merchants – Sulayman, Abu Zaid, etc. provided vivid accounts on Indian culture and science, which are valuable sources for the study of early medieval Indian history.

Abu Zaid noted that most Indian princes while holding court, allowed their women to be seen unveiled – highlighting that there was no system of purdah (veiling) in upper class women in early medieval India.

Arab travellers also provide information about the socio-economic condition through their description of trade contacts and the wealth which was exclusively derived from the trade with India.

Arab travellers of the period like Al-Beruni and Ibn Battuta had direct personal contacts with the people of Indian subcontinent which enabled them to give detailed first hand information in their accounts about the economic, social and other activities of the people.

Though there are issues associated with the reliability of the accounts provided by these travellers owing to their personal biases, still they are key sources for finding out the missing links in the reconstruction of Indian history.

1. Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Discuss

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

India has a vast basket of diverse art and cultural heritage which need institutional support and encouragement to address areas critical for their survival and preservation.

We need to preserve our art heritage because of the following reasons.

  1. Presently, many Indian art forms are on the verge of extinction such as Manjusha painting of Bihar, traditional art of Puppetry, Parsi embroidery, Naga craft, Dhokra handicraft, etc., which need protection and preservation.
  2. India has a unique identity in the world for its art and culture which represents Indian civilization on world platform and if it vanishes the uniqueness of India will get affected.
  3. For many tribal communities, art and craft is the source of income.
  4. This is also the source of attraction for tourism which contributes to economic development of the country.
  5. Art heritage also represents “unity in diversity” of India and builds a bridge between people living abroad to get connected with their native country.
  6. Art and culture is also a part of soft power in world politics.

Government has started many initiatives to preserve the rich art heritage of the country, such as, Scheme for Conservation of Wall Painting (1996-97), Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programe, Tribal haats, GI tag to the local products, e-haat, etc. Apart from strict implementation of such programmes, Government should provide financial assistance to strengthen regional and local museums, preserve art heritage through virtual media, and promote local paintings on products like wallet, mobile cover, pillow cover, etc.

UPSC IAS Mains: Natural Resources in India & World

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

Natural resources are highly valued because human beings are dependent on them to fulfil their fundamental needs that changes with time. While natural resources are distributed in all through the world, specific resources often require particular conditions and so not all natural resources are spread equally. Consequently, nations trade their natural resources to make certain that their needs can be fulfilled.

Definition of Natural Resources

In simple term, natural resources are material and constituent formed within environment or any matter or energy that are resulting from environment, used by living things that humans use for food, fuel, clothing, and shelter. These comprise of water, soil, minerals, vegetation, animals, air, and sunlight. People require resources to survive and succeed. Everything which happens naturally on earth are natural resources that is minerals, land, water, soil, wind that can be used in many ways by human being. It can be explained by several environmentalist scholars that a natural resources is any kind of substance in its natural form which is needed by humans.

Classification of Natural Resources

The general classifications of natural resources are minerals for example as gold and tin and energy resources such as coal and oil. The air, forests and oceans can also be categorised as natural resources. Theoretical studies have documented that Land and water are the natural resources, which include Biological resources, such as flower, trees, birds, wild animals, fish etc., Mineral resources, such as metals, oil, coal, building stones and sand, and other resources, like air, sunshine and climate (UNEP, 1987). Natural Resources are used to make food fuel and raw materials for the production of finished goods (Adriaanse, 1993). Natural resources change in value over time, depending on what a society most needs or considers most valuable.

Resource distribution is defined as the geographic occurrence or spatial arrangement of resources on earth. In other words, where resources are located, Any one place may be rich in the resources for people desire and poor in other. The availability of natural resources is based on two functions that include the physical characteristics of the resources themselves and human economic and technological conditions. The physical processes that govern the formation, distribution, and occurrence of natural resources are determined by physical laws over which people have no direct control. We take what nature gives us. To be considered a resource, however, a given substance must be understood to be a resource. This is cultural, not purely a physical circumstance.

Types of natural resources

The various types of natural resources are often categorizes as renewable and non-renewable resources.

Renewable resources

Renewable can be described by scientists as a resource that can be replenished or reformed either naturally or by systemic recycling of used resources. Renewable is resource or source of energy that is replaced naturally or controlled carefully and can therefore be used without the risk of finishing it all (Oxford dictionary). Another way to define is a resource that is able to be renewed and be capable of being begun or done again. Renewable resources are usually living resources such as plants and animals and they also include air and water. These resources are termed as ‘renewable’ because they can usually reproduce or restock themselves. Renewable resources are significant aspect of sustainability. Renewable resources are valuable because they provide green energy. Renewable natural resources include those resources beneficial to human economies that demonstrate growth, maintenance, and recovery from exploitation over an economic planning horizon. The natural environment, with soil, water, forests, plants and animals are all renewable resource. In the case of air and water, they are renewable elements because they exist as part of a cycle which allows them to be reused. Renewable resources can only exist as long as they are not being used at a greater rate than they can replenish themselves.

Non-renewable resources

Non-renewable resources cannot be re-produced or re-grown and are, therefore, they are available in limited supply. Scholars affirmed that Non-renewable resource is a natural resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human timeframes. Non-renewable resources are resources for which there is a limited supply. The supply comes from the Earth itself and, as it typically takes millions of years to develop, is finite. Non-renewable resources can generally be separated into two main categories; it includes Fossil fuels, nuclear fuels. Coal is considered a non-renewable resource because even though it is continually being formed, it is incapable to refill its stock at a rate which is sustainable (David Waugh, 2002). A non-renewable resource cannot maintain the demands for current human needs while still preserving the ecosystem for future generations.

How are natural resources distributed throughout the world?


Distribution of resources is varied. Since the formation of earth, it has experienced numerous physical processes which have resulted in great variations between different areas. Since natural resources often need specific conditions in which to form, they are not distributed evenly across the world. For instance, Coal is usually found in areas which were originally swampland during the greatest coal-forming era in history, the Carboniferous Period. It has been observed that as the distribution of natural resources is varied, it is not unusual for some nations to have one type of natural resource in plentiful quantity and for other countries to have many different types but with only a small supply. This indicates that the nations which are rich in some kind of natural resources do not necessarily use them all themselves. As an alternative, countries often export the natural resources that they have plenty of and import those which they require.

It has been observed that generally populace tends to settle and cluster in places that have the resources they need to survive and prosper. The geographic factors that most influence where humans settle are water, soil, vegetation, climate, and landscape. Because South America, Africa, and Australia have fewer of these geographic benefits, there is less population as compared to North America, Europe, and Asia.

Due to uneven resource distribution, human beings migrate to other regions where plenty of resources are available. Majority of people often migrate to a place that has the resources they need or want and migrate away from a place that lacks the resources they need. Lively examples in historical migrations are The Trail of Tears, Westward Movement, and the Gold Rush related to the desire for land and mineral resources. Economic activities in a region relate to the resources in that region. Economic activities that are directly associated with resources include farming, fishing, ranching, timber processing, oil and gas production, mining, and tourism. Many business scholars have affirmed that nations may not have the resources that are important to them, but business movement enables them to acquire those resources from places that have. For example, Japan has very limited natural resources but it is one of the wealthiest in Asia. Sony, Nintendo, Canon, Toyota, Honda, Sharp, Sanyo, Nissan are prosperous Japanese corporations that make products that are highly-desired in other countries. As a result of trade, Japan has enough wealth to buy the resources it needs.

Distribution of Key Natural Resources in the World

It has been seen that most of the countries in the world are having natural resources. Some have fewer amounts while other countries are rich in particular natural resource. Economists stated that natural resources add wealth to nations.

When it is evaluated for resource distribution around the world, Australia has many natural resources. These resources include mineral resources, such as copper, gold and diamonds, energy resources, such as coal, oil, and uranium, and land resources that are used for farming and logging. These resources are financially important to Australia. Many people consider that the monetary system of Australia is resource dependent, which means that if these resources were to be depleted, Australia’s economy would suffer. Australia has more coal than is needed and so exports it to countries like Japan which are lacking in it. Australia does not, however, produce enough oil to meet the demands of consumption and it is forced to import it. Some countries, especially developing nations, have the availability of natural resources but they do not use them fully. Sometimes countries do not have a great demand for the resource or simply lack the technology to develop or extract it. Rich transnational corporations (TNCs) often pay a fee to do the mining or extraction of the natural resources and then export them to developed countries.

Mineral resources: Australia is major producer of minerals at global scale. The most important mineral resources in Australia are bauxite, gold and iron ore. Other mineral deposits in Australia include copper, lead, zinc, diamonds and mineral sands. A majority of Australia’s minerals are excavated in Western Australia and Queensland. The minerals mined in Australia are exported, or shipped abroad.

Energy resources: Australia has huge deposits of coal. Coal is generally found in the eastern part of the country in the Sydney and Bowen basins. Majority of Australian coal is exported to nations like Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Western Europe. The rest of the coal mines in Australia are burned for electricity within Australia.

Natural gas is also plentiful in Australia. Natural gas is used to heat homes and power certain types of vehicles. Natural gas reserves in Australia are mostly found in Western Australia and central Australia. Since most of these reserves are far away from metropolitan centres, gas pipelines have been built to transport natural gas to cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. Some of this natural gas is exported from where it is collected. Natural gas collected in Western Australia is exported directly to Japan in liquid form.

Australia is also rich in uranium and supply at global level. Uranium is used to produce nuclear power. Nuclear power and uranium mining are both highly contentious, as people are concerned for their environmental impact, because uranium can produce toxic energy.

Lastly, Australia has many land resources. Australian soil is used to grow food in the form of crops and to produce food for raising livestock, such as cattle. Australian forests are used as a source of wood for building and making paper.

When discussing about natural resources in Africa, It is revealed in reports that Africa is rich in natural resources including diamonds, salt, gold, iron, cobalt, uranium, copper, bauxite, silver, petroleum and cocoa beans, but also woods and tropical fruits. Russia is excessively capable of natural resources, but industrial development was hindered until the twentieth century by their Siberian inaccessibility. Russia now produces 20 per cent of the world’s natural gas, and oil is also a valuable commodity. Russia is self-sufficient in all major industrial raw materials, and contains reserves of less essential, but significant natural resources, including diamonds and gold.

Industrialized nations have benefit over poor countries because if they do not have the quantity or type of natural resources which they require, they can afford to import them. Developed countries need to import natural resources because they depend on them for the development of their economy. Their use of natural resources is considered as a well-planned and constructive industry. It has been recommended that developed nations use more of the natural resources of world as compared to other developing nations. Reports have signified that while developed countries account for 25 percent of the world’s population, they use 75 percent of the world’s natural resources.

Geographical Distribution of Oil and Natural Gas Deposits: It was documented in reports that about 70 % of global conventional oil and natural gas reserves are concentrated inside a so called Strategic Ellipse stretching from Middle East to the North of West Siberia. Main consuming regions in 2004 were North America, Austral-Asia, and Europe, for natural gas North America, CIS and Europe.

Development of primary energy consumption worldwide and projections of IEA until 2030 (Sources: BP and IEA, 2015)

When appraising the distribution of natural gas, it is found in reports that about 41 % of global reserves are in the Middle East, about 32 % in the CIS countries and about 8 % in Africa.

Regarding iron core resource in the world, USA is rich in this resource. Ore is mined in the red mountains and Birmingham Valley. Northern New Jersey, the states of Utah, Nevada and California also are rich in iron core. In Canada, there are three main areas where iron core is mined that include Ontario, Quebec and new found land. In Europe, Germany, France, Sweden and UK are large producer of Iron ore. Ukraine has the sixth position in the world in producing iron ore and it produced 4.32 per cent of the world production in 2006. Krivoi Rog of Ukraine possesses best iron ore having 68.5 per cent metallic percentage. It contributes 75 per cent production of Ukraine. The estimated reserves of the region are more than 200 million tons. Other regions of Ukraine are Zaporozhe, Zdanow, Lipetsk and Kerch Peninsula.

South Africa is also major iron ore producing country of the African continent and ranks 8th in the world iron ore production. In South Africa Transvaal is the main iron ore-producing centre. Transvaal is having high-grade ore with 60 to 65 per cent iron content. The total reserves have been estimated at 10 billion tons in South Africa. The average annual production of South Africa is 4 million metric tons.

Distribution of key natural resources in South Asia: 
When appraising the regions of South Asia, it has been found that these provinces have enormous natural resource and ecological and biological diversity. Many researchers have recognized that The Southeast Asian states today are rich in natural resources and are major world producers of rubber, tin, copra, palm oil, petroleum and timber (Chia 1999). However population growth and economic development are intimidating the region’s rich heritage through the expansion and intensification of agriculture, the unrestrained growth of industrialization, the destruction of natural homes and urban extension. Southeast Asia has lavish source of hydrocarbon resources natural gas and petroleum.

Natural resources

Traditional government accounting systems do not consider the significance of these natural resources. The South Asia’s nation governments have recognised several areas for growth that include nature-based tourism, mining, ecosystem, biodiversity and agriculture which will concurrently help diversity the economic and decrease poverty. In order to fulfil all development goals, the governments need to optimize use of natural resources. The main concentration of South Asia is to understand the value of natural resources that leads to better decisions for development. Valuing the environment and incorporating natural resources into national accounts, it can support better to nation’s economy.

Distribution of Natural Resources in India

India is gifted with various types of natural Resources such as fertile soil, forests, minerals and water. These resources are unevenly distributed. The Indian continent covers a multitude of biotic and abiotic resource. As India has rapid population growth therefore there is overconsumption of resources, such as uncontrolled logging or overfishing and many valuable natural resources are rapidly being exhausted. India has huge watered fertile lands. In the sedimentary soil of the Northern Great Plains of the Sutlej-Ganga plains and Brahmaputra Valley wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, jute, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, sesame, linseed, are grown in plentiful. India’s land area includes regions with high rainfall to dry deserts, Coast line to Alpine regions.

India also has a variety of natural vegetation since the country has a varied relief and climate. These forests are narrowed to the plateaus and hilly mountainous areas. India has a great variety of wildlife. There are many national parks and hundreds of wild life sanctuaries. Around 21 percent of the total geographical area include Forests. Because India’s whether conditions are changing frequently and differences in altitude, different types of Forest are present in India including Tropical, Swamps, Mangrove and Alpine. Variety of forest vegetation is large. Forests are the main source of Fire woods, Paper, Spices, Drugs, Herbs, Gums and more. Forests have great contribution to nation’s GDP.

India has more marine and inland water resources. Reports signify that India has an 8129 km long coastline. Inland fishery is performed in Rivers, Reservoirs and Lakes. Reports of EIA estimate for 2009 indicated that in Indian rivers more than 400 species of fish are found and many species are economically important.

India had about 125 Million metric tonne of proven oil reserves as on April 2010 or 5.62 billion barrels. Most of India’s crude oil reserves are located in the western coast (Mumbai High) and in the north-eastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also found in the offshore Bay of Bengal and in the state of Rajasthan.

Statistical data have revealed that India has 1,437 billion cubic metres (50.7×1012 cu ft) of confirmed natural gas reserves as of April 2010. An enormous mass of India’s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the Mumbai High complex. The onshore fields in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat states are also main producers of natural gas. Reports of EIA revealed that India produced 996 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2004. India imports small amounts of natural gas.

Mineral Resource in India are also in large amount such as iron, coal, mineral oil, manganese, bauxite, Chromite, copper, tungsten, gypsum, lime­stone, mica. When evaluating the Livestock Resource, it is found that Hills, mountains and less fertile lands are put under pasture. Scientific methods are followed in rearing cattle. India maintains rich domestic animal diversity. India has large number of animals like goat, sheep, poultry, cattle, and buffalo. Indian livestock has imperative role in improving the socio-economic status of the rural masses. In the area of Horticulture, India has various agro-climatic conditions which facilitates cultivation of a large number of horticulture crops such as vegetables, fruits, flower, medicinal and aromatic plant, mushroom, etc. and plantation corps like tea, coffee and rubber.

Non-renewable resources are also plentiful in different parts of India: Coal is the mainly used energy in India and occupies the leading position. In India, coal is obtained mostly from Andra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Meghalaya, Jammu and Kashmir. Natural gas in India is available in Tripura State, Krishna Godavari field and gas associates in petroleum products. Petroleum product has become a vital source of energy in India. In India, Petroleum products can be obtained from Digboi, Assam, around the Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat, off shore in Arabian Sea, spread out from Mumbai up to 100miles.

India has fourth rank in producing iron ore in the world. On an average, India produces about 7 per cent of the world production. It has about 2.6 per cent iron ore reserves of the world. Main states that produce iron ore are Chhattisgarh (Arindogi, Raoghat and Bailadia (Bastar), Dhalli, Rajbara (Durg), Odisha ( Keonjbar, Mayurbhanj and Diringburi districts), Karnataka ( Babudan hill, Hospet, Chitradurg, Tumkur, Sandur and Bellary districts). Jharkhand ( Noamundi, Notaburu, Pansiraburu, Budaburu, Guo, Barajamada, Meghahataburu in Singhblim district ), Andhra Pradesh (Anantpur, Kurmool, Adilabed, Karimnegct), Goa ( Bicholim, Sirigao, Mapusa, Netarlim ), Maharashtra (Pipalagoon, Asola, Lohara in Chandrapura district).

Recently, in has been observed that The Indian mining industry is passing through a perilous phase, witnessing negative growth.

Distribution of Natural Resources in China

China has a cosmic territory, with plentiful natural resources and diverse types of land resources. China’s land resources are large in absolute terms but small on a per-capita basis. There are more mountains than plains, with sophisticated land and forests constituting small proportions. Numerous land resources are haphazardly distributed among different regions. The cultivated land is mostly in plains and basins in the monsoon regions of east China, while forests are mostly found in the remote mountainous areas in the northeast and the southwest. Grasslands are chiefly distributed on inland plateaus and in mountains. The Agricultural Census in 1996 have shown that China has 130.04 million hectares of cultivated land and 35.35 million hectares of land suitable for agricultural uses. The cultivated land is mainly distributed in the Northeast China, North China and Middle-Lower Yangtze plains, the Pearl River Delta and the Sichuan Basin. It is established in research studies that China’s total forest area was 175 million hectares, and its forest coverage rate was 18.21 percent. The total standing stock volume of China was 13.62 billion cubic meters (The sixth national enumeration of forest resources, 1999-2003). The stock volume of its forests stood at 12.46 billion cubic meters.

Natural forests are concentrated focused in the northeast and the southwest, but uncommon in the densely populated and economically developed eastern plains and the vast north-western district. When considering regional distribution, China’s forests are found mainly in the Northeast China Forest Zone, the Southwest China Forest Zone and the Southeast China Forest Zone. Grassland in China is extensive. China has 400 million hectares of grassland. It is found in statistical report that China is one of the countries with the largest area of grassland in the world. Natural grassland is mainly distributed in areas west and north of the Greater Hinggan Mountains, the Yinshan Mountain and the eastern foot of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, while artificial grassland is concentrated in southeast China where it lies amid cultivated land and forests.

Mineral Resource in China are plenteous. A total of 171 kinds of minerals have so far been discovered, of which 158 have proven reserves. These include 10 kinds of energy mineral resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal and uranium; 54 kinds of metallic mineral resources such as iron, manganese, copper, aluminium, lead and zinc; 91 kinds of non-metallic mineral resources such as graphite, phosphorus, sulphur and sylvine; and three kinds of water and gas mineral resources such as underground water and mineral water. Presently, the supply of over 92 percent of China’s primary energy, 80 percent of its industrial raw materials and more than 70 percent of its agricultural means of production come from mineral resources.

Energy Mineral Resources in China are also in huge quantity but the structure of these types of resources is not perfect, with coal making up a large proportion while petroleum and natural gas constituting comparatively small proportions. Coal resources has huge reserves and complete varieties but uneven distribution among different grades, with small reserves of high-quality coking coal and anthracite coal; wide distribution but a great difference in wealth for different deposit locations, with large reserves in western and northern regions and small reserves in eastern and southern regions; a small number of surface coalmines, most of which are lignite mines; and great varieties of associated minerals existing in coal seams.

There are large oil reserves in China and it ranks as one of the 10 countries in the world with more than 15 billion tons of exploitable oil reserves; low proven rate, with verified onshore reserves accounting for only one fifth of the total and the proven rate for offshore reserves being even lower; and concentrated distribution, with 73 percent of the total oil resources distributed in 14 basins each covering an area of 100,000 square km and more than 50 percent of the nation’s total natural gas resources distributed in central and western regions.

China is lavish in metallic mineral resources. It has proven reserves, more or less, of all kinds of metallic mineral resources that have so far been discovered at international level. Among these resources, the proven reserves of tungsten, tin, antimony, rare earth, tantalum and titanium rank first in the world; those of vanadium, molybdenum, niobium, beryllium and lithium rank second; those of zinc rank fourth; and those of iron, lead, gold and silver rank fifth.

China’s metallic minerals such as tungsten, tin, molybdenum, antimony and rare earth have large reserves, and are of superior quality and competitive in world markets. However, many important metallic minerals such as iron, manganese, aluminium and copper are of poor quality, with ores lean and difficult to smelt. Most of the metallic mineral deposits are small or medium-sized, whereas large and super-large deposits account for a small proportion.

China has full range of non-metallic mineral resources and it is one of the few countries in the world that have a relatively non-metallic mineral resources. Currently, there are more than 5,000 non-metallic mineral ore production bases with proven reserves in China.

Regarding water and Gas Mineral Resources, there are proven natural underground water resources in China amount to 870 billion cubic meters per year, of which 290 billion cubic meters are exploitable. The natural underground salty water resources in China stand at 20 billion cubic meters per year. Though, China’s underground water resources are not equally distributed, with the southern region rich, and northern and western regions poor. Underground water aquifer types vary from region to region. North China has a widespread distribution of underground water resources through pore aquifers, while its south-western region has wide distribution of Karst water resources. Marine resources in China are in huge quantity and scattered in the offshore waters which are sedimentation basins, with a total area of nearly 700,000 square km, estimated to contain about 24 billion tons of oil reserves and 14 trillion cubic meters of natural gas.

Distribution of Natural Resources in Bangladesh

India’s neighbouring country, Bangladesh has lavishly natural gas as natural resource and ranked 7th position in the Asia. Among the natural resources of Bangladesh are its arable land, timber, coal and natural gas. The most lucrative of these resources is the fertile sedimentary soil in the delta region largely moulded by the country’s physical geography. Bangladesh also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year.

To summarize, Natural resources such as different materials, water, energy and fertile land, are the basis for humans on Earth. Besides resources such as water, air, sunlight, forest area or agricultural land, which exist as separate entities, other resources like metals, ores and primary energy resources have to be extracted from the soil to make them usable. Their value is mainly determined by the relative shortage of the resource in combination with its exploitability for industrial use.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Political philosophies like communism capitalism and socialism

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society

Political Philosophy is a broad foreword to the major intellectuals and themes in political philosophy. It discovers the philosophical beliefs which have formed and continue to inform political judgements of people. Dudley Knowles introduces the ideas of major political thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx and Mill and dominant modern philosophers such as Berlin, Rawls and Nozick. Basically, Political philosophy is concerned with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion.

Communism

Communism is considered as vital framework in political philosophy. It is a socio-economic scaffold that assists in supporting the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. It boosts the formation of a democratic state in order to overcome the class structures and alienation of labour that characterize capitalistic societies and their inheritance of imperialism and nationalism. According to the principle of communism, main process of resolving problems of classless and other favoritism in society for the working class is to replace the prosperous ruling class, through radical action, in order to establish a diplomatic, free society, without classes or government. Communism, basically, is the idea of a free society with no division or estrangement, where humankind is free from oppression and insufficiency, and where there is no need for governments or countries and no class divisions. It imagines a world in which each person gives according to their abilities, and receives according to their needs. It is usually deliberated as a division of extensive Socialist movement. The main forms of Communism, such as Leninism, Trotskyism and Luxemburgish, are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of Communism (such as Christian Communism and Anarchist Communism).

In the era of late 19th Century, major philosophical terms like socialism and communism were often used simultaneously. Communism was considered as an economic-political philosophy which was evolved by famous philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels during this period. Marx and Engels wrote and published “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848. They had a wish to stop thinking a capitalism feeling that it was the social class system which led to the mistreatment of labours. The workers that were treated badly had developed class awareness and it resulted in a fundamental process of class conflict. In this conflict, the public may rise up against the bourgeoisie and establish a communist society. Marx and Engels supposed of the proletariat as the individuals with labour power, and the bourgeoisie as those who own the means of production in a capitalist society. The state would pass through a phase, often thought of as socialism, and ultimately developed a pure communist society. In a communist society, all private ownership would be obliterated, and the ways of production would belong to the whole community. In the communist movement, a popular motto was that everyone contributes according to their competence and received according to their requirements. Therefore, the needs of a society would be put above and beyond the specific needs of an individual. Though, there are numerous arguments for Marxist theory such as communism would not emerge from Capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a first phase (Socialism) in which most productive property was owned in common, but there were some class differences. This would finally develop into a “higher phase” that was termed as Communism in which class differences were abolished, and a state was no longer needed and would wither away. It was argued by many philosophers that radical activity by the working classes was required to bring about these changes.

History of Communism: It was documented in historical records that initially, Communist philosophy was the history of Socialism. In its modern version, Communism evolved of the Socialist movements of 19th Century Europe and the critics of Capitalism during the Industrial Rebellion. Main critics were the German philosopher Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels (1820 – 1895), and their pioneering “Communist Manifesto” of 1848, the defining document of the movement, presented a novel explanation of Communism and promoted the phrase communism. The practice of the terms “communism” and “socialism” changed after the Russian Revolution of 1917, when the admittedly Marxist Bolshevik Party in Russia changed their name to the Communist Party and formed a single party regime that was dedicated to the implementation of socialist policies under Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924). Lenin created the Third International (or Communist International or Comintern) in 1919 and set the twenty-one conditions (including democratic centralism) for any European socialist parties willing to join. With awareness of the Russian Civil War, the Union of Soviet Socialist was established in 1922.

Other communism movement related to Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) which was lasted until 1928, when Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953) party leader under the banner of “socialism in one country” and proceeded down the way of isolationism and Totalitarianism with the first of many Five Year Plans. Remarkably Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940) Marxist critics of the Soviet Union, referred to the Soviet system as a “degenerated” or “deformed” workers’ state, argued that it fell far short of Marx’s communist model, and claimed that the working class was politically expelled. Post World War II, the Warsaw Pact saw Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania joined the Soviet Union in an economic and military coalition under firm Soviet Control. However, relations were very tough, and the Soviet Union was forced into military interventions to supress popular rebellions in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968), and Albania withdrew from the Pact in 1968 due to philosophical dissimilarities.

In the decade of 1070s, although never officially unified as a single political entity, almost one-third of the world’s populace lived in Communist states, including the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe, as well Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Angola, and Mozambique. However, the Warsaw Pact countries had all abandoned Communist rule by 1990, and in 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved, leaving China, Cuba and some isolated states in Asia and Africa as the remaining bastions of Communism. In most cases significantly dampened down and changed from its original philosophy.

Types of Communism: Marxism is the main theoretical-practical structure on which dogmas of Socialism and Communism are based.
Marxism: Marxism is a perspective that involves a number of differing “sub-perspectives” that is, whilst there tends to be a general agreement about the need to construct a critique of Capitalist society, there are major differences between theorists working within this viewpoint. Main Marxist ideas can be explained in the following terms:

  1. Marxism stresses the notion that social life is based upon “conflicts of interest”. Most significant and basic conflict is that between the Bourgeoisie, those who own and control the means of production in society and the Proletariat, those who simply sell their labour power in the market place of Capitalism.
  2. Dissimilar of the Functionalist version of Structuralist sociology, the idea of social class is more than an evocative category, social class is used to clarify how and why societies change. Class conflict signifies a process whereby change comes about through the opposition of social classes as they follow what they see to be their (different and opposed) collective interests in society.
  3. Marxism is a political philosophy whose main concern is to expose the political and economic contradictions in-built in Capitalism such as the fact that while people co-operate to produce goods, a Capitalist class appropriates these goods for its private profit and to point the way towards the establishment of a future Communist society.

Marxism-Leninism is the Communist philosophical field that emerged as the conventional tendency amongst Communist parties in the 1920’s as it was accepted as the conceptual foundation of the Communist International during the era of Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953), with whom it is mainly associated. The term “Marxism-Leninism” is mostly used by those who consider that Lenin’s legacy was effectively carried forward by Stalin; although it is arguable to what extent it actually follows the principles of either Marx or Lenin.

Philosophy of Leninism was built upon and extended the ideas of Marxism, and served as the theoretical foundation for the ideology of Soviet Communism after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924) argued in his leaflet “What is to be Done?” of 1902 that the proletariat can only realise a successful radical consciousness through the efforts of a “vanguard party” composed of full-time professional revolutionaries and through a form of controlled organization generally called “democratic centralism” (whereby decisions are made with internal democracy but then all party members must externally support and actively promote that decision). It maintains that Capitalism can only be conquered by innovatory ways and any attempts to improve Capitalism from within are destined to fail. The objective of a Leninist party is to coordinate the overthrow of the existing government by force and grab power on behalf of the proletariat, and then implement a autocracy of the proletariat, a kind of direct equality in which workers hold political power through local councils known as soviets.

Stalinism is a more judgmental phrase for Joseph Stalin’s vision of Communism. Supporters of this ideology argue that it includes widespread use of publicity to establish a personality cult around an absolute ruler, as well as extensive use of a secret police to maintain social proposal and silence political opposition, all of which are trappings of Totalitarianism.

Trotskyism is the philosophical model of Marxism that was supported by Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940), who considered himself a conformist Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, and squabbled for the establishment of a frontline party. His politics differed sharply from the Marxism-Leninism of Joseph Stalin, with respect to declare the need for an international proletarian revolution and firm support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on direct autonomous ideologies. Most dominant characteristics of Trotskyism is the theory of permanent uprising to explain how socialist revolutions could happen in societies that had not yet attained advanced Capitalism. Marx explained it as a prerequisite for socialist revolution.

Luxemburgish is a particular innovative theoretical model under the category of Communism, which is based on the texts of Rosa Luxemburg (1870 – 1919). Her politics deviated from those of Lenin and Trotsky mainly in her discrepancy with their concept of “democratic centralism”, which she visualized as unsatisfactorily democratic. Luxemburgish looks like Anarchism in its averting of an authoritarian society by relying on the people themselves as opposed to their leaders. However, it also sees the significance of a revolutionary party and the centrality of the working class in the radical struggle. It resembles Trotskyism in its resistance to the Totalitarianism of Stalin and to the crusader politics of modern social classlessness, but differs in arguing that Lenin and Trotsky also made inequitable mistakes.

Thoughts of Maoism are different of Communism derived from the teachings of the Chinese leader Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung) (1893 – 1976), and practised in the People’s Republic of China after the Chinese Revolution of 1949. Maoism evolved from the Marxism-Leninism of Stalin, but introduced new ideas such as Social-Imperialism (Mao accused the Soviet Union of dominating and exploiting the smaller countries in its scope to the point of organising their economies around Soviet, not domestic, needs), the Mass Line (a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political headship in the concerns and conditions of the masses – “from the masses, to the masses”), people’s war and new democracy.

Left Communism is a range of Communist perspectives held by the Communist Left, which asserts to be more truly Marxist and proletarian than the views of Leninism and its successors. Left Communists advocated the Russian Revolution, but did not agree to the methods of the Bolsheviks. The Russian, Dutch-German and the Italian traditions of Left Communism all share an opposition to nationalism, all kinds of national liberation movements, frontism parliamentary systems.

Council Communism is a far-reaching left movement that emanated in Germany and the Netherlands in the decade of 1920s, and continues today as a theoretic and activist position within both left-wing Marxism and Libertarian Socialism. It visualized workers’ councils, arising in factories and municipalities, as the natural form of working class organization and governmental power. This philosophical viewpoint opposes the notion of a “revolutionary party” on the basis that a revolution led by a party unavoidably produces a party despotism.

Anarchist Communism promotes the complete elimination of the state and Capitalism in favour of a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers’ councils and/or commons through which everyone is free to satisfy their needs. The movement was led by the Russians Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876) and Peter Kropotkin (1842 – 1921).

Euro communism was flourished in the decades of1970’s and 1980’s within various Western European Communist parties to develop a philosophy and practice of social change that was more applicable in a Western European egalitarianism and less allied to the party line of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Religious Communism is a type of Communism that focus centred on religious attitudes, such as Christian, Taoist, Jain, Hindu or Buddhist. It usually denotes to a number of classless and utopian religious societies practicing the voluntary dissolution of private property, so that society’s benefits are distributed according to a person’s needs, and every person performs labour according to their abilities.

Benefit of communism: Communism philosophy upkeeps extensive universal social welfare, such as enhancements in public health and education. Its theoretical dogmas are beneficial to build equality and strong social communities. Communist ideology promotes universal education with a focus on developing the proletariat with knowledge, class realisation, and historical understanding. Communism also supports the liberation of women and to end their exploitation. Communist philosophy emphasizes the development of a “New Man”a class-conscious, knowledgeable, daring, democratic person dedicated to work and social consistency in contrast to the antithetic “bourgeois individualist” related with cultural backwardness and social atomization.

Criticisms of Communism: There are numerous criticisms of Communism.

Many philosophers have argued that Communism offers an idea of unattainable perfect future, and keeps its subjects in thrall to it by devaluing the past and the present. It asserts to represent a universal truth which explains everything and can cure every ill and any apparent deviations or under-performance are explained away by casuistry and emotional appeals.

Philosophy of communism is incomplete. Marx and Engels never devoted much work to show how exactly a Communist economy would function in practice, leaving Socialism a “negative ideology”. The supposition that human nature is totally determined by the environment; Some Communists, such as Trotsky, believed that all the social, political and intellectual life processes in general are conditioned by the socio-economic base and the mode of production of material life, which rather devalues humanity and the importance of the lives and rights of human beings.

Many Anarchists and Libertarian Socialists throwaway the need for a transitory state phase and often disapprove Marxism and Communism for being too authoritarian. Some Anarcho-Primitivists reject left wing politics in general, seeing it as unethical and claiming that civilization is unreformable.

Some opponents have argued that Marx’s concept of freedom is really just a defence of dictatorship and oppression, and not an expansion of liberties as he claimed.

Some critics have construed many of Marx’s pronouncements on Jews as being anti-Semitic, claiming that he saw Jews as the embodiment of Capitalism and the creators of all its evils. Others, however, hotly dispute this interpretation.

Many Socialist reformists take issue with the Marxist requirement for a fierce proletarian revolution and argued that Capitalism can be reformed by steady democratic changes. Some theorists criticized communism philosophy on the ground that the concept of Historical Materialism which underlies much of Marxist theory is faulty, or that such a method can be twisted into trying to force the course of history in a particular direction, or that in practice it leads to Nihilism. In short, Historical Materialism is the notion that for human beings to survive, they need to produce and reproduce the material requirements of life, and this production is carried out through a division of labour based on very definite production relations between people. These relations form the financial base of society, and are themselves determined by the mode of production which is in force such as tribal society, ancient society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and societies, and their cultural and institutional superstructures, naturally move from stage to stage as the foremost class is displaced by a new developing class in a social and political turmoil.

Other critics disapproved the ideology of Marxist class and argued that class is not the most important inequality in history, and that thorough analysis of many historical periods fails to find support for class or social development as used by Marxists. Some critics have argued that the growing spread of liberal democracy around the world, and the apparent lack of major revolutionary movements developing in them, suggest that Capitalism or social democracy is likely to be the effective form of human government instead of Marxism, which claims to be an “end of history” philosophy. According to Pope Pius XI, “Communism is intrinsically evil, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever”.

Effect of communism on society: 
The main objective of Communism is to develop society without rulers, a society where the people oversee themselves. But until this is accomplished, a superior government has absolute power. The people do not have any private belongings and all assets belong to the government.

Therefore it has some disastrous effect on society. It can be illustrated from one of communism’s effects was in 1933. Cruel ruler, Hitler was a communist dictator. Under his instructions, the holocaust began. Reports indicated that approximately, six million Jewish people died. Communists consider their goal, their party, and the state more vital than the rights and autonomy of individual. In communist nations, there are usually huge gaps between official claims of freedom and conditions in which they actually exist.

To summarize, Communism is an economic system where the government owns most of the factors of production and decides the allocation of resources and what products and services will be provided. The most significant theorists who evolved the ideologies of communism were Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. They wanted to end the exploitation of the masses by the few. The capitalist system at that time required workers to work under harsh and dangerous conditions for little pay. According to economic scholars, communism is concept, in that ownership of land, capital and industry cannot be owned or controlled by the individual. However, under Communism the control of these things is not by a local community but by the State Government. Under this system, the government has total control of everything produced and control what is made, and who will receive the goods and services produced. The end goal of communism was to eradicate class distinctions among people, where everyone shared equally in the proceeds of society, when government would no longer be needed. In basic form, Communism is an ideology and a political and economic system to manage economies and countries. The core dogmas of communism are that all capital or means of production are owned and operated by the society or the government rather than by individuals as their private property. It is documented in theories that Communism is one of the most far-reaching political concepts but became popular throughout the world. It provided answer to the problems of capitalist and to establish a classless stateless society on a rational basis, where there is no exploitation and all live in peace, comfort and harmony getting full opportunity to develop their personality.

Capitalism

Capitalism is a type of social system that follows the belief of individual rights. From political perspective, capitalism is the system of laissez-faire (freedom). Lawfully, it is a system of objective laws that is rule of law in contrast to rule of man. In financial terms, when such freedom is applied to the domain of production its result is the free-market. Earlier, this notion was not clearly explained. Several economists and theorists assumed that capitalism has existed for most of human history. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the phrase Capitalism was first used by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, in 1854 in his novel ‘The Newcomes’, where he described capitalism as “having ownership of capital and not as a system of production”. During 19th century, capitalism was described by numerous theorists as “an economic system characterized by private or corporation ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control, and by prices, production and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly in free market” Capitalism is commonly elucidated as an economic system where private actors are permitted to own and control the use of property according to their own interests, and where the invisible hand of the pricing mechanism coordinates supply and demand in markets in a way that is automatically in the best interests of civilisation. In this system, Government is responsible for peace, justice, and tolerable taxes.

Basically, Capitalism is a private ownership based on the ways of production and distribution of goods categorised by a free competitive market and incentive by profit. It can be said that it is an economics system based on survival of the fittest.

Historical review of Capitalism: In theoretical review, it has been described by numerous theorists that there are three periods of Capitalism such as early, middle and late periods, while others academicians consider capitalism to be a social characteristic that cannot be confined by historical period, but rather by the recognition of unending elements of the human condition. Earlier, capitalism was originated in the fourteenth century emergency, a conflict that developed between the land-owning aristocracy (the lords) and the agricultural producers (the serfs). Feudalism subdued the development of capitalism in numerous ways. The serfs were forced to produce sufficient food for the lords as a result of this the lords had no interest in the advancement of technology, but rather expanded their power and wealth through military means. There was no competitive pressure for them to revolutionize because they were not producing to sell on the market. The changeover from feudalism to capitalism was mainly driven by the mechanic of war and not by the politics of prosperity and production methods. Conversely, in current period, modern capitalism ascended in the early middle ages, between the 16th and 18th century, when mercantilism was established. Mercantilism is described as a distribution of goods that are bought at a certain price and sold at a higher price in order to generate profits. It provided the basic principles of capitalism in that it was the “large-scale realization of a profit by acquiring goods for lower prices than to the sell them”. During the period of 18th century, mercantilism weakened when a group of economic theorists led by Adam Smith challenged mercantilist principles. They supposed that a state could only escalate its wealth at the expense of another state’s wealth while the amount of the world’s wealth remained constant. After the decline in mercantilism, Industrial capitalism emerged in the mid-18th century due to the huge accretion of capital under the period of merchant capitalism and its investment in machinery. Industrial capitalism marked development of manufacturing factory system and led to the global supremacy of capitalist mode of production. In the 19th century, capitalism allowed great increase in efficiency. It generated great social changes, which remained in place during the twentieth century where it was established as the world’s most predominant financial model after the failure of the USSR. In the twenty-first century, capitalism had become an extensively universal economic system at global scale.

It is commonly visualized that capitalism broadly corresponds to that developed by the classical economists and by Marx. In this view, capitalism is an economic system in which control of production and the allocation of real and financial resources are based on private ownership of the means of production. It is a theory expounded through observation of the economic system prevailing in Great Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Capitalism is an indirect system of governance based on a multifarious and continually evolving political bargain in which private actors are endowed by a political authority to own and control the use of property for private gain under definite laws and regulations. Workforces are free to work for incomes, capital is free to earn a return, and both labour and capital are allowed to enter and exit from various business. Capitalism depends upon the pricing mechanism to balance supply and demand in market. It relies on the profit motivation to assign opportunities and resources among contending suppliers and it relies upon a political authority to establish the rules and regulations so that they include all applicable societal costs and benefits. Government and its representatives are responsible to deliver physical security for persons and property as well as the laws and regulations. Capitalist development is built from investment in advanced technologies that enable to enhance productivity, where various initiatives are selected through a Darwinian process that favours productive uses of those resources, and from the periodic modernization of the legal and regulatory framework as specified by altering market conditions and societal urgencies.

To develop capitalism, government must have to perform many roles such as administrative role, in which providing and maintaining the institutions that support capitalism. Capitalism contrasts with previous economic systems characterized by forced labour, self-sufficiency, barter, and/or reciprocal relationships based upon family, tribe, or locally known relationships. It is also dissimilar with modern systems where governments have acted directly through ownership and/or central planning to control of the use of resources. Government’s approach of intervention in a capitalist system is mainly indirectly. It creates, legitimates, administers and intermittently updates the various market frameworks that elucidate the conditions in which the economic factors may obtain and employ capital and labour to produce, distribute, and sell goods and services. Consequently, economic players receive the right to use their power in competition with others, subject to predominant laws and regulations.

The market structures can have quite dissimilar policy priorities, from protecting the status quo to the advancement of growth and development, from protecting consumers to protecting producers, and from protecting labour to protecting capital. Governments identify the responsibilities of the various participants in these transactions such as for the safety and serviceability of the products, as well as the conditions under which they are produced and distributed. Therefore, this indirect system of governance certainly exemplifies a strategy, though this strategy is often largely implicit rather than overt and created progressively over time instead of huge plan. While positive capitalism depends upon the granting of power to private companies to enter, compete in, and exit from markets, it also depends upon the state’s power to confine the private actors so that they do not abuse these powers. To be authentic as well as productive, private economic actors must be bound by the rule of law, and this rule of law must be backed by the coercive powers of the state. The powers of the state are engaged to confine the private players from breaking the rules and, if need be, to settle clashes. Efficacious capitalism is reliant upon a state control of forced powers. Capitalist systems typically rely on the state to make direct provision of certain public goods, such as highways, schools and law enforcement, as well as to refrain from the temptation to own, operate, or directly control the economic actors. If the state does become a direct economic player, it becomes a player as well as a referee. This puts state agents in roles that conflict for example, as a regulator and as player that need not be subject to the discipline of the markets.

Capitalism as a three level system: Capitalism has three level systems. On the first level, the markets, firms compete to secure their labour and capital as well as to serve their customers. In second level, there is basic institutional foundations, including physical and social infrastructure; physical infrastructure includes, among other things, transportation and communications, and social infrastructure includes the educational, public health, and legal systems. Additionally, the second level consists of the agents of the state who enforce the rules and regulations, including specialized regulators who oversee behaviour in certain industries, such as those that deal with food and drugs or transportation, and those who protect societal resources such as the physical environment or safety in the workplace. The third level comprises of a political authority typically one with specialized functions such as executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In turn, a set of political institutions connect the political authority to the political markets and ultimately to civil society, to which such an authority is finally responsible.

Level of capitalism

Capitalism is planned to uphold the industrious use of public resources in order fulfil consumer needs in the short period and to enhance living style of people through time. As a result, its supervisory frameworks give priority to promoting productivity instead of equalizing competitive resources on a given day or during a given season. Same time, it is established that capitalism is controlled after the fact, and not in real time the way organized sports are. The regulators do not stop the play to assess a foul, nor halt the competition to scrutinize a controversial event via “instant replay.” The economy moves on and disputes are settled after the fact, in court if need be.

Types of capitalism: 
There are many alternatives of capitalism that differ according to country and region. They vary in their institutional character and by their economic policies. The common features among all the dissimilar forms of capitalism is that they are based on the production of merchandises and services for profit, predominately market-based allocation of resources, and they are structured upon the accretion of capital. The major types of capitalism are mentioned below.

Mercantilism: Mercantilism is a nationalist system of initial capitalism that was practiced in the later phase of 16th century. It is characterized by the interweaving of national business interests to state-interest and imperialism, and subsequently, the state apparatus is utilized to improve national business interests abroad. Mercantilism was determined by the conviction that the prosperity of a nation is increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations. It relates to the phase of capitalist development and sometimes called the Primitive accumulation of capital. Mercantilist arguments for protectionist policies and their central concept of profit upon alienation, obtained in circulation, often tied to unstable transitory and immature character of capitalist economy of their age (Makoto Ito, 1988). Mercantilist capitalism involves more cooperation and coordination between government and economic entities including large cooperation and sometimes whole sectors of economy.

Free-market economy: Free-market economy is described as a capitalist economic system where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without interference by government plan. It characteristically involves in support for highly competitive markets, private ownership of productive enterprises. Laissez-faire is a more extensive form of free-market economy where the role of the state is limited to protecting property rights.

Social market and Nordic model: A social-market economy is a supposedly free-market system where government involvement in price formation is kept to a minimum but the state provides substantial services in the area of social security, unemployment benefits and recognition of labour rights through national collective bargaining arrangements. The social market economy forms an essential part of free and open society, which is also characterised by solidarity. It has proven itself as an economic system that allows for prosperity and full employment whilst also providing welfare and promoting a strong social system. This model is conspicuous in Western and Northern European countries, and Japan, although in slightly different configurations. The huge majority of enterprises are privately owned in this economic model.

Rhine capitalism: It is described as the modern model of capitalism and adaptation of the social market model that exists in continental Western Europe today. State capitalism: State capitalism includes state ownership of the means of production within a state, and the organization of state enterprises as commercial, profit-seeking businesses. The argument between proponents of private versus state capitalism is focused on issues of managerial efficacy, productive efficiency, and fair distribution of wealth.

Aldo Musacchio, leading expert stated that state capitalism is a system in which governments, whether democratic or autocratic, exercise an extensive influence on the economy, through either direct ownership or various subsidies. Musacchio also said that there is a significant difference between today’s state capitalism and its predecessors. In his views, earlier, governments appointed bureaucrats to run companies but in present situation, the world’s largest state-owned enterprises are now traded on the public markets and kept in good health by large institutional investors.

Corporate capitalism: Corporate capitalism refers to a free or mixed-market economy categorised by the supremacy of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations.

Mixed economy: Mixed economy is a mainly market-based economy consisting of both private and public ownership of the means of production and economic interventionism through macroeconomic policies intended to correct market failures, reduce unemployment and keep inflation low. The degree of involvement in markets differs among different countries. Some mixed economies, such as France under dirigisme, also featured a degree of indirect economic planning over a largely capitalist-based economy. Contemporary capitalist economies are described as “mixed economies”.

Characteristics of Capitalism: 
Capitalism, generally referred to a free enterprise economy, is considered as an economic system distinguished by some traits, whose development is condition by still other elements. The main characteristics of capitalism are mentioned below.

  1. Private Ownership: Private individuals are the owners of the means of production, which is, land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship (as opposed to state ownership and communist ownership). These owners decide what to produce, in what quantities, how it is going to be produced, and the rewards of labour. It is demand and supply that determines the price of the finished good (s).
  2. Decentralized Decision Making: In a capitalist economy, the process of decision making takes the structure of devious decentralization. Individuals, make the decision with their self-interest. However, the government controls these decisions by manipulating its respective environment that is, affecting prices, taxes, subsides.
  3. Freedom of Choice: Capitalism also referred to as a market economy, which highlights on the freedom of the individual, both as a consumer and as an owner of the factors of production. Principally, an individual can work wherever he or she wants, while entrepreneurs are also free to set up enterprises of their own choice. Within a market economy, decisions or choices are mainly determined by material encouragements.

It is found in vast literature that Capitalism is an economic system in which each individual in his capacity as a consumer, producer and resource owner is engaged in economic activity with a great degree of economic freedom. The factors of production are privately owned and managed by individuals. The main purpose of the capitalist system is the profit motive. The entrepreneurs initiate production with a view to maximize profits. Income is received in financial form through the sale of services of the factors of production and from profits of private enterprise. Capitalist economy is not planned, controlled or regulated by the government. In this system, economic decisions and activities are guided by price mechanism which operates automatically without any direction and control by the central authorities. In capitalist economy, competition is the most important element. It means the existence of large number of buyers and sellers in the market who are motivated by their self-interest but cannot influence market decisions by their individual actions.

Benefits of Capitalism: Capitalist economic system has many benefits.

This is an economic growth through open competitive market that provides individuals with far better opportunities of raising their own income. Capitalism results in a decentralized economic system which is major advantages of capitalism where individuals are exposed to various options which can lead to competition hence leading to firms producing only the best, and a capitalist economy is believed to encourage innovations in technology and industry. The advantages of capitalism entail;

Consumer choice where Individuals choose what to consume, and this choice leads to more competition and better products and services.
Efficiency of economics in which Goods and services produced based on demand creates incentives to cut costs and avoid waste.

General Drawbacks of Capitalism: Besides numerous advantages, capitalistic economy has several disadvantages.

  1. Inequality: There tends to be a rise in disparity as benefits of capitalism are not fairly distributed. As wealth tends to redound to a small percentage of the population, the demand for luxury goods is often limited to a small percentage of the workforce, one of the main capitalism disadvantages.
  2. Irrational Behaviour: People tend to get caught up in hypothetical suds but disregard economic fundamentals, leading to illogical behaviour.
  3. Monopoly Behaviour: Other major drawback of capitalism is that companies gain monopoly over power in a free market allows and exploit customers by charging higher prices. They often pay lower salaries to labours.
  4. Immobility: Main issue of capitalism is that a free market is supposed to be able to easily move factors of from an unprofitable sector to a new profitable industry. However, this is much more difficult practically.

Other drawbacks are that there is extravagant competition which does not confer any corresponding social benefit.

Effect of capitalism on society: Capitalism has some good consequences on habitants.
High Standard of Living: Capitalism is the artefact of industrialization. Industrialization has amplified production. 
Economic Progress: Capitalism encourages society to utilize the natural resources more and more. The people exert themselves maximum for earning money. This had led to many inventions in the field of industry, agriculture and business which have contributed to economic growth.
Exchange of Culture: Capitalism intends to encourage all people to partake in activities that appear beneficial to them. Capitalism facilitates international trade and exchange of know-how. People of different countries have come close to each other. The development of the means of transport and communication has facilitated contacts among the peoples of the world thus leading to exchange of ideas and culture.
Progress of Civilization: Capitalism is tool to explore new machines and increasing the production of material goods. Man is today more civilized than his ancestors.

Decreasing of Racial Differences: Capitalism has also led to diminish the differences based on race, doctrine, caste and nationality. 
Major effect of capitalism includes, profit for owners of production/business, industrial vs agricultural economies, market competition, increased supply of “things”/goods and focus on personal responsibility.

To summarize, the capitalist system is reflection of the aspirations of human nature. Actually, capitalism can be described as a system that identifies and protects private property, free enterprise, freedom of choice for the human person, the authority of consumers over the objectives of production through free markets of the products chosen or ordered by the consumers, guide the programs of production. Capitalism makes economy money oriented. Businesses look at the economy with a materialistic point of view. Huge business companies take over smaller companies. Employment rights are compensated with the aim of higher productivity and some believe that because of fierce competition in capitalist economies it can give rise to unfair competition.

There are different views about capitalism. Some experts believe in its strengths, while others criticise about the unfair distribution of wealth it may lead to. The opposition of capitalism is Marxian Economics, named after Karl Marx. He believes that capitalism brings about class segregation i.e. there are two classes the capitalist class and the working class. Under capitalism, economic personal property, such as commodities or the means of production may be withheld from others by its owners. This is done so as to yield higher profit margins. Reviewing major facts about capitalism, it is found that in Capitalism economy, individuals own and control land, capital, and production of industry. Individuals are free to purchase and own their own homes, cars, furniture, and other goods People have liberty to live where they want and what type of job field they want to pursue.

Socialism: Socialism is political philosophy considered by public ownership and centralized planning of all major industries which include manufacturing, services, and energy, banks and insurance companies, agribusiness, transportation, the media, and medical facilities. In capitalism, these huge enterprises control the economy but are privately owned and operated to create wealth for their owners by extracting it from working people who are paid only a small fraction of what their labour produces. Socialism turns this around so that the class that produces the wealth can jointly decide how it will be used for the benefit of all. Real socialism is characterized as democratic. It is economic as well as political democracy. Many capitalist countries claim of their democratic institutions, but this is a deception because all the political power is in control of officers who hold the wealth. Socialism prioritizes human needs and eliminates the profit motive that drives war, ecological destruction, and inequalities based on gender, race, nationality and sexuality. Simply, socialism is social ownership of means of production, impartiality of income and opportunities for all members. Under social and political system, Socialism depends altogether upon the history of mankind for a record of its growth in the past, and bases its future upon knowledge of that history in so far as it can be accurately traced up to the present time. The basis of the whole theory is that since ancient period of their existence, human beings have been channelled by the power they possessed over the forces of nature to supply the wants arising as individual members of any society. Thus, Socialism depends upon political economy in its broadest sense. It is dependent upon the manner in which wealth is produced and distributed by those who form part of society at a given time.

Socialism initiated in the late 18th-century from an knowledgeable and working class political movement that disapproved the effects of industrialization and private ownership on civilisation

Theoretical framework of socialism: Vast literature is available to describe nature of socialism as a political philosophy. Theorist D. Dickinson stated that “Socialism is an economic organisation of society in which the material means of production are owned by the whole community and operated by organs representative of and responsible to the community according to a general economic plan, all members of the community being entitled to benefit from the results of such socialized planned production on the basis of equal rights.” According to Loucks, “Socialism refers to that movement which aims to vest in society as a whole, rather than in individuals, the ownership and management of all nature-made and man-made producers goods used in large-scale production, to the end that an increased national income may be more equally distributed without materially destroying the individuals economic motivation or his freedom of occupation.”

Other experts like Pious explained the term socialism as “A socialized industry is one in which the material instruments of production are owned by a public authority or voluntary association, and operated not with a view to profit by sale to other people, but for the direct service of those whom the authority or association represents. A socialized system is one the main part of whose resources are engaged in socialized industries,” Paul M. Sweeny asserted that “In its primary meaning is a complete social system which differs from capitalism not only in the absence of private ownership of the means of production but also in its basic structure and mode of functioning.” Shuffle also elaborated principles of socialism and stated that, “The Alfa and omega of socialism is the transformation of private competing capital into a united collective capital.” G.D.H. Cole perceived that “Socialism means four closely connected things of a human fellowship which denies and expels distinction of class, a social system in which no one is so much richer or poorer than his neighbours as to be unable to mix with them on equal term, the common ownership and use of all the vital instruments of production and an obligation on all citizens to serve one another according to their capacities in promoting the common wellbeing.”

Similar to capitalism, socialism must be worldwide so that global resources can be shared. To attain the objectives of socialism, it is necessary to any country being able to determine its own intention.

Features of Socialism: The main features of this system are described as under.

  1. Public Ownership: First prominent characteristic is socialist economy which is determined by public ownership of the means of production and distribution. There is shared ownership whereby all mines, farms, factories, financial institutions, distributing agencies, means of transport and communications, are owned, controlled, and regulated by government departments and state corporations. A small private sector also exists as small business units which are carried on in the villages by local artistes for local consumption.
  2. Central Planning: Second feature of socialism is centrally planned which functions under the direction of a central planning authority. It develops various objectives and targets to be realized during the plan period. Central economic planning means the making of major economic decisions what and how much is to be produced, how, when and where it is to be produced, and to whom it is to be allocated by the mindful decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. The central planning authority organises and operates the financial resources by deliberate direction and control of the economy in order to accomplish certain objectives and targets laid down in the plan during a specified period of time.
  3. Definite Objectives: Another characteristic of socialism is that a socialist economy operates within definite socio-economic objectives. These objectives may concern aggregate demand, full employment, and satisfaction of communal demand, allocation of factors of production, distribution of the national income, the amount of capital accumulation, economic development and so forth.
  4. Freedom of Consumption: In socialism system, consumer’s dominance infers that production in state owned industries is generally governed by the likings of consumers, and the available merchandises are distributed to the customers at fixed prices through the state-run department stores. Consumer’s dominion under socialism is limited to the choice of socially beneficial commodities.
  5. Equality of Income Distribution: In a socialist system, there is great impartiality of income distribution in comparison a free market economy. The removal of private ownership in the means of production, private capital accumulation, and profit motive under socialism avert the accrual of large wealth in the hands of a few wealthy persons. The unearned incomes in the form of rent, interest and profit go to the state which utilises them in providing free education, public health facilities, and social security to the masses.
  6. Planning and the Pricing Process: Other feature of socialism is that the pricing process under socialism does not operate spontaneously but works under the control and regulation of the central planning authority. There are administered prices which are fixed by the central planning authority. There are also the market prices at which consumer goods are sold. There are also the accountings prices on the basis of which the managers decide about the production of consumer goods and investment goods, and also about the choice of production methods. Theoretical studies have documented that socialism aims at establishing a classless society, free from exploitation. It presupposes public ownership of means of production (Lay bourn, 1988). Majority of socialists recognise their philosophy of socialism as Marxists in acknowledgement of Karl Marx, who revealed the economic laws of capitalism. Marx and his co-worker Frederick Engels evolved the foundation of Marxist economics, the philosophical thought of dialectical materialism, and the method of social analysis known as historical materialism. Leninism signifies the concepts of a disciplined, radical party and the principled, intransigent vision of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, key leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution. Lenin’s contribution on imperialism, the nature of the state, and the rights of national minorities are vital components of the socialist practice. Another form of socialism, Socialist feminism was developed in the decades of late 1960s and early 1970s by originators of the Freedom Socialist Party and Radical Women. It is a Marxist, Leninist, and Trotskyism tendency. These philosophers recognised that the most oppressed sector of the current working class is composed of women, particularly women of colour, whose life experience of exploitation gives them the strength and determination to carry through a revolution against all forms of oppression. Socialist feminists identified the activist leadership of working-class women, people of colour, and queers, and others multiply plagued by capitalism. Socialist feminists orient to common, rank-and-file women and men instead of the predominantly white male aristocrats of labour who make up the union bureaucracy.

Types of Socialism: There are many types of socialism.
Democratic Socialism promotes the principles of Socialism as an economic principle which signifies that the means of production should be in the hands of ordinary working people and equality as a governing principle. It attempts to bring about Socialism through nonviolent democratic means as opposed to violent insurgence, and represents the improver practice of Socialism. Democratic Socialism infers a philosophy that is more left-wing and supportive of a fully socialist system, established either by progressively reforming Capitalism from within, or by some form of revolutionary transformation.

Marxian socialism: In theoretical framework of Marxism, socialism denotes to a particular historical phase of financial development and its corresponding set of social relations that ultimately overtake capitalism in the plan of historical materialism. From this perspective, socialism is described as a mode of production where the principle for production is use-value, where production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning and the law of value no longer directs economic activity. The Marxian idea of socialism was against other early forms of socialism, most remarkably early forms of market socialism based on classical economics including Mutualism and Ricardian socialism, which is dissimilar to the Marxian conception, retained commodity exchange and markets for labour and the means of production. The Marxian conception also contradicted Utopian socialism.

Another type of socialism is revolutionary Socialism which supports the need for essential social change through revolution or revolution instead of gradual reform as a strategy to attain a socialist society. Trotskyism is the continuance of the Marxist and Leninist. When the Stalinist bureaucracy rose to power in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s, Trotsky rallied an international Left Opposition against the unfaithfulness of the revolution’s goals. Trotskyism means Permanent Revolution, internationalism, and the strategy of the united front against fascism. . Luxemburgish is another Revolutionary Socialist custom, based on the works of Rosa Luxemburg (1970 – 1919). It is analogous to Trotskyism in its opposition to the Totalitarianism of Stalin, while simultaneously avoiding the reformist politics of modern Social Egalitarianism.

Utopian Socialism describes the first streams of modern socialist thought in the first quarter of the 19th Century. Usually, it was used by later socialist thinkers to define early socialist, or quasi-socialist, intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained. They disallowed all political and especially all revolutionary action, and wished to achieve their ends by nonviolent means and small experiments, which was observed by famous socialist, Karl Marx as necessarily doomed to failure.

The objective of Libertarian Socialism is to develop a society without political, economic or social hierarchies, in which every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production. This would be accomplished through the eradication of authoritarian institutions and private property, so that direct control of the means of production and resources is gained by the working class and society as a whole. Most Libertarian Socialists supports abolishing the state altogether, in much the same way as Utopian Socialists and Anarchism.

Market Socialism is a type of an economic system in which there is a market economy directed and guided by socialist developers, and where prices would be set through trial and error rather than relying on a free price tool.

Eco-Socialism is philosophies combine aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics, ecology and the anti-globalization movement. They promote the non-violent dismantling of Capitalism and the State, focusing on collective ownership of the means of production, in order to alleviate the social barring, poverty and environmental deprivation brought about by the capitalist system, globalization and colonialism.

Christian socialism: It is a form of religious socialism which is based on the traditions of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists consider capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a worldly evil. Christian socialists recognise the cause of unfairness to be associated with the greed that they associate with capitalism.

Guild Socialism: This type of socialism was basically an English movement that fascinated a modest during the first two decades of the 20th century. An association of craftsmen motivated by the medieval guild, determined their own working conditions and activities. Theorists, Samuel G. Hobson and G.D.H. Cole supported the public ownership of industries and their organization into guilds, each of which would be under the autonomous control of its trade union. The role of the state was less clear. Some guild socialists envisioned it as a coordinator of the guilds’ activities, while other theorists held that its functions should be restricted to protection or policing. In general, however, the guild socialists were less inclined to invest power in the state than were their Fabian compatriots.

Fabian socialism: In this form of socialism, the Society adopted the name Fabian as a representation of a plan formulated to infiltrate civic and social units and to find means to spread contemporary social ideas, concentrating on concrete objectives rather than on principles. The Fabians did not constitute themselves as a political party as such but developed the technique of “socialistic ‘permeation’ of existing political institutions” (Fabian Society,” Columbia Encyclopedia, 2nd Ed.). According to theorists, The Fabians were more realistic as compared to the Marxian socialists. They understood that it is much easier to overthrow sons, daughters and wives of the prominent and well-to-do than it is to impress the labouring classes. They also understood, that socialist movement’s spring from the middle and upper classes and not from the proletariat (Sidney Webb, 1989). A major belief of Fabianism is to collect a Brain Trust as an elite class to plan and direct all of society. Shaw designated briefly that “The Fabian Society succeeded because it addressed itself to its own class in order that it might set about doing the necessary brain work of planning socialist organization for all classes, meanwhile accepting, instead of trying to supersede, the existing political organizations which it intended to permeate with the Socialist conception of human society”.

Merits of Socialism: Socialism has many benefits for society. Prof. Schumpeter was supported of this thought and gave four arguments to promote socialism that include greater economic efficiency, welfare due to less inequality, absence of monopolistic practices and absence of business fluctuations.

  1. Greater Economic Efficiency: It has been established through theoretical studies that Economic competence under socialism system is better as compared to capitalism system. The means of production are controlled and regulated by the central planning authority towards chosen ends. The central planning authority makes comprehensive survey of resources and utilises them in the most efficient manner. Increased productivity is secured by avoiding the wastes of competition and by undertaking expensive research and production processes in a coordinated manner. Economic efficiency is also realized by utilising resources in producing socially useful goods and services which satisfy the basic wants of the people such as cheap food, cloth, and housing.
  2. Greater Welfare due to Less Inequality of Income: In a socialist economy, it is observed that there is less disparity of income as compared with a capitalist economy because of the absence of private ownership of the means of production, private capital accumulation, and private profit. All inhabitants work for the wellbeing of the state and each is compensated his payment according to his capability, education and training. All rents, interests and profits from various sources go to the state which spends them for public welfare in providing free education, cheap and congenial housing, free public health amenities, and social security to the people.
  3. Absence of Monopolistic Practices: Main benefit of socialism is that it is free from monopolistic practices which are to be found in a capitalist society. Since under socialism, all means of production are owned by the state, both competition and monopoly are eradicated. The misuse by the monopolistic is absent. Instead of private monopoly, there is the state monopoly of the productive system but this is operated for the welfare of the people. In the state-owned factories, socially useful commodities are produced which are of high quality and are also reasonably priced.
  4. Absence of Business Fluctuations: A socialist system is free from business variations. There is economic constancy because production and consumption of goods and services are controlled by the central planning authority according to the objectives, targets and priorities of the plan. Thus there is neither overproduction nor joblessness.

Demerits of Socialism: A socialist economy has several drawbacks:

  1. Loss of Consumers’ Dominance: Researchers have observed that there is loss of consumer’s dominion in a socialist approach. Consumers do not have the liberty to buy whatever commodities they want. They can consume only those commodities which are available in department stores. Often the quantities which they can buy are fixed by the state.
  2. No Freedom of Occupation: It is also found that people do not have liberty of occupation in such a society. Every person is provided job by the state. But he cannot leave or change it. Even the place of work is allotted by the state. All occupational movements are sanctioned by the state.
  3. Malallocation of Resources: In socialist, there is random allocation of resources. The central planning authority often commits mistakes in resource allocation because the entire work is done on trial and error basis.
  4. Bureaucratic: A socialist economy is considered as rigid economy. It is operated like a machine. Therefore, it does not provide the necessary initiative to the people to work hard. People work due to the fear of higher authorities and not for any personal gain or self-interest.

In current circumstances, socialism has become the most popular, economic philosophy. During the decades succeeding the Second World War, the worldwide progression of socialism has been quite theatrical and unparalleled. Socialism is a standard of expediency which accommodates politicians of all hues. It incorporates all types of political system, detector ships, democracies, republics and monarchies. It holds such dissimilar systems as an Islamic socialism practiced by Libya and Algeria, democratic socialism of Norway or Sweden, the Bathes Socialism of Syria and Iraq, the ‘Ujamaa’ socialism of Tanzania. It is observed that various nations around the world have adopted socialist philosophy in the light of their peculiar conditions. Sometimes even within a country, different political parties interpreted the socialist philosophies to fit into their own political viewpoint. Socialist ideas have considerably influenced the formulation of the means and objectives of Indian economic policies. This has happened in different ways such as through the impact of external, socialist ideologies on the economic and political notions held by Blite groups influencing policy-making in India.

To summarize, Socialism is a thought that individuals should not have ownership of land, capital, or industry, but rather the whole community jointly owns and controls property, goods, and production. Preferably, in this system all share correspondingly in work and the results of their labour. After thorough appraisal of principles of socialism, it is established that Socialism is a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the workforce, either directly through popular collectives or indirectly exercised on behalf of the people by the state, and in which Classlessness is an important objective.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Poverty and Developmental Issues

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

One of the sarcasm of technical developing world is the poverty which remains prevalent and uncontrolled. Poverty is old age observable fact suffered by countries at global scale. It is a very indistinct concept with varied implications and facades. Bhalla Surjit stated “there is a rich history of formal definitions of poverty, going back to the mid nineteenth century. It is an attempt to capture the bottom-half of the population, the have-nots, and the poor (2000:1). Traditionally, poverty is defined in terms of one dimensional approach of income and food intake capabilities. Dandekar and Rath determined the minimum acceptable income level in terms of ‘nutritional deficiency’ (1971). The concept of poverty thus goes beyond income and basic services. People who are under empowered, who are unable to participate in making the decisions, who are deprived of elementary education, health care, nutrition, water and sanitation, employment and wages and who pass many different inabilities and adversities like inequality of asset, unequal distribution, ignorance, corruption, lack of political power, lack of political will, natural calamities, inadequate governance, lack of opportunities of development, inappropriate public policies and programmes, lack of access to entitlements and many hurdles in the wellbeing of human beings are included in the group of poor.

Poverty is a matter of heated debate among academicians and policy-makers. The modern multidimensional approach is characterised with a bigger view and considers poverty as a withdrawal of essential productive assets and opportunities to which every human being should be entitled. According to this approach, defining poverty in terms of consumption expenditure misses the point. Assets and its distribution are major factor. The World Health Organization has described poverty as the greatest cause of suffering on earth. The traditional definition of poverty concerns the inability of a person to realize certain minimum basic level of consumption. The ability to consume, in a market economy, depends on the nominal expenditure and the commodity prices. The level of expenditure depends on the purchasing power, which, to a large extent depends on the income earned. Incomes are earned if jobs are held and, hence, the relationship between employment and the incidence of poverty. According to The World Bank (1990:26) poverty is “the inability to attain a minimal standard of living”. The World Bank website on ‘Poverty Reduction and Equity’ defines poverty in comprehensive manner, saying, “Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom.”

Principles of Amartya Sen offer useful alternative to understand poverty. Capability approach to understanding poverty goes beyond income and stresses the whole range of means, available to achieve human capabilities such as literacy, longevity and access to income. From this viewpoint, poverty is seen as the failure of some basic capabilities to function- a person lacking the opportunity to achieve some minimally accepted level of these functioning’s (Sen Amartya and Dreze Jean, 1999). Allan Cochrane stated that “A crucial aspect of poverty is the way in which it reduces ability of people to participate in the normal lives of their communities with stress being placed on the deprivation which results from the lack rather than low income itself.” In bulk of theoretical literature, it is demonstrated that “Individuals, families and groups in population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities and how the living conditions and amenities which are customary or approved in the societies to which they belong” (Peter Townsend, 1979) .There resources are below those commanded by the average individual or family that they in effect excluded from the normal living patterns, custom and activities. According to Galbraith John Kenneth (1970), poverty may itself be a source of poverty. This is because; it denies the nation from investment, revenues for education or purchasing power for customer product, which in turn, is an inventive to effort. Therefore, poverty continues itself.

Components of rural and urban poverty: Poverty has multivariate nature for which a single variant approach is insufficient. The components that constitutes vector of poverty are in terms of satisfaction and deprivation. There are nine components of poverty that include occupation and employment, income and asset, food, shelter, health, education, demographic features, values, interests and activities, power and politics.

Vector components of poverty

Poverty: International Concerns

Poverty is not limited to national boundaries. It is a worldwide concern for policy makers and researchers. It is very difficult to measure and assess the world poverty. “For the purposes of measuring poverty in the world as a whole, the World Bank’s “$1 a day” measures have aimed to apply a common standard, anchored to what “poverty” means in the world’s poorest countries” (Chen, Shahu and Ravalli on Martin:2008:2). Today, all over world, billions of people go hungry. Everyday millions of people experience extreme forms of deprivation that inflict suffering and reduce or terminate their future prospects of having a good life and being productive. Early generations of human beings claim that global poverty was inevitable because there were not enough resources or technology to transform resources to meet the needs of all people internationally. But presently, world has resources and advanced technology to offer basic services like primary education, health services, finance services. Main cause of increasing poverty at global level is that world is organized in such a way that billions of people do not have access to these advanced technology and resources. Tough leaders and powerful people promised that they will reduce the poverty but it still persists among populace (Hume, 2010). In the least developed countries such as Africa, both the income and non-income aspect poverty is prevalent due to problem stretching from corrupt governance and mishandling, poor economic growth, unemployment and underemployment, lack of access to social services, low level of investment, high degree of ineptness.

South Asia also has huge population in poverty group. While the incidence of poverty as defined by head-count ratio has shown some decline in all South Asian countries over the years, large proportion of the population in all the countries still live in poverty. In spite of a reasonable growth in current period, per capita GNP (with Purchasing Power Parity or PPP) of all countries and for the region as a whole remains low and in a small fraction of that of middle-income countries (Poverty and Vulnerability in South Asia, The World Bank, June 2002).

Poverty in India

India is a developing country and it is apparent that poverty is widespread and is a matter of serious concern for policy analysts and academic scholars because of its scope and intensity. The prime objective of a country’s policy and planning is to increase the standard of living and improve the productive capabilities of its people. As population of India is exploding year by year, this challenge is particularly intimidating for nation. When reviewing the past record of poverty, it is said that from 1951 to 1974, India’s first quarter-century of independence, the percentage of its population living in poverty rose from 47 to 56 percent. During the next quarter-century, that rate fell suddenly, and reached to 26 percent by 1999–2000. Between 1974 and 1999-2000, the poverty rate dropped by 53%, exceeding the millennium development goal of a 50% reduction over a 25-year period. The number of poor people rose gradually from 171 million in 1951 to a 321 million in 1974, before falling to 260 million in 1999-2000. (Fox James W.:2002)

Many surveys and Economic reports after 1970s demonstrated that there is continuous decline in rural poverty from 55 percent in the early 70s to less than 35 percent by the late 80s.Various program conducted by government such as Green revolution, poverty reduction programmes, political will and better policy framing along with many other factors assisted in deceasing poverty. Jayaraman and Anjou (1999: 1-30) stated that, despite decline in poverty rate there is considerable movement in and out of poverty. Some of this movement can be accredited to the year-to-year fluctuations in harvest quality, and can also be associated with momentary factors such as illness. Reports indicated that India still is a country with huge people living in poverty line and it has a third rank of the world’s poor. World Bank report of 2015 estimates, 42% of India’s population falls below the international poverty line of $1.25 a day; has reduced from 60% in 1980. According to the principle used by the Planning Commission of India, 27.5% of the population was living below the poverty line in 2004–2015, reduced down from 51.3% in 1977–1978, and 36% in 1993-1994. The planning commission report estimated BPL population to 27.5% in 2004. The URP-consumption distribution data of the NSS 61st Round signified that a poverty ratio was 28.3 percent in the rural areas, 25.7 percent in the urban areas and 27.5 percent for the country as a whole in 2004-05 (Government of India Press Information Bureau (2007:2): Poverty Estimates for 2004-05 New Delhi). Poverty in rural India has dropped considerably in current period.

According to Fan Sengge, Hazel Peter, Thorat Sukha deo (2000:1038), “the percentage of the rural population living below the poverty line fluctuated between 50 and 65% prior to the mid-1960s, but then declined steadily to about one-third of the rural population by the early 1990s.” The occurrence of poverty hit rural as well as urban areas. But nature, extent and conditions of poverty in rural and urban areas are dissimilar in many ways. The urban and rural poor have differential access to physical, financial assets and many other services as well as infrastructural and human capabilities. Rahman, M. A. (1981:3) described the rural poverty as that section of the rural population whose basic minimum needs for life and existence with human dignity are unfulfilled. Such condition of poverty is considered by low income, generally related with various forms of subjugation under social structure through which overriding social groups dictate their terms.

At the regional level, the marginality of central and eastern India is explained largely by adverse agrarian relations. Poverty has persisted in these areas though there are good endowment of natural resources and a relatively strong focus of Indian development planning on “backward areas”. It was estimated in previous reports that more than seventy per cent of India’s poor population reside in six states that include Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Orissa Uttaranchal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. In four of these states, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, and Assam there is high levels of poverty (Mehta and Shah 2003).

The Planning Commission of India occasionally estimates poverty lines and poverty ratios for each year for which Large Sample Surveys on Household Consumer Expenditure have been conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. According to the survey conducted in 2011-2012, the percentage of persons below the Poverty Line in India for the year 2011-12 has been estimated as 25.7% in rural areas, 13.7% in urban areas and 21.9% for the country as a whole. The corresponding ratios for the rural and urban areas were 41.8% and 25.7% and 37.2% for the country as a whole in 2004-05. It was 50.1% in rural areas, 31.8% in urban areas and 45.3% for the country as a whole in 1993-94. In the year of 2011-12, India had 270 million persons below the Tendulkar Poverty Line as compared to 407 million in 2004-05, that is a reduction of 137 million persons over the seven year period.

It is clear from various surveys and poverty reports that Most of the rural population in India and in other developing countries is living in deprived way because they do not own assets like land; they work as agricultural labourers, get insufficient and insecure employment and less salary. Degrees of inaccessibility, development stage of the region, low level of social capital are major correlative aspects that cause rural poverty. Though small farmers having some access to land, but they are dependent on unpredictable natural conditions, markets and chances of income generation. Poverty in rural India also has dimensions of caste, ethnicity and gender. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of India’s rural areas are the poorest people that constitute about 40 to 50 percent of its population.

When assessing the urban poverty in India, it is also a major worry for policy makers and researchers as number of poor is increasing due to fast urbanization. The Urban Poverty Report 2009 has shown that India has entered the Eleventh Plan period with an impressive record of economic growth. However, the incidence of decline of urban poverty has not augmented with GDP growth. In fact, urban poverty will become a major challenge for politicians in India as the urban population is growing which leads to urban poverty. The poverty rates as estimated in, “the MRP-consumption distribution data of the 61st Round are 21.8 percent in the rural areas, 21.7 percent in the urban areas and 21.8 percent for the country as a whole”.

There have numerous efforts been made by government to alleviate poverty. Poverty is inter-related to other problems of underdevelopment. In rural and urban societies, the nature of poverty can be very different. In urban areas, people often have access to health and education but more the problems faced by people due to poverty like overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, pollution, insecure houses. When appraising the factors lead to rural poverty, it is found that there is often less access to education, health and many other services but people usually live in healthier and safer environments. Since the mitigation of poverty is major aim of development work, it is necessary to understand the way to measure poverty. Development means that there has been some improvement and improvements must be measurable. Government expenditure in India is divided into non-development and development spending, and the latter is further subdivided into spending on social and economic services. Social services include health, labour, social welfare and other community services, while economic services include such sectors as agriculture, industry, trade and transportation.

Effects of government spending on rural poverty

The most common ways to assess poverty is to set a monthly average on which a family can survive. This is called the poverty line. If a family has an average income below this amount, the household and its members are said to be living in poverty. The poverty line is an amount that changes according to the size of the household, its age and composition. Other effective way to measure poverty is by measuring the poverty gap. The poverty gap shows how far a household falls below the poverty line, so in other words it shows the depth of, or degree of poverty. In some regions, many people may be below the poverty line but they may be just a little bit below it. In other provinces fewer people could be below the poverty line but they could be far below it. These two types of poverty distribution in population clearly need a different reaction.

Groups that are affected by poverty: There are many groups that are greatly impacted by poverty.

Women: Reports have shown that Women make a greater percentage of poor people as compared to men. The main cause for this is that women have generally found less access to education and employment. Many women have always performed unpaid work as mothers, housewives. Many women are employed in less salary job such as domestic and farm labour. Even within poor household women usually earn less than men and property and possessions are often in the name of a man. The UN has found that although women perform nearly two thirds of the world’s work, they receive only one tenth of the world’s income and they own only one hundredth of the world’s property.

Children: Another group that is most affected by poverty is children. Currently, some of the poorest households in South Africa are those headed by children where parents are either ill or have died from AIDS or other causes. Even in families where parents are still present, children are very badly affected by malnutrition and it has its most severe effect on children between the ages of six months and two years. Malnutrition also means that the children can more easily catch diseases and either die young or have poor physical and mental development as a result. Poverty restricts the access to children to get educational opportunities, especially in early childhood development. Many poor children also leave school before completing elementary education. Socio-economic circumstance conditions in childhood which result in low qualifications in adulthood help transmit poverty across generations. A main cause of child poverty is a lack of opportunities among parents with low skills and low qualifications. Such parents are less likely to work, and if they do work they are more likely to have low earnings.

Youth: Young people have to suffer a lot due to poverty because they may be deprived of education facility which in turn limits employment opportunities. In India, with high unemployment rate, many young people do not get work which degrades their standard of living and they are not being able to access numerous facilities. Urban youth are also very susceptible to getting involved in crime, gangs and drug or alcohol abuse.

The elderly: Older people do not have employment and have to be taken care of by the rest of society. In India, most poor older people survive on the monthly pensions paid by the state. Because of high unemployment, many families share the pensions meant for the elderly and it ends up being inadequate for their needs. Older people also often look after grandchildren and continue to perform unpaid domestic work for their families. This especially applies to older women.

Poverty and environmental issues: In global society, poverty is prevalent. There is a general agreement among academicians that poverty is a major cause of environmental degradation. Various international reports asserted that poverty leads to environmental degradation. In theoretical literature, it was clearly shown that, poverty is main reason of environmental problems and it is necessary to improve the conditions of poor populace and central condition of any effective programmes addressing the environment. According to Jalal (1993), the Asian Development Bank’s chief of the environment department, “It is generally accepted that environmental degradation, rapid population growth and stagnant production are closely linked with the fast spread of acute poverty in many countries of Asia.” In urban areas, it is awesomely the consumption patterns of non-poor groups (especially high income groups) and the production and distribution systems that serve them, leads to environmental degradation. The urban poor contribute very little to environmental degradation because they use so few resources and produce so few wastes. Since the 1970s it has been agreed at global level that poverty and environmental degradation are inseparably linked. The World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) stated that Poverty is a major cause and effect of global environmental problems. It is therefore futile to attempt to deal with environmental problems without a broader perspective that encompasses the factors underlying world poverty and international inequality (1987).

Poverty and Population Explosion: Poverty remains major issues where population increases at rapid rate. Poverty in India is common with the nation estimated to have a third of the world’s poor. Population growth rate is one of major ground of poverty in India. This has adverse effect level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and lack of access to financial resources. High population growth affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower. It is predictable that population in India will reach 1.5 billion by 2026. But India’s economy is not growing at the same rate. This leads of unemployment and people may become poor. The Report of a 2015 World Bank estimate that 42% of India falls below the international poverty line. There are 421 million poor living in north India states of Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. This number is higher than the 410 million poor living in the 26 poorest African nations. Population and poverty are closely related to each other and leads to malnutrition, unemployment, homelessness and several others problems.

Social Inequality: One of the engrained sources of poverty around the globe is social inequality which originates from cultural ideas about the relative worth of different genders, races, ethnic groups, and social classes. Recognized inequality works by placing individuals in dissimilar social categories at birth, often based on religious, ethnic, or ‘racial’ characteristics. Poverty and social inequality have direct and indirect impacts on the social, mental and physical health of an individual. It can be said that poverty and inequality are closely related. Wilkinson (1997) supposed that income inequality leads to psychosocial stress, which results in deteriorating health and higher mortality over time. However, the association between income inequality and life expectancy is gradually disappearing and is no longer generally accepted. Those who live in deprived societies, where there is under-investment in the social and physical infrastructure, experience poor health, resulting in higher mortality for those of lower socio-economic class. The effects of income inequality also tumble over into society, causing stress, frustration and family disruption, which then increase the rates of crime, murder and violence.

Poverty, inequality and growth interrelate with one another. Inequality can indirectly influence poverty as inequality affects growth and growth in turn influences poverty.

Interrelationship between Poverty, inequality and growth

Wooden (1999) stated that Changes in income distribution have even huge effects on measures of the depth and severity of poverty. Initial cross-country studies conducted by Birdcall et al. (1995) have demonstrated that greater initial income inequality disrupts future growth even after controlling for initial levels of GDP and human capital. It is established that Poverty and inequality are inherently linked. Poverty reduction especially for the poorest can be greatly enhanced through distributional policies. Facts confirm that distribution is vital to reduce poverty. Distribution objectives, particularly for assets, should be an integral part of the poverty reduction programme.

Poverty and Space Technology development: Poverty has adverse impact on technical development in space arena. India is a world innovator in space science. But the reach within the local Indian community is superseded and immobile. Incorporation of the extensive advancements of this area with the school going children is not up to the mark. Awareness must be created in the student community. Space science is restricted to organizations like the ISRO and so, establishing oneself in this field is very infertile.

Poverty and employment issue: It is a major issue in country like India. In the presence of inadequate subsidies and low levels of wealth, joblessness will be correlated with high degrees of poverty. However, employment alone may not assure a non-poor status. In India, majority of people do not get high salary to buy the minimum consumption products. It is vital for policy maker to comprehend that whether poverty is a result of a lack of employment opportunities, or due to low wages. If all employed persons get sufficient wages to live above the poverty line but not all persons are employed, the mandatory approach is one of employment generating policies. If people are employed but have low productivity and earn low incomes, then the policy prescription is one of increasing the productivity of labour. In India, the actual poverty calculation is done as the consumption of the entire household is obtained and divided by the household size. This gives the per capita consumption in the household. If this is below the given poverty line, then the entire household is termed as poor. Poverty is a household characteristic. Employment characteristics are surveyed for each and every member of the NSS household. There is no employment status of the household. There is vast literature on employment issues. Gangopadhyay and Wadhwa (1999) studied the relationship between employment and poverty in India. They found that the poor cannot afford to be unemployed. It indicates that most of the poor people are already employed. This is factual in both the rural and the urban sectors. Conversely, much of the unemployment is in the non-poor households.

Gender Bias and poverty: Since poverty is a household attribute, and the NSS does not give the individual consumption of household members, it is difficult to assess the gender bias in the occurrence of poverty. It has been shown in Indian literature; the head of the household has always been taken as a mere reference point. If the head is someone with income earning responsibility, or holds decision-making powers within the household, then the gender of the head can be used as a factor of gender bias. Gender bias can operate in two different ways. First, women may be discriminated against in the work. Discriminating employers may favour males to female candidates. If we see the other aspect, women may not be recruited in high salary jobs, not because the employer discriminates against them, but because they are not found appropriate for such jobs. This could happen if the job requires skills, and women are not competent than males. This gets reflected in lower incomes among females. If women are less skilled than males, then the responsibility for this kind of perception lies within the household, where the parents train, or educate, the boy child more than the girl child. While less schooling means less of human capital. This is another reason why females may earn less income.

Poverty and health issues: The issue of poverty and health within the nation has remained predominant since Indian independence. The poverty dominant factor that leads to health related problems in both urban and rural populace. The rapid increase of the population, especially the slum inhabitants primarily suffers from Tuberculosis, Malaria and some water borne diseases. The major cause of these diseases is unhygienic environment. In slums area, there is lack of water, sanitation facility that leads to the growth of deadly diseases among the dwellers. The government has provided numerous medical facility centres for the poor people. The government should implement some new schemes for the slum dwellers. Some cleanliness awareness programme should be launched to generate wakefulness among poor for basic health knowledge. Some of the diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera transmit due to unhygienic atmosphere. In rural India, the major cause of health associated problems is poverty and lack of education. Most of the villagers still consider in Tantra- Mantra to cure a disease. As a result, the mortality rates have increased in some of the remote villages. Poverty also creates poor health because it forces people to live in unhygienic environments that make them sick. The government has already setup number of Primary Health Centres in almost every village in India. But health workers do not sincerely serve the rural patients. In most places, the health workers remain absent from their duties for several days. Most of the Indian villages do not have proper communication and transportation with the nearby towns or cities. This problem is largely affecting the rural people who cannot go to nearby towns to get better treatment. The communication and lack of transport facilities are observed in the north eastern part of India. There are still some distant villages in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland which do not have any road, connected with nearby towns. Due to these problems, more causality occurs without getting any modern treatment. There are many disadvantages for which the government policies are still ineffective, especially related with health issues.

To summarize, Poverty has been major issue to people because it causes the serious setback and hinder national development. It is prevalent at global scale and threatens some economic especially those in the Least Developing countries. Hence, the scale of poverty though varying in different parts of the world is known to be noticeable in the LDCs. Poverty is multidimensional Deficiency in income, illiteracy, malnutrition, mortality, morbidity, access to water and sanitation, susceptibility to economic shocks. Income deprivation is linked in many cases to other forms of deprivation, but do not always move together with others.

Theoretical studies and economic survey have shown that poverty has adverse impact on health of people. Inequality, population explosion, is some major issues which lead to poverty. Raanan Weitz (1986) stated that “While humanity shares one planet, it is a planet on which there are two worlds, the rich and the world of the poor”. These poor world countries are called the Third World. They are characterized by low monetary growth, low per capita income, low standards of living, and low level of technology, high illiteracy rate, and political instability. Allan Cochrane avowed that: A crucial aspect of poverty is the way in which it reduces ability of people to participate in the normal lives of their communities with stress being placed on the deprivation which results from the lack rather than low income itself”. Poverty can influence policy interfere in any society and it is central to strategy debates concerning development on safety issue.

Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society

Political Philosophy is a broad foreword to the major intellectuals and themes in political philosophy. It discovers the philosophical beliefs which have formed and continue to inform political judgements of people. Dudley Knowles introduces the ideas of major political thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx and Mill and dominant modern philosophers such as Berlin, Rawls and Nozick. Basically, Political philosophy is concerned with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion.

Communism

Communism is considered as vital framework in political philosophy. It is a socio-economic scaffold that assists in supporting the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. It boosts the formation of a democratic state in order to overcome the class structures and alienation of labour that characterize capitalistic societies and their inheritance of imperialism and nationalism. According to the principle of communism, main process of resolving problems of classless and other favoritism in society for the working class is to replace the prosperous ruling class, through radical action, in order to establish a diplomatic, free society, without classes or government. Communism, basically, is the idea of a free society with no division or estrangement, where humankind is free from oppression and insufficiency, and where there is no need for governments or countries and no class divisions. It imagines a world in which each person gives according to their abilities, and receives according to their needs. It is usually deliberated as a division of extensive Socialist movement. The main forms of Communism, such as Leninism, Trotskyism and Luxemburgish, are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of Communism (such as Christian Communism and Anarchist Communism).

In the era of late 19th Century, major philosophical terms like socialism and communism were often used simultaneously. Communism was considered as an economic-political philosophy which was evolved by famous philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels during this period. Marx and Engels wrote and published “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848. They had a wish to stop thinking a capitalism feeling that it was the social class system which led to the mistreatment of labours. The workers that were treated badly had developed class awareness and it resulted in a fundamental process of class conflict. In this conflict, the public may rise up against the bourgeoisie and establish a communist society. Marx and Engels supposed of the proletariat as the individuals with labour power, and the bourgeoisie as those who own the means of production in a capitalist society. The state would pass through a phase, often thought of as socialism, and ultimately developed a pure communist society. In a communist society, all private ownership would be obliterated, and the ways of production would belong to the whole community. In the communist movement, a popular motto was that everyone contributes according to their competence and received according to their requirements. Therefore, the needs of a society would be put above and beyond the specific needs of an individual. Though, there are numerous arguments for Marxist theory such as communism would not emerge from Capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a first phase (Socialism) in which most productive property was owned in common, but there were some class differences. This would finally develop into a “higher phase” that was termed as Communism in which class differences were abolished, and a state was no longer needed and would wither away. It was argued by many philosophers that radical activity by the working classes was required to bring about these changes.

History of Communism: It was documented in historical records that initially, Communist philosophy was the history of Socialism. In its modern version, Communism evolved of the Socialist movements of 19th Century Europe and the critics of Capitalism during the Industrial Rebellion. Main critics were the German philosopher Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels (1820 – 1895), and their pioneering “Communist Manifesto” of 1848, the defining document of the movement, presented a novel explanation of Communism and promoted the phrase communism. The practice of the terms “communism” and “socialism” changed after the Russian Revolution of 1917, when the admittedly Marxist Bolshevik Party in Russia changed their name to the Communist Party and formed a single party regime that was dedicated to the implementation of socialist policies under Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924). Lenin created the Third International (or Communist International or Comintern) in 1919 and set the twenty-one conditions (including democratic centralism) for any European socialist parties willing to join. With awareness of the Russian Civil War, the Union of Soviet Socialist was established in 1922.

Other communism movement related to Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) which was lasted until 1928, when Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953) party leader under the banner of “socialism in one country” and proceeded down the way of isolationism and Totalitarianism with the first of many Five Year Plans. Remarkably Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940) Marxist critics of the Soviet Union, referred to the Soviet system as a “degenerated” or “deformed” workers’ state, argued that it fell far short of Marx’s communist model, and claimed that the working class was politically expelled. Post World War II, the Warsaw Pact saw Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania joined the Soviet Union in an economic and military coalition under firm Soviet Control. However, relations were very tough, and the Soviet Union was forced into military interventions to supress popular rebellions in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968), and Albania withdrew from the Pact in 1968 due to philosophical dissimilarities.

In the decade of 1070s, although never officially unified as a single political entity, almost one-third of the world’s populace lived in Communist states, including the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe, as well Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Angola, and Mozambique. However, the Warsaw Pact countries had all abandoned Communist rule by 1990, and in 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved, leaving China, Cuba and some isolated states in Asia and Africa as the remaining bastions of Communism. In most cases significantly dampened down and changed from its original philosophy.

Types of Communism: Marxism is the main theoretical-practical structure on which dogmas of Socialism and Communism are based.
Marxism: Marxism is a perspective that involves a number of differing “sub-perspectives” that is, whilst there tends to be a general agreement about the need to construct a critique of Capitalist society, there are major differences between theorists working within this viewpoint. Main Marxist ideas can be explained in the following terms:

  1. Marxism stresses the notion that social life is based upon “conflicts of interest”. Most significant and basic conflict is that between the Bourgeoisie, those who own and control the means of production in society and the Proletariat, those who simply sell their labour power in the market place of Capitalism.
  2. Dissimilar of the Functionalist version of Structuralist sociology, the idea of social class is more than an evocative category, social class is used to clarify how and why societies change. Class conflict signifies a process whereby change comes about through the opposition of social classes as they follow what they see to be their (different and opposed) collective interests in society.
  3. Marxism is a political philosophy whose main concern is to expose the political and economic contradictions in-built in Capitalism such as the fact that while people co-operate to produce goods, a Capitalist class appropriates these goods for its private profit and to point the way towards the establishment of a future Communist society.

Marxism-Leninism is the Communist philosophical field that emerged as the conventional tendency amongst Communist parties in the 1920’s as it was accepted as the conceptual foundation of the Communist International during the era of Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953), with whom it is mainly associated. The term “Marxism-Leninism” is mostly used by those who consider that Lenin’s legacy was effectively carried forward by Stalin; although it is arguable to what extent it actually follows the principles of either Marx or Lenin.

Philosophy of Leninism was built upon and extended the ideas of Marxism, and served as the theoretical foundation for the ideology of Soviet Communism after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924) argued in his leaflet “What is to be Done?” of 1902 that the proletariat can only realise a successful radical consciousness through the efforts of a “vanguard party” composed of full-time professional revolutionaries and through a form of controlled organization generally called “democratic centralism” (whereby decisions are made with internal democracy but then all party members must externally support and actively promote that decision). It maintains that Capitalism can only be conquered by innovatory ways and any attempts to improve Capitalism from within are destined to fail. The objective of a Leninist party is to coordinate the overthrow of the existing government by force and grab power on behalf of the proletariat, and then implement a autocracy of the proletariat, a kind of direct equality in which workers hold political power through local councils known as soviets.

Stalinism is a more judgmental phrase for Joseph Stalin’s vision of Communism. Supporters of this ideology argue that it includes widespread use of publicity to establish a personality cult around an absolute ruler, as well as extensive use of a secret police to maintain social proposal and silence political opposition, all of which are trappings of Totalitarianism.

Trotskyism is the philosophical model of Marxism that was supported by Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940), who considered himself a conformist Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, and squabbled for the establishment of a frontline party. His politics differed sharply from the Marxism-Leninism of Joseph Stalin, with respect to declare the need for an international proletarian revolution and firm support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on direct autonomous ideologies. Most dominant characteristics of Trotskyism is the theory of permanent uprising to explain how socialist revolutions could happen in societies that had not yet attained advanced Capitalism. Marx explained it as a prerequisite for socialist revolution.

Luxemburgish is a particular innovative theoretical model under the category of Communism, which is based on the texts of Rosa Luxemburg (1870 – 1919). Her politics deviated from those of Lenin and Trotsky mainly in her discrepancy with their concept of “democratic centralism”, which she visualized as unsatisfactorily democratic. Luxemburgish looks like Anarchism in its averting of an authoritarian society by relying on the people themselves as opposed to their leaders. However, it also sees the significance of a revolutionary party and the centrality of the working class in the radical struggle. It resembles Trotskyism in its resistance to the Totalitarianism of Stalin and to the crusader politics of modern social classlessness, but differs in arguing that Lenin and Trotsky also made inequitable mistakes.

Thoughts of Maoism are different of Communism derived from the teachings of the Chinese leader Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung) (1893 – 1976), and practised in the People’s Republic of China after the Chinese Revolution of 1949. Maoism evolved from the Marxism-Leninism of Stalin, but introduced new ideas such as Social-Imperialism (Mao accused the Soviet Union of dominating and exploiting the smaller countries in its scope to the point of organising their economies around Soviet, not domestic, needs), the Mass Line (a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political headship in the concerns and conditions of the masses – “from the masses, to the masses”), people’s war and new democracy.

Left Communism is a range of Communist perspectives held by the Communist Left, which asserts to be more truly Marxist and proletarian than the views of Leninism and its successors. Left Communists advocated the Russian Revolution, but did not agree to the methods of the Bolsheviks. The Russian, Dutch-German and the Italian traditions of Left Communism all share an opposition to nationalism, all kinds of national liberation movements, frontism parliamentary systems.

Council Communism is a far-reaching left movement that emanated in Germany and the Netherlands in the decade of 1920s, and continues today as a theoretic and activist position within both left-wing Marxism and Libertarian Socialism. It visualized workers’ councils, arising in factories and municipalities, as the natural form of working class organization and governmental power. This philosophical viewpoint opposes the notion of a “revolutionary party” on the basis that a revolution led by a party unavoidably produces a party despotism.

Anarchist Communism promotes the complete elimination of the state and Capitalism in favour of a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers’ councils and/or commons through which everyone is free to satisfy their needs. The movement was led by the Russians Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876) and Peter Kropotkin (1842 – 1921).

Euro communism was flourished in the decades of1970’s and 1980’s within various Western European Communist parties to develop a philosophy and practice of social change that was more applicable in a Western European egalitarianism and less allied to the party line of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Religious Communism is a type of Communism that focus centred on religious attitudes, such as Christian, Taoist, Jain, Hindu or Buddhist. It usually denotes to a number of classless and utopian religious societies practicing the voluntary dissolution of private property, so that society’s benefits are distributed according to a person’s needs, and every person performs labour according to their abilities.

Benefit of communism: Communism philosophy upkeeps extensive universal social welfare, such as enhancements in public health and education. Its theoretical dogmas are beneficial to build equality and strong social communities. Communist ideology promotes universal education with a focus on developing the proletariat with knowledge, class realisation, and historical understanding. Communism also supports the liberation of women and to end their exploitation. Communist philosophy emphasizes the development of a “New Man”a class-conscious, knowledgeable, daring, democratic person dedicated to work and social consistency in contrast to the antithetic “bourgeois individualist” related with cultural backwardness and social atomization.

Criticisms of Communism: There are numerous criticisms of Communism.

Many philosophers have argued that Communism offers an idea of unattainable perfect future, and keeps its subjects in thrall to it by devaluing the past and the present. It asserts to represent a universal truth which explains everything and can cure every ill and any apparent deviations or under-performance are explained away by casuistry and emotional appeals.

Philosophy of communism is incomplete. Marx and Engels never devoted much work to show how exactly a Communist economy would function in practice, leaving Socialism a “negative ideology”. The supposition that human nature is totally determined by the environment; Some Communists, such as Trotsky, believed that all the social, political and intellectual life processes in general are conditioned by the socio-economic base and the mode of production of material life, which rather devalues humanity and the importance of the lives and rights of human beings.

Many Anarchists and Libertarian Socialists throwaway the need for a transitory state phase and often disapprove Marxism and Communism for being too authoritarian. Some Anarcho-Primitivists reject left wing politics in general, seeing it as unethical and claiming that civilization is unreformable.

Some opponents have argued that Marx’s concept of freedom is really just a defence of dictatorship and oppression, and not an expansion of liberties as he claimed.

Some critics have construed many of Marx’s pronouncements on Jews as being anti-Semitic, claiming that he saw Jews as the embodiment of Capitalism and the creators of all its evils. Others, however, hotly dispute this interpretation.

Many Socialist reformists take issue with the Marxist requirement for a fierce proletarian revolution and argued that Capitalism can be reformed by steady democratic changes. Some theorists criticized communism philosophy on the ground that the concept of Historical Materialism which underlies much of Marxist theory is faulty, or that such a method can be twisted into trying to force the course of history in a particular direction, or that in practice it leads to Nihilism. In short, Historical Materialism is the notion that for human beings to survive, they need to produce and reproduce the material requirements of life, and this production is carried out through a division of labour based on very definite production relations between people. These relations form the financial base of society, and are themselves determined by the mode of production which is in force such as tribal society, ancient society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and societies, and their cultural and institutional superstructures, naturally move from stage to stage as the foremost class is displaced by a new developing class in a social and political turmoil.

Other critics disapproved the ideology of Marxist class and argued that class is not the most important inequality in history, and that thorough analysis of many historical periods fails to find support for class or social development as used by Marxists. Some critics have argued that the growing spread of liberal democracy around the world, and the apparent lack of major revolutionary movements developing in them, suggest that Capitalism or social democracy is likely to be the effective form of human government instead of Marxism, which claims to be an “end of history” philosophy. According to Pope Pius XI, “Communism is intrinsically evil, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever”.

Effect of communism on society:
The main objective of Communism is to develop society without rulers, a society where the people oversee themselves. But until this is accomplished, a superior government has absolute power. The people do not have any private belongings and all assets belong to the government.

Therefore it has some disastrous effect on society. It can be illustrated from one of communism’s effects was in 1933. Cruel ruler, Hitler was a communist dictator. Under his instructions, the holocaust began. Reports indicated that approximately, six million Jewish people died. Communists consider their goal, their party, and the state more vital than the rights and autonomy of individual. In communist nations, there are usually huge gaps between official claims of freedom and conditions in which they actually exist.

To summarize, Communism is an economic system where the government owns most of the factors of production and decides the allocation of resources and what products and services will be provided. The most significant theorists who evolved the ideologies of communism were Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. They wanted to end the exploitation of the masses by the few. The capitalist system at that time required workers to work under harsh and dangerous conditions for little pay. According to economic scholars, communism is concept, in that ownership of land, capital and industry cannot be owned or controlled by the individual. However, under Communism the control of these things is not by a local community but by the State Government. Under this system, the government has total control of everything produced and control what is made, and who will receive the goods and services produced. The end goal of communism was to eradicate class distinctions among people, where everyone shared equally in the proceeds of society, when government would no longer be needed. In basic form, Communism is an ideology and a political and economic system to manage economies and countries. The core dogmas of communism are that all capital or means of production are owned and operated by the society or the government rather than by individuals as their private property. It is documented in theories that Communism is one of the most far-reaching political concepts but became popular throughout the world. It provided answer to the problems of capitalist and to establish a classless stateless society on a rational basis, where there is no exploitation and all live in peace, comfort and harmony getting full opportunity to develop their personality.

Capitalism

Capitalism is a type of social system that follows the belief of individual rights. From political perspective, capitalism is the system of laissez-faire (freedom). Lawfully, it is a system of objective laws that is rule of law in contrast to rule of man. In financial terms, when such freedom is applied to the domain of production its result is the free-market. Earlier, this notion was not clearly explained. Several economists and theorists assumed that capitalism has existed for most of human history. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the phrase Capitalism was first used by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, in 1854 in his novel ‘The Newcomes’, where he described capitalism as “having ownership of capital and not as a system of production”. During 19th century, capitalism was described by numerous theorists as “an economic system characterized by private or corporation ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control, and by prices, production and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly in free market” Capitalism is commonly elucidated as an economic system where private actors are permitted to own and control the use of property according to their own interests, and where the invisible hand of the pricing mechanism coordinates supply and demand in markets in a way that is automatically in the best interests of civilisation. In this system, Government is responsible for peace, justice, and tolerable taxes.

Basically, Capitalism is a private ownership based on the ways of production and distribution of goods categorised by a free competitive market and incentive by profit. It can be said that it is an economics system based on survival of the fittest.

Historical review of Capitalism: In theoretical review, it has been described by numerous theorists that there are three periods of Capitalism such as early, middle and late periods, while others academicians consider capitalism to be a social characteristic that cannot be confined by historical period, but rather by the recognition of unending elements of the human condition. Earlier, capitalism was originated in the fourteenth century emergency, a conflict that developed between the land-owning aristocracy (the lords) and the agricultural producers (the serfs). Feudalism subdued the development of capitalism in numerous ways. The serfs were forced to produce sufficient food for the lords as a result of this the lords had no interest in the advancement of technology, but rather expanded their power and wealth through military means. There was no competitive pressure for them to revolutionize because they were not producing to sell on the market. The changeover from feudalism to capitalism was mainly driven by the mechanic of war and not by the politics of prosperity and production methods. Conversely, in current period, modern capitalism ascended in the early middle ages, between the 16th and 18th century, when mercantilism was established. Mercantilism is described as a distribution of goods that are bought at a certain price and sold at a higher price in order to generate profits. It provided the basic principles of capitalism in that it was the “large-scale realization of a profit by acquiring goods for lower prices than to the sell them”. During the period of 18th century, mercantilism weakened when a group of economic theorists led by Adam Smith challenged mercantilist principles. They supposed that a state could only escalate its wealth at the expense of another state’s wealth while the amount of the world’s wealth remained constant. After the decline in mercantilism, Industrial capitalism emerged in the mid-18th century due to the huge accretion of capital under the period of merchant capitalism and its investment in machinery. Industrial capitalism marked development of manufacturing factory system and led to the global supremacy of capitalist mode of production. In the 19th century, capitalism allowed great increase in efficiency. It generated great social changes, which remained in place during the twentieth century where it was established as the world’s most predominant financial model after the failure of the USSR. In the twenty-first century, capitalism had become an extensively universal economic system at global scale.

It is commonly visualized that capitalism broadly corresponds to that developed by the classical economists and by Marx. In this view, capitalism is an economic system in which control of production and the allocation of real and financial resources are based on private ownership of the means of production. It is a theory expounded through observation of the economic system prevailing in Great Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Capitalism is an indirect system of governance based on a multifarious and continually evolving political bargain in which private actors are endowed by a political authority to own and control the use of property for private gain under definite laws and regulations. Workforces are free to work for incomes, capital is free to earn a return, and both labour and capital are allowed to enter and exit from various business. Capitalism depends upon the pricing mechanism to balance supply and demand in market. It relies on the profit motivation to assign opportunities and resources among contending suppliers and it relies upon a political authority to establish the rules and regulations so that they include all applicable societal costs and benefits. Government and its representatives are responsible to deliver physical security for persons and property as well as the laws and regulations. Capitalist development is built from investment in advanced technologies that enable to enhance productivity, where various initiatives are selected through a Darwinian process that favours productive uses of those resources, and from the periodic modernization of the legal and regulatory framework as specified by altering market conditions and societal urgencies.

To develop capitalism, government must have to perform many roles such as administrative role, in which providing and maintaining the institutions that support capitalism. Capitalism contrasts with previous economic systems characterized by forced labour, self-sufficiency, barter, and/or reciprocal relationships based upon family, tribe, or locally known relationships. It is also dissimilar with modern systems where governments have acted directly through ownership and/or central planning to control of the use of resources. Government’s approach of intervention in a capitalist system is mainly indirectly. It creates, legitimates, administers and intermittently updates the various market frameworks that elucidate the conditions in which the economic factors may obtain and employ capital and labour to produce, distribute, and sell goods and services. Consequently, economic players receive the right to use their power in competition with others, subject to predominant laws and regulations.

The market structures can have quite dissimilar policy priorities, from protecting the status quo to the advancement of growth and development, from protecting consumers to protecting producers, and from protecting labour to protecting capital. Governments identify the responsibilities of the various participants in these transactions such as for the safety and serviceability of the products, as well as the conditions under which they are produced and distributed. Therefore, this indirect system of governance certainly exemplifies a strategy, though this strategy is often largely implicit rather than overt and created progressively over time instead of huge plan. While positive capitalism depends upon the granting of power to private companies to enter, compete in, and exit from markets, it also depends upon the state’s power to confine the private actors so that they do not abuse these powers. To be authentic as well as productive, private economic actors must be bound by the rule of law, and this rule of law must be backed by the coercive powers of the state. The powers of the state are engaged to confine the private players from breaking the rules and, if need be, to settle clashes. Efficacious capitalism is reliant upon a state control of forced powers. Capitalist systems typically rely on the state to make direct provision of certain public goods, such as highways, schools and law enforcement, as well as to refrain from the temptation to own, operate, or directly control the economic actors. If the state does become a direct economic player, it becomes a player as well as a referee. This puts state agents in roles that conflict for example, as a regulator and as player that need not be subject to the discipline of the markets.

Capitalism as a three level system: Capitalism has three level systems. On the first level, the markets, firms compete to secure their labour and capital as well as to serve their customers. In second level, there is basic institutional foundations, including physical and social infrastructure; physical infrastructure includes, among other things, transportation and communications, and social infrastructure includes the educational, public health, and legal systems. Additionally, the second level consists of the agents of the state who enforce the rules and regulations, including specialized regulators who oversee behaviour in certain industries, such as those that deal with food and drugs or transportation, and those who protect societal resources such as the physical environment or safety in the workplace. The third level comprises of a political authority typically one with specialized functions such as executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In turn, a set of political institutions connect the political authority to the political markets and ultimately to civil society, to which such an authority is finally responsible.

Level of capitalism

Capitalism is planned to uphold the industrious use of public resources in order fulfil consumer needs in the short period and to enhance living style of people through time. As a result, its supervisory frameworks give priority to promoting productivity instead of equalizing competitive resources on a given day or during a given season. Same time, it is established that capitalism is controlled after the fact, and not in real time the way organized sports are. The regulators do not stop the play to assess a foul, nor halt the competition to scrutinize a controversial event via “instant replay.” The economy moves on and disputes are settled after the fact, in court if need be.

Types of capitalism:
There are many alternatives of capitalism that differ according to country and region. They vary in their institutional character and by their economic policies. The common features among all the dissimilar forms of capitalism is that they are based on the production of merchandises and services for profit, predominately market-based allocation of resources, and they are structured upon the accretion of capital. The major types of capitalism are mentioned below.

Mercantilism: Mercantilism is a nationalist system of initial capitalism that was practiced in the later phase of 16th century. It is characterized by the interweaving of national business interests to state-interest and imperialism, and subsequently, the state apparatus is utilized to improve national business interests abroad. Mercantilism was determined by the conviction that the prosperity of a nation is increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations. It relates to the phase of capitalist development and sometimes called the Primitive accumulation of capital. Mercantilist arguments for protectionist policies and their central concept of profit upon alienation, obtained in circulation, often tied to unstable transitory and immature character of capitalist economy of their age (Makoto Ito, 1988). Mercantilist capitalism involves more cooperation and coordination between government and economic entities including large cooperation and sometimes whole sectors of economy.

Free-market economy: Free-market economy is described as a capitalist economic system where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without interference by government plan. It characteristically involves in support for highly competitive markets, private ownership of productive enterprises. Laissez-faire is a more extensive form of free-market economy where the role of the state is limited to protecting property rights.

Social market and Nordic model: A social-market economy is a supposedly free-market system where government involvement in price formation is kept to a minimum but the state provides substantial services in the area of social security, unemployment benefits and recognition of labour rights through national collective bargaining arrangements. The social market economy forms an essential part of free and open society, which is also characterised by solidarity. It has proven itself as an economic system that allows for prosperity and full employment whilst also providing welfare and promoting a strong social system. This model is conspicuous in Western and Northern European countries, and Japan, although in slightly different configurations. The huge majority of enterprises are privately owned in this economic model.

Rhine capitalism: It is described as the modern model of capitalism and adaptation of the social market model that exists in continental Western Europe today. State capitalism: State capitalism includes state ownership of the means of production within a state, and the organization of state enterprises as commercial, profit-seeking businesses. The argument between proponents of private versus state capitalism is focused on issues of managerial efficacy, productive efficiency, and fair distribution of wealth.

Aldo Musacchio, leading expert stated that state capitalism is a system in which governments, whether democratic or autocratic, exercise an extensive influence on the economy, through either direct ownership or various subsidies. Musacchio also said that there is a significant difference between today’s state capitalism and its predecessors. In his views, earlier, governments appointed bureaucrats to run companies but in present situation, the world’s largest state-owned enterprises are now traded on the public markets and kept in good health by large institutional investors.

Corporate capitalism: Corporate capitalism refers to a free or mixed-market economy categorised by the supremacy of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations.

Mixed economy: Mixed economy is a mainly market-based economy consisting of both private and public ownership of the means of production and economic interventionism through macroeconomic policies intended to correct market failures, reduce unemployment and keep inflation low. The degree of involvement in markets differs among different countries. Some mixed economies, such as France under dirigisme, also featured a degree of indirect economic planning over a largely capitalist-based economy. Contemporary capitalist economies are described as “mixed economies”.

Characteristics of Capitalism:
Capitalism, generally referred to a free enterprise economy, is considered as an economic system distinguished by some traits, whose development is condition by still other elements. The main characteristics of capitalism are mentioned below.

  1. Private Ownership: Private individuals are the owners of the means of production, which is, land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship (as opposed to state ownership and communist ownership). These owners decide what to produce, in what quantities, how it is going to be produced, and the rewards of labour. It is demand and supply that determines the price of the finished good (s).
  2. Decentralized Decision Making: In a capitalist economy, the process of decision making takes the structure of devious decentralization. Individuals, make the decision with their self-interest. However, the government controls these decisions by manipulating its respective environment that is, affecting prices, taxes, subsides.
  3. Freedom of Choice: Capitalism also referred to as a market economy, which highlights on the freedom of the individual, both as a consumer and as an owner of the factors of production. Principally, an individual can work wherever he or she wants, while entrepreneurs are also free to set up enterprises of their own choice. Within a market economy, decisions or choices are mainly determined by material encouragements.

It is found in vast literature that Capitalism is an economic system in which each individual in his capacity as a consumer, producer and resource owner is engaged in economic activity with a great degree of economic freedom. The factors of production are privately owned and managed by individuals. The main purpose of the capitalist system is the profit motive. The entrepreneurs initiate production with a view to maximize profits. Income is received in financial form through the sale of services of the factors of production and from profits of private enterprise. Capitalist economy is not planned, controlled or regulated by the government. In this system, economic decisions and activities are guided by price mechanism which operates automatically without any direction and control by the central authorities. In capitalist economy, competition is the most important element. It means the existence of large number of buyers and sellers in the market who are motivated by their self-interest but cannot influence market decisions by their individual actions.

Benefits of Capitalism: Capitalist economic system has many benefits.

This is an economic growth through open competitive market that provides individuals with far better opportunities of raising their own income. Capitalism results in a decentralized economic system which is major advantages of capitalism where individuals are exposed to various options which can lead to competition hence leading to firms producing only the best, and a capitalist economy is believed to encourage innovations in technology and industry. The advantages of capitalism entail;

Consumer choice where Individuals choose what to consume, and this choice leads to more competition and better products and services.
Efficiency of economics in which Goods and services produced based on demand creates incentives to cut costs and avoid waste.

General Drawbacks of Capitalism: Besides numerous advantages, capitalistic economy has several disadvantages.

  1. Inequality: There tends to be a rise in disparity as benefits of capitalism are not fairly distributed. As wealth tends to redound to a small percentage of the population, the demand for luxury goods is often limited to a small percentage of the workforce, one of the main capitalism disadvantages.
  2. Irrational Behaviour: People tend to get caught up in hypothetical suds but disregard economic fundamentals, leading to illogical behaviour.
  3. Monopoly Behaviour: Other major drawback of capitalism is that companies gain monopoly over power in a free market allows and exploit customers by charging higher prices. They often pay lower salaries to labours.
  4. Immobility: Main issue of capitalism is that a free market is supposed to be able to easily move factors of from an unprofitable sector to a new profitable industry. However, this is much more difficult practically.

Other drawbacks are that there is extravagant competition which does not confer any corresponding social benefit.

Effect of capitalism on society: Capitalism has some good consequences on habitants.
High Standard of Living: Capitalism is the artefact of industrialization. Industrialization has amplified production. 
Economic Progress: Capitalism encourages society to utilize the natural resources more and more. The people exert themselves maximum for earning money. This had led to many inventions in the field of industry, agriculture and business which have contributed to economic growth.
Exchange of Culture: Capitalism intends to encourage all people to partake in activities that appear beneficial to them. Capitalism facilitates international trade and exchange of know-how. People of different countries have come close to each other. The development of the means of transport and communication has facilitated contacts among the peoples of the world thus leading to exchange of ideas and culture.
Progress of Civilization: Capitalism is tool to explore new machines and increasing the production of material goods. Man is today more civilized than his ancestors.

Decreasing of Racial Differences: Capitalism has also led to diminish the differences based on race, doctrine, caste and nationality. 
Major effect of capitalism includes, profit for owners of production/business, industrial vs agricultural economies, market competition, increased supply of “things”/goods and focus on personal responsibility.

To summarize, the capitalist system is reflection of the aspirations of human nature. Actually, capitalism can be described as a system that identifies and protects private property, free enterprise, freedom of choice for the human person, the authority of consumers over the objectives of production through free markets of the products chosen or ordered by the consumers, guide the programs of production. Capitalism makes economy money oriented. Businesses look at the economy with a materialistic point of view. Huge business companies take over smaller companies. Employment rights are compensated with the aim of higher productivity and some believe that because of fierce competition in capitalist economies it can give rise to unfair competition.

There are different views about capitalism. Some experts believe in its strengths, while others criticise about the unfair distribution of wealth it may lead to. The opposition of capitalism is Marxian Economics, named after Karl Marx. He believes that capitalism brings about class segregation i.e. there are two classes the capitalist class and the working class. Under capitalism, economic personal property, such as commodities or the means of production may be withheld from others by its owners. This is done so as to yield higher profit margins. Reviewing major facts about capitalism, it is found that in Capitalism economy, individuals own and control land, capital, and production of industry. Individuals are free to purchase and own their own homes, cars, furniture, and other goods People have liberty to live where they want and what type of job field they want to pursue.

Socialism: Socialism is political philosophy considered by public ownership and centralized planning of all major industries which include manufacturing, services, and energy, banks and insurance companies, agribusiness, transportation, the media, and medical facilities. In capitalism, these huge enterprises control the economy but are privately owned and operated to create wealth for their owners by extracting it from working people who are paid only a small fraction of what their labour produces. Socialism turns this around so that the class that produces the wealth can jointly decide how it will be used for the benefit of all. Real socialism is characterized as democratic. It is economic as well as political democracy. Many capitalist countries claim of their democratic institutions, but this is a deception because all the political power is in control of officers who hold the wealth. Socialism prioritizes human needs and eliminates the profit motive that drives war, ecological destruction, and inequalities based on gender, race, nationality and sexuality. Simply, socialism is social ownership of means of production, impartiality of income and opportunities for all members. Under social and political system, Socialism depends altogether upon the history of mankind for a record of its growth in the past, and bases its future upon knowledge of that history in so far as it can be accurately traced up to the present time. The basis of the whole theory is that since ancient period of their existence, human beings have been channelled by the power they possessed over the forces of nature to supply the wants arising as individual members of any society. Thus, Socialism depends upon political economy in its broadest sense. It is dependent upon the manner in which wealth is produced and distributed by those who form part of society at a given time.

Socialism initiated in the late 18th-century from an knowledgeable and working class political movement that disapproved the effects of industrialization and private ownership on civilisation

Theoretical framework of socialism: Vast literature is available to describe nature of socialism as a political philosophy. Theorist D. Dickinson stated that “Socialism is an economic organisation of society in which the material means of production are owned by the whole community and operated by organs representative of and responsible to the community according to a general economic plan, all members of the community being entitled to benefit from the results of such socialized planned production on the basis of equal rights.” According to Loucks, “Socialism refers to that movement which aims to vest in society as a whole, rather than in individuals, the ownership and management of all nature-made and man-made producers goods used in large-scale production, to the end that an increased national income may be more equally distributed without materially destroying the individuals economic motivation or his freedom of occupation.”

Other experts like Pious explained the term socialism as “A socialized industry is one in which the material instruments of production are owned by a public authority or voluntary association, and operated not with a view to profit by sale to other people, but for the direct service of those whom the authority or association represents. A socialized system is one the main part of whose resources are engaged in socialized industries,” Paul M. Sweeny asserted that “In its primary meaning is a complete social system which differs from capitalism not only in the absence of private ownership of the means of production but also in its basic structure and mode of functioning.” Shuffle also elaborated principles of socialism and stated that, “The Alfa and omega of socialism is the transformation of private competing capital into a united collective capital.” G.D.H. Cole perceived that “Socialism means four closely connected things of a human fellowship which denies and expels distinction of class, a social system in which no one is so much richer or poorer than his neighbours as to be unable to mix with them on equal term, the common ownership and use of all the vital instruments of production and an obligation on all citizens to serve one another according to their capacities in promoting the common wellbeing.”

Similar to capitalism, socialism must be worldwide so that global resources can be shared. To attain the objectives of socialism, it is necessary to any country being able to determine its own intention.

Features of Socialism: The main features of this system are described as under.

  1. Public Ownership: First prominent characteristic is socialist economy which is determined by public ownership of the means of production and distribution. There is shared ownership whereby all mines, farms, factories, financial institutions, distributing agencies, means of transport and communications, are owned, controlled, and regulated by government departments and state corporations. A small private sector also exists as small business units which are carried on in the villages by local artistes for local consumption.
  2. Central Planning: Second feature of socialism is centrally planned which functions under the direction of a central planning authority. It develops various objectives and targets to be realized during the plan period. Central economic planning means the making of major economic decisions what and how much is to be produced, how, when and where it is to be produced, and to whom it is to be allocated by the mindful decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. The central planning authority organises and operates the financial resources by deliberate direction and control of the economy in order to accomplish certain objectives and targets laid down in the plan during a specified period of time.
  3. Definite Objectives: Another characteristic of socialism is that a socialist economy operates within definite socio-economic objectives. These objectives may concern aggregate demand, full employment, and satisfaction of communal demand, allocation of factors of production, distribution of the national income, the amount of capital accumulation, economic development and so forth.
  4. Freedom of Consumption: In socialism system, consumer’s dominance infers that production in state owned industries is generally governed by the likings of consumers, and the available merchandises are distributed to the customers at fixed prices through the state-run department stores. Consumer’s dominion under socialism is limited to the choice of socially beneficial commodities.
  5. Equality of Income Distribution: In a socialist system, there is great impartiality of income distribution in comparison a free market economy. The removal of private ownership in the means of production, private capital accumulation, and profit motive under socialism avert the accrual of large wealth in the hands of a few wealthy persons. The unearned incomes in the form of rent, interest and profit go to the state which utilises them in providing free education, public health facilities, and social security to the masses.
  6. Planning and the Pricing Process: Other feature of socialism is that the pricing process under socialism does not operate spontaneously but works under the control and regulation of the central planning authority. There are administered prices which are fixed by the central planning authority. There are also the market prices at which consumer goods are sold. There are also the accountings prices on the basis of which the managers decide about the production of consumer goods and investment goods, and also about the choice of production methods. Theoretical studies have documented that socialism aims at establishing a classless society, free from exploitation. It presupposes public ownership of means of production (Lay bourn, 1988). Majority of socialists recognise their philosophy of socialism as Marxists in acknowledgement of Karl Marx, who revealed the economic laws of capitalism. Marx and his co-worker Frederick Engels evolved the foundation of Marxist economics, the philosophical thought of dialectical materialism, and the method of social analysis known as historical materialism. Leninism signifies the concepts of a disciplined, radical party and the principled, intransigent vision of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, key leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution. Lenin’s contribution on imperialism, the nature of the state, and the rights of national minorities are vital components of the socialist practice. Another form of socialism, Socialist feminism was developed in the decades of late 1960s and early 1970s by originators of the Freedom Socialist Party and Radical Women. It is a Marxist, Leninist, and Trotskyism tendency. These philosophers recognised that the most oppressed sector of the current working class is composed of women, particularly women of colour, whose life experience of exploitation gives them the strength and determination to carry through a revolution against all forms of oppression. Socialist feminists identified the activist leadership of working-class women, people of colour, and queers, and others multiply plagued by capitalism. Socialist feminists orient to common, rank-and-file women and men instead of the predominantly white male aristocrats of labour who make up the union bureaucracy.

Types of Socialism: There are many types of socialism.
Democratic Socialism promotes the principles of Socialism as an economic principle which signifies that the means of production should be in the hands of ordinary working people and equality as a governing principle. It attempts to bring about Socialism through nonviolent democratic means as opposed to violent insurgence, and represents the improver practice of Socialism. Democratic Socialism infers a philosophy that is more left-wing and supportive of a fully socialist system, established either by progressively reforming Capitalism from within, or by some form of revolutionary transformation.

Marxian socialism: In theoretical framework of Marxism, socialism denotes to a particular historical phase of financial development and its corresponding set of social relations that ultimately overtake capitalism in the plan of historical materialism. From this perspective, socialism is described as a mode of production where the principle for production is use-value, where production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning and the law of value no longer directs economic activity. The Marxian idea of socialism was against other early forms of socialism, most remarkably early forms of market socialism based on classical economics including Mutualism and Ricardian socialism, which is dissimilar to the Marxian conception, retained commodity exchange and markets for labour and the means of production. The Marxian conception also contradicted Utopian socialism.

Another type of socialism is revolutionary Socialism which supports the need for essential social change through revolution or revolution instead of gradual reform as a strategy to attain a socialist society. Trotskyism is the continuance of the Marxist and Leninist. When the Stalinist bureaucracy rose to power in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s, Trotsky rallied an international Left Opposition against the unfaithfulness of the revolution’s goals. Trotskyism means Permanent Revolution, internationalism, and the strategy of the united front against fascism. . Luxemburgish is another Revolutionary Socialist custom, based on the works of Rosa Luxemburg (1970 – 1919). It is analogous to Trotskyism in its opposition to the Totalitarianism of Stalin, while simultaneously avoiding the reformist politics of modern Social Egalitarianism.

Utopian Socialism describes the first streams of modern socialist thought in the first quarter of the 19th Century. Usually, it was used by later socialist thinkers to define early socialist, or quasi-socialist, intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained. They disallowed all political and especially all revolutionary action, and wished to achieve their ends by nonviolent means and small experiments, which was observed by famous socialist, Karl Marx as necessarily doomed to failure.

The objective of Libertarian Socialism is to develop a society without political, economic or social hierarchies, in which every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production. This would be accomplished through the eradication of authoritarian institutions and private property, so that direct control of the means of production and resources is gained by the working class and society as a whole. Most Libertarian Socialists supports abolishing the state altogether, in much the same way as Utopian Socialists and Anarchism.

Market Socialism is a type of an economic system in which there is a market economy directed and guided by socialist developers, and where prices would be set through trial and error rather than relying on a free price tool.

Eco-Socialism is philosophies combine aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics, ecology and the anti-globalization movement. They promote the non-violent dismantling of Capitalism and the State, focusing on collective ownership of the means of production, in order to alleviate the social barring, poverty and environmental deprivation brought about by the capitalist system, globalization and colonialism.

Christian socialism: It is a form of religious socialism which is based on the traditions of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists consider capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a worldly evil. Christian socialists recognise the cause of unfairness to be associated with the greed that they associate with capitalism.

Guild Socialism: This type of socialism was basically an English movement that fascinated a modest during the first two decades of the 20th century. An association of craftsmen motivated by the medieval guild, determined their own working conditions and activities. Theorists, Samuel G. Hobson and G.D.H. Cole supported the public ownership of industries and their organization into guilds, each of which would be under the autonomous control of its trade union. The role of the state was less clear. Some guild socialists envisioned it as a coordinator of the guilds’ activities, while other theorists held that its functions should be restricted to protection or policing. In general, however, the guild socialists were less inclined to invest power in the state than were their Fabian compatriots.

Fabian socialism: In this form of socialism, the Society adopted the name Fabian as a representation of a plan formulated to infiltrate civic and social units and to find means to spread contemporary social ideas, concentrating on concrete objectives rather than on principles. The Fabians did not constitute themselves as a political party as such but developed the technique of “socialistic ‘permeation’ of existing political institutions” (Fabian Society,” Columbia Encyclopedia, 2nd Ed.). According to theorists, The Fabians were more realistic as compared to the Marxian socialists. They understood that it is much easier to overthrow sons, daughters and wives of the prominent and well-to-do than it is to impress the labouring classes. They also understood, that socialist movement’s spring from the middle and upper classes and not from the proletariat (Sidney Webb, 1989). A major belief of Fabianism is to collect a Brain Trust as an elite class to plan and direct all of society. Shaw designated briefly that “The Fabian Society succeeded because it addressed itself to its own class in order that it might set about doing the necessary brain work of planning socialist organization for all classes, meanwhile accepting, instead of trying to supersede, the existing political organizations which it intended to permeate with the Socialist conception of human society”.

Merits of Socialism: Socialism has many benefits for society. Prof. Schumpeter was supported of this thought and gave four arguments to promote socialism that include greater economic efficiency, welfare due to less inequality, absence of monopolistic practices and absence of business fluctuations.

  1. Greater Economic Efficiency: It has been established through theoretical studies that Economic competence under socialism system is better as compared to capitalism system. The means of production are controlled and regulated by the central planning authority towards chosen ends. The central planning authority makes comprehensive survey of resources and utilises them in the most efficient manner. Increased productivity is secured by avoiding the wastes of competition and by undertaking expensive research and production processes in a coordinated manner. Economic efficiency is also realized by utilising resources in producing socially useful goods and services which satisfy the basic wants of the people such as cheap food, cloth, and housing.
  2. Greater Welfare due to Less Inequality of Income: In a socialist economy, it is observed that there is less disparity of income as compared with a capitalist economy because of the absence of private ownership of the means of production, private capital accumulation, and private profit. All inhabitants work for the wellbeing of the state and each is compensated his payment according to his capability, education and training. All rents, interests and profits from various sources go to the state which spends them for public welfare in providing free education, cheap and congenial housing, free public health amenities, and social security to the people.
  3. Absence of Monopolistic Practices: Main benefit of socialism is that it is free from monopolistic practices which are to be found in a capitalist society. Since under socialism, all means of production are owned by the state, both competition and monopoly are eradicated. The misuse by the monopolistic is absent. Instead of private monopoly, there is the state monopoly of the productive system but this is operated for the welfare of the people. In the state-owned factories, socially useful commodities are produced which are of high quality and are also reasonably priced.
  4. Absence of Business Fluctuations: A socialist system is free from business variations. There is economic constancy because production and consumption of goods and services are controlled by the central planning authority according to the objectives, targets and priorities of the plan. Thus there is neither overproduction nor joblessness.

Demerits of Socialism: A socialist economy has several drawbacks:

  1. Loss of Consumers’ Dominance: Researchers have observed that there is loss of consumer’s dominion in a socialist approach. Consumers do not have the liberty to buy whatever commodities they want. They can consume only those commodities which are available in department stores. Often the quantities which they can buy are fixed by the state.
  2. No Freedom of Occupation: It is also found that people do not have liberty of occupation in such a society. Every person is provided job by the state. But he cannot leave or change it. Even the place of work is allotted by the state. All occupational movements are sanctioned by the state.
  3. Malallocation of Resources: In socialist, there is random allocation of resources. The central planning authority often commits mistakes in resource allocation because the entire work is done on trial and error basis.
  4. Bureaucratic: A socialist economy is considered as rigid economy. It is operated like a machine. Therefore, it does not provide the necessary initiative to the people to work hard. People work due to the fear of higher authorities and not for any personal gain or self-interest.

In current circumstances, socialism has become the most popular, economic philosophy. During the decades succeeding the Second World War, the worldwide progression of socialism has been quite theatrical and unparalleled. Socialism is a standard of expediency which accommodates politicians of all hues. It incorporates all types of political system, detector ships, democracies, republics and monarchies. It holds such dissimilar systems as an Islamic socialism practiced by Libya and Algeria, democratic socialism of Norway or Sweden, the Bathes Socialism of Syria and Iraq, the ‘Ujamaa’ socialism of Tanzania. It is observed that various nations around the world have adopted socialist philosophy in the light of their peculiar conditions. Sometimes even within a country, different political parties interpreted the socialist philosophies to fit into their own political viewpoint. Socialist ideas have considerably influenced the formulation of the means and objectives of Indian economic policies. This has happened in different ways such as through the impact of external, socialist ideologies on the economic and political notions held by Blite groups influencing policy-making in India.

To summarize, Socialism is a thought that individuals should not have ownership of land, capital, or industry, but rather the whole community jointly owns and controls property, goods, and production. Preferably, in this system all share correspondingly in work and the results of their labour. After thorough appraisal of principles of socialism, it is established that Socialism is a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the workforce, either directly through popular collectives or indirectly exercised on behalf of the people by the state, and in which Classlessness is an important objective.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Population and Associated Issues

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Human populations are also theme to usual process of birth and death. World is facing major challenge of rapid increase in human population since last many decades, (UNFPA, 2011). In various parts of globe, there is unparalleled rapid demographic change and the most noticeable example of this change is the vast expansion of human. It is expected that in near future, it will increase rapidly and give birth to numerous issues in the least developed regions. It is recommended that there is a desperate need to take urgent steps to control population otherwise serious problems can arise such as environment damage and restricted availability of food resources. Constant growth of population is major issue and therefore it is significant to understand how policy makers can manage population growth for the benefit of society. The influence of population on the financial system is apparently straightforward. It is about having enough resources to meet the needs of the growing number of people. Since the same resources are shared by all members of the society, everybody is affected by development and many are underprivileged of their access to the same resources. The merits and drawbacks of controlling population growth can be recognized with reference to the very tangible reality of basic education development. It has been shown in studies that population issues are vital component of policy discussion on social and economic development. They encompass a broad sense of concern that range from questions of design of appropriate intervention to lessen fertility, improve the health of mother and children, encourage better birth spacing, and reduce population growth (Sanderson, 1993).

Concept of population: Population is described as the number of people in an area based on specific categories such as ethnicity, age, income, sex, and social economic status. Population is continually changing due to birth and death rate and relocation among families to explore good sources of income. Population is calculated by counting the actual number of people in a given area and measuring birth to death ratios. Population Growth can be defined as the change in population over time and can be quantified as the change in number of individuals in a population as “per unit time”.

Centripetal and Centrifugal forces foresees how successful the country’s financial system is going to be; many people travel in or out of the country to find suitable jobs. In every unit area, population density is the measurement of the amount of people in a given square mile. In metropolis region, the population is more dense because of limitation of land area and in rural and suburban areas, people own more land and is generally used for agriculture and income.

Statistical reports indicated that China and India are nations with the huge population in the world. Due to massive land and lack of contraception, the population is mounting at a rapid rate within these countries. Developed countries such as the United States subcontract in China and India because the labour cost is low-priced. Labour laws in these countries are not synchronized which allow these countries to take shortcuts which means more products to export.

Due to the industrial revolution, the population has been growing at great pace during the past. Developed countries are visualizing increasing trends based on the monetary development. In these areas, the more people are able to provide for the family, the larger the family gets. Nations where industrial development is slow, population is growing but most people struggle to survive due to deficit in medical facilities and shortage of water and food. The industrial revolution generated income for people and these people get funds for shelter and food. Thomas Malthus was sensible philosopher who expected population to grow in time as long as there’s food and shelter. However, due to fast growth of the population, many serious issues emerged like diseases and scarcity of resources.

World Population Growth:

world-population-growth

Population explosion in developing countries such as India is a matter of concern because it disrupts the development of the country and its society. The developing countries already face challenge of limited resources due to fast growth of population as the resources available per person are reduced further which results in increased poverty, malnutrition, and other large population-related problems. The factual meaning of population is “the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region” and the literal meaning of population outburst is “a pyramiding of numbers of a biological population”. As the number of people in a pyramid increases, the issues associated with it becomes severe and worsen the situation of country. The main factors that greatly impact the population change are the birth rate, death rate and migration. The birth rate is the ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time.

Population growth from the past to present is in increasing trend, and it will continue at even a rapid rate in the next few decades. The main problem arise from fast population growth is the lack of resources and land. When population explode, the more waste would be produced. Academicians and researchers stressed that country must develop ways to lessen future problems through educating developing countries and provide contraception to areas that have larger population growth. Other ways to tackle issues of population expansion is to create sustainability laws, monitor natural resources, and replenish what was taken out of the earth. Many experts advocated that it is imperative to educate the general public about major issues due to overpopulation and pollution which can help prevent future disasters. Increase wakefulness of contraception and to become more environmentally friendly will make human life secure in near future.

India and Population: India is considered to be one of the most populous countries at global scale. Population in this country is growing speedily due to globalisation and establishment of many factories which consecutively create jobs for many unskilled workers. India has the second largest population in the world and will soon exceed China. The majority of the population growth takes place in poverty suffering areas due to lack of contraception and medical centres. The fertility rate which is the amount of children per woman that would be birthed in her lifetime is at 6 children per woman; while, in developed countries like U.S. the fertility rate is at 2 children per woman. The carrying capacity of India is very restricted due to exaggerate utilization of natural resources. The shortage of clean water and over harvesting of crops proves damaging to the environment. Sustainability is a colossal issue in India and people of India are not well educated to utilize resources in appropriate way. Such lack of knowledge about replenishing resources is leaving people out of options on the next step to take.

In India, most of the population lives in crowded slums because land is limited and pollution is increasing day by day. Though, India’s financial system is improved due to new business ventures. Many persons moved from rural areas to cities for better opportunities. The probability of children going to school in the city is more common than in rural areas. But job opportunities are still limited and with lack of education and skills, many people are unemployed. With population growth astounding at an alarming rate, waste is also accumulating in areas where children and old people are exposed of toxic waste. Many parts of India are not capable of providing proper sanitary practices such as a bathroom and toilet. Many rivers and lakes are contaminated with organic and man-made waste. Many people bath, drink, and eat fish from the same source. It has adverse impact on health on populace of India such as people are contracting salmonella and other gastrointestinal illnesses due to unhygienic conditions. The poor are left to live amongst waste that has accumulated from the explosion of the population and the wealth of the economy. The worst condition due to increase in population is that many poor people collect utility items through wastelands to build shelter. Unfortunately, poverty exists throughout the world but is a growing problem in thickly populated nations such as India and China. Government involvement is to reduce poverty in rural India. Many programs funded by the government organized that help the poor which significantly changed many lives. It has been observed that people are given education, welfare, and proper sanitation.

Population growth in India from2001- 2011 (Source: Census 2011: Provisional Population Total – INDIA)

Reports indicated that in 1 January 2015, the population of India was estimated to be 1 286 956 392 people. This is an increase of 1.34 % (16 979 590 people) compared to population of 1 269 976 802 the year before. In 2014 the natural increase was positive, as the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 17 131 987. Due to external migration, the population declined by 152 397.The sex ratio of the total population was 1.068 (1 068 males per 1 000 females) which is higher than global sex ratio. During 2015 India population is estimated to be increased by 17 206 607 people and reach 1 304 162 999 in the beginning of 2016. The natural increase is expected to be positive, as the number of births will exceed the number of deaths by 17 361 042. If external migration will remain on the previous year level, the population will be declined by 154 435 due to the migration reasons. It means that amount of people who leaves India to settle permanently in another country (emigrants) will prevail over the amount of people who moves into the country (http://countrymeters.info/en/India).

Reasons for current increase in the world population

Due to economic and political challenges in India, country faces problems of the population explosion. According to reports, India’s population hit 1 billion in May 2000, increasing the urgency for the country to moderate its population growth. Some of the reasons for this population explosion are poverty, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Nepal. The population density of India in 1996 was about 287 persons per square kilometer.

Fertility, mortality and migration are principal determinants of population expansion. The birth rate is the ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). The death rate is the ratio between the number of deaths and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). Migration is the number of people moving in (immigration) or out (emigration) of a country, place or locality. The population change is calculated by the formula:

Population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)

The increase in birth rates due to medical improvements increases population in world and the decrease in death rates. To account for the differences in population size, demographers often use the concept of crude birth and death rate. The crude birth rate is the number of births divided by the size of the population and multiplied by 1000. Death rate: though poverty has increased and the development of the country continues to be troubled, the enhancements in medical facilities have been incredible. This improvement might be considered constructive, but it led to increase in population. The crude death rate in India in 1981 was roughly 12.5, and that decreased to approximately 8.7 in 1999. Also, the infant mortality rate in India decreased from 129 in 1981 to approximately 72 in 1999 (Mapsindia.com, Internet). Such statistical figures indicate that due to the improvements in the medical field, human life is secured and they live longer. Additionally, abortion is not permitted by several religions in India. In fact, in Islam, one of the leading religions of India, children are considered to be gifts of God; therefore there is no family planning which ultimately results in increase in population.

Poverty is major cause of population increase in developing countries. According to ABC News, India currently faces approximately “33 births a minute, 2,000 an hour, 48,000 a day, which calculates to nearly 12 million a year”. Unfortunately, the resources do not increase in same manner as the population increases. Instead the resources keep decreasing, leading to making survival for a human being more and more competitive even for the basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter. India currently is griped under serious problem of population explosion and poverty. According to Geography.com, “More than 300 million Indians earn less than US $1 everyday and about 130 million people are jobless.” Poor or illiterate people give birth to more children because they think that more children mean more earning hands. Also, due to poverty, the infant mortality rate among such families is higher due to the lack of facilities like food and medical resources. Therefore, they produce more children assuming that not all of them would be able to survive. This results in exploding population at alarming rate in India. Due to the increase in population, the problems of scarce resources, jobs, and poverty increases.

Another cause of population explosion in India is religious beliefs, Traditions and Cultural Norms. India’s culture is very strong and prevails since historic time. Due to the increased population, the educational facilities are very limited. As a result, most people still firmly follow ancient values. Report of ABC News revealed that renowned Indian author, Shobha De stated, “God said ‘Go forth and produce’ and we just went ahead and did exactly that.” In India, people have belief that they must have son in family instead of a daughter. Consequently, a lot of families have more children than they actually want or can afford. This leads to increased poverty, lack of resources, and ultimately increases number of people in country. Indian people also believe that cultural norms are for a girl to get married at an early age. In most of the rural areas and in some urban areas as well, families choose to get their girls married at the age of 14 or 15. Although child marriage is unlawful in India, the culture and the society surrounding the girls in India does not allow them to resist such decisions taken by their family.

Migration: Immigration to better developed countries due to several reasons like better job opportunities, war, and natural causes like hurricanes, earthquakes, and so forth. In developed countries, major cause of population growth is immigration. However, in countries like India, immigration has little role in the population growth. Although people from neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal, travel to India; at the same time Indians migrate to other countries like the U.S., Australia, and the U.K. During the 1971 war between India and Pakistan over Bangladesh, the immigration rate increased enormously.

Trends in Fertility

Enlarged fertility rates and migration can have significant effects on the general structure of populations. In the United States, the amalgamation has led to the Hispanic ethnic group becoming the largest ethnic minority in the country. The speedy growth of the Hispanic population since last many decades has in effect invigorated the aging U.S. population by adding children and working-age adults, at the same time making it more ethnically diverse. The size of the Latino population doubled between 1980 and 2000, and Latinos also accounted for 40% of the country’s population growth. That rapid growth has continued since 2000, accounting for almost half the increase of the U.S. population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006).

Effects of the rapid population growth in India: There is unfavourable impact of population explosion in India.

Providing employment to growing population: Job creation is major issue for countries in which population is increasing at faster rate. The main reason is that in developing economies majority of the population is uneducated. The burden of school age population has already revealed signs of becoming unbearable. The proportion of children in schools is increasing fast and, huge numbers are still not covered. The total number or illiterate persons increases every year. This is only a sign of the wastage of human resources for want of appropriate development opportunities.

Problem of utilisation of manpower: Another issue is how to use manpower. Better educated manpower seeks for occupations of greater status, which are opened up by the new development efforts. Because of its capital intensive nature, the ability, of the new economy for employment generation becomes limited. Concurrently, it renders many of the old occupations out of day and redundant. As a result, under-employment and unemployment, including unemployment of educated persons, increases. There is therefore surplus of even developed human capital.

Over-strained infrastructure: Due to population explosion, numerous facilities such as housing, transportation, health care, and education become insufficient. The worst symptoms of overcrowding in every aspect of living conditions are manifested in the urban areas. In countries such as India, a situation of “over urbanisation” exist which puts intolerable strain on urban services. Overloaded houses, slums and unhygienic localities, traffic jamming and crowded hospitals have become common aspects in the developing countries.

Pressure on land and other renewable natural resources: Population overcrowding put more pressure on land and natural resources, Common properties such as forest and water are over-exploited. This results in deforestation and desertification with permanent damage to the renewable resources.

Increased cost of production: Human inventiveness and technological progression makes it achievable to increase production of goods and services. But, due to increase in population, the cost of production of the basic necessities of life, such as food, increases.

Inequitable distribution of income: Population growth in uneven manner can lead to unbalanced distribution of salary. Both at the international and national levels, income inequality increased. The increase in gross national product (GNP) is significantly reduced in per capita terms on account of the rapidly growing population. With rapidly growing population, the major problem of a developing country tends to be focused more on economic growth as such.

Air Pollution: The technical growth of India has lead not only to medical advancements, but also to an increase in the number of factories. This results in air and water pollution. More energy needs to be produced to power these factories. When fossil fuels are burnt, gases released in the atmosphere. Many cities in India have crossed the limits of suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants due to vehicular and industrial emanation. Reports of the World Bank Organization have shown that Delhi is one of the world’s most contaminated cities. As the population increases in future, more forests are cleared. The reasons for deforestation are to make houses for increased number of people to live in, and to use wood as a fuel in the industries. As a result, the trees that facilitate in reducing the air pollution through the process of photosynthesis are not able to do so. Increased air pollution causes many air (polluted) borne diseases. Some of the diseases caused by air pollution are “respiratory diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer of the lung” (World Health Organization, Internet). Due to the tropical climate of India, air pollution also causes smog which may result in headaches, dizziness, breathing difficulties, or even mass illness due to carbon monoxide. The root of all the problems is population increase.

Water Pollution: Water pollution also poses threat to environment through the increasing population. Water is considered the core of life. Nearly 10 percent of the world’s population faces constant freshwater shortage. This figure may rise if the population growth is uncontrolled. Due to increase in population, numerous factories are set up. These factories lead to various kinds of pollution, including water pollution. Also, India being an agrarian country, the water pollution also comes from pesticides used for agriculture. Some of the major types of pollutants are petroleum products required for automobiles, cooking, and other such human activities, pesticides and herbicides used for agriculture by the Indian farmers, heavy metals from industries, automobiles’ exhausts and mines, hazardous wastes, excessive organic matter like fertilizers and other organic matter used by farmers, sediments caused by soil erosion produced by strip mines, agriculture and roads and thermal pollution caused by deforestation. One of the typical examples of water pollution in India is the river Ganga. This river is considered sacred. People take holy bath in it for spiritual renewal and drink water from it. But people do not realize that along with washing off their sins in the river, they are also washing off their body wastes, leading to polluting the holy water of the river. Also, cremated and partly cremated bodies are dumped into the river. Although, dumping these bodies is a spiritual act in India among the Hindus, but it contaminate the water. Therefore, when population increases, the number of people dying is also increasing, and it lead to the pollution in the river Ganga. Additionally, the nearby factories and human colonies dump sewage directly into the river. At present the river is so contaminated that some experts believe such water should not even be exposed in nature without being treated. It can be said that when population size is increasing, it results in increased pollution, which in turn is leading to a more hostile environment for human beings themselves.

Available measures to Control Population

To control population, preventive actions are being taken at global scale. In India, government has initiated numerous programs to curb the population and has been spending huge money on controlling the birth rate. Some of the programs have been triumphant, and the rate of increase has also reduced, but has still to reach the sustainable rate. It has been highlighted in reports that the key factors that affect the population increase of India are the fast increasing birth rate and decreasing death rates. Effective population control measures are necessary in present scenario. It is well established that birth rate is mainly responsible for rapid population growth. Therefore measures which can reduce the birth rate should be adopted.

Social Measure: Population outburst is considered to be a social problem and it is intensely rooted in the civilization. It is therefore necessary to make efforts to eliminate the social iniquities in the country. Minimum age of Marriage: As fertility depends on the age of marriage therefore the minimum age of marriage should be raised. In India minimum age for marriage is 21 years for men and 18 years for women fixed by law. This law should be strongly implemented and people should also be made aware of this through promotion.

Another aspect in controlling population is to raising the Status of Women. There is still favoritism to the women. They are restricted to house. They are still confined to rearing and bearing of children. So women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically. Free education should be given to them.

Other preventive measure of population is to spread education. The spread of education changes the views of people. The educated men take mature decisions and prefer to delay marriage and adopt small family custom. Educated women are health mindful and avoid frequent pregnancies and thus help in lowering birth rate.

Adoption is also effective way to curb population. Some parents do not have any child, despite expensive medical treatment. It is recommended that they should adopt orphan children. It will be helpful to orphan children and children to couples.

As preventive measure of population, there is a need to change in Social Outlook. Social outlook of the people should undergo a change. It must be taught that marriage should no longer be considered a social compulsory.

Social Security is necessary for people. It is responsibility of government to include more and more people under-social security schemes. So that they do not depend upon others in the event of old age, sickness, unemployment with these facilities they will have no desire for more children.

Economic Measures

There has to be numerous economic measures taken as a preventive measure for population explosion. Government must devise policies for more employment opportunities. It is necessary is to raise the employment opportunities in rural as well as urban areas. Generally in rural areas there is disguised joblessness. Another economic measure for population control is the development of Agriculture and Industry. If agriculture and industry are correctly developed, huge number of people will get employment. When their income is increased they would enhance their standard of living and accept small family norms. Good standard of living is a deterrent to large family norm. In order to maintain their enhanced standard of living, people prefer to have a small family.

Urbanisation process can reduce population increase. It is reported that people in urban areas have low birth rate than those living in rural areas. Urbanisation should be encouraged.

Other Measures: Other actions to decrease population are many. First is late Marriage as this will reduce the period of reproduction among the females and bring down the birth rate. Another measure is self-control. Many practitioners advocated that self-control is one of the dominant methods to control the population. It is an idyllic and healthy approach and people should be provided to follow. It helps in reducing birth rate. The govt. can give different types of incentives to the people to adopt birth control measures. Financial incentives and other facilities like leave and promotion can be extended to the working class which adopts small family norms. Employment to Woman is effective method to check the population. Women should be given incentive to give services in different fields.

There is a need to follow strict birth control measures such as China has adopted the strategy to decrease the birth rate. But it is not possible to reduce technological advancements to decrease the death rate in India. In order to reduce the birth rate, several government-funded agencies like the Family Planning Association of India spend excessive funds to promote on family planning as a basic human right and the norm of a two-child family on a voluntary basis. It is done to achieve a balance between the population size and resources, to get ready young people for responsible attitudes in human sexuality, and to provide education and services to all. The family planning methods provided by the family planning program are vasectomy, tubectomy, IUD, conventional contraceptives (that is condoms, diaphragms, jelly/cream tubes, foam tables) and oral pills. Additionally, induced abortion is available, free of charge, in institutions recognized by the government to control population increase. However, the success of the family planning program in India depends on many factors such as literacy, religion and the region where the people live.

Problems with implementing measures to control population

As it is well documented in literature that India is a country of diverse culture and people come from different family background therefore it is difficult to change the perception of people toward such norms like family planning. The success of family planning mainly depends on women and their status. Thus, it is crucial for the women to get proper education so that they can decide on the number of children they want and be aware of the available birth control measures. In India, it is important for the women to have equal rights to take decision about the number of children to be produced. Women also need to get educated about the impacts of having so many children on their health and the impacts on their children. Additionally, the older women need to be educated so that they can teach the correct family planning to their own daughters. Nevertheless, in India, society does not give more importance on women education because of the financial conditions in some families and the religious and social norms. In such a case, educating women about family planning becomes an even more difficult task. These factors lead to population increase and government face problem in implementing population control strategies. Another factor that create problem in controlling population is that most of the population in India live in the rural areas. However, family planning is not extensively advertised in rural areas. Also, in rural areas, social and religious norms are more firmly followed. It has been observed that family planning is considered as an offence in most of the tribal and rural communities.

To summarize, Population escalation is a major issue around the world which has adverse impact on numerous environmental and human health problems. Population growth continue to increase in the world at a fast pace. As the population enlarges, many experts are concerned about its dangerous results. The growth rate of population is a function of migration, birth rate and death rate in a country. The change in population caused by net migration as a proportion of total population of the country is almost insignificant and, therefore, can be easily ignored. That leaves us with birth rate and death rate. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate measures the growth rate of population. Over populated regions need more resources. Population explosion causes deforestation for food production, urban overcrowding and the spread of horrible diseases. The effectual way to stop population growth is to implement family planning policies but the exact way to achieve that has created a great deal of disagreement. Several feasible solutions have been proposed by the government to curb population.

UPSC IAS Mains: earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone

Geophysics is associated with thorough study of the physics of the Earth and its environment in space. It also deals with the Earth using quantitative physical methods. The notion of geophysics ascribes to the geological applications such as Earth’s shape, its gravitational and magnetic fields, its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation. Contemporary geophysics organizations describe the geophysics as the hydrological cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets. Geophysical phenomena and society interact in both directions. It has been observed that strong and sudden Geophysical forces greatly affect society. Basically, Geophysical phenomena include earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone, geographical features and their location, changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes. Societies sometimes do not manage well its proximity and relation to geophysical risk. At the same time, there is a poor and declining monitoring and forecasting capabilities and inadequate warning systems.

In broadly unified world, any single geophysical danger can have appalling consequences far beyond the range of immediate physical effects. In environment, Global geophysical events are naturally occurring observable facts, but these happen in huge intensity. Except within the circumstances of scale and extent, the processes and mechanisms that support them, and their physical effects and consequences, are no dissimilar from the geophysical events whether windstorm, flood, volcanic outbreak, earthquake or tsunami that causes natural disasters every year. Global geophysical events are low frequency high consequence geophysical phenomena which can have harmful implication for the environment and civilization. Global geophysical events have detrimental consequences for the world’s environment, market and civilization. These events may occur due to a global physical effect, such as an incident of severe terrestrial cooling in response to a volcanic ‘super-eruption’ or large comet or asteroid impact, as a consequence of subsidiary outcome for the global market and social fabric of a catastrophic regional event, such as an Atlantic- or Pacific-wide ‘mega-tsunami’, or a more spatially confined event at a deliberately sensitive location, such as the expected major Tokyo volcanic activity.

In current environmental situation around the globe, Geophysical phenomena cause worldwide problems which may have had comparatively minor consequences in the narrow, detached, subsistence societies for centuries. However, observations, records and accounts, some more reasonable than others, do exist in support of disastrous geophysical events occurring in the last several millennia that have capability to disrupt the societal activates. These provide us with some restraint on return periods of those GGEs that are more recurrent. Such as, serious climate-perturbing volcanic eruptions occurred in both 1783 (Grattan et al. 2003) while comparable events occurred at Baitoushan volcano (North Korea–China border) in AD 1030 and at unknown locations in AD 450 and 1259 (Oppenheimer 2003a,b).

In our natural environment, various forms of disasters occur in severe intensity. All disasters threaten the humans or societies and had their impact from one decade to another.

Disasters can be categorized as

  1. Natural Disasters such as Volcano, Tsunami, Earthquake; landslides
  2. Human Made Disasters
  3. Human Induced Disaster

Natural Disasters

Earthquake

Earthquake is a vicious tremor, rolling or hasty shock on surface of earth’s crust, sending out a sequence of shock waves in all directions from its place of source which is known as epicentre. Earthquake is considered as most dangerous natural disasters causing massive destruction and causality to human life and debilitating impact on societies. Reports signify that an earthquake is caused by the sudden discharge of gradually accumulating strain energy along a fault within the earth’s crust. Areas of surface or underground fracturing that can results in earthquakes are known as earthquake fault zones. Environmental reports indicated that approximately fifteen percent of the world’s earthquakes happen in Latin America, focused in the western cordillera. An earthquake’s power is measured on the Richter scale using an instrument called a ‘seismometer’. A seismometer detects the vibrations caused by an earthquake. It plots these vibrations on a seismograph. The strength, or magnitude, of an earthquake is measured using the Richter scale. The Richter scale is numbered 0-10.

Table: Richter magnitude and its effectsRelationship between earthquake and triggering hazards by earthquake

Causes of Earthquake

There are numerous causes that can result in devastating natural disaster such as earthquake. Earthquakes are mainly due to sudden release of energy in rocks. It is well studied that An Earthquake is a sequence of underground shock waves and movements on the earth’s surface caused by natural processes within the earth’s crust. By appraising the seismograms from many earthquakes, scientists have revealed that three main levels or shells exist within the Earth. Crust is the outmost surface of Earth. The crust is comparatively light and fragile. Most earthquakes occur within the crust. Scientists consider that underneath the lithosphere is a relatively narrow, mobile zone in the mantle called the asthenosphere. Mantle is the area just below the crust.

Core is beneath the mantle in Earth. The Earth’s core consists of a fluid outer core and a solid inner core.

Internal layer of earth

Tectonic plates which are present in the form of rocks move very slowly. It is frequently caused when underground rocks rapidly breaks down or crush and particle against each other along fault line. This lead to the creation of seismic waves or called as earthquake waves, leads to the quivering of earth surface. The points at which earthquake originates called as FOCUS or HYPOCENTRE; point on earth surface above this is called as EPICENTRE.

Plate tectonic theory: Huge theoretical framework describes the causes of earthquake, but the most dominant theory is plate tectonics theory which deals with the factors causing earthquake. The outer surface of earth is composed of tectonic plates which are about hundred km thick and are continually moving like an objects sometime moving towards, away from each other. Earth liberates its inner heat by convective mechanism. Hot asthenosphere mantle increases to the surface and extend laterally, transporting oceans and continents as on slow conveyor belt and speed of this movement is very slow. Earthquake explodes only in outer, fragile portions of these plates, where temperature of rocks is very low. Deep in earth centre convections of rocks caused by temperature differences in earth induces stresses that results in movement of overlying plates. This stress from convection discharge enormous amount of heat which stress can collapse the brittle portions of overlying plates. If accumulating stress surpass the strength of rocks comprising these brittles zones, the rocks can break rapidly releasing the stored stretchy energy in the form of an earthquake.

There are three types of plate boundaries which are called Spreading, Convergent, or Transform, depending on whether the plates move away from, toward, or laterally past one another respectively. Subduction happens when one plates touches toward another, move beneath it and plunges as much as several hundred kilometres into earth interior.

Death associated with major coastal earthquakes

Death associated with major coastal earthquakes

Hazards of Earthquake

It is said that Earth creates direct hazard to human life. Depending on its size and location, an earthquake can cause the physical phenomena of ground shaking, surface fault burst, and ground breakdown. Several research reports have shown that earthquake hurt economic, population and environmental in very different way such as destruction of buildings, lifeline, triggering fires, releasing of toxins, radioactive and genetically active material and cause other natural disasters such as floods, avalanches, Tsunami, landslides. Earthquakes also have dangerous consequences in socio economic and political arena, disruption of vital services such as supply, medical, law enforcement, drop of production, unemployment, economic deceleration.

  1. The major danger of earthquake is consequence of ground shaking. Buildings can be damaged by shaking itself or by ground under them settling to a different level than it was before earthquake.
  2. It may lead to the ground displacement along fault, which can badly damage those buildings. Flooding may happen due to break of dams or levees along river.
  3. Water from river would flood the area, damage the buildings. Surface faulting is the counterbalance or tearing of the ground surface by differential movement along a fault during an earthquake.
  4. This effect is usually related with Richter magnitudes of 5.5 or greater and is limited to particularly earthquake-prone areas. Displacements range from a few millimetres to several meters, and the damage usually increases with growing dislocation.
  5. Considerable devastation is usually restricted to a narrow zone ranging up to 300 meters wide along the fault, although subsidiary ruptures may occur three to four kilometres from the main fault.

Earthquake-Induced Ground Failure: Landslides occur in various forms. Not only can earthquakes trigger landslides, they can also cause the soil to liquefy in certain areas. These forms of ground failure are potentially disastrous.

Earthquake-Induced Landslides: Earthquake-induced landslides happen under different conditions such as in sharply sloping to nearly flat land; in bedrock, unconsolidated sediments, fill, and mine dumps; under dry and very wet conditions. The major criteria to categorise landslides are types of movement and types of material. The types of landslide movement that can occur are falls, slides, spreads, flows, and combinations of these. Materials are grouped as bedrock and engineering soils, with the latter subdivided into debris (mixed particle size) and earth.

Some earthquake-induced landslides can take place only under very wet conditions. Some types of flow failures, grouped as liquefaction phenomena, occur in unconsolidated materials with almost no clay content. Other slide and flow failures are caused by slipping on a wet layer or by interstitial clay serving as a lubricant. In addition to earthquake shaking, generate mechanisms can include volcanic eruptions, heavy rainstorms, quick snowmelt, rising groundwater, undercutting due to erosion or excavation, human-induced vibrations in the earth, overloading due to construction, and certain chemical phenomena in unconsolidated sediments. Rock avalanches, rock falls, mudflows, and rapid earth flows can cause huge deaths due to earthquake-induced landslides. Rock avalanches begin on over-steepened slopes in weak rocks. They are unusual but can be disastrous when they occur. It was reported that The Huascaran, Peru, avalanche which originated as a rock and ice fall caused by the 1970 earthquake was responsible for the death of approximately 20,000 people. Rock falls happen most commonly in closely jointed or weakly cemented materials on slopes steeper than 40 degrees. While individual rock falls cause comparatively few deaths and limited damage but they are considered as a major earthquake-induced hazard because they are so recurrent.

Earthquake Hazard Prediction, Assessment, and Mitigation:

Scientists make great efforts to minimize the natural disaster through prediction. In order to lessen the impact or to avoid the risks from earthquakes, it is necessary to predict their occurrence. While scientists cannot regularly predict earthquakes, but it is appealing area of study and may be major factor in reducing risks in the future. Another way to lessen the impact of disaster is seismic risk assessment, which enables planners to recognize areas at risk of earthquakes and/or their effects. This information is used to tackle the third area of earthquake risk reduction-mitigation measures. Currently scientific studies demonstrate that major earthquakes do not happen again in the same place along faults until sufficient time has elapsed for stress to build up, usually a matter of several decades. In the main seismic regions, these ‘quiet’ zones present the greatest danger of future earthquakes. According to the seismic gap theory, several gaps that had been recognized near the coasts of Alaska, Mexico, and South America affected by huge earthquakes during the past decade. In some regions, earthquakes occur at the same place, but decades apart, and have nearly indistinguishable characteristics. Monitoring this seismic gap is an important constituent to know about earthquakes, predicting them, and preparing for future ones. According to the seismic gap theory, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed maps of the coast of Chile and parts of Peru for the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA . These maps provide possibility estimates and rank earthquake risk for the time period 1986 to 2006. It can be established that Earthquake prediction involves checking several aspects of the earth, including slight shifts in the ground, changes in water levels, and emission of gases from the earth, among other things. A seismic risk assessment is basically the appraisal of potential economic losses, loss of function, loss of confidence, fatalities, and injuries from earthquake hazards.

Hazard Prediction Probabilistic ground motion maps outline earthquake ground motions that have a common probability of being exceeded in a certain period of time. They are based on historical earthquake locations and geological information on the reappearance rate of fault ruptures, and assume that the historical trends can be projected into the future.

Geomorphology as a guide to fault activity Dip-slip faults (that is normal and thrust faults) are related with vertical motions and create topographic fault scarps. In perfect earth, the most recently active faults would have the highest, steepest fault scarps, allowing prediction of earthquake hazards. Unfortunately, very active, hazardous faults may have no discernible fault scarps if they cut through soft unconsolidated sediments and if they have only recently become active. Strike-slip faults are associated with lateral movement and often have no topographic expression. Instead, lateral offset of rivers or linear geological features can confirm where these faults are. Oblique-slip faults have both lateral offsets and topography. Some major earthquakes are indicated by the occurrence of foreshocks which can be identified by dense local monitoring networks. However, if a small seismic event is recorded, it is very hard to tell whether it is just a single, low-magnitude earthquake or a foreshock to a major, high-magnitude earthquake.

Other indicators: In the periods between earthquakes, strain amasses gradually in the general region surrounding a fault as the deep, spongy parts of the plates slip past each other continuously. This inter-earthquake deformation should cause micro-cracks to form, which should modify physical properties of the rocks. In various seismically active parts of the world, electrical and magnetic properties and changes in seismic speed are continually monitored to better understand the inter-earthquake deformation process. Such monitoring systems cannot yet forecast earthquakes but it is anticipated that it will work in future.

The knowledge of seismic phenomena is very little to modify the hazard by controlling tectonic processes, but there are many ways to control the risk or exposure to seismic hazards. There are four steps involved in conducting a seismic risk assessment. An evaluation of earthquake hazards and prepare hazard zonation maps; an inventory of elements at risk, for example structures and population; and a vulnerability assessment; and determination of levels of acceptable risk.

Evaluating Earthquake Hazards and Hazard Zonation Maps: In an earthquake-prone zone, information will certainly exist on past earthquakes and associated seismic hazards. This can be added with existing geologic and geophysical information and field observation. Depending on geologic circumstances, some combination of ground shaking, surface faulting, landslides, liquefaction, and flooding may be the most severe potential earthquake-related hazards in an area. Maps must be drawn to demonstrate zones of these hazards according to their comparative severity. These maps give the schemer with data on such considerations as the spatial application of building codes and the need for local landslide and flood safeguard.

Assessing Ground Shaking Potential: Albeit ground shaking may cause devastating earthquake, it is one of the most difficult seismic hazards to forecast and quantify. This is due to the intensification of the shaking effects by the unconsolidated material overlying the bedrock at a location and to the differential resistance of structures. Subsequently, best way to communicate ground shaking is in terms of the probable response of particular types of buildings. These are grouped according to whether they are wood frame, single-story masonry, low-rise, moderate-rise, or high-rise.

Different approaches can be used for planning purposes to foresee where ground shaking would be most stern. The groundwork of intensity maps based on devastation from past earthquakes rated according to the tailored Mercalli Index, the use of a design earthquake to compute intensity and in the absence of data for such approaches, the use of information on the causal fault, distance from the fault, and depth of soil overlying bedrock to estimate possible destruction.

Assessing Surface Faulting Potential: This is comparatively easy to perform because surface faulting is linked with fault zones. Three factors are vital to assess appropriate mitigation measures that include probability and extent of movement during a given time period, the type of movement (normal, reverse, or slip faulting), and the distance from the fault trace in which damage is expected to take place.

Assessing Ground Failure Potential: This process is appropriate for earthquake-induced landslides. Liquefaction potential is determined in four steps that include a map of recent sediments is prepared, distinguishing areas that are probable to be subject to liquefaction from those that are unlikely; a map representing depth to groundwater is prepared; these two maps are combined to produce a liquefaction susceptibility map and a “liquefaction opportunity” is prepared by combining the vulnerability map with seismic data to demonstrate the allocation of probability that liquefaction will take place in a given time period.

Safety measures from Earthquake

Natural disaster cannot be controlled but planners can develop indicators to get warning of such disturbing geophysical events. There are numerous of mechanisms that can be used as safety measure to lessen the impact of such hazards such as land-use zoning; engineering approaches such as building codes, support of existing structures, stabilizing unbalanced ground, redevelopment; the establishment of warning systems and the distribution of losses. In earthquake prone areas, buildings can be resistant and builder can make such designs that prevent likelihood of crumple during an earthquake. The inhabitants can be knowledgeable to get ready in event of earthquake and rescue plans can be drawn up in advance to reduce the turmoil when earthquake occur.

Ground Shaking Mitigation Measures: Once the potential severity and effects of ground shaking are established, numerous types of seismic zoning measures can be applied. These include:

  1. Relating general ground shaking potential to allowable density of building habitation.
  2. Relating building design and construction standards to the degree of ground shaking risk.
  3. Implementing rules that require geologic and seismic place examination before development proposals can be accepted.
  4. In developed area, adopting a hazardous building abatement ordinance and an ordinance to require removal of dangerous parapets.

Surface Faulting Mitigation Measures: Since fault zones are somewhat easy to demarcate, they lend themselves to effectual land-use planning. Where evaluation of the consequences of surface rupture indicates an inadequately high possibility of damage, several substitute alleviation measures are available. These are:

  1. Restricting permitted uses to those compatible with the hazard, that is open space and recreation areas, freeways, parking lots, cemeteries, solid-waste disposal sites.
  2. Establishing an easement that requires a hindrance distance from active fault traces.
  3. Prohibiting all uses except utility or transportation facilities in areas of tremendously high hazard, and setting tight design and construction standards for utility systems navigating active fault zones.

Ground Failure Mitigation Measures: Land-use safety procedures to lessen possible destructions due to landslides or liquefaction are analogous to those taken for other geologic hazards. Land uses can be limited. Geologic investigations must be done before development is allowed, and grading and foundation design can be synchronized. Stability categories can be established and land uses proportionate with these categories can be recommended or ordained. Land-use zoning may not be suitable in some areas because of the potential for substantial difference within each mapped unit.

General Land-Use Measures: In developed areas who are prone to earthquake hazards, measures can be accepted to recognize dangerous structures and order their removal, starting with those that imperil the greatest number of lives. Tax incentives can be established for the elimination of hazardous buildings, and urban regeneration policies should restrict reconstruction in unsafe areas after earthquake demolition.

In brief, it can be said that earthquakes are most dangerous and destructive natural phenomenon because every year huge amount of people rendered homeless, displaced, injured or dead. Growing population and global urbanization is increasing the threat to earthquake. Spiral distribution of earthquake shows that some regions are more prone to this natural disaster than others. The Indian sub-continent is very prone to several natural disasters such as earthquakes which is destructive natural hazards with the potentiality of causing huge loss to human lives and assets. Earthquakes pose major threat to India. It is estimated that 59% of its geographical area is vulnerable to seismic disturbance of varying intensities including the capital city of the nation. Almost the entire Northeast region, Northern Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and some parts of Kutch are in seismic zone V, while the whole Gangetic plain and some parts of Rajasthan are in seismic zone IV.

Tsunami

Tsunami is devastating natural disaster and immensely affects the economic and living conditions of region where it hits. Tsunami is a Japanese phrase which means tsu means harbour and nami means wave. This geophysical phenomenon is associated with earthquake or volcanic eruption or landslides or adjacent to oceans and results in unexpected movement of water column (Bryant, 2008). The channel of tsunami involves the movement of water from surface to seafloor which indicates it is directly linked to depth of water bodies that is deeper the ocean, higher is the movement of water. Consequently, as wave approaches land and reaches increasingly shallow water, it gets slow down. However, the water column still in deeper water is moving slightly faster and catches upward, resulting into wave gathering up and becoming much higher. Tsunami is a succession of waves and first may not necessarily be biggest. Tsunami is a cruel turbulence deep below the ocean surface that results due to under water earthquake and subduction zones (Irasema Alcántara-Ayal, 2010).

Reports indicated that before 1990, public perceived Tsunami as originating from large distant, underwater earthquakes. The fear of Tsunami was allayed by the knowledge that an early warning system existed to prevent loss of life. In the 1990s, 14 major Tsunami events struck the world’s coastline from which scientists aware that these events are pervasive (Bryant, 2008). Tsunami belongs to the category of long period oceanic waves generated by underwater earthquake, submarine or sub-aerial landslides or volcanic eruption. The Tsunami fact includes three overlapping physical stages. First is the generation of waves by any external force that disturb water column, second is propagation of that wave at high speed in Open Ocean and third is propagation of Tsunami waves through shallow coastal water and inundation of dry land by run up. Moistly Tsunami occurs in pacific regions but there is record of Tsunami disaster in Atlantic and Indian oceans (Tom Beer, 2010). Often Tsunami waves warns of its appearance with roaring and rumbling from ocean but sometime, it is observed that water level rise without any noise. The flowering and crowded sea coast may be transformed into destructive ruins within few minutes. The waves propagate from source with the velocity long gravity water waves according to the below equation:

CG = (g H) 1/2

In this equation, G is acceleration due to gravity; H is depth of the basin

Accounts for Tsunami extend back almost 4000 years in China, 2000 years in Mediterranean where the first Tsunami was described in 479 BC and about 1300 years in Japan. Mediterranean Sea is one of the longest records of Tsunami. The Caribbean is also prone tsunami.

Causes of Tsunami

The major cause of Tsunami is seismic activity. Over the past two millennia, earthquakes have produced approximately, 83% of all Tsunami in pacific oceans (Edward Bryant, 2014). When an oceanic plates strikes the continental plate, these plates press together and build the pressure. Finally the heavier oceanic plate slips under the lighter continental plate and causes earthquake which elevates the level of ocean and drops other parts down, this event on ocean floor is reflected on surface of water above. The gravity acts fast to even out of water surface. The seismic energy generated that giant wave and it does not just disappear. Tsunami extends thousands of feet deep into ocean which carries lot of water and energy so they can travel very far.

Most trans-oceanic tsunamis are produced by major (Mw≥9.0) earthquakes. These happen several times a century and recently happened in countries like 1960 (Chile), 1964 (Alaska) and 2004 (Sumatra). The Chile event generated tsunamis that were 3–4 m high when they struck Japan, while run-up heights of 4 m were also recorded on the East African coast following the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake. ‘Mega-tsunami’, is basically a media-driven descriptor. These waves are in excess of 100 m in height at source, and which remain destructive at oceanic distances. The great (Mw∼9) Cascadia (western North America) earthquake of 1700 generated Pacific-wide tsunamis, but these appear to have been of the order of 3 m high at shore in Japan (Satake et al. 1996).

Tsunamis related with massive collapses at oceanic-island volcanoes can, however, have run-up heights at least an order of magnitude greater. Giant waves caused by ancient collapses in the Hawaiian Islands may have been of Pacific-wide extent. Young & Bryant (1992) stated signs of catastrophic wave erosion up to 15 m above current sea level along the New South Wales coast of Australia, 14 000 km distant, in terms of impact by tsunamis associated with a major collapse in the Hawaiian archipelago around 1.05×105 years BP. These phenomena have been appraised as a tsunami generated by a marine impact. Putative giant-tsunami deposits have been observed at increasing numbers of locations.

A landslide generated Tsunami has local temperament, in case of huge landslide, that involve the bottom sediments of continental shelf or at the fall of marine glacier, the Tsunami source may reach the size of several kilometres. These waves have huge heights and attacks aggressively to coastal populace. Landslide motion process is caused by long-term accumulation of segments at some ocean bottom areas, submarine slants of basins into the river deltas. These accumulation segments are subjected to streams, storms, wind waves, tides, hurricanes, tectonic process and after this, landslide body comes into non-equilibrium. In this situation, any weak perturbation action has vital role for failure of unstable slide body.

When the landslide moves at a speed equal to the velocity of the long gravity wave in the basin, the harmonization happens. This particular conditions cause a resonance for transmission of energy from the landslide to the surface of water wave and height of the wave crest increases accordingly.

Tsunami generated by landslide motion

Destruction of Tsunami results from inundation by salt water, impact dynamism and erosion. Considerable damage is also caused by flooding debris that enhances the destructive force of flooding. Flotation and drag force can destroy frame buildings, overturn railroad cars and move large ship far inland. Average height of Tsunami caused by earthquake with magnitude of 7.5- 8.00 is between 3 and 10 m along 100- 300 Km to the coastline closest to the epicentre (Tom Beer, 2010).

Hazards of tsunami: Tsunami is highly disturbing natural disaster that cause huge amount of the loss of humans and infrastructure. The risk potential of tsunamis is main interest for scientists. The Asian tsunami caused approximately 250 000 deaths, huge economic losses and long-term harm to development programmes in the affected countries, brought home to the world the realities of the hazard. The Asian tsunami was a really global disaster which affected in many countries in the region as well as tourists from the industrial world in Southeast Asia. The probable consequences of severe events consist of global economic crises, many millions of deaths, calamitous and irrecoverable destruction of super cities and possibly whole countries, global disturbance of food supplies, transport and communications, severe climate states and environmental pollution on a global scale. These effects may results in food shortage, disease, political trouble, disintegrate social order, failure of international and national organizations and perhaps the occurrence of wars and fall down of development.

Reducing the threat of Tsunamis

It is important that scientists must explore the ways to reduce the hazards of Tsunami which strike many shorelines. Numerous nations monitor the generation and movement of Tsunamis. The seismic sea wave warning system was established and became operational after the major Tsunami strike in 1946 in Hilo, Hawaii and parts of Japan and other coastline around the pacific. This system generally operate by monitoring seismograms to detect potentially seismogenic earthquake, then monitor tide gauges to determine if a Tsunami has been generated.

Great progress has been made in predicting Tsunami both in long term and short-term following Tsunamogenic earthquake. These progresses reflect recognition of the association of Tsunamis with plate tectonic boundaries, particularly convergent margins. USGS and other civil defence agencies have identified many areas that are prone to Tsunamis. Tsunami warning signals are in place and people are given guidelines to follow if the alarms are sounded.

To summarize, Tsunami natural disaster has 5th ranking among devastating natural events in the world in terms of huge loss of life. Tsunami is a series of long water waves, propagating with high speed from source in the Ocean to coastline. When these waves encounter shallow water, they may form huge breaking waves with walls of water tens of 100 feet tall that slam ashore. Every few years these waves rise suddenly out of the ocean and sweep over coastal communities results in huge causalities and massive destruction. Triggering mechanisms for Tsunamis include earthquake related displacements of sea floor, submarine slumps and landslides that displace sea water, submarine volcanism, explosive release of methane gas from deep ocean sediments and asteroid impacts.

Volcano

A volcano is type of vent or smokestack which transmits molten rocks called as Magma from depth to earth surface. Magma outbreak from volcano recognized as lava, it is a material which builds up the cone. Volcanoes are mountains built by the accumulation of their own eruptive products such as lava, bombs. The explosive nature of volcano eruptions depend on flow of magma and amount gas trapped within magma. Huge amount of water and carbon dioxides are dissolved in magma. As magma quickly rises through earth crust gas bubbles form and expands up to 1000 times of their original size. In the twentieth century, volcanic explosions have dangerous impact on substantial economic and societal arena. Perilous volcanic activity will continue to occur in countries like U.S., and, because of increase in populations, development pressures, and expanding national and international air traffic over volcanic regions, there is a great risk of life and property through exposure to volcano hazards.

In volcano eruption, heat concentrated in the Earth’s upper mantle raises temperatures adequately to melt the rock locally by fusing the materials with the lowest melting temperatures that results in small, isolated blobs of magma. After that, these blobs collect, rise through conduits and fractures, and some ultimately may re-collect in larger pockets or reservoirs a few miles under the Earth’s surface. Increasing pressure within the basin may drive the magma further growing through structurally weak zones to explode as lava at the surface. In a continental environment, magmas are generated in the Earth’s crust as well as at varying depths in the upper mantle. The variety of molten rocks in the crust, plus the possibility of mixing with molten materials from the underlying mantle, leads to the creation of magmas with broadly different chemical compositions.

A volcano in an oceanic environment (left) and in a continental environment

There are different types of volcano:

  1. Shield Volcano
  2. Composite Volcano
  3. Caldera Volcano.

The form of volcano is determined by types and sizes of its explosions which is controlled by characteristics and composition of magma.

Volcanic incidents influence the world’s ambience far more recurrently than asteroid or comet impacts. In particular, major volatile eruptions are capable of altering the Earth’s climate through the discharge of large quantities of sulphur gases capable of mixing with atmospheric water to form stratospheric aerosol clouds. The level of solar radiation reaching the troposphere and the Earth’s surface is considerably reduced by volcanic aerosol clouds. In the last century, two eruptions, at El Chichon (Mexico) in 1982 and Pinatubo (Philippines) in 1991, have had a considerable cooling effect around the globe. Reviewing the historical events, eruptions at Laki (Iceland) in 1783 and Tambora (Indonesia) in 1815 had major, damaging impacts on the regional and global climate. The Tambora outbreak was the biggest identified historic eruption (Oppenheimer 2003a). Though, this may be regarded as a minor volcanic event in comparison with the 7.35×104 years BP ‘super-eruption’ of Toba.

Major volcanic eruption of past 250 years (Source: Robock and Free, 1995)

The Hazard of volcano eruptive events is Pyroclastic explosions, Hot ash releases, Lava flows, Gas emissions, Glowing avalanches (gas and ash releases). Secondary events include melting ice, snow and rain accompanying eruptions are likely to provoke floods and hot mudflows (or lahars) and hot ash releases can start fires.

Classification of geophysical hazards

Tectonic Plates and Volcano

The earth crust is their thinnest layer which is broken down into various pieces termed as plates. These plates are above the hot liquid magma.

  1. Each plate consists of some continental crust and some oceanic crust.
  2. Huge currents of molten rocks move deep in mantle and cause plates to move about very slowly on earth surface.
  3. Many of world volcanos happen along boundaries of boundaries of plates.
  4. Plate boundaries are among most active geologically active place on earth. Here new rocks have been formed and destroyed. In these areas, most important volcanic activity occurs.

Hazards of Volcanic Eruption

Volcanoes have perilous impact on the species of earth. Major hazards includes explosions, lava flows, bombs, mudflows, landslides, earthquakes, ground deformation, tsunami, air shocks, lightning, poisonous gas, glacial outbreak flooding. Each volcanic eruption has dissimilar outcomes.

Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) under the Disaster Relief Act (P.L. 93-288) is to augment public protection and lessen losses from disastrous volcanic events through effectual forecasts and warnings of volcanic hazards based on the best possible scientific information. The Volcano Hazards Program conducts four major science activities to decrease volcanic jeopardy in the Nation that include monitoring volcano unrest and eruption, preparing volcano hazard assessments, conducting research on volcanic processes, and providing reliable forecasts, warnings, and volcano-hazard information.

Measurement of volcano: Volcano event is measured through simple descriptive index called as volcano explosively index which ranges from zero to eight. This index includes volume of material ejected with height of an eruption column and duration of eruptions.

To summarize, Volcanic explosion can flash storms of lightning that are as strong as the biggest super storms. Fundamentally, a volcano is a landform formed by magma from the earth’s interior which penetrates through weaknesses in the Earth’s surface. Most volcanoes are created at plate boundaries. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous conditions, which sternly affect people and human infrastructure, near the volcano, in downstream valleys, and thousands of miles away.

Cyclones

A Cyclone is described as geophysical phenomenon on the surface of planet and atmospheric system of low barometric pressure accompanied by strong winds that revolve counter-clockwise in northern hemisphere and clockwise direction in southern hemisphere. The phrase “Cyclone” is originated from the Greek, word “Cyclos” which means the coils of a snake. Henri Paddington stated that the tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea appeared like the coiled serpents of the sea and he named these storms as “Cyclones”. It is also identified as hurricanes in western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, typhoons in western Pacific, cyclone in Indian Ocean and Southern Pacific Ocean. Wind speed of cyclone can exceed 90m/s, rainfall rate approach 100mm/hr, and ocean waves are churned up to 35m. At land fall death and destruction spread across wide areas without respect for geopolitical boundaries. Coastal buildings are flooded by ocean surge, inland water waves overflow their banks and claim homes and businesses, tornadoes chart narrow but unpredictable path in outer bands and eye wall and both coastal and inland structures are damaged after prolong mauling by wind and wind driven projectiles (Barrett, 2007). It has been documented in environmental studies that Cyclones have considerably affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas since last century. In future, susceptibility to cyclones will augment due to population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming.

The Meteorological Department of India categorizes the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea:

Causes of Cyclones

Major source of energy for humid cyclones is the warm ocean in tropical regions. To instigate a tropical cyclone the sea surface temperature must be around 26°C or above. However, existing cyclones often persist as they move over cooler water. The expansion of tropical cyclones also realises on positive broad scale regions and can continue for several days with many following quite erratic paths. They lose their source of energy when they move over land surface or colder oceans causing them to disperse. Deteriorating may also occur if cyclone moves into an adverse wind regions which disturb the structure of wind system. Sometimes a decomposing tropical cyclone may interact with weather system in higher latitudes to cause impact far from tropics.

Formation of Cyclone

  1. Cyclone can form only in warm ocean waters near equator.
  2. To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over ocean rises upward from near the surface. As this air moves up and away from ocean surface, it leaves it less air near the surface.
  3. Air from adjacent region with higher air pressure shoves into low pressure area, then this new cool air become warm and moist and increases to give birth to cyclones.
  4. As warmed moist air rises and cool the water in air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and winds rotates and move, fed by ocean heat and water dispersed from ocean surface.
  5. As storm system spins faster and faster, an eye form in centre, which is cool and clear with very low pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.

Impact of Cyclone

Tropical cyclones can unfavorably affect, and sometimes positively impact on society and environment. The most widespread impact is heavy rainfall and strong winds that can cause flooding. In some parts of world, Australia tornados have been reported during cyclones. Storm flow or coastal flood by sea water, is also seen during cyclones. Cyclones are linked with high-pressure gradients and resulting strong winds. These, consecutively, produce storm surges. A storm flow is an unusual rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone; as a result, sea water floods low lying areas of coastal regions drowning human beings and livestock, corroding beaches and banks, destroying plant life and dropping soil fertility. Very strong winds may damage installations, dwellings, communication systems, trees resulting in loss of life and possessions. Heavy and long-lasting rains due to cyclones may cause river floods and submergence of low lying areas by rain causing huge loss of life and assets. Floods and coastal inundation due to storm surges contaminate drinking water sources that results in outburst of diseases.

Major tropical cyclone ranked by number of deaths

Safety Measures for Cyclone

  1. Keep observing weather and listen to radio, TV, newspapers.
  2. Get to know nearest cyclone protection or secured house and safest route to reach their.
  3. Do not believe in rumours.
  4. Check the roof and cover it with net or bamboo.
  5. Thoroughly check the walls, pillars doors and windows to see if they are secure.

In India, the Government has made stronger the Meteorological Department, through offering Cyclone Surveillance Radars at Calcutta, Paradeep, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Madras and Karaikkal in the east coast and at Cochin, Goa, Bombay and Bhuj in the west coast to cyclone forecast and advance warning. For safety of Indian population, Satellite picture receiving equipment’s at Delhi, Bombay, Pune, Madras, Visakhapatnam, Calcutta and Guwahati are receive satellite pictures of the cyclones from the polar-orbiting Satellites of the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Disaster Prevention and Preparedness for cyclone: At National level, The Government of India recommended in 1969, to the governments of the maritime states to establish “Cyclone Distress Mitigation Committee” in the own states to prevent human loss and reduce damage to properties. CDMC planed the communication systems in the state for fast distribution of Meteorological warnings and prevention measures. Prevention process include development of storm shelters, connecting roads for migration of people, construction of wind breaks, dykes, bunds, flood storage reservoirs, afforestation along the coastal belts and development of drainage facilities. An advance warning will not be successful unless the public is progressive about the critical features and the actions to be taken by them to avoid affliction.

At International level, The World Meteorological Organisation has established in 1972, a Tropical Cyclone Project with the aim to help the member countries to boost their capabilities to identify and predict the approach and landfall of the tropical cyclones, appraise and forecast, the storm surges, forecast the flooding arising from the cyclones and to develop system to organise and implement disaster prevention and preparedness measures. One of the effective plans that are in operation to help the countries adjoining the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is the panel on the tropical cyclones of World Meteorological Organisation and the Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific. The WMO/ESCAP panel has a technical support unit.

In contemporary global environment, there is revolutionary change due to advent of technology. But most geologic events cannot be prohibited or even predict with accuracy. Landslides are an exception. They can often be prevented. Areas prone to such events can be recognized as earthquake fault zones, active volcanoes, and coastal areas susceptible to tsunamis. However, not all earthquake faults have been identified. Estimates of an incidence of a given hazardous event are probabilistic, based on consideration of the magnitude of an event and its occurrence in time and space. Nevertheless, appropriate alleviation measures can extremely reduce the damage caused by geologic cyclone hazards.

To summarize, Geologic hazards like cyclone are accountable for huge human and asset loss of life and annihilation of property. In the twentieth century, more than a million causalities occurred due to natural disaster. ‘Cyclone’ is globally used to cover tropical weather systems in which winds equal or surpass ‘gale force’ (minimum of 34 knot, i.e., 62 kmph). These are strong low pressure areas of the earth atmosphere coupled system and are extreme weather events of the tropics. Enormous studies have shown that Tropical cyclones are characterised by destructive winds, storm surges and heavy rainfall which adversely impact on human and farm animals, and their activities.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Globalization is a significant factor in competitive world that integrate and mobilize cultural values of people at global level. In the age of rapid technical progression, many countries are unified and transformed due to the process of globalization. Globalization has a huge impact on cultural, social, monetary, political, and communal life of countries. Abundant theoretical studies demonstrated that globalization intercedes in a cultural life of populace that raises numerous critical issues (Robertson, 1992). In broad sense, the term ‘globalization’ means combination of economies and societies through cross country flows of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. Globalization is described by theorists as the process through which societies and economies are integrated through cross border flows of ideas, communication, technology, capital, people, finance, goods, services and information.

Aspects of Globalisation in India

Cross country incorporation has several aspects and can be political, cultural, social and/or economic, all which equal globalization. Nevertheless, financial integration is the most common aspects. Economic integration involves developing a nation’s economy into an international economy. After World War I and II the early trends of globalization decreased throughout the world due to many barriers which restricted the movement of goods and services. In fact, cultural and social integration are even more than economic integration. Globalization increases competitiveness at company level and national level, which leads company management and governments to embrace strategies designed to increase labour effectiveness with reference to productivity, quality and innovation.

Generally, globalization involves economies that are opening up to international competition and that do not distinguish against international capital. Consequently, globalization is often accompanied by a liberalization of the markets and the privatization of productive assets. But globalization also leads to unemployment, increasing casual employment and weakening labour movements. Theoretical literature denotes that Globalization has made countries to realize that they can share their cultural values and economic exchanges to promote business and gain competitive advantage. The fervour of globalization has even enforced Governments to be tuned to the merits of a Global economy. Management studies have defined the process of globalization. Fraser (2007) explained that Globalization is a word on every commentator’s lips nowadays, but is very difficult to define satisfactorily, for it arises in so many different contexts like economic, sociological, political, cultural and environmental.

Concept of Globalisation

The concept of globalization means that the world is getting smaller as well as bigger. Akteruzzaman. Md, 2006 described that globalization can contribute to develop pattern of cross border activities of firms, involving international investment, trade and strategic alliances for product development, production, sourcing and marketing, These international activities companies to enter new markets, to exploit their technological and organizational advantages and to reduce business costs and risks. Other theorists stated that globalization is a social phenomenon that defines the geographical boundary in terms of many different issues, According Brinkman, 2002, globalization as a triumphalism light, as the penetration of capitalism into every corner of the world, bringing with it the possibility for all of the world’s population to participate in the fruits of the international division of labour and market economy. ALI, 2015 explained the globalization as a process of rapid economic, cultural, and institutional integration among countries. This association is driven by the liberalization of trade, investment and capital flow, technological advances, and pressures for assimilation towards international standards. Globalization has reduced barriers between countries, thus resulting in strengthening of economic competition among nations, dissemination of advanced management practices and newer forms of work organization, and sharing of internationally accepted labour standards.

Challenges of globalization and its effects

Many theorists asserted that change in environment has both positive and negative aspects. These stimulate driving or resisting forces toward the change of the status quo. This is most obvious relative to both globalization, and the resulting spread of the global organization. There are four factors that accelerate globalization.

The market imperative: Impact on national economies of larger, transnational markets characterized by free, convertible currencies, opens access to banking and contracts enforceable by law.

The resource imperative: Growing interdependence of nations and their activities on one another, fostered by the depletion of natural resources, misdistributions of arable land, mineral resources, and wealth, as well as overpopulation. The undeveloped nations need the capital, technology, and brainpower of the wealthier countries, while the First World economies are progressively dependent on the natural and human resources of the developing nations.

The IT imperative: Modernizations in glob communications, science and technology contribute toward universalization or planarization.

The ecological imperative: Globalization does have great effect on the ecologies and environments of nations which need to safeguards that lessen the negative effects rather than exploiting without regard to such concerns.

India was main mover of globalization. The government of India made major modifications in its economic policy in 1991 by which it allowed direct foreign investments in the country. As a result of this, globalization of the Indian Industry occurred at large scale. In India, economic expansion was observed in nineteenth century due to major crisis led by foreign exchange. The liberalization of the domestic economy and enhanced incorporation of India with the global economy helped to step up gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates which made good position in global scale. Effects of globalization in Indian Industry are observed as this process brought in large amounts of foreign investments into the industry especially in the BPO, pharmaceutical, petroleum, and manufacturing industries. As a result, they boosted the Indian economy quite significantly. The benefits of the effects of globalization in the Indian Industry are that many foreign companies set up industries in India, especially in the pharmaceutical, BPO, petroleum, manufacturing, and chemical sectors and this helped to offer great opportunities for employment to Indian people. Also this helped to reduce the level of unemployment and poverty in the country. It is observed that the major forces of globalization in India has been in the development of outsourced IT and business process outsourcing services. Since last many years, there is an increase of skilled professionals in India employed by both local and foreign companies to service customers in the US and Europe,  These countries take advantage of India’s lower cost but highly talented and English-speaking work force, and utilizes global communications technologies such as voice-over IP (VOIP), email and the internet, international enterprises have been able to lower their cost base by establishing outsourced knowledge-worker operations in India. The foreign companies brought in highly advanced technology with them and this made the Indian Industry more technologically advanced. Globalization in India has been beneficial for companies that have ventured in the Indian market. It is recommended by researchers that India has to focus on five important areas to enhance its economic status. The areas include technological entrepreneurship, new business openings for small and medium enterprises, the importance of quality management, new prospects in rural areas and privatization of financial institutions.

In terms of export and import activities, Many Indian companies have expanded their business and became famous at global level such as fast food, beverages, and sportswear and garment industries. Records indicated that Agriculture exports account for about 13 to 18% of total annual export of the country. In 2000-01, agricultural products valued at more than US$6 million were exported from the country of which 23% was contributed to the marine products alone. Marine products in recent years have emerged as the single largest contributor to the total agricultural export form the country accounting for over one fifth of the total agricultural exports. Cereals (mostly basmati rice and non-basmati rice), oil seeds, tea and coffee are the other prominent products each of which accounts for nearly 5 to 10% of the countries’ total agricultural exports. Globalization speeded export of food items in India in the form of increased consumption of meat, western fast food, sodas and cool drinks, which may result in public health crisis. The rich biodiversity of India has yielded many healthy foods prepared from locally available entities. But the marketing by MNCs with large advertisement campaigns lead the people to resort to their products (Mascarenhas, 2003).

Technological and Cultural impact of globalization in India

With the process of globalization, there is an access to television grew from 20% of the urban population (1991) to 90% of the urban population (2009). Even in the rural areas satellite television has a grown up market. In the cities, Internet facility is everywhere and extension of internet facilities even to rural areas. There is an increase of global food chain /restaurants in the urban areas of India. Excessive Multiplex movie halls, big shopping malls and high rise residential are seen in every city. Entertainment sector in India has a global market. After economic liberalization, Bollywood expanded its area and showed a major presence in the global scale. The industry began to explore new ways to become more global and modern. In India, modernity is observed with the West. Therefore, Western philosophy began to be incorporated into Bollywood films. As these new cultural messages began to reach the Indian population, Indian moviegoers were pushed to re-evaluate their traditional Indian cultural ideology. Bollywood movies are also distributed and accepted at international level. Big international companies (Walt Disney, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures) are investing on this sector. Famous International brands such as Armani, Gucci, Nike, and Omega are also making investment in the Indian market with the changing of fashion statement of Indians.

Impact of globalization on education in India

There is an immense effect observed in educational sector due to globalization such as literacy rate become high and Foreign Universities are collaborating with different Indian Universities. The Indian educational system faces challenges of globalization through Information technology and it offers opportunities to evolve new paradigms shifts in developmental education. The distinction between formal, non-formal and informal education will vanish when move from industrial society to information society takes place. Globalization promotes new tools and techniques such as E-learning, Flexible learning, Distance Education Programs and Overseas training.

It is observed in current Indian society that through globalization, women have gained certain opportunities for job options and to recognize women’s rights as a part of the human rights. Their empowerment has given considerable opportunities and possibilities of improving employment conditions through global solidarity and co-ordination. It is found that the growth of computer and other technologies enabled women with better waged, flex timings, and capacity to negotiate their role and status in home and at corporate level.

There are some negative impact of globalization such as this process made disparity between rural and urban Indian joblessness, growth of slum capitals and threat of terrorist activities. Globalization increased competition in the Indian market between the foreign companies and domestic companies. With the foreign goods being better than the Indian goods, the consumer preferred to buy the foreign goods. This reduced the amount of profit of the Indian Industry companies. This happened mainly in the pharmaceutical, manufacturing, chemical, and steel industries. The negative Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that with the coming of technology the number of labour required are decreased and this resulted increasing unemployment especially in the arena of the pharmaceutical, chemical, manufacturing, and cement industries. Some sections of people in India that are poor do not get benefit of globalization. There is an increased gap between rich and poor that lead to some criminal activities. Ethical responsibility of business has been reduced. Another major negative effect of globalization in India is that youngsters of India are leaving their studies very early and joining Call centres to earn fast money reducing their social life after getting habituated with monotonous work. There is an increase of every daily usable commodity. This has an adverse effect on cultural aspect. The institution of marriage is breaking down at fast rate. There are more people approaching divorce courts instead of maintaining marital life. Globalization has considerable impact on the religious situation of India. Globalization has brought about raising a population who is agnostic and atheist. People visiting places of worship are reducing with time. Globalization has reduced nationalism and patriotism in country.

It can be said that Globalization is motivating factor in current business environment. There are few challenges for companies due to globalization such as Migration, relocation, labour shortages, competition, and changes in skills and technology. Globalization powerfully influences the social partners’ attitudes since traditional labour relations have to cope with completely new and very dynamic situations. In political field, globalization helps to eradicate poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy, ill-health and fighting cross border terrorism and global terrorism. Globalisation in context of status of women implicates the relegation of the stereotypic pattern of duties of the women like rearing and caring the children to the back ground and taking up the various diversified occupation and thus making their living quite vibrant and alive. Globalisation benefits the schedule caste people in promoting cultural homogeneity in the way of loosening of the ideas of pollution and purity and eradication of untouchability and so many socio-cultural and economic disabilities associated with them. Globalisation of goods has developed enthusiasm in India for western brand names. A consumerist mentality has been carefully fostered. This leads to an adversative impact on the tendency to save or the domestic accumulation of capital. Lastly, in Indian scenario, globalization developed a consumer credit society. Today, people can buy goods and services even if they do not have sufficient purchasing power and the prospect of raising a loan has become easy in the age of globalisation. Credit cards have given boost to consumerism and pushed many households into indebtedness. At the same time globalization has unfavourable impact on mass-media in India. Currently, realistic coverage of events and happening doesn’t receive much importance because it doesn’t determine the standing of a newspaper or TV channel. Globalisation has brought violation of journalistic ethics in India.

To summarize, the process of globalization has changed the industrial pattern social life of global people and it has immense impact on Indian trade system. The globalization of the economic, social and cultural structures happened in all ages. Previously, the pace of process was slow. Today with the start of the information technology, new ways of communication have made the world a very small place. With this process, there is a big market place. Globalization has resulted in increase in the production of a range of goods. MNCs have established manufacturing plants all over the world. It has positive effects and India will overcome many obstacles and adopt global policies to expand business at international scale. India is gaining international recognition and strengthening in economic and political areas.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete NotesClick Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Social empowerment: In societal development, conception of empowerment has vital role. This phrase is linked with gender equality. Modernization of global development will need a reappraisal of the concept and its application to many facets of human life. The notion of empowerment entails numerous things to many people. Concepts of choice, liberty, agency, capacity, contribution, self-sufficiency, and increased resources are common to almost all definitions. Most of the researchers agreed on the idea of empowerment as ways to improve quality of life and expand the basis of human well-being. Briefly, empowerment can serve as a tool for effecting deep and broad-based social revolution.

In social science literature, it is documented that the process of social change can be discovered at the personal and structural levels. At one end, social change is visualized as a consequence of the development of individuals, gained through education, training, access to material resources, and the like. From this perspective, structural change is supposed to be an automatic result of personal alteration. On the other end, the human being is seen as a part of society, and change is considered impossible unless social structures related to political power are changed primarily. Individual and structural transformation are closely associated with the individual’s inner life shapes, social environment, and that environment, in turn, exerts a deep influence on one’s mystical and psychological well-being. The symbol of the body politic, likening all of humanity to a single social organism gives a valuable framework to discover empowerment as means to follow the transformation of individuals and civilization. Empowerment depends on and contributes to a system in which different actors are provided the resources needed for each to make a unique contribution to the whole. From this conception, it can be established that individual and collective empowerment can be considered as the extension of vision, capacity, and choice necessary for people to act as active agents of human well-being and affluence.

The Protagonists of Social Transformation: It suggests that there are three elements critically important such as the individual, the institutions of society, and the community. In this view empowerment is described as the act assisting individuals to manifest constructive capacities in creative and disciplined ways, institutions to exercise authority in a manner that leads to the progress and upliftment of people and communities to provide an environment in which culture is improved and individual wills and capacities combine in collective action. Ideas of “us” and “them” deserve particular consideration. Discourse in development spheres is often entrenched in conceptions of the “empowered” members of society that help the “disadvantaged” or “downgraded group.” Many researchers revealed that the desire to eliminate social inequalities is indisputably moral feeling, but us/them dichotomies only extend and reinforce existing divisions. Careful thought needs must be given in which empowerment can be approached as a universal and shared enterprise. It has been observed that Historical processes have developed inequalities that must be addressed. But the development basis should be one in which every individual and group is presumed to have scope for progression. From this viewpoint, the marginalized are not without capacity, and the privileged are not all strong. All have capacity to develop and all have a responsibility to advance the welfare of the whole. Lastly, though empowerment signifies someone or something being invested with authority, the social dynamics of power seem to have been generally overlooked in debates on development at the United Nations.

Prerequisites for Social Transformation: Scholars stated that participation in the systems and structures of society is important prerequisite for social transformation. It is not sufficient for people to get projects, even if they have a voice in certain decisions. They must actively involved in decision-making processes: identify problems, formulate solutions and approaches, enjoy benefits, and determine criteria for appraisal.

At last, the ability to recognise the root causes of inequality will be decisive to the empowerment of populations to become agents of social transformation. Though population gets benefits of advancement, if it is unable to discriminate the drivers of social injustice and inequity, they cannot eliminate such practices from social structure. If empowerment is to lead to social transformation, it must involve the ability to identify the forces that modernize one’s social reality, to recognise the opportunities and challenges offered by that reality, and to plan initiatives for the improvement of civilization.

Communalism: Communalism is practiced in society since ancient and it is part of human life. When appraising in Indian context, it is great faithfulness to one’s own holy group. Communalism is defined as a mechanism to energize people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines. It is revealed in literature that Communalism is related with religious fundamentalism and intransigence. Studies have demonstrated that the communalisation was first began in nineteenth century. The British historian (James) categorized ancient period as Hindu period and medieval period as Muslim period and this ordering was further used by both the British and Indian historians. Social literature documented that in medieval period, Muslim people were underprivileged, they were also oppressed as then people of Hindu community and the ruling class included both the Muslims and Hindus. Abdul Ahmed explained that “Communalism is a social phenomenon characterized by the religion of two communities, often leading to acrimony, tension and even rioting between them”. Communalism is also described by few other eminent theorists. According to Prabha Dixit, “Communalism is a political doctrine which makes use of religious and cultural differences to achieve political ends”. It is a dominant force in Indian scenario. Many factors such as casteism, communalism and religious fundamentalism pose challenge in India that are the major threats to Secular state. They deteriorate the working and strength of democratic secular Federal state and influence against the fundamental beliefs of national life and provide means to new individuality. ‘Casteism’ and ‘Communalism’ are destroying the Indian cultural diversity.

In academic literature, Communalism is elucidated as multi-dimensional, complex, social fact. Numerous social, political, economic, cultural and religious factors affect the occurrence of communalism and communal ferocity. Communalism is sometimes aggravated by non-religious forces. A careful inquiry of the demands which have been and are made by communal leaders will reveal the true character and objective of communal politics under the cover of religion, ritual and culture. It has been documented in reports that Previously, British imperialism used communalism as a divide and rule policy. Similar kind of policies is continued by leaders after independence using various factors. The origin of communalism is very deep and diversified. Some of the roots lie in the structure and nature of Indian civilization which has different religions, multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-castes and multi-regional. A society divided on these grounds helps the development of communal organizations. It may be emphasised that the financial condition of the Hindu and the Muslim and other communities and their different development also contributes to the development of communalism. It is established that the communalism of society is a response of the communalism of another community.

Communalism has three stages. First stage include insight of people believing in a particular religion that have similar interests such as political, financial, social and cultural interests. For political perspective of India, Indian society is group of people from different religion, language and regions but not as a country. For citizen of India, different people have different leaders, who declare themselves as national/regional/religious/caste leaders. The second stage of communalism begins when people consider that the social, monetary, cultural and political interests of people following a particular religion are dissimilar from that of the believers of other religions. This phase of communalism is termed as Liberal Communalism. People who have belief in Liberal Communalism assumed that the interests of the people of India can be amalgamated and India can be integrated as one country. The third stage of communalism is considered when people of one religion are the opponents of the people of other religions. The third phase of communalism is extremist communalism which has a concept of fear and revulsion.

Characteristics of Communalism

  1. Communalism is a philosophical notion.
  2. It is a multifaceted process.
  3. It has a wider base which incorporates social, economic and political aspects for its manifestation.
  4. It causes competition, ferocity and tension among different communities.
  5. Communalism is used by the upper class people and elites as advice for separation and mistreatment of the communal identities of the poorer groups of their co-religionists.
  6. Communalism is simply planned by opportunistic political and economic interest of contending groups and factions within a political party or by political parties.
  7. Communalism assaults at the roots of egalitarianism, secularism and national amalgamation.
  8. The consequences of Communalism are ruinous.

Causes of Communalism

There are numerous of causes for the occurrence of communalism. First is the tendency of the Minorities. The Muslims fail to be intermixed in the national mainstream. Some reports indicated that majority of Muslim people do not partake in the secular nationalistic politics and insist to sustain separate identity. Another cause of communalism is Orthodoxy and Obscurantism. The orthodox members of minority groups feel that they have a distinct entity with their own cultural pattern, personal laws and thought. There are strong elements of conservatism and fundamentalism among the Muslims. Such feeling has prevented them from accepting the concept of secularism and religious tolerance.

Design of the Leaders is also a cause of communalism. It has grown in India because the communalist leaders of different religious communities such as Hindu and Muslim desire to succeed it in the interest of their communities. The demand for separate electorate and the organization of Muslim league were the practical indicators of this belief. The British rule which gave the divide and rule policy, separate electorate on the basis of religion, reinforced the basis of communalism in India. Finally the partition of the country into India and Pakistan provided further an aggressive feeling towards each other.

The cause of communalism is due to weak Economic Status. Most of Muslims in India did not embrace the scientific and technological education and they lagged behind on educational front. Due to poor education, they have not been represented satisfactorily in the public service, industry and trade. This leads the feeling of withdrawal which causes communalism.

There are geographical Causes for communalism. The regional settlement of different religious groups particularly Hindus Muslims and Christians causes more variation in the style of life, social standards and belief system. These patterns are clashing and leads to communal tension.

Communalism also evolves from historical causes. It has been revealed in literature that the Muslims in some of the regions are converted from Hinduism under the compulsions of Muslim rulers. The problems of social separation, illiteracy and poverty that had set apart the low caste people remain unresolved for them, as the foreign elite that polished never shared power with them. Their work ended with the conversion of the Indians and the converts began by replicating the masters in thought, speech and costume. It caused their hostility. Progressively, communalism developed in the Muslim community.

Social Causes of communalism also emerges as there is cultural similarity in fostering harmonious relations between any two social groups. But the social institutions, customs and practices of Hindus and Muslims are so deviating that they think themselves to be two different communities.

Psychological factors have vital role in increasing communal tension. The Hindus group considers that the Muslims are crusaders and fundamentalists. They also have a feeling that Muslims are unpatriotic. On the other hand, the Muslims believe that they are not treated as superior group in India and their religious beliefs and practices are sub-standard. These feelings causes communal tension.

Aggravation of rival Countries is also cause of communalism. Some overseas countries weaken Indian nations by setting one community against the other through their representatives. They encourage and promote communal riots in the nation.

Negative Impact of Mass Media also create communal tension. The messages related to communal tension or riot in any part of the country spread through the mass media. This results in further tension and riots between two rival religious groups.

Communalism has been a severe threat to national unity in India. It harmed numerous elements of modern India, such as, secularism, democracy and world harmony. Communal ideology leads to many cases of communal violence and riots. Gujarat violence of February -March 2002 which terrorized the whole country was consequence of prior spread of communal ideology (Chandra, 2004).

Ways to eradicate Communalism: Communalism can be lessen between different religious groups through taking some measures.

  1. Eradication of Communal Parties: All the political parties which prosper on religious loyalties should be banned or abolished by the government. Even non-political cultural organizations should always be kept under constant watch so that they cannot expound communalism.
  2. Spread of the Past Heritage: Feelings of patriotism should be taught to the people by reminding them about the wonderful moments of history in Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs who were united for the wellbeing of the nation.
  3. Public Opinion: Mass media must play imperative role to generate awareness about harmony between different communities and make efforts to change the attitude of people towards other communities. People must be aware of the dangerous consequences of the communalism.

Both the Government and people should create mindfulness to eradicate communal tension and clash.

Abundant of literature have demonstrated that the practice of communalism leads to communal politics and communal violence. It is supposed that communalism is the bequest of the past because they use the thought of ancient and medieval times. But communalism is a modern thought and political movement. The origin of communalism is linked to the politics of modern times when the people are more inclined towards politics. The economic slowdown of the people of India was primary reason for communalism.

Regionalism: In current global trade system, regionalism is spreading at great pace. The huge spread of regionalism is encouraged by the explosion of regional institutions that give rise to substantial academic interest in both their sources and consequences. In bulk of academic literature, Regions are described as groups of countries situated in the same geographic space but it is not clear where one region ends and the next begins. According to Russet (1967), a region is based on geographic closeness, social and cultural similarity, shared political attitudes and political institutions, and financial interdependence. Deutsch et al. (1957) stated that high levels of interdependence across multiple dimensions that include economic transactions, communications, and political values as determining whether a group of countries constitutes a region. Thompson (1973) debated that regions comprises of states that are geographically close to each other, interact extensively, and share numerous facts, behaviours and culture. Regionalism is an arguable concept among scholars, sociologists and theorists. Regionalism is a national phenomenon and took shape of organized agitations and campaigns. Regionalism has widely spread in Indian politics since the independence of India. It has the major basis of various regional political parties. In Indian scenario, regionalism has increased in close identification with the regions. After independence, it is a great force of conflicts as well as collaboration, which depends on the manner of accommodation. Regionalism is elaborated as situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with idiosyncratic identities exist within the same state borders, often concentrated within a particular region and share strong feelings of shared individuality.

Regionalism is basically an intense feeling of a particular region or an area in preference to the nation or any other region. It often involves ethnic groups whose major objective is to get freedom from a national state and the development of their own political influence. In Indian perspective, regionalism denotes to proclamation of different ethnic, linguistic or economic interests by various groups within the nation. It has been well documented that the roots of regionalism lie in linguistic, ethnic, economic and cultural identities of the people who stay in particular geographical area. Political scholars have elaborated various types of regionalism which include economic regionalism, linguistic regionalism, political regionalism and even sub-regional movements. Various political scientists have contested that regionalism is a political process discernible by cooperation and policy harmonization, whereas regionalization is viewed as an economic process in which trade and investment within the region develop more fast than the region’s trade and investment in other part of world (Haggard 1993). Pempel (2015) described regionalism in different manner. According to him, regionalism involves the process of institution creation and is the deliberate product of interstate collaboration. Regionalism is a topic of debate among theorists. Katzenstein (2006, p. 1) described regionalism as institutionalized practices and regionalization as “a process that engages actors”. According to Fawcett (2004), regionalism is as a policy or a project. Regionalism is basically associated with ideas, identities, and ideologies to a regional project. Munakata (2006) stated that regionalism comprises of institutions established by governments to support regional economic integration but emphasizes the changeable degrees of promise by members. Extensive research has been conducted on regionalism that focused on preferential trading arrangements (PTAs), institutions that offer each member state with better access to the other participants’ markets. Such arrangements involve states in close geographic closeness, for example the European Union or Mercosur.

In Indian context, regionalism is extremely engrossed in its diversity of languages, cultures, tribes, religions, communities. It instigates from the sense of regional awareness, which is often powered by a sense of regional withdrawal. In India, there is huge population of different castes, creeds, customs and cultures and its broad regions are dissimilar from one another. For example, southern India, the home of Dravidian cultures, itself a region of many regions is very different from the north.

Major Characteristics of Regionalism

  1. Regionalism is accustomed by economic, social, political and cultural inequalities.
  2. Regionalism sometimes is a psychic phenomenon.
  3. Regionalism is developed as an expression of group identity as well as devotion to particular region.
  4. Regionalism assumes the concept of development of one’s own region without considering the interest of other regions.
  5. Regionalism proscribes people from other regions to be benefited by a particular region.

Causes of Regionalism

There are many reasons for the eruption of regionalism in Indian setting. First are the efforts of the national government to execute a particular ideology, language or cultural pattern on all people and groups. People are forced to cultivate the regionalism movements. With these policies of regional groups, the states of the South began to fight the imposition of Hindi as an official languages they feared this may make north more powerful. Second major cause for the development of regionalism is constant negligence of an area or region by the ruling parties and focus of administrative and political power has given rise to demand for decentralization of authority and divide of unilingual states. Thirdly, there is a wish of the various units of the Indian federal system to maintain their sub cultural regions and self-government has promoted regionalism and given rise to demand for greater independence. Fourth reason for the rise of regionalism is the desire of regional leaders to gain power. In Southern state, political parties like DMK, AIADMK, Akali Dal, Telugu Desam and Asom Gana Parishad have encouraged regionalism to dominate these regions. Other reason for huge growth of regionalism is the interaction between the forces of modernisation and mass contribution in India. Feeling of regionalism is developed among the people of backward areas as they are being discriminated from other powerful groups. The local political leaders exploited this issue and stimulate people against Central Government for deliberately trying to maintain regional imbalances by neglecting social and economic development of some regions.

Types of Regionalism in India: Regionalism in India is of various types that include demand of the people of certain areas for separate statehood, demand of people of certain Union Territories for full-fledged statehood, demand of certain people for favourable settlement of inter-state disputes, and the demand of the people of certain areas for secession from the Indian Union.

  1. Supra-state regionalism is a manifestation of group identity of numerous states. In this form of regionalism, the group of states unites to make common views on the issue of mutual interest vis-à-vis another group of states or at times against the union. The group identity forged is negative in character and based on specific issue. But it is not permanent unification of state identities in the collective identity. Even at times of inter-group rivalries, tensions and conflicts may tend to continue, concurrently along with their cooperation. North-eastern states in India have the supra-state regionalism.
  2. Inter-state regionalism is coterminous with local territories and involves contrasting of the identities of one or more states against another. This form of regionalism is issue specific. For example disagreements between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the distribution of Kaveri water may be interpreted as inter-state regionalism.
  3. Intra-state regionalism is a type of regionalism that signify that wherein a part of the state strives for self-identity and self-development and therefore, it is taken in a positive sense. In negative terms, it affects against the collective interest of the state as well as the nation. For instance there is a feeling of coastal region and western region in Odisha, coastal region and Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh.

Process of combating regionalism: Regionalism is considered as significant facet of Indian political system. Sometimes, it poses threat to the harmony of the nation. Therefore, it is imperative to take immediate steps to curb such feeling among Indian populace. Social scholars have recommended numerous measures to reduce the propensity of regionalism. First major step is to promote uniform development of the hitherto abandoned areas so that people feel a part of the national mainstream. Secondly, the central government must not interfere in the matters of the State unless it is unescapable for national interest. Another remedy for reducing regionalism is to resolve Problems of people in a peaceful and constitutional manner. Politicians must not be allowed to misappropriate the issue of regional demands. The states must be given authority to resolve their issues except the major issues that are related to national interest. Some necessary changes must be done in the Central-State relations in favour of the states, and to introduce a system of national education that would assist people to overawed regional feelings and develop patriotic sense towards the country.

It is established in political studies that regionalism has unfavourable impacts which lead to a reduction of world welfare as compared to free trade. A clash between regionalism and global free trade occurs, but these negative effects are lessened by the continuing globalisation process and the efforts for multilateral liberalisation. Regional parties have dominant role for spreading regionalism and generating awareness for regional issues among inhabitants. Since these parties have their political reality in regional support, they give rise to regionalism for their interest and to gain power. It is a recognised strategy of the regional leadership to propagate their agenda against the Centre, such as blaming the opposition party for discriminating against the state with political motives. Alongside, the regional press, which is mainly language-oriented, immensely play lead role in developing the feeling of regionalism.

Secularism: Secularism is contrasting phenomenon of communalism. It was adopted by Indian Constitution, which signifies respect for all religions and broad-mindedness of all faiths, no State religion and support or favour to any religion by the State. Secularism is a form of government process that enhance democracy and commitment to financial development.

When appraising historical records, it is documented that Indian secularism started with the protest movements in the 5th century B.C. Tehre are three main a secularist and materialistic philosophical movement, Buddhism, and Jainism. All three secularism movements discarded the authority of the Vedas and prominence of belief in a divinity. In the 18th century, when the British East India Company had dominance over India, secularism have more impact on the Indian populace. Secular India has undergone several tremors in many decades. Many professionals relate these convulsions to the nature of Indian civilization, to which they attribute centrality to religion in both personal and public matters. The Indian concept of secularism is based on respect for all religions by the state and separation of religion from public institutional practices. The obsession with the European experience supervises the historicity of the Indian phenomenon.

The process of secularization is not alike in all societies. With technical progression, human culture has undergone the process of secularization. In India, secularism is huge political and constitutional struggle and disagreement. The perception was promoted by Mahatma Gandhi and it has been the central model of secularism after Independence of India. Indian secularism is based on a more functional approach to the belief of equal respect and acceptance of all religions, which has allowed for the defence of religious minority rights principally through temporary special measures, which is similar to the positive action in the United States. But, the Hindu Right has progressively been trying to cast itself as main successors of India’s secular practise, that is, as promoters of new secularism. There is a good understanding of secularism in India and the Hindu Right visualized secularism based on a formal approach to impartiality. In their views, secularism entails that all religious communities must be treated equally. Any protection of the rights of religious minorities is cast as appeasement, and a violation of the principles of secularism. In secularism, religious minorities are to be treated the same as the majority groups.

Secularism is essential for India because it enables people of different religions to live in politeness with respect for all faiths. It is a part of democratic system, which grants equal rights. It protects democracy by limiting the powers of the majority and it protects the equal rights of minorities to populace. Secularism also regulates the relation between the State and various religious groups on the belief of equality that the State shall not differentiate against any religion. When evaluating the history, it has been demonstrated that in the period of freedom struggle, Mahatma Gandhi made great efforts to unite various communities. He explored many beliefs and dogmas to connect people of different conviction. This principle had to assure the marginal groups that they would not be differentiated against and to caution the majority groups that the majority rule is inequitable since democracy supports freedom and egalitarianism for all factions. Mr. Gandhi became understood this theory in the principle of ‘Sarva dharma samadbhava’ which entails that all religions should be treated uniformly. It was not a political belief meant to integrate people. It was a normative that everyone must identify the value of religion in people’s lives. Indian society has vast religious diversity therefore it is imperative to respect all religious feelings. People have right to religion and culture. The fight against the British was not only a struggle for independence but also a struggle to maintain impartiality and democratic system in the nation. This was Gandhi’s contribution to the decree of religious conflict in India.

Jawahar Lal Nehru also contributed for the development of secularism and raised the concept of ‘Dharma Nirapekshata’. This principle signified that the State would not be impacted by religious considerations to devise its strategies. Later on, Pt. Nehru realized that policy making could not be detached from the realm of religion and that religion could not be exiled from the political and public area. During independence, the violence happened and followed the partition of the country which proved that religion had become an inherent part of political area. Nehru asserted that secularism did not signify a state where religion is discouraged, instead it denotes freedom for all religion, including the freedom for those who have no religion. Pt.Nehru stated that the secular was not opposed to religion. It is a state which respects all faiths uniformly and it does not permit any religion to presuppose the status of the State religion.

Copious studies have revealed that secularism is the main tool to develop a modern society. It was anticipated that in a secular democratic establishment, government and people would get involve in monetary development collectively, thus they can build modern Indian society. There is no theology in the secular character of the State. Principles of secularism are not against Deity. It treats similarly the devout, the agnostic and the atheist. The main aim of secular approach is to eradicate religious feeling from the matters of the State and guarantees that people should not be victim of discrimination against the ground of religion. According to scholars, secularism is a system of social ethics which is based upon a policy that ethical standards and conduct should be determined exclusively with reference to the present life and social security without considering religious factor.

Heterogeneity is basis of Indian culture and religious tolerance is the core factor of Indian secularism. Secularism belief states that all religions are equally good and effective to attain the God. It is evident in the constitutional scheme that secularism ensures impartiality on religious ground to all individuals and groups regardless of their faith emphasizing that there is no religion of the State itself. The Introduction of the Constitution read with Arts 25 to 28 highlights that this aspect of the concept of secularism represented in the constitutional scheme. The notion of secularism basically ascribes the right to equality intertwined in the scheme of the Indian Constitution. The term “secular” has not been explained in the Constitution of India, “because it is very flexible terms that do not have exact meaning. It is considered that secularism is one of the basic structures of the Indian Constitution which can neither be condensed nor be spoiled. The indispensable principle of secularism is to explore human improvement by material means alone. In brief, secularism permits people to live in standard of politeness. It forces people to admire on other religious believes. Secularism is a part of democratic state which grants to citizens equal rights. It guards democracy by restricting the power of the majority. Secularism is therefore advantageous for a plural culture in India.

In the Indian framework, secularism and communalism are considered to be two contrasting facts. Secularism is a symbol of modernity, plurality, co-existence, rationalism and developing with a fast growing multicultural society. The raucous attack on religious minorities is representative of a deep crisis troubling secularism in India. Communalism has come to acquire the disparaging meaning of an attitude that is narrow, based on prejudices about the ‘other’ and almost based on abhorrence and violence. In India, communal politics as religion is the main factor and also act against the interests of the others.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

Salient features of world’s physical geography

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Earth is splendid terrestrial haven. It is imperative to know physical geography through its display of environmental diversity. In scientific studies, it is established that Geography is a word that originated from two Greek roots Geo-denotes to “Earth,” and graphy stands for “picture or writing.” Geography is the study of earth as the home of present day human being.The main objective of geography is the assessment, and explanation of Earth, its variability from place to place, the way places and features transform over time, and the processes responsible for these variations and changes. Geography is termed as the spatial science because it incorporates recognizing, analysing, and explaining the variations, similarities, or differences in phenomena situated on the surface of Earth. Geography is unique among the sciences by virtue of its characterization and central purpose. It describes the values and attitudes towards environment and sharpen intellectual and practice skill.

Earth’s structure is divided into three zones that include crust, Mantle and core. Crust is the solid outer layer of the Earth, and its depth is usually never more than 1 per cent of the Earth’s radius, or averaging 40–50 km, but this varies significantly around the sphere. These are two different types: oceanic and continental. Mantle is the region within the Earth’s interior that range from 25 to 70 km below the surface, to a depth of ~2,900 km. It is composed mainly of silicate rocks, rich in iron and magnesium. At the base of the mantle, temperatures may reach up to 5,000°C. These high temperatures may help to generate convection currents which drive plate tectonics. Core is the very centre of the Earth and is composed of iron and nickel. It consists of an outer core (semi-molten) and inner core (solid). The temperature at the very centre of the Earth (~6,300 km below surface) may reach 5,500°C.

Structure of earth

Geography is inherently encompassing discipline. It brings together facts from other sciences such as physical biological and social. Physical geography is related to the physical science. Physical geography includes the processes and attributes that constitute Earth which incorporate human activities where they interface with the atmosphere. Different branches of Physical geography are climatology, Meteorology, Geomorphology and pedageography.

Scientific studies have revealed that physical geographers are more interested in comprehending all aspects of Earth and can be considered generalists because they are qualified to scrutinize a natural environment in its entirety, and how it functions as a unit. In physical geography, researchers study about lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Due to interaction of these elements, numerous changes occur on earth surface. Most physical geographers concentrate on advanced study in one or two specialties. For instance, meteorologists and climatologists believe how the interaction of atmospheric components influences weather and climate. Meteorologists focus their studies learning the atmospheric processes that affect daily weather, and they use current data to predict weather conditions. Climatologists are interested in the averages and extremes of long-term weather data, regional classification of climates, monitoring and understanding climatic change and climatic hazard, and the long term impact of atmospheric conditions on human actions and the surroundings.

The study of the nature, development, and modification of landforms is a field of geomorphology, a major sub field of physical geography. Geomorphologists are excited to know and elucidate variation in landforms, the processes that produce physical landscapes, and the nature and geometry of Earth’s surface features. The factors involved in landform development are as varied as the environments on Earth, and include gravity, running water, stresses in the Earth’s crust, flowing ice in glaciers, volcanic activity, and the erosion or deposition of Earth’s surface materials. Biogeographers scrutinize natural and human-modified environments and the ecological processes that influence their characteristics and distributions, including vegetation change over time. They also research and explain the ranges and patterns of vegetation and animal species, seeking to find out the environmental factors that limit or facilitate their distributions. Several soil scientists are geographers, who are concerned in mapping and analysing soil types, determining the aptness of soils for certain uses, such as agriculture, and working to conserve soil as a natural resource. Geographers are broadly concerned to study water bodies and their processes, movements, impact, quality, and other features. They may serve as hydrologists, oceanographers, or glaciologists. Many geographers involved with water studies also function as water resource managers, who work to ensure that lakes, watersheds, springs, and groundwater sources are suitable to meet human or environmental needs, provide an adequate water supply, and are as free of pollution as possible. Hydrology is merging science. It helps to understand the processes in which water plays an important role in nature through oceans, rivers and glaciers in sustaining life forms of earth surface.

Main perspective of physical geography

Geographic knowledge and studies often start with locational information. The location of a feature usually uses one of two methods: such as absolute location, which is articulated by a coordinate system (or address), or relative location, which recognizes where a feature exists in relation to something else, usually a fairly well-known location.

  • Physical geographers are more concerned in exploring the environmental features and processes that merge to make a place unique, and they are also involved in the shared characteristics between places.
  • Another feature of the characteristics of places is analysing the environmental benefits and challenges that exist in a place.
  • When there is a need to know how features are arranged in space, geographers are generally engrossed in two spatial factors. Spatial distribution means the extent of the area or areas where a feature exists.
  • Spatial pattern denotes to the arrangement of features in space that are regular or random, clustered together or broadly spaced.

It is well established that Earth’s features and landscapes are constantly changing in a spatial context. Weather maps demonstrate where and how weather elements change from day to day, over the seasons, and from year to year. Storms, earthquakes, landslides, and stream processes change the scenery. Coastlines may change position because of storm waves, tsunamis, or changes in sea level. Areas that were once forested have been clear-cut, changing the nature of the environment there.

The main interest of Geographers is to comprehend the physical and human characteristics of places, seeking to identify and explain characteristics that two or more locations may have in common as well as why places vary in their geographic attributes. Geographers collect, systematize, and analyse different types of geographic data and information, yet a unifying factor among them is a focus on explaining spatial locations, distributions, and relationships. They use array of skills, techniques, and tools to respond geographic questions. Geographers also study processes that influenced Earth’s landscapes in the past, how they continue to affect them today, how a landscape may change in the future, and the significance or impact of these change.

  1. When appraising the geography of world, it is recognized that there are seven continents on Earth which include Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
  2. Each has its own unique intermingle of physical features such as mountains, deserts, plains, valleys, forests, and bodies of water.
  3. In all over world, Latitude, landforms, and nearness to bodies of water greatly affect climate. Landforms, soil, and climate significantly influence the plants and animals that can be found in each place.
  4. North America is ranked as third largest continent in area in the world. It is situated in the Western Hemisphere, it extends from near the North Pole southwards almost to the equator.
  5. It covers the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from east to west. Central America, North America is surrounded by the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. South of Mexico, the land narrows into Central America.
  6. Central America links North America to South America. Although Central America contains far less than 1% of the Earth’s surface, it has 7% of the world’s biodiversity that include various plants and animals.
  7. West Indies is in Northeast of Central America composed of a huge number of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
  8. Physical Features of this region of the world include mountains, water bodies, and rain forests.
  9. Major mountain ranges found in North America include the Rocky Mountains to the west and the Appalachian Mountains to the east.
  10. The Rocky Mountains expand northward into Canada and southward into Mexico. Main feature of Bodies of Water is the St. Lawrence River which separates parts of the United States from eastern Canada. The Mississippi River flows in much of the United States.

The Great Lakes include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario form the biggest system of fresh water on Earth. The Rio Grande detaches the United States from Mexico. The Panama Canal, located in Central America, connects the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Areas of Plains include west of the Mississippi River, a region known as the Great Plains, containing some of the world’s most productive farmland, Rainforests. Much of Central America and the islands of the West Indies have warm, humid climates and rainforests.

Another important region of world is South America which is cited in the Western Hemisphere south of Central America. South America is considered as the fourth major continent in area. It extends over 7,000 miles in length; it lies between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Physical Features of this region include Mountains, Grasslands and Plains and others. The Andes Mountains are among the uppermost in the world. They lengthen over 4,500 miles in the western part of South America. The Andes were once the foundation of the Inca Empire. Grass lands and Plains are also important part of this region. Mountains and poor soils are unproductive in South America. One exception is the pampas of Argentina and Uruguay. The pampas give large areas of productive soil to grow crops and grazing cattle. Another physical feature of South America is Rainforests. Rainforests are situated on the east coast of Central America and the northern part of South America. Climatic conditions in this area are warm and humid. The vegetation closely reflects the climatic conditions in this continent. There is numerous vegetation as the major types of climate; the six Amazon Rainforests are the world’s biggest tropical rainforest in Brazil. Thousands of different varieties of trees are found here. Tropical grasslands are found in Venezuela, Guiana’s and South Brazil. Tropical grasslands are called Savannas. The prevailing vegetation consists of coarse grass varying heights. There is Mediterranean vegetation. The summer droughts and winter rains in central Chile produce drought resisting vegetation having thick leaves and long roots.

Physical features of South America

Every year, there is deforestation to provide land for ranches and farms. Bodies of Water in South America include The Amazon River which is the second longest river in the world. Furthermore, South America has the Orinoco River and the Rio de la Plata. Main population of South America lives on or near these river systems. Climate of South America is warm because it lies near the equator. Nevertheless, this region is surrounded by its mountains and ocean winds, majority of places in South America have comfy temperatures. Some of the greatest concentrations of people can be found in higher elevations where temperatures are cooler. The basic temperament of the South American landscape is driven by tectonic forcing, which has given the continent its site and general structural design and provided it with its major relief features and mineral resources. While tectonism is a mostly slow process on human timescales, it involves pulses that are frequent reminders of underlying forces. Earthquakes along the active Pacific Rim are a primary expression of these forces, and great earthquakes (Magnitude [M] > 8) happen somewhere along the continent’s western margin every few years.

  • Africa is important and the second largest continent in area. It is three times bigger in the size of United States.
  • To the north, Africa is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea. To the east, it stretches out the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
  • On the west, Africa is encircled by the Atlantic Ocean. Physical Features of Africa include Deserts, water bodies and mountains.
  • When describing physical geography, The Sahara Desert, which covers most of North Africa, is the world’s major desert.
  • It separates Africans north and south because of dry, sandy area and it is difficult to cross. Since ancient time, the Sahara isolated sub-Saharan Africa (Africa south of the Sahara) from the other part of the world. Beyond south, Africa’s land also covers the Kalahari Desert. Savannas; Africa’s region covers savanna land where tall, uncultivated grasses grow with some trees.
  • Savannas are the paramount areas in Africa to cultivate crops and raising livestock. Most populace of Africa lives in the savanna area or along the coasts. It is the most tropical of all continents.
  • Climate and vegetation range from equatorial rainforests, tropical deserts and savanna grassland to Mediterranean.
  • The Sahara Desert, the largest of its kind anywhere in the world, is over 10.4 million km2. North to south is approx. 1800 kms and east-west is 5600km. Tropical Rainforests in Central and West Africa are hot and humid which get 60 to 100 inches of rainfall a year. This climate creates thick forest and jungle an area in which travelling is very difficult. Rainforests are the home to more plant and animal species than anywhere else on the globe. Africa has many mountains and Valleys. The Atlas Mountains are found on the northwest edge of Africa. The Great Rift Valley runs through the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya, to the east. Bodies of Water; Africa has numerous major rivers such as the Nile, Congo, Zambezi, and Niger. The Nile, the world’s longest river, flows 4,150 miles from Central Africa through Egypt into the Mediterranean. The banks of the Nile River give some of Africa’s richest farmland. Important lakes in Africa are Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Nyasa. Climate of Africa is warm, with hot summers and mild winters. The amount of rainfall varies greatly. Deserts receive too little water for farming, while some other areas get excessive rainwater. Although Africa comprises of one landmass, it has a numerous islands, which are structurally not different from the main land. Major Islands are Madagascar, Zanzibar and Pemba; the Comoros; Mauritius; Reunion, Seychelles (all in the Indian Ocean); Cape Verde, Fernando Po, Principe, Sao Tome and Annobon.

Climate and topography of South Africa

Europe is ranked as the second smallest continent in land area of the world. Europe and Asia actually both share the same land mass. This land mass is so big that geographers have divided it into two continents. Great Britain, Ireland and Iceland are island nations in the Atlantic Ocean that are considered part of Europe. According to Geographers, this area is known as Europe a “peninsula of peninsulas”. Salient physical features of this region include mountains; Bodies of Water .There are several mountain ranges in Europe. They include the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines, and Balkans. These mountains shield borders between areas. Europe has many major bodies of water. In the north are the Baltic and North Seas. In the south, there are the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Europe also has many major rivers, including the Danube, Rhine, Loire, Rhone, Elbe, Vistula, and Volga. Wind has great impact the climate of Europe. The climate and vegetation in this continent vary from the cold, barren, tundra and sub-arctic starches of Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, to the warm shrub covered Mediterranean coasts of Italy, Spain and Greece.

Asia is known as biggest continent in area wise in world. Presently, it is domicile to two-thirds of the world’s inhabitants. Because of its huge size and the multiplicity of its cultures, geographers consider the region of Asia as being composed of numerous distinct regions. The Middle East lies at the junction of three continents, connecting Africa, Asia and Europe. It has most important waterways of the world, the Suez Canal, which cut downs the travelling distance between Europe and Asia. Physical geography of Asia includes desserts, mountains and water bodies. In the region of the Middle East, major area is covered by desert. Most of the Arabian Peninsula is occupied by 900,000 square miles of the Arabian Desert. The other major desert in the Middle East is the Syrian Desert. There are several important rivers in the Middle East such as Jordan, Tigris, and Euphrates Rivers. In this region, it is found that there is mild climate and fertile soil along these rivers made them centres of some of the world’s most primitive culture. Other main bodies of water adjoining the Middle East include the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. In regard to climate and resource, most of the Middle East is located near the equator. The area has warm winters and hot, dry summers but there is scarcity of adequate water supplies. The Middle East has about half of the world’s famous oil reserves.

Northern Asia is covered by Russia, which extends from Eastern Europe to the Pacific. Russia is the world’s biggest country in area. Although the majority of its inhabitants are located in Europe, most of Russia’s land area is in Asia. Central Asia composed of a huge passageway to south of Russia, made up of mountains, deserts and steppes (treeless grasslands). The steppes supply good grazing land. Siberia, in north-eastern Russia, is a cold area with forests. Northernmost Russia is tundra, where the land is ice-covered most of the time in the year. Afghanistan, a dry mountainous country in Central Asia, separates Iran and Russia from Pakistan. Its physical geography includes mountains and Bodies of Water. The Arctic Ocean, north of Russia, is frozen for most of the time. Major rivers in Asian Russia are the Ob and Lena. The Ural Mountains separate European and Asian Russia, while the Pamir Mountains separate Russia from China. In major part of Russia, there is long, cold winters and short mild summers.

East Asia consists of three important countries namely China, Korea, and Japan. China is the third largest country in the world area wise. Korea is a neck of land extending from the north-eastern coast of China. Japan consists of four main islands and a number of smaller islands, separated from the Asian mainland by the Sea of Japan. Physical geographical features in these three areas include Bodies of Water, Mountains. Important rivers are the Hwang Ho (Yellow River) and the Yangtze in China. These river valleys were the origin of early civilizations. China’s southern and western borders are ringed by the Himalayan, Kunlun, and Tianjin Mountains. To the west is the mountainous plateau of Tibet. In Japan and Korea, most of the area is covered by mountains. About 85% of Japan is covered by mountains and hills. Mount Fuji, an extinct volcano, is the highest and most famous mountain in Japan. The Gobi Desert is situated to the north of China in Mongolia. Since earlier times, mountains, deserts, and surrounding seas served to separate East Asia from the rest of the world.

Majority of South Asia is a subcontinent. It has various natural resources. The Indian ‘subcontinent, approximately the size of the United States, appears a large triangle extending out of Asia into the Indian Ocean. Southeast Asia consists of a peninsula (land surrounded by water on three sides) and a series of islands on the southeast comer of the Asian mainland. These are enclosed by the Pacific and Indian Oceans, which is the shortest water route between these two oceans. As with other continents, South Asia has numerous mountains, bodies of water. The Himalayas, located at the north of India, are the topmost mountains in the world. They separate the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia. Mountains also cut off Southeast Asia from the rest of the continent. The main rivers of the Indian subcontinent are the Indus and Ganges. The Mekong, Salween, and Irrawaddy Rivers are main rivers in Southeast Asia. Both South and Southeast Asia have warm winters and hot summers. The most important climatic aspect is the monsoons. These vicious winds blow over the region and bring heavy rains in the summer. Monsoon rains give water for crops and support life, but also cause flooding, landslides, property damage, and even death.

Physical feature of south Asia

Australia, bordered by the Indian and Pacific Oceans, is cut off from Asia by the Arafura and Timor Seas. It is the smallest continent of the world. It is also the lowest, the flattest and the driest. The highest point on the Australian mainland is Mount Kosciuszko, New South Wales, at 2228 metres above sea level. The lowest point is the dry bed of Lake Eyre, South Australia, which is 15 metres below sea level. The mainland and Tasmania are enclosed by thousands of small islands and many larger ones. The mainland continents are divided into western plateau, eastern highlands and central lowlands. The areas have no boundaries. Much of the western plateau is relatively flat. There are many rugged areas near the coastal boundaries of the plateau including the Kimberley region and Hamersley ranges in Western Australia. The central lowland *stretches from the Gulf of Carpentaria through the great artesian basin to the Murray darling plains. Most of these areas are flat and low lying. The eastern highlands extending along most of the length of the east coast are characterized over much of their length by steep escarpment on the coastal side, a series of high plateaus and then most gentle sloping towards the inlands (Year Book Australia 1982).

Elevation of Australia continent

Nearly 40 per cent of the total coastline length comprises island coastlines. As an island nation, coastlines play a vital role in defining national, state and territory boundaries. Almost 20 per cent of Australia’s land mass is desert. As well as having a low average annual rainfall, rainfall across Australia is also variable. The rainfall pattern is concentric around the extensive arid core of the continent, with rainfall intensity high in the tropics and some coastal areas. Climatic zones range from tropical rainforests, deserts and cool temperature forests to snow covered mountains. Within this climate, plants and animals have evolved on a geographically remote continent, through a time of a slowly drying climate, combined with continuing high variability. The central regions of Australia are mostly deserts. The world’s biggest coral reef, the Great Barrier Reef, is located in Australia. Many unique animals are found in this continent.

Mean temperatures and rainfall (Source: Australian bureau of meteorology).

Period (b) Temperature deviation °C Rainfall  mm
10- YEAR PERIODS –ANNUAL AVERAGE
1900 .. 9 n.a. 425
1910 .. 19 -0.33 449
1920 .. 29 -0.40 430
1930 .. 39 -0.28 418
1940 .. 49 -0.41 436
1950 .. 59 -0.27 468
1960 .. 69 -0.22 431
1970 .. 79 -0.12 527
1980 .. 89 0.23 463
1990 .. 99 0.39 485
YEARS
1990 0.50 418
1991 0.68 469
1992 0.15 452
1993 0.30 499
1994 0.25 341
1995 0.18 523
1996 0.60 470
1997 0.23 527
1998 0.84 565
1999 0.21 584
2000 -0.21 727
2001 -0.10 559
2002 0.63 341
2003 0.62 487
2004 0.45 512
2015 1.06 406

Droughts can occur in all parts of Australia and they are most economically damaging in south eastern Australia, an area encompassing about 75% of Australian populace and much of its agriculture. Thunderstorms are more frequent over northern Australia. During most years, snow covers much of the Australian Alps over 1500 metres for varying periods from late autumn to early spring. In terms of water vapour content, Australia is dry continent (Year Book Australia 1982).

Antarctica is the world’s southernmost continent and wraps the South Pole. It is encircled by the Southern, Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Since 2000, most geographers call this the Southern Ocean. Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. About 98% of this continent is enclosed by ice, averaging one mile in thickness. Only plants and animals adjust to the severe cold and survive in this region.

Physical feature of Antarctica represented that it is surrounded by water

In Antarctica, The landmass is made up of 98% ice sheet with the remaining 2%, barren rock. The standard height of Antarctica is between 2000 and 4000 m with resident mountain ranges up to 5000 m in elevation. Roughly half of the coastal areas are ice free. Ice shelves form along the coast and in the areas where seawater comes in contact with the ice shelf, these chunks of ice break free in the form of icebergs. Temperatures in Antarctica remain around the freezing mark around the coastal areas in the summer, which occurs from December to February. In the winter, temperatures range from -10°C to -30°C in the coastal regions. The higher plateaus have a much colder weather. Because of their higher elevation and the distance from the ocean, summer temperatures range anywhere from -20°C to -60°C, in the winter.

To summarize, Physical geography is imperative for understanding various things about countries and regions of the world. It is the branch of science that deals with processes and patterns in the natural environment such as hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and Geo sphere. Physical geography is a scientific discipline that addresses the distribution of natural features and processes within a spatial, or geographical, reference frame.

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