Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Volume-3

MYUPSC.COM – Current Affairs Yearbook 2020: Volume-3 covered from The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana and some useful government resources for UPSC IAS PrelimsMains and Other State PSC Exams 2020. General Awareness/ Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 is very useful book for both objective and subjective papers. This Current Affairs/General Awareness Yearbook 2020 is Prepared by experts team of MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and State PSC Exams. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to UPSC/PSC exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC India Yearbook 2020

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of India & World in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration,  Economy, Science & Technology and other trending topic related to current affairs of India & world in detailed for exams point of view. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book.

Current Affairs Yearbook Part -3 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of India. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020-21, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UPSC and State PSC Civil services Exams across the country. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. UPSC India Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 consists of latest news/ information about India/ World based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the country. General Knowledge covers India/ World Panorama, Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, Technology, Ecology and Environment, Art & Culture, Sports, Healthcare, Communication, News & Media, Education & Career, IT & Computers. UPSC India Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, UPSC and PSC exams and across the country.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews; The General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

UPSC India Yearbook 2020

State Wise Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

UPSC Prelims 2020 Complete Study Material with Practice Test

UPSC Prelims 2020 Complete Study Material for General Studies Paper-1 with 50-Practice Solved Test

Civil Services Preliminary exam comprises of two compulsory papers of 200 marks each (General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II). The questions will be of multiple choices, objective type. The marks in prelims will not be counted for final ranking, but just for qualification for main exam.The Commission will draw a list of candidates to be qualified for Civil Service (Main) Examination based on the criterion of minimum qualifying marks of 33% in General Studies Paper-II of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination and total qualifying marks of General Studies Paper-I of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination as may be determined by the Commission.

UPSC Syllabus for GS Paper I – (200 marks) Duration: Two hours (Counted for the merit rank in the Prelims)·        

Current events of national and international importance.         

History of India and Indian National Movement.         

Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.        

Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.        

Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.        

General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.        

General Science.

What you will get ?

You will get 34 Product given below:

  1. UPSC Prelims 2020: Basic Geography Concepts Rs. 25.00
  2. Polity: UPSC Prelims 2020 Highly Expected Questions Rs. 20.00
  3. PT 365 Govt Schemes for UPSC and all other exam 2020 Rs. 40.00
  4. UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Solved Test 1-40Rs.90.00
  5. General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Rs. 130.00
  6. Indian Economy Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.160.00
  7. Indian And World Geography Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.130.00
  8. Indian Polity Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.125.00
  9. Indian History : Latest Current Affairs Yearbook 2020Rs.125.00
  10. Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1Rs.140.00
  11. Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2Rs.140.00
  12. UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1Rs.300.00
  13. Indian Art, Culture, Heritage and Architecture for Civil Services ExaminationRs.40.00
  14. UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Solved Test 1-15 for GS Paper-IRs.30.00
  15. Indian Economy Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims 2020Rs.49.00
  16. India Yearbook Question Bank: UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2020Rs.80.00
  17. UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Practice Test 1-12 Rs.30.00
  18. Indian History Question BankRs.40.00
  19. Indian Geography Question BankRs.80.00
  20. Indian Polity Topic Wise Question BankRs.40.00
  21. 2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020Rs.80.00
  22. Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12thRs.25.00
  23. Geography & Environment Current issues yearbook 2019Rs.35.00
  24. Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20Rs.30.00
  25. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Useful for UPSC & PSC ExamsRs.120.00
  26. UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year Solved Paper 2010-19Rs.40.00
  27. UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-4 Ethics, Integrity and AptitudeRs.60.00
  28. UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-3 Complete Study NotesRs.70.00
  29. UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study NotesRs.70.00
  30. UPSC IAS Main exam GS Paper-1 Complete study notesRs.60.00
  31. Art & Culture of IndiaRs.45.00
  32. Indian History Complete Study NotesRs.60.00
  33. Indian Polity for Civil Services ExaminationRs.65.00
  34. Physical Economic and Human Geography of IndiaRs.60.00

Total Cost = Rs. 2674

You have to Pay Rs. 600/- for these 34 products. (Offer valid till 15th February 2020)

Click Here To Buy

Daily News Prescription - General Studies of India

PT 365 Govt Schemes for UPSC and all other exam 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Latest Government Schemes 2020, Useful for UPSC Prelims, Mains and all other competitive exams, this book deals with the relevant features and topics of Latest Government Schemes for Civil Services Exams in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book.
Latest Government Programme / Schemes 2020 have become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted by UPSC and State PSC Exams. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of competitive exams. These Govt. Schemes, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Government Schemes 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UPSC and State PSC Civil services Exams. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. PT 365 Govt Schemes

PT 365: TARGET PRELIMS – 2020: Latest GOVERNMENT SCHEMES

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Batch 4: Complete Revision

Indian Government, at all levels, announces Welfare Schemes for a cross section of the society from time to time. These schemes could be either Central, State specific or a joint collaboration between the Centre and the States. In this section, we have attempted to provide you an easy and single point access to information about several welfare schemes of the Government and their various aspects including eligible beneficiaries, types of benefits, scheme details etc. PT 365 Govt Schemes

Government Schemes in India is launched by the government with the purpose of addressing the social and economic welfare of the citizens of this nation.

These schemes play a crucial role in solving many socio-economic problems that beset Indian society and thus their awareness is a must for any concerned citizen. PT 365 Govt Schemes

This article will provide all the details of the Government Schemes 2020 that are implemented in India.

These Latest Government Schemes / Programmes based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Best wishes!!

Click Here To Download

PT 365 Govt Schemes

Govt. Schemes Part -1

  1. PM-KISAN (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi) Scheme
  2. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Pension Yojana
  3. Mega Pension Scheme
  4. New Jal Shakti Ministry
  5. Jan Dhan Yojana
  6. Skill India Mission
  7. Make in India
  8. Swachh Bharat Mission
  9. Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
  10. Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan (PM-SYM)
  11. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
  12. Hriday Plan
  13. PM Mudra Yojna
  14. Ujala Yojna
  15. Atal Pension Yojana
  16. Prime Minister Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
  17. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
  18. AMRUT Plan
  19. Digital India Mission
  20. Gold Monetization Scheme
  21. UDAY
  22. Start-up India
  23. Setu Bharatam Yojana
  24. Stand Up India
  25. Prime Minister Ujjwala Plan
  26. National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)
  27. Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABY)

Govt. Schemes Part – 2

1.       Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

1.1     Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi

1.2     PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana   

1.3     National Bamboo Mission

1.4     Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanraks Han Abhiyan

1.5     Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan    

1.6     Green Revolution – Krishonnati Yojana        

1.7     Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region       

1.8     Soil Health Card Scheme

1.9     Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana    

1.10   Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana     

1.11   Electronic National Agriculture Market        

1.12   Participatory Guarantee Scheme        

1.13   Small Farmer’s Agriculture-Business Consortium  

1.14   National Food Security Mission

1.15   Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana     

1.16   National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture

1.17   Krishi Vigyan Kendras    

1.18   Mera Gaon – Mera Gaurav        

1.19   RKVY-RAFTAAR    

1.20   Pt Deendayal Upadhyay Unnat Krishi Shiksha Scheme    

1.21.  e-RaKAM    

1.22   National Programme on use of Space Technology for Agriculture

1.23   Project CHAMAN   

1.24   Mission Fingerling

1.25   Har Medh Par Ped 

1.26   National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

1.27   Rashtriya Gokul Mission

1.28   National Dairy Plan-I      

1.29   Pashudhan Sanjivani     

1.30   E-Pashudhan Haat Portal         

1.31   “Quality Mark” Award Scheme  

1.32   Zero Hunger Programme 

1.33   Yuva Sahakar Scheme    

1.34   Sahakar-22 

2.       Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers 

2.1     Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Pariyojana

2.2     Pharma Jan Samadhaan Scheme       

3.       Ministry of Civil Aviation

3.1     Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik

3.2     Digi Yatra   

3.3     NABH Nirman Scheme    

4.       Ministry of Commerce and Industry    

4.2     Start up India Scheme    

4.3     Integrate to Innovate Programme        

4.4.    e-Biz 

4.5     Scheme for IPR awareness        

4.6     Revenue Insurance Scheme for Plantation Crops    

4.7     Niryat Bandhu Scheme   

4.8     Schemes under Foreign Trade policy of India

5.       Ministry of Communication      

5.1     National Broadband Mission     

5.2     Bharat Net  

5.3     Sampoorna Bima Gram Yojana 

5.4     Deen Dayal SPARSH Yojana     

5.5     DARPAN      

5.6     Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya Sanchar Kaushal Vikas Pratisthan     

6.       Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution

6.1     National Food Security Act, 2013        

6.2     Price Stabilisation Fund Scheme        

6.3     Jago Grahak Jago 

6.4     Antyodaya Anna Yojana  

7.       Ministry of Culture         

7.1     Seva Bhoj Yojana  

7.2     Intangible Heritage Scheme      

7.3     Junior Heritage Mistri Scheme 

7.4     Project Mausam    

8.       Ministry of Defence        

8.1     Make II Scheme    

8.2     Mission Raksha Gyan Shakti    

8.3     One Rank One Pension Scheme

9.       Ministry for Development of NE Region        

9.1     North East Rural Livelihood Project    

9.2     North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme

9.3     Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources       

10.     Ministry of Jal Shakti     

10.1   Atal Bhujal Yojana

10.2   Jal Jeevan Mission         

10.3   Jal Shakti Abhiyan         

10.4   Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme     

10.5   Jal Kranti Abhiyan

10.6   Namami Gange Programme      

10.7   Nirmal Ganga Sahbhagita        

10.8   Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project        

10.9   Ganga Prahari      

10.10 Ganga Aamantran Abhiyan      

10.11 GOBAR-Dhan Yojana      

10.12 Swajal Yojana       

10.13 Swachh Bharat Mission  

10.14 Jal Mani Programme      

10.15 Har Ghar Jal        

10.16 Swachhathon 1.0  

10.17 Swachh Iconic Place       

10.18 Ganga Gram         

11.     Ministry of Earth Science         

11.1   ACROSS Scheme  

11.2   O-SMART    

11.3   Sagar Vani  

11.4   Gramin Krishi Mausam Seva    

12.     Ministry of Electronics &IT       

12.1   Stree Swabhiman 

12.2   National Supercomputing Mission      

12.3   Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme  

12.4   Digital India

12.5   Cyber Shiksha Initiative 

12.6   PM Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan         

12.7   India BPO Promotion Scheme   

12.8   North East BPO promotion Scheme    

12.9   Jeevan Pramaan   

12.10 Digi Locker 

12.11 Visvesvaraya PhD Scheme        

13.     Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change      

13.1   Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats 

13.2   Green Skill Development Programme  

13.3   Himalayan Research Fellowships Scheme    

13.4   National Action Plan on Climate Change      

13.5   National Mission for Green India        

13.6   PARIVESH  

14.     Ministry of Finance        

14.1   Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana      

14.2   Aam Admi Bima Yojana  

14.3   Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana       

14.4   Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana   

14.5   Atal Pension Yojana        

14.6   National Pension Scheme

14.7   Varisth Pension Bima Yojana   

14.8   Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana        

14.9   Swabhimaan        

14.10 Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana         

14.11 Stand Up India Scheme  

14.12 Gold Monetisation Scheme       

14.13 Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme    

14.14 Project Saksham   

14.15 Tejaswini    

14.16 KCC to Fishermen and Cattle Owners

14.17 Swachh Bharat Kosh

14.18 Google Tax  

15.     Ministry of Food Processing Industries

15.1   Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana       

15.2   Operation Greens 

15.3   Mega Food Parks   

16.1   Ayushman Bharat Programme  

16.2   National Health Mission 

16.3   National Rural Health Mission 

16.4   National Urban Health Mission

16.5   Umbrella scheme for “Family Welfare and Other Health Interventions”

16.6   ASHA, ANM and AWW     

16.7   Janani Suraksha Yojana

16.8   Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram  

16.9   Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram   

16.10 Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram        

16.11 Menstrual Hygiene for Adolescent Girls Scheme

16.12 Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan

16.13 Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana

16.14 Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi   

16.15 Universal Immunization Programme   

16.16 Mothers Absolute Affection Program   

16.17 LaQshya Initiative

16.18 National Strategic Plan and Mission Sampark        

16.19 Mission Indradhanush    

16.20 Mission Parivar Vikas     

16.21 Project Sunrise     

16.22 National Deworming Mission    

17.     Ministry of AYUSH

17.1   National Ayush Mission  

17.2   Swasthya Raksha Programme   

17.3   Traditional Knowledge Digital Library 

17.4   Mission Madhumeha      

17.5   Scheme for Promoting Pharmacovigilance of AYUSH Drugs        

18.     Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises 

18.1   FAME India Scheme       

19.1   CCWCS       

19.2   Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems

 19.3  Bharat ke Veer     

19.4   Operation Muskaan/Operation Smile 

19.5   Prime Minister’s Scholarship Scheme 

20.     Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs   

20.1   Housing for All (URBAN) 

20.2   Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme 

20.3   Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana    

20.4   PAISA

20.5   AMRUT       

20.6   Smart Cities

20.7   HRIDAY      

20.8   Urban Reform Incentive Fund   

20.9   Affordable Housing Fund

21.     Ministry of Human Resource Development   

21.1   SHREYAS Scheme

21.2   NEAT Scheme       

21.3   EQUIP        

21.4   Other Initiatives in 2019 

21.5   RISE 

21.6   Prime Minister Research Fellowship Scheme

21.7   IMPRESS Scheme 

21.8   SPARC Scheme     

21.9   LEAP Initiative      

21.10 ARPIT initiative     

21.11 Pradhan Mantri Vidya Lakshmi Karyakram  

21.12 Institutes of Eminence Scheme 

21.13 Samagra Shiksha Scheme        

21.14 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan  

21.15 Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan       

21.16 Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan        

21.17 Unnat Bharat Abhiyan   

21.18 SWAYAM     

21.19 Saksham Scholarship Scheme  

21.20 Swayam Prabha    

21.21 Shaala Darpan Portal     

21.22 Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat    

21.23 Shaala Sarathi

21.24 All School Monitoring Individual Tracing Analysis

21.25 Swachh Vidyalaya Initiative: PT 365 Govt Schemes

21.26 Global Initiative of Academic Networks         

21.27 IMPRINT India      

21.28 Uchchtar Avishkar Abhiyan      

21.29 Vittiya Saksharata Abhiyan      

21.30 Ishan Uday and Ishan Vikas     

21.31 Shodhganga

21.32 Vidya-Veerta Abhiyan     

21.33 Diksha Portal       

21.34 Margdarshak        

21.35 Swasth Bachche-Swasth Bharat Programme

21.36 JIGYASA     

21.37 Maitreyi Yatra      

21.38 Madhyamik and Uchchtar Shiksha Kosh      

21.39 National Testing Agency  

22.     Ministry of Labour and Employment   

23.     Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises

23.1   Zero Defects and Zero Effect (ZED) Scheme for MSMEs             

23.2   ‘Udyami Mitra’ Portals    

23.3   Solar Charakha Mission 

23.4   Khadi Gramodyog Vikas Yojana : PT 365 Govt Schemes

23.5   Rozgar Yukta Gaon         

23.6   ASPIRE       

23.7   SFURTI       

23.8   PMs Employment Generation Programme     

23.9   Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme         

23.10 Udhyog Aadhaar Memorandum

23.11 MSME Sambandh and Sampark         

24.     Ministry of Mines  

24.1   Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana      

24.2   Other Initiatives   

25.     Ministry of Minority Affairs      

25.1   Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram         

25.2   Nai Manzil  

25.3   Nai Roshni  

25.4   Nai Udaan Scheme

25.5   MANAS       

25.6   Hunar Haat

25.7   USTAAD      

25.8   Gharib Nawaz Skill Development Centre      

25.9   Hamari Dharohar Scheme        

25.10 Learn and Earn Scheme 

25.11 Jiyo Parsi    

25.12 Other Schemes     

26.     Ministry of New & Renewable Energy 

26.1   KUSUM      

26.3   Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission    

26.4   Solar City   

27.     Ministry of Panchayati Raj       

27.1   Panchayat Empowerment & Accountability Incentive

27.2   Sabki Yojana, Sabka Vikas  : PT 365 Govt Schemes

27.3   Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana

27.4   Gram Manchitra   

28.     Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas        

28.1   Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana       

28.2   PAHAL        

28.3   LPG Panchayat     

28.4   Saksham 2018      

28.5   START-UP SANGAM Initiative   

28.6   Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga     

29.     Ministry of Power  

29.1   Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana      

29.2   National LED Programme

29.3   UJALA Scheme  : PT 365 Govt Schemes

29.4   India Energy Efficiency Scale-Up Programme

29.5   Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana      

29.6   Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana         

30.     Ministry of Railways       

30.1   Avataran     

30.2   VIKALP       

30.3   Clone Train Services       

30.4   Rail Safety Fund   

30.5   Operation Swarn  

30.6   Nivaran      

30.7   Initiatives by Ministry of Railways      

30.8   Project Saksham   

30.9   Mission Satyanishtha     

31.     Ministry of Road Transport & Highways       

31.1   Bharatmala

31.2   Setu Bharatam     

31.3   Char Dham Highway Project     

31.4   Logistic Efficiency Enhancement Programme

31.5   INFRACON  

31.6   INAM PRO   

31.7   INAM-Pro + 

31.8   SmartE       

32.     Ministry of Rural Development 

32.1   Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – NRLM

32.2   Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana    

32.3   Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen   Kaushalya Yojana     

32.4   Kaushal Panjee     

32.5   Startup Village Entrepreneurship Programme        

32.6   Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Gramin        

32.7   National Rurban Mission

32.8   Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana  

32.9   MNREGA    

32.10 Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana    

32.11 National Social Assistance Program    

32.12 Neeranchal Watershed Program

32.13 Annapurna Scheme        

32.14 Aarambh     

32.15 Mission Antyodaya

32.16 DISHA initiative    

32.17 SECURE     

32.18 Mahila Kisan Sashkiti karan Pariyojna        

33.     Ministry of Science & Technology       

33.1   Visiting Advanced Joint Research Faculty scheme 

33.2   Vigyan Gram Sankul Pariyojana         

33.3   Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems Mission  

33.4   Biotech KISAN      

33.5   Cattle Genomics   

33.6   National Biopharma Mission    

33.7   Schemes related to Brain Drain Reversal     

33.8   NIDHI

33.9   INSPIRE/MANAK  

33.10 SATYAM      

33.11 KIRAN         

33.12 Nakshe Portal       

33.13 Farmer Zone         

34.     Ministry of Shipping       

34.1   Sagarmala  

34.2   Jal Marg Vikas Project    

35.     Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship       

35.1   Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana        

35.2   Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra        

35.3   UDAAN : PT 365 Govt Schemes      

35.4   SANKALP & STRIVE        

36.     Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment         

36.1   Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan         

36.2   Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme  

36.3   Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana       

36.4   Swachhta Udyami Yojana         

36.6   Inter Caste Marriage Scheme   

37.     Ministry of Textiles         

37.1   SAMARTH Scheme

37.2   Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana        

37.3   Pradhan Mantri Paridhan Rojgar Protsahan Yojana

37.4   Hath Kargha Samvardhan Sahayata  

37.5   JUTE – ICARE       

37.6   North East Region Textile Promotion Scheme

37.7   Deendayal Hastkala Sankul     

37.8   Bunkar Mitra       

37.9   PowerTex    

38.     Ministry of Tourism        

38.1   Swadesh Darshan 

38.2   PRASAD      

38.3   Adopt a Heritage Project 

38.4   Incredible India 2.0 Campaign  

39.     Ministry of Tribal affairs 

39.1   Development of PVTGs    

39.2   Ekalavya Schools  

39.3   Van Dhan Scheme

39.4   Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana       

39.5   Young Entrepreneurs of TRIFED        

39.6   TRIFOOD Scheme 

39.7   Pradhan Mantri Jl-VAN Yojana 

40.     Ministry of Women & Child development      

40.1   Poshan Abhiyan/National Nutrition Mission 

40.2   Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana       

40.3   Integrated Child Development Scheme

40.4   SABLA        

40.5   SAKSHAM   

40.6   Kishori Shakthi Yojana   

40.7   Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shakti Kendra        

40.8   Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme       

40.9   Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana      

40.10 UJJAWALA Scheme        

40.11 Swadhar     

40.12 Swadhar Greh Scheme   

40.13 SHe-box Portal      

40.14 Sakhi

40.15 Jan Sampark        

40.16 NARI 

40.17 Khoya Paya Web Portals  

40.18 Other Initiatives   

41.     Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports      

41.1   Rajiv Gandhi Khel Abhiyan      

41.2   Rashtriya Yuva Sashaktikaran Karyakram   

41.3   Khelo India 

42.     Ministry of Law and Justice     

43.     Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions       

43.1   e-HRMS      

43.2   COMMIT     

43.3   Sankalp Programme       

44.     Niti Aayog   

44.1   Aspirational Districts Programme       

44.2   Price Deficiency Payment Scheme      

44.3   Atal Innovation Mission  

44.4   Atal Tinkering Labs        

44.5   Self-Employment and Talent Utilization       

44.6   SATH program      

44.7   Mentor India Campaign  

45.     Other Schemes     

45.1   E-Samiksha Portal

45.2.  e-Vidhan     

45.3   Gram Uday se Bharat Uday Abhiyan  

45.4   Baal Aadhar

45.5   SAATHI Initiative  

45.6   Swachh Swasth Sarvatra

45.7   Mission XI Million 

45.8   Swachh Yug Campaign   

45.9   Kashmir Super 50 

45.10 PRAGATI     

45.11 SAMEEP     

45.12 Know India Programme   

45.13 Shakti Scheme     

46.     State Government Schemes      

46.1   KALIA Scheme      

46.2   One Family, One Job Scheme   

46.3   Jalyukt Shivar      

46.4   Rythu Bandhu Scheme   

46.5   Mission Bhagiratha        

46.6   Mukhyamantri Yuva Swabhiman Yojana

46.7   Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana      

46.8   Suryashakti Kisan Yojana        

46.10 SAKALA Scheme : PT 365 Govt Schemes

46.11 One District One Product Summit      

46.12 Kanyashree Prakalpa Scheme   

State Wise Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. State GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Batch 4: Complete Revision

State Wise:Current Affairs Yearbook 2020: Current Affairs are essential for the preparation of the UPSC CSE & PSC examination. The UPSC, State PSC prelims and mains examination demand conceptual clarity of current affairs, Clearing the UPSC CSE & State PSC examination requires a complete, holistic and comprehensive understanding of concepts in the news and current affairs which has been provided by MYUPSC.COM in very crisp and meticulous notes covering all notable and crucial State, national and international current affairs.

There is a substantial overlap expected in the static and dynamic UPSC questions asked in the IAS examination, as has been seen in the recent trends. MYUPSC.COM also links, relates and explains the static and dynamic portions of the syllabus that is, connecting the current affairs with the basic concepts for their best comprehension for better grasp and command on the knowledge for the aspirants. State GK Yearbook 2020

A good understanding of current affairs is central to success in the UPSC, State PSC examination for aspirants. Since it is a strenuous and gruelling task for aspirants to cover current affairs daily and revise it well, MYUPSC.COM prepares crisp and concise notes that covers the important topics relevant from UPSC CSE examination perspective by referring daily newspapers, the Press Information Bureau (PIB), reliable sources like government magazines, for example, the Yojana and the Kurukshetra, etc. It is relevant for all freshers and veterans in the examination, as it is important to cover all aspects of a current affairs topic, which is holistically and entirely covered by MYUPSC.COM daily, weekly, monthly and yearly basis.

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook 2020: Current Affairs

APSC Assam Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020: Latest and Current Affairs

CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

Delhi GK Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

Goa Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

GPSC Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Haryana Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Jammu & Kashmir Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Jharkhand General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

KPSC Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Maharashtra Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook 2020: Latest Affairs

Meghalaya Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Nagaland Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Odisha Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020: Latest Current Affairs

Sikkim GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

TPSC Telangana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Tripura Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPPSC Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Uttarakhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

West Bengal Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Uttarakhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Uttarakhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for UKPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS PRELIMS 2020 ONLINE 60 DAYS PROGRAMME

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Uttarakhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Uttarakhand (Static GK)

2. Latest Govt. Schemes

3. Latest Budget and Important Points

4. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

5. Practice MCQ

Uttarakhand Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UKPSC and Other Uttarakhand State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Uttarakhand based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, UKPSC and Other Uttarakhand PSC exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Uttarakhand General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

Uttarakhand Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Uttarakhand finds mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand, Manaskhand and Himavanta. The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, the Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, the Chandras and Panwars and the British have ruled it in turns. It is often called the Land of the Gods (Dev Bhoomi) because of its various holy places and abundant shrines. The hilly regions of Uttarakhand offer pristine landscapes to the tourists.

The State of Uttarakhand was earlier a part of the United Province of Agra and Awadh, which came into existence in 1902. In 1935, the name of State was shortened to the United Province. In January 1950, the United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal remained a part of Uttar Pradesh before it was carved out of Uttar Pradesh on 09 November 2000. It is incepted as the 27th State of India. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

Located in the foothills of the Himalayas, the State has international boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. On its North-West lies Himachal Pradesh, while on the south is Uttar Pradesh.

Agricultural land under irrigation is 5, 49, 381 hectares. The State has excellent potential for hydropower generation. There are a number of hydro-electric projects on the rivers Yamuna, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Saryu Gauri, Kosi and Kali generating electricity. Total hydropower potential approximately 25,450 MW. Projects allotted to various agencies 13,667 MW. Out of 15,761 villages, 15,241 villages have been electrified.

Uttarakhand formerly known as Uttaranchal is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the “Devabhumi” due to numerous Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being carved from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh. It borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north; the Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal to the east; the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts. The capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, which is a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital.

Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times. The region formed a part of the Uttarakuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism. Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighbouring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s.

The natives of the state are generally called Uttarakhand, or more specifically either Garhwali or Kumaon by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India.

Uttarakhand’s name is derived from the Sanskrit words Uttara meaning ‘north’, and khaṇḍa meaning ‘land’, altogether simply meaning ‘Northern Land’. The name finds mention in early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of “Kedarkhand” (present day Garhwal) and “Manaskhand” (present day Kumaon). Uttarakhand was also the ancient Puranic term for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas.

However, the region was given the name Uttaranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party led union government and Uttarakhand state government when they started a new round of state reorganisation in 1998. Chosen for its allegedly less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among many activists for a separate state who saw it as a political act. The name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region, even while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage.

In August 2006, Union Council of Ministers assented to the demands of the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand statehood movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly in October 2006, and the Union Council of Ministers brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament. The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by then President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in December 2006, and since 1 January 2007 the state has been known as Uttarakhand.

Ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, Paleolithic stone tools (hundreds of thousands of years old), and megaliths provide evidence that the mountains of the region have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There are also archaeological remains which show the existence of early Vedic (c. 1500 BCE) practices in the area. The Pauravas, Khasas, Kiratas, Nandas, Mauryas, Kushanas, Kunindas, Guptas, Karkotas, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas, Katyuris, Raikas, Chands, Parmars or Panwars, Mallas, Shahs and the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

It is believed that the sage Vyasa scripted the Hindu epic Mahabharata in the state. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwal and Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet. It is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhism made inroads in this region. Folk Hindu shamanic practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy also persisted here. However, Garhwal and Kumaon were restored to nominal Vedic Hindu rule due to the travels of Shankaracharya and the arrival of migrants from the plains.

Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the Katyuris dynasty dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur valley (modern-day Baijnath) in Kumaon. The historically significant temples at Jageshwar are believed to have been built by the Katyuris and later remodeled by the Chands. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burman group known as Kirata are thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, and are believed to be ancestors of the modern day Bhotiya, Raji, Jad, and Banrawat people. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Garhwal Kingdom in the west and the Kumaon Kingdom in the east. During this period, learning and new forms of painting (the Pahari School of art) developed. Modern-day Garhwal was likewise unified under the rule of Parmars who, along with many Brahmins and Rajputs, also arrived from the plains. In 1791, the expanding Gorkha Empire of Nepal overran Almora, the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom. It was annexed to Kingdom of Nepal by Amar Singh Thapa. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom also fell to the Gurkhas. After the Anglo-Nepalese War, this region was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. The Garhwal Kingdom was then re-established from a smaller region in Tehri. Uttarakhand General Knowledge 2020

After India attained independence from the British, the Garhwal Kingdom was merged into the state of Uttar Pradesh, where Uttarakhand composed the Garhwal and Kumaon Divisions. Until 1998, Uttarakhand was the name most commonly used to refer to the region, as various political groups, including the Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (Uttarakhand Revolutionary Party), began agitating for separate statehood under its banner. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions. These bonds formed the basis of the new political identity of Uttarakhand, which gained significant momentum in 1994, when demand for separate statehood achieved almost unanimous acceptance among both the local populace and national political parties.

Uttarakhand is also well known for the mass agitation of the 1970s that led to the formation of the Chipko environmental movement and other social movements. Though primarily a livelihood movement rather than a forest conservation movement, it went on to become a rallying point for many future environmentalists, environmental protests, and movements the world over and created a precedent for non-violent protest. It stirred up the existing civil society in India, which began to address the issues of tribal and marginalised people. So much so that, a quarter of a century later, India Today mentioned the people behind the “forest satyagraha” of the Chipko movement as amongst “100 people who shaped India”. One of Chipko’s most salient features was the mass participation of female villagers. Both female and male activists played pivotal roles in the movement. Gaura Devi was the main activist who started this movement other participants was Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Sunderlal Bahuguna, and Ghanashyam Raturi, the popular Chipko poet. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

Uttarakhand has a total area of 53,483 km2, of which 86% is mountainous and 65% is covered by forest. Most of the northern part of the state is covered by high Himalayan peaks and glaciers. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the expanding development of Indian roads, railways and other physical infrastructure was giving rise to concerns over indiscriminate logging, particularly in the Himalaya. Two of the most important rivers in Hinduism originate in the glaciers of Uttarakhand, the Ganges at Gangotri and the Yamuna at Yamunotri. They are fed by myriad lakes, glacial melts and streams. These two along with Badrinath and Kedarnath form the Chota Char Dham, a holy pilgrimage for the Hindus.

The state hosts the Bengal tiger in Jim Corbett National Park, the oldest national park of the Indian subcontinent. The Valley of Flowers, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the upper expanses of Bhyundar Ganga near Joshimath in Gharwal region, is known for the variety and rarity of its flowers and plants. One who raised this was Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, who visited the region. As a consequence, Lord Dalhousie issued the Indian Forest Charter in 1855, reversing the previous laissez-faire policy. The following Indian Forest Act of 1878 put Indian forestry on a solid scientific basis. A direct consequence was the founding of the Imperial Forest School at Dehradun by Dietrich Brandis in 1878. Renamed the ‘Imperial Forest Research Institute’ in 1906, it is now known as the Forest Research Institute. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

Uttarakhand lies on the southern slope of the Himalaya range, and the climate and vegetation vary greatly with elevation, from glaciers at the highest elevations to subtropical forests at the lower elevations. The highest elevations are covered by ice and bare rock. Below them, between 3,000 and 5,000 metres are the western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows. The temperate western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests grow just below the tree line. At 3,000 to 2,600 metres elevation they transition to the temperate western Himalayan broadleaf forests, which lie in a belt from 2,600 to 1,500 metres elevation. Below 1,500 metres elevation lie the Himalayan subtropical pine forests. The Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests and the drier Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands cover the lowlands along the Uttar Pradesh border in a belt locally known as Bhabar. These lowland forests have mostly been cleared for agriculture, but a few pockets remain.

The native people of Uttarakhand are generally called Uttarakhand and sometimes specifically either Garhwali or Kumaon depending on their place of origin in either the Garhwal or Kumaon region. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292 comprising 5,137,773 males and 4,948,519 females, with 69.77% of the population living in rural areas. The state is the 20th most populous state of the country having 0.83% of the population on 1.63% of the land. The population density of the state is 189 people per square kilometre having a 2001–2011 decadal growth rate of 18.81%.

Uttarakhand was formed on the 9th November 2000 as the 27th State of India, when it was carved out of northern Uttar Pradesh. Located at the foothills of the Himalayan mountain ranges, it is largely a hilly State, having international boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. On its north-west lies Himachal Pradesh, while on the south is Uttar Pradesh. It is rich in natural resources especially water and forests with many glaciers, rivers, dense forests and snow-clad mountain peaks. Chardham, the four most sacred and revered Hindu temples of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri are nestled in the mighty mountains. It’s truly God’s Land (Dev Bhoomi). Dehradun is the Capital of Uttarakhand. It is one of the most beautiful resorts in the sub mountain tracts of India, known for its scenic surroundings. The town lies in the Dun Valley, on the watershed of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.

The State is rich in mineral deposits like limestone, marble, rock phosphate, dolomite, magnesite, copper, gypsum, etc. The number of small scale industries is 25,294 providing employment to 63,599 persons. As many as 1802 heavy and medium industries with an investment of Rs 20,000 crore employ 5 lakh persons. Most of the industries are forest-based. There are a total of 54,047 handicraft units in the state. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

Uttarakhand has a diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of 34,666 km2 which constitutes 65% of the total area of the state. Uttarakhand is home to rare species of plants and animals, many of which are protected by sanctuaries and reserves. National parks in Uttarakhand include the Jim Corbett National Park (the oldest national park of India) in Nainital and Pauri Garhwal District, and Valley of Flowers National Park & Nanda Devi National Park in Chamoli District, which together are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A number of plant species in the valley are internationally threatened, including several that have not been recorded from elsewhere in Uttarakhand. Rajaji National Park in Haridwar, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal District and Govind Pashu Vihar National Park & Gangotri National Park in Uttarkashi District are some other protected areas in the state. Uttarakhand GK Yearbook 2020

Some other useful links:

State Wise: Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Exams 2020 Must Read Study Material

Must Read Study Material for Competitive Exams 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

UPPSC Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for UPPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS PRELIMS 2020 ONLINE 60 DAYS PROGRAMME

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of U.P. (Static GK)

2. Latest Govt. Schemes

3. Latest Budget and Important Points

4. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

5. Practice MCQ

Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UPPSC and Other Uttar Pradesh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Uttar Pradesh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, UPPSC and Other Uttar Pradesh PSC exams across the State. UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020: Uttar Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

The history of Uttar Pradesh is very ancient and interesting. It is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bhardwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkaya, Vashishtha, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh.

In the sixth century B.C., Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new religions – Jainism and Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order, and it was in Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, where Buddha breathed his last. Several centres in Uttar Pradesh like Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi and Mathura became reputed centres of learning. In the medieval period, Uttar Pradesh passed under Muslim rule and led the way to new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures. Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas and many other intellectuals contributed to the growth of Hindi and other languages. UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020

Uttar Pradesh preserved its intellectual excellence even under the British administration. The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United Provinces in 1935. In January 1950 the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.

The State is bound by Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh in the north, Haryana in the west, Madhya Pradesh in the South and Bihar in the east. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into two distinct regions (i) Southern Hills and (ii) Gangetic Plain.

The biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumbha Mela is held at Allahabad every twelfth year and Ardh kumbh Mela every sixth year. Magh Mela is also held at Allahabad in January when the people come in large number to have a dip in the holy Sangam.

Uttar Pradesh, with a total area of 243,290 square kilometres (93,935 sq mi), is India’s fourth-largest state in terms of land area and is roughly of same size as United Kingdom. It is situated on the northern spout of India and shares an international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas border the state on the north, but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains. The larger Gangetic Plain region is in the north; it includes the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges plains and the Terai. The smaller Vindhya Range and plateau region is in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata and a varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateaus. The Bhabhar tract gives place to the terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass and thick forests interspersed with marshes and swamps. The sluggish rivers of the Bhabhar deepen in this area, their course running through a tangled mass of thick undergrowth. The terai runs parallel to the Bhabhar in a thin strip. The entire alluvial plain is divided into three sub-regions. The first in the eastern tract consisting of 14 districts which are subject to periodical floods and droughts and have been classified as scarcity areas. These districts have the highest density of population which gives the lowest per capita land. The other two regions, the central and the western are comparatively better with a well-developed irrigation system. They suffer from water logging and large-scale user tracts. In addition, the area is fairly arid. The state has more than 32 large and small rivers; of them, the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sarayu, Betwa, and Ghaghara are larger and of religious importance in Hinduism. UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020

Uttar Pradesh is the rainbow land where the multi-hued Indian Culture has blossomed from times immemorial. Blessed with a varaity of geographical land and many cultural diversities, Uttar Pradesh, has been the area of activity of historical heroes like – Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Mahavira, Ashoka, Harsha, Akbar and Mahatma Gandhi. Rich and tranquil expanses of meadows, perennial rivers, dense forestsand fertile soil of Uttar Pradesh have contributed numerous golden chapters to the annals of Indian History. Dotted with various holy shrines and piligrim places,full of joyous festivals, it plays an important role in the politics, education, culture, industry, agriculture and tourism of India.

Garlanded by the Ganga and Yamuna. The two pious rivers of Indian mythology, Uttar Pradesh is surrounded by Bihar in the East, Madhya Pradesh in the South, Rajasthan, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana in the west and Uttaranchal in the north and Nepal touch the northern borders of Uttar Pradesh, it assumes strategic importance for Indian defence. Its area of 2,36,286 sq kms. lies between latitude 24 deg to 31 deg and longitude 77 deg to 84 deg East. Area wise it is the fourth largest State of India. In sheer magnitude it is half of the area of France, three times of Portugal, four times of Ireland, seven times of Switzerland, ten times of Belgium and a little bigger than England. UPPSC GK Yearbook 2020

The British East India Company came into contact with the Awadh rulers during the reign of IIIrd Nawab of Awadh. There is no doubt that the history of Uttar Pradesh has run concurrently with the history of the country during and after the British rule, but it is also well-known that the contribution of the people of the State in National Freedom Movement had been significant.

The cultural heritage of Uttar pradesh was maintained in the period of the Ramayan and Mahabharat i.e. the epic period. The story of Ramayan revolves round the Ikshwaku dynasty of Kosal and of Mahabharat a round the ‘Kuru’ dynasty of Hastinapur. Local people firmly believe that the Ashram of Valmiki, the author of Ramayan, was in Brahmavart (Bithoor in Kanpur District) and it was in the surroundings of Naimisharany (Nimsar-Misrikh in Sitapur district) that Suta narrated the story of Mahabharat as he had heard it from Vyasji. Some of the Smritis and Puranas were also written in this State.Gautam Buddha, Mahavir, Makkhaliputta Goshal and great thinkers brought about a revolution in Uttar Pradesh in 6th century B.C. Out of these, Makkhaliputta Goshal, who was born at Shravan near Shravasti, was the founder of Ajivika sect…………………

Tripura Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Tripura Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for Tripura State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Tripura Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like TPSC and Other Tripura State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Tripura based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click Here To Download

Tripura Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Tripura is a state in North-East India which borders Bangladesh, Mizoram and Assam. It is surrounded by Bangladesh on its north, south and west: the length of its international border is 856 km (84 per cent of its total border). It shares a 53 km long border with Assam and a 109 km long border with Mizoram. The state is connected with the rest of India by only one road (NH-44) that runs through the hills to the border of Karimganj District in Assam and then winds through the states of Meghalaya, Assam and North Bengal to Calcutta.

At the time of Tripura’s merger with effect from October 15 1949 with the Indian Union, the major mode of farming was shifting cultivation or ‘Jhum’, which produced little surplus. A small proportion of the plain lands of the State were under settled agriculture undertaken by Bengalis, and the main crop was rice. Most of the plain lands of the State were not under cultivation and were covered with cane-brakes and marshes. Thus at the time of formation of the State, the economy was predominantly agricultural and forest-based, with no industrial base, a low level of urbanization and limited infrastructure.

For administrative convenience and decentralisation of power Tripura which had once been a single district only is now divided into altogether four districts, seventeen subdivisions and forty rural development blocks. Besides, a special feature of the state is the vibrant existence of an Autonomous District Council (ADC) for tribals based on 6th schedule of the Indian constitution. The ADC in Tripura encompasses 68.10% of the state’s total geographical territory and is home to roughly one third of the state’s population. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

Tripura is an attractive tourist destination with rich flora, fauna and spectacular sights that provide visual delight. The state has a rich cultural heritage. There is also great potential for development of tourist circuits, involving all the NE states and Bangladesh as well. All these offer attractive opportunities for the growth and development of Hospitality Industry.

Tripura lies in a geographically disadvantageous location in India, as only one major highway, the National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country. Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Atharamura, Longtharai, Shakhan and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys; Agartala, the capital, is located on a plain to the west. The state has a tropical savanna climate, and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which bamboo and cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura, which has a limited infrastructure. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state’s gross domestic product. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

According to 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87.75%. Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions, weddings and festivities; the use of locally crafted musical instruments and clothes; and the worship of regional deities. The sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti, Pilak and Deotamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions. The Great Chinmoy in Agartala was the former royal abode of the Tripuri king.

Tripura offers vast potential for growth in this sector. With an area of 10,491.69 Sq. Km, Tripura is one of the smallest States in the country. But this ancient State with its natural beauty of lustrous green valleys and the hill ranges covered with varied flora and fauna, the fascinating blend of culture, glorious history and traditional art and craft is in a highly advantageous position for development of tourism. For convenience of tourists the State has been divided into two tourist circuits. One is west-south Tripura circuit covering the tourist destinations of west and south Tripura Districts and the other tourist circuit is west-north Tripura circuit covering the tourist destinations of north Tripura and Dhalai District. The entire State is having huge potential in tourism, specially eco-tourism, religious tourism, heritage tourism, hill tourism, rural tourism etc.

Tripura has already emerged as a major tourist destination with concomitant and positive effect on its economy as the number of domestic as well as foreign tourists pouring in to the state has been steadily growing. Even though the revenue yield from tourism sector to the state coffer in Tripura is not yet as high as it is in tourism-centric states like Goa and Himachal Pradesh, the overall growth of this sector has been impressive over the past decade with promises for more in the coming years. In line with the policies of the government of India the tourism sector is attached great importance by the state government as an independent industry. In the year 2009 the state government launched the Tripura Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC) to unshackle this crucial sector from bureaucratic paraphernalia as well as to further stimulate growth.

Although there is no evidence of lower or middle Paleolithic settlements in Tripura, Upper Paleolithic tools made of fossil wood have been found in the Haora and Khowai valleys. The Indian epic, the Mahabharata; ancient religious texts, the Puranas; and the Edicts of Ashoka – stone pillar inscriptions of the emperor Ashoka dating from the third century BCE – all mention Tripura. An ancient name of Tripura is Kirat Desh (English: “The land of Kirat”), probably referring to the Kirata Kingdoms or the more generic term Kirata. However, it is unclear whether the extent of modern Tripura is coterminous with Kirat Desh. The region was under the rule of the Twipra Kingdom for centuries, although when this dates from is not documented. The Rajmala, a chronicle of Tripuri kings which was first written in the 15th century, provides a list of 179 kings, from antiquity up to Krishna Kishore Manikya (1830–1850), but the reliability of the Rajmala has been doubted. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

The boundaries of the kingdom changed over the centuries. At various times, the borders reached south to the jungles of the Sundarbans on the Bay of Bengal; east to Burma; and north to the boundary of the Kamarupa kingdom in Assam. There were several Muslim invasions of the region from the 13th century onward, which culminated in Mughal dominance of the plains of the kingdom in 1733, although their rule never extended to the hill regions. The Mughals had influence over the appointment of the Tripuri kings.

Tripura became a princely state during British rule in India. The kings had an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad (now the Comilla district of Bangladesh), in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state. Udaipur, in the south of Tripura, was the capital of the kingdom, until the king Krishna Manikya moved the capital to Old Agartala in the 18th century. It was moved to the new city of Agartala in the 19th century. Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

Following the independence of India in 1947, Tippera district – the estate in the plains of British India – became a part of East Pakistan, and Hill Tippera remained under a regency council until 1949. The Maharani Regent of Tripura signed the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9 September 1949, as a result of which Tripura became a Part C state of India. It became a Union Territory, without a legislature, in November 1956 and an elected ministry was installed in July 1963. The geographic partition that coincided with the independence of India resulted in major economic and infrastructural setbacks for the state, as road transport between the state and the major cities of India had to follow a more circuitous route. The road distance between Kolkata and Agartala before the partition was less than 350 km (220 mi), and increased to 1,700 km, as the route now avoided East Pakistan. The geo-political isolation was aggravated by an absence of rail transport. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

Parts of the state were shelled by the Pakistan Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Following the war, the Indian government reorganised the North East region to ensure effective control of the international borders – three new states came into existence on 21 January 1972 Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura. Since the partition of India, many Hindu Bengalis have migrated to Tripura as refugees from East Pakistan; settlement by Hindu Bengalis increased at the time of the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. Hindu Bengalis migrated to Tripura after 1949 to escape religious persecution in Muslim majority East Pakistan. Before independence, most of the population was indigenous; Ethnic strife between the Tripuri tribe and the predominantly immigrant Bengali community led to scattered violence, and an insurgency spanning decades. This gradually abated following the establishment of a tribal autonomous district council and the use of strategic counter-insurgency operations. Tripura remains peaceful, as of 2016.

Tripura is a landlocked state in North East India, where the seven contiguous states – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura – are collectively known as the Seven Sister States. Spread over 10,491.69 km2 (4,050.86 sq mi), Tripura is the third-smallest among the 28 states in the country, behind Goa and Sikkim. It extends from 22°56’N to 24°32’N, and 91°09’E to 92°20’E. Its maximum extent measures about 178 km from north to south, and 131 km east to west. Tripura is bordered by the country of Bangladesh to the west, north and south; and the Indian states of Assam to the north east; and Mizoram to the east. It is accessible by national highways passing through the Karimganj district of Assam and Mamit district of Mizoram. Tripura Latest Affairs Yearbook2020

The economy of Tripura can be characterised by the high rate of poverty, low capital formation, inadequate infrastructure facilities, geographical isolation and communication bottlenecks, inadequate exploration and use of forest and mineral resources, slow industrialisation and high unemployment. More than 50% of the population depends on agriculture for sustaining their livelihood. However agriculture and allied activities to Gross State Domestic Production (GSDP) is only 23%, this is primarily because of low capital base in the sector. Despite the inherent limitation and constraints coupled with severe resources for investing in basic infrastructure, this has brought consistency progress in the quality of life and income of people cutting across all sections of society. The state government through its Tripura Industrial Policy and Tripura Industrial Incentives Scheme, 2012, has offered heavy subsidies in capital investment and transport, preferences in government procurement, waivers in tender processes and fees, yet the impact has been not much significant beyond a few industries being set up in the Bodhjungnagar Industrial Growth Center.

Some other useful links:

State Wise: Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Exams 2020 Must Read Study Material

Must Read Study Material for Competitive Exams 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

TPSC Telangana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Telangana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for TPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Telangana Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like TPSC and Other Telangana State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Telangana based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, TPSC and Other PSC exams and across the State. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Telangana General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click Here To Download

TPSC Telangana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Telangana state was formed on the 2nd of June 2014. The state has an area of 112077 Sq. Km. and has a population of 35003674. The Telangana region was part of the Hyderabad state from Sept 17th 1948 to Nov 1st 1956, until it was merged with Andhra state to form the Andhra Pradesh state.

After decades of movement for a separate State, Telangana was created by passing the AP State Reorganization Bill in both houses of Parliament. Telangana is surrounded by Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in the North, Karnataka in the West and Andhra Pradesh in the South and East directions. Major cities of the state include Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad, Nalgonda, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

Telangana, as a geographical and political entity was born on June 2, 2014 as the 29th and the youngest state in Union of India. However, as an economic, social, cultural and historical entity it has a glorious history of at least two thousand five hundred years or more. Megalithic stone structures like cairns, cists, dolmens and menhir​s found in several districts of Telangana show that there were human habitations in this part of the country thousands of years ago. Remnants of iron ore smelting found at many places demonstrate the hoary roots of artisanship and tool making in Telangana for at least two thousand years. The reference to Asmaka Janapada, part of present Telangana, as one of the 16 Janapadas in ancient India proves that there exist an advanced stage of society.

One of the first five disciples of the Buddha, Kondanna is a typical name from Telangana and though there is no exact information about his native place, the earliest known Buddhist township of Kondapur in Medak district is believed to be after him. The Buddha himself famously acknowledged that it was Kondanna who understood him properly. The Buddhist sources say that Bavari, a Brahmin from Badan kurti in Karimnagar sent his disciples to all the way to north India to learn Buddhism and spread the message in this region. Megasthenes, who visited India in the 4th century BCE, wrote that there were 30 fortified towns of Andhras and a majority of them were in Telangana. In the historical age, Telangana had given rise to mighty empires and kingdoms like the Satavahanas, Vakatakas, Ikshvakus, Vishnukundins, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Qutb Shahis and Asif Jahis.

The emergence and flourishing of these powerful political formations is in itself a proof of existence of a sturdy economic, social and cultural structure. Thus Telangana has been a vibrant social entity by the time of the Buddha and continued to be so for the next two and a half millennia. Endowed with such rich cultural heritage, despite the attempts by historians and scholars from Andhra region to obfuscate and erase its history, Telangana always retained and fought for its self respect and self rule. Due to the official efforts to ignore, erase, belittle and look down Telangana history and turn it into an appendage or a footnote, particularly during 1956-2014, much of Telangana history is either not properly researched or not recorded even if it was studied. Telangana rose again and secured its political identity now and is in the process of resurrecting its own glorious past. Here is an attempt to reconstruct the history of Telangana, the wonderful musical instrument with a thousand strings.

Even though extensive exploration has not been done, particularly subjected to neglect after 1956, the archaeological ​​department under the Nizams’ government had done tremendous work in discovering the traces of pre-historical human habitations in Telangana. These studies found that human habitations in parts of Telangana can be seen from the Paleolithic age consistently. Either the same locations or extended locations showed people continued to live and develop through the later stages of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Metal ages. Excavations discovered stone tools, microliths, cists, dolmens, cairns and menhirs.  All the ten districts of Telangana showed these traces even when a proper, scientific and official research and excavations have not been done and thanks to the efforts of either the first generation researchers before 1950s or individual amateur explorations.  Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

In the historical age beginning from 1000 BCE there are some references of Telangana as a geographical entity as well as Telugu as a linguistic entity, in the contemporary Buddhist and mythological texts. However, it needs a detailed research to discover finer aspects and establish the stage of development of pre-Satavahana society. Thought the official research into this aspect was stalled for about six decades, some enthusiasts like Thakur Rajaram Singh, B N Sastry and Dr D Raja Reddy did their own painstaking explorations and showed that there was a flourishing society before the emergence of the Satavahanas. Particularly Dr Raja Reddy proved with numismatic evidence that there were rulers before the Satavahanas with Kotalingala as capital and issued their own coins. In these excavations the coins of Gobada, Naarana, Kamvaaya and Samagopa were discovered and at least two other rulers’ names came to light.  Thus Telangana happens to be the first region in the subcontinent to have issued punch-marked coins with even insignia. The Buddhist texts as well as accounts of foreigners like Magesthenes and Arrian talked about this region as having thirty forts, many of which have to be explored.

After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, around the third century BC there arose the first significant kingdom under the Satavahanas from this region. The earliest capital of the Satavahanas was Kotalingala and then moved to the other popular capitals like Paithan and Amaravati (Dharanikota) only after two centuries of their rule. However, the first capital was either ignored or brushed aside to give prominence to the later place in coastal Andhra. The coins issued by the Satavahana kings Simuka (BC 231-208), Siri Satavahana, Satakani I, Satasiri, Satakani II, Vasittiputta Pulumayi, Vasittiputta Satakani and their governors were discovered in Kotalingala. Numismatic and epigraphic evidence showed that the Satavahanas ruled a larger area of the peninsula, with oceans as borders on three sides. Literature like Gathasaptashati, painting like Ajanta flourished during the Satavahana rule. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

After the fall of Satavahanas in the third century AD, Telugu-speaking areas were divided under various small rulers and till the emergence of the Kakatiyas, for about six or seven centuries this fragmentation continued. Even as the mainstream Andhra historians maintained that it was a dark period in Telangana history without any political formation, the current research found that Telangana was ruled by various kingdoms like the Ikshvakus, Vakatakas, Vishnukundins, Badami Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Vemulavada Chalukyas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Mudigonda Chalukyas, Kanduri Chodas and Polvasa dynasty. A detailed research into this period is yet to take place.

The sub-feudatories of the Rashtrakutas emerged themselves as independent kings and founded the Kakatiya dynasty around 950 AD and this kingdom became strong and united whole of Telugu-speaking lands and lasted for more than three centuries and a half. The kingdom saw powerful kings like Ganapati deva, Rudra deva and Prataparudra as well as the first ever woman ruler in the subcontinent Rudrama devi. The Kakatiyas ruled from Hanumakonda in the beginning and shifted their capital to Warangal later. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

The Kakatiyas are known for their irrigation public works, sculpture and fire arts. Thanks to the well-planned irrigation facilities and a perfect system of chain tanks to suit the undulating nature of the terrain, the Kakatiya kingdom flourished economically leading to cultural progress also. Envy of this affluence, several ne​​​​ighbouring kingdoms as well as Delhi Sultanate tried to wage war on Warangal many times and failed. Finally in 1323, Delhi army could lay seize on Warangal fort and capture Prataparudra, who, according to the legend, killed himself on the banks of the Narmada unwilling to surrender   when he was being taken as prisoner of war to Delhi.

After Prataparudra was defeated by Malik Kafur in 1323, the Kakatiya kingdom was again fragmented with local governors declaring independence and for about 150 years Telangana was again under different rulers like Musunuri Nayakas, Padmanayaka, Kalinga Gangas, Gajapatis, and Bahmanis.

Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, subedar for Telangana under the Bahamanis, with Golconda as his capital, declared his independence in 1496 and seven sultans of this dynasty ruled not only Telangana but the entire Telugu-speaking land including parts of present day Maharashtra and Karnataka. The Moghul empire waged war and defeated Golconda in 1687 and for about three decades Telangana was again witnessed chaos and fragmented rulers. 

In 1712, Emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamar-ud-din Khan as the viceroy of Deccan and gave him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk . He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan and reclaimed the Deccan suba. It was established as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asaf Jahi Nizams or Nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

When Asaf Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams.

Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state’s defense and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.

A total of seven Nizam’s ruled Hyderabad. (there was a period of 13 years after the rule of Asaf Jah I, when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzaffar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were not officially recognised as the rulers:

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I (Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan)
  • Nasir Jung (Mir Ahmed Ali Khan)
  • ‏Muzaffar Jung (Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa’adullah Khan)
  • Salabat Jung (Mir Sa’id Muhammad Khan)
  • Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II (Mir Nizam Ali Khan)
  • Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III (Mir Akbar Ali Khan)
  • Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV (Mir Farqunda Ali Khan)
  • Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V (Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan)
  • Asaf Jah VI (Mir Mahbub Ali Khan)
  • Asaf Jah VII (Mir Osman Ali Khan) 

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, Hyderabad remained an independent princely state for a period of 13 months.

The peasants of Telangana waged an armed struggle to liberate the region. Scores of people lost their lives in the armed struggle. The private militia named Razakars, under the leadership of Qasim Razwi unleashed terror in the state by resorting to looting and murder.

On 17 September 1948, the Indian government conducted a military operation called Operation Polo to bring Hyderabad state into the Indian Union. It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there was an agitation by locals in the state to ensure proper representation was given to locals (mulkis) of Hyderabad. Telangana GK Yearbook 2020

In early 1950s, people of Telangana region in Hyderabad state, started organizing themselves with a demand for separate state. In 1953 the Indian government appointed the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) to look into various statehood demands in the country. The Commission was headed by Fazal Ali, Kavalam Madhava Panikkar and H.N. Kunzru

The SRC toured the whole country to seek representations from various sections of the society. People of Telangana region submitted several memorandums to the SRC and expressed their wish to constitute Telangana as a separate state. Telangana intellectuals such as late Prof Jayashankar and political leaders such as Sri HC Heda, Sri Konda Venkat Ranga Reddy gave memorandums containing historic, political, economic, social and cultural justifications for creating the Telangana state. The Commission submitted its report on 30 September 1955, and recommended formation of Telangana state.

During the period between 1955 September and 1956 November, the people of Telangana launched a series of protests demanding statehood by implementing the SRC recommendations. But intense lobbying by leaders from Andhra state in New Delhi resulted in the merger of Telangana region in Andhra state to form the Andhra Pradesh state.

Telangana leaders insisted on a Gentlemen’s Agreement before the merger could take place. The agreement was signed by Andhra and Telangana leaders and provided safeguards with the purpose of preventing discrimination against Telangana by the Andhra leaders.However, the agreement was violated from day one by the Andhra leaders.

State Wise:Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Exams 2020 Must Read Study Material

Must Read Study Material for Competitive Exams 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for State PSC and all other competitive exams, this book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like TNPSC and Other Tamil Nadu & Puducherry State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Tamil Nadu & Puducherry based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other Tamil Nadu & Puducherry PSC exams across the State. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Tamil Nadu & Puducherry General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click Here To Download

Tamil Nadu & Puducherry Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

When India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became Madras state, comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Odisha, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning “Tamil country”.

Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km2, and is the tenth largest state in India. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the North West and Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

The western, southern and the northwestern parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at the Nilgiri hills. The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions.

Tamil Nadu has the country’s third longest coastline at about 906.9 km. Tamil Nadu’s coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in zones II and III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

Tamil Nadu is bounded on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka on west by Kerala, on east by the Bay of Bengal and on South by the Indian Ocean.

Tamil Nadu has a wide range of biomes extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, sea grasses and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal. The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are protected areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more national parks. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established in 1986 is a marine ecosystem with seaweed sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the south west of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared national parks located in Anamalai, Mudumalai, Mukurthi, Gulf of Mannar, Guindy located in the centre of Chennai city and Vandalur located in South Chennai. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Mukurthi National Park and Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserves in the state. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

Tamil Nadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early Sangam classics throw historical references, it is only from the Pallavas we pass to recorded history. South India had remained under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of the 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountcy over South India.

Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the Bahamani Sultanate, by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India and at the close of the century and became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans.

Even during the period of the tumultuous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’. East India Company which had established their factory at Masulipatnam, now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1611 gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency which in 1901 covered the bulk of the southern peninsula. The composite Madras State was later reorganised and the present Tamil Nadu was formed.

Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chera, Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region’s cuisine, culture, and architecture. The British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai, then known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganisation of states on linguistic lines. The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

Tamil Nadu is the tenth largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest by population. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹16.64 lakh crore (US$230 billion) in gross domestic product with a per capita GDP of ₹194,000. Tamil Nadu has the sixth highest ranking among Indian states in human development index. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a “Multidimensional Development Index” in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India. Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.

Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggest that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before Homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago. The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is “very rudimentary” Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphically inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the Tamil language.

The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggest that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centres or port cities of the Sangam Era.

During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman-II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. TamilNadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola’s new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajita varman. Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola Empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose to a notable power in south east Asia. Now the Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal and Sri Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2. Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola’s navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, Philippines in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.

The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasurama and the Sarabeswara Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Tamil Nadu Puducherry Yearbook 2020

Sikkim GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Sikkim Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Sikkim Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Sikkim based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Sikkim State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Sikkim General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020: Sikkim Affairs

Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. It borders Tibet in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, and West Bengal in the south. Sikkim is also located close to India’s Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least populous and second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim’s capital and largest city is Gangtok. Almost 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park.

The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century. It was ruled by a Buddhist priest-king known as the Chogyal. It became a princely state of British India in 1890. After 1947, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Republic of India. It enjoyed the highest literacy rate and per capita income among Himalayan states. In 1973, anti-royalist riots took place in front of the Chogyals palace. In 1975, the monarchy was deposed by the people. A referendum in 1975 led to Sikkim joining India as its 22nd state. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

Modern Sikkim is a multiethnic and multilingual Indian state. The official languages of the state are English, Nepali, Sikkimese and Lepcha. Additional official languages include Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang for the purpose of preservation of culture and tradition in the state. English is taught in schools and used in government documents. The predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Sikkim’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture and tourism, and as of 2014 the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, although it is also among the fastest-growing. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

Sikkim accounts for the largest share of cardamom production in India, and is the world’s second largest producer of the spice after Guatemala. Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to fully organic over the interval 2003 to 2016, the first state in India to achieve this distinction. It is also among India’s most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles “in any government functions and meetings” and polystyrene products (throughout the state).

According to legend, Khye Bumsa, a 14th-century prince from the Minyak House in Kham in eastern Tibet, received a divine revelation instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes. A fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, Phuntsog Namgyal, became the founder of Sikkim’s monarchy in 1642, when he was consecrated as the first Chogyal, or priest-king, of Sikkim by the three venerated lamas at Yuksom. Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son, Tensung Namgyal, who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse (near modern Pelling). In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, who had been denied the throne. The Bhutanese were driven away by the Tibetans, who restored the throne to the Chogyal ten years later. Between 1717 and 1733, the kingdom faced many raids by the Nepalese in the west and Bhutanese in the east, culminating with the destruction of the capital Rabdentse by the Nepalese. In 1791, China sent troops to support Sikkim and defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal. The Nepalese attacked Sikkim, overrunning most of the region including the Terai. This prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal, resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal resulted in the return of the territory annexed by the Nepalese in 1817. However, ties between Sikkim and the British weakened when the latter began taxation of the Morang region. In 1849, two British physicians, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr. Archibald Campbell, the latter being in charge of relations between the British and Sikkimese governments, ventured into the mountains of Sikkim unannounced and unauthorised. The doctors were detained by the Sikkimese government, leading to a punitive British expedition against the kingdom, after which the Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to British India in 1853. The invasion led to the Chogyal of Sikkim becoming a titular ruler under the directive of the British governor. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

Prior to Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, as the Vice President of the Executive Council, pushed through a resolution in the Indian Constituent Assembly to the effect that Sikkim and Bhutan, as Himalayan states, were not ‘Indian states’ and their future should be negotiated separately. A standstill agreement was signed in February 1948. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

Meanwhile, Indian independence and its move to democracy spurred a fledgling political movement in Sikkim, giving rise to the formation of Sikkim State Congress (SSC). The party sent a plate of demands to the palace, including a demand for accession to India. The palace attempted to defuse the movement by appointing three secretaries from the SSC to the government and sponsoring a counter-movement in the name of Sikkim National Party, which opposed accession to India. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

The demand for responsible government continued and the SSC launched a civil disobedience movement. The Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal asked India for help in quelling the movement, which was offered in the form of a small military police force and an Indian Dewan. In 1950, a treaty was agreed between India and Sikkim which gave Sikkim the status of an Indian protectorate. Sikkim came under the suzerainty of India, which controlled its external affairs, defence, diplomacy and communications. In other respects, Sikkim retained administrative autonomy.

A state council was established in 1953 to allow for constitutional government under the Chogyal. Despite pressures from an India “bent on annexation”, Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal was able to preserve autonomy and shape a “model Asian state” where the literacy rate and per capita income were twice as high as neighbouring Nepal, Bhutan and India. Meanwhile, the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for Nepalis in Sikkim. People marched on the palace against the monarchy. In 1973, anti-royalist riots took place in front of the Chogyals palace. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

In 1975, the Prime Minister of Sikkim appealed to the Indian Parliament for Sikkim to become a state of India. In April of that year, the Indian Army took over the city of Gangtok and disarmed the Chogyal’s palace guards. Thereafter, a referendum was held in which 97.5 per cent of voters supported abolishing the monarchy, effectively approving union with India. India is said to have stationed 20,000–40,000 troops in a country of only 200,000 during the referendum. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union, and the monarchy was abolished. To enable the incorporation of the new state, the Indian Parliament amended the Indian Constitution. First, the 35th Amendment laid down a set of conditions that made Sikkim an “Associate State”, a special designation not used by any other state. A month later, the 36th Amendment repealed the 35th Amendment, and made Sikkim a full state, adding its name to the First Schedule of the Constitution. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

In 2000, the seventeenth Karmapa, Urgyen Trinley Dorje, who had been confirmed by the Dalai Lama and accepted as a tulku by the Chinese government, escaped from Tibet, seeking to return to the Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. Chinese officials were in a quandary on this issue, as any protests to India would mean an explicit endorsement of India’s governance of Sikkim, which China still recognised as an independent state occupied by India. The Chinese government eventually recognised Sikkim as an Indian state in 2003, on the condition that India officially recognise Tibet as a part of China; New Delhi had originally accepted Tibet as a part of China in 1953 during the government of Jawaharlal Nehru. The 2003 agreement led to a thaw in Sino-Indian relations, and on 6 July 2006, the Sikkimese Himalayan pass of Nathu La was opened to cross-border trade, becoming the first open border between India and China. The pass, which had previously been closed since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, was an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road.

On 18 September 2011, a magnitude 6.9Mw earthquake struck Sikkim, killing at least 116 people in the state and in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Tibet. More than 60 people died in Sikkim alone, and the city of Gangtok suffered significant damage. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

The early history of Sikkim starts in the 13th century with the signing of a blood-brotherhood treaty between the Lepcha Chief Thekong Tek and Tibetan prince Khye-Bumsa at Kabi Lungtsok in North Sikkim. This follows the historical visit of three revered Lamas to Yuksam in 1641 in West Sikkim, where they consecrated Phuntsog Namgyal, a sixth generation descendent of Khye-Humsa as the first Chogyal of Sikkim, thus heralding the beginning of the Namgyal dynasty in Sikkim. With the march of history, events in Sikkim saw the state pass through the process of democratisation and became an integral part of the Indian Union in 1975. Guru Padmasambhava blessed Sikkim route to Tibet. Sikkim is a blessed land, where people from all communities live in harmony. Inspite of the fact that Sikkim comprises of different people and multi ethnic society, perhaps it is the most peaceful state of the Indian Union to promote communal harmony and human relations, a feat which is much expected in a plural society like India.

The world’s third highest mountain, Kanchenjunga, regarded as the guardian deity of Sikkim, dominates the tiny Himalayan State with its awe-inspiring beauty and majesty. Sikkim is one of the 18 Biodiversity hotspots in the world. The Sikkim Himalayas show tremendous biological diversity. More than 5000 species of angiosperms are found in the State, which is nearly one third of the total species of angiosperm found in the country. There are 4,000 species of flowering plants, 362 species of ferns and allies, over 550 species of orchids, at least 36 species of Rhododendrons besides many variations and wild natural hybrids, 11 species of Oaks, 30 species of Primulas, 28 bamboos, over 700 species of Butterflies, probably thrice as many Moths, at least 48 species of freshwater fish around 50 species of Ambhibians, over 80 Reptiles, 600 species of birds, and around 150 species of Mammals in the state. Rare and globally threatened Snow Leopard, Tibetan Argali Sheep, Red Panda, as well as highest altitude domesticated bovid, the Yak, Black-necked Crane and Fairrieanum Orchid some of the most important species found here. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

The State government has encouraged agro-based industry in horticulture as well as agriculture keeping in view of the State’s immense wealth in natural resources. Sikkim is proud to be the largest producer of large cardamom. In view of the changing trends of world eco-system, the Chief Minister has announced a paradigm shift in the agricultural/horticultural policy by endeavoring to become the first organic State of the country. The prime concern are environment security, ecological susceptibility, product brand leading to better farm returns and inheritance of a highly developed mountain agriculture system, handed down through generations. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

Horticulture is one of the important sub-sectors that has involved into an engine of rural prosperity in the State. The major exportable items from the State comprises of horticulture produced such as ginger, large cardamom, flowers and Sikkim mandarin.

Thrust has been laid on development of traditional strengths such as large cardamom and orange, Diversification into floriculture, off-season vegetables, apiculture, organic farming and mushrooms has added new dimension to horticulture development initiatives.

The production of fruits has increased from 5250 to 20080 tonnes recording a growth of 282 per cent. Special programmes on area expansion and rejuvenation of old orange orchards backed up by scientific technology and cost effective inputs have been launched.

For development of off-season vegetables, introduction of hybrid/improved varieties of vegetables seeds in area specific clusters is the strategy. The production of vegetables has increased from 22,130 to 75,200 tonnes thereby registering 240 per cent growth.

The most remarkable growth is seen in floriculture where a record growth of 200 ha with production of over 230 lakh numbers of cut flowers and planting material has been recorded over a period of one and a half decade. The strategy lined up for development of floriculture includes programme implementation in cluster, use of elite planting materials, capacity building and skill development of growers and intensive follow-up.

Protected cultivation is one area that has recorded exponential growth in the State. Farmers are reaping huge profit by growing vegetables and flowers in greenhouses. So far, 10,360 low cost Polyhouses and 850 tubular structures have been constructed.

To mitigate water stress, 100 nos. of large community water tanks have been constructed. Flexible type of Genap tanks have been set up in many areas using imported Israeli and Holland technology. Dug out sunken ponds and roof water harvesting structures have been constructed in different vegetable fields and fruit orchards. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

Though Sikkim is a tiny Himalayan State, the Government and its people are very conscious about the environment and therefore have paid priority for setting up eco-friendly industries and the thrust areas are agro-horticulture and floriculture based, Animal husbandry and dairy development, handloom and handicrafts; tourism, precision oriented high value low volume products, Hydel power, tea, health, education etc. After the announcement of North-East Industrial and Investment Policy, 2007, to North-East region, including Sikkim w.e.f 1 April 2007, a number of industrial units have been set up especially in pharmaceutical and other activities like packing etc., besides the existing famous units like Government Fruit Preservation Factory (G.F.P.F.), Temi Tea Estate and Directorate of Handloom and Handicrafts. The Sikkim Industrial Development and Investment Corporation and NEDFI are providing long term loans to micro and medium industrial activities and other services oriented units. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

The Department of Irrigation and Flood Control has covered 3701.03 hectares of agricultural land till the mid of Eleventh Five Year Plan. The target of Eleventh Five Year Plan was to irrigate 10,000 hectares of agricultural land. Further, 225 schemes were sanctioned during 2010-11 which have potential target to irrigate 8244.12 hectare of agricultural land.

Power sector is one of the vital sectors for the State. Its development is important because it will have two fold effects on the economy of the State. With the easy availability of electricity, the socio-economic condition of the people of Sikkim would favorably rise on the one hand while on the other hand revenue from the export of power will help the State to strengthen its revenue base. Thus, the sector has to be speedily developed to cater to the demand within and outside the State.

The total Hydro Power Potential of Sikkim is assessed by Central Water Commission, Government of India is around 8,000 MW, out of which around 2,000 MW is in the Micro, Mini and Small Hydro category. Remaining 6,000 MW would fall either in the small or mega size hydro scheme.

With the aim of achieving total installed capacity of 5,500 MW by the end of 12th Plan, the Energy and Power Department has so far allotted 27 hydroelectric power projects with a total installed capacity of 5,334 MW to various Independent Power Producers including NHPC.

The projects have been allotted to Private Power Developers on BOOT arrangement i.e. Build, OWN, Operate and Transfer Basis for a period of 35 years and at the end of 35th year the projects shall be reverted back to the State free of cost in good operating condition by the developers.

Roads: Gangtok is connected by roads with Darjeeling district of West Bengal and also with all the district headquarters within Sikkim. The total road length of the State is 2,933.49km which includes 873.40km road maintained by the Border Roads Organization.

Railways and Aviation: The closest railway stations are Siliguri and New Jalpaiguri connecting Kolkata, Delhi, Bagdogra airport and other important cities. There is no airport in Sikkim, although there is a helicopter service between Gangtok and Bagdogra, heavily subsidised by the State Government. The State has also initiated construction of a number of helipads to connect the district and sub-divisional headquarters and important tourist places. Green field airport is being constructed at Pakyong in East Sikkim. There is a regular helicopter service between Gangtok and Bagdogra. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

Nestling in the Himalayan Mountains, the state of Sikkim is characterised by mountainous terrain. Almost the entire state is hilly, with an elevation ranging from 280 metres in the south at border with West Bengal to 8,586 metres in northern peaks near Nepal and Tibet. The summit of Kangchenjunga, the world’s third-highest peak, is the state’s highest point, situated on the border between Sikkim and Nepal. For the most part, the land is unfit for agriculture because of the rocky, precipitous slopes. However, some hill slopes have been converted into terrace farms.

Numerous snow-fed streams have carved out river valleys in the west and south of the state. These streams combine into the major Teesta River and its tributary, the Rangeet, which flow through the state from north to south. About a third of the state is heavily forested. The Himalayan Mountains surround the northern, eastern and western borders of Sikkim. The Lower Himalayas, lying in the southern reaches of the state, are the most densely populated.

The state has 28 mountain peaks, more than 80 glaciers, 227 high-altitude lakes (including the Tsongmo, Gurudongmar and Khecheopalri Lakes), five major hot springs, and more than 100 rivers and streams. Eight mountain passes connect the state to Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal.

Sikkim’s hot springs are renowned for their medicinal and therapeutic values. Among the state’s most notable hot springs are those at Phurchachu, Yumthang, Borang, Ralang, Taram-chu and Yumey Samdong. The springs, which have high sulphur content, are located near river banks; some are known to emit hydrogen. The average temperature of the water in these hot springs is 50 °C (122 °F).

Sikkim is situated in an ecological hotspot of the lower Himalayas, one of only three among the ecoregions of India. The forested regions of the state exhibit a diverse range of fauna and flora. Owing to its altitudinal gradation, the state has a wide variety of plants, from tropical species to temperate, alpine and tundra ones, and is perhaps one of the few regions to exhibit such diversity within such a small area. Nearly 81 per cent of the area of Sikkim comes under the administration of its forest department.

The opening of the Nathu La pass on 6 July 2006, connecting Lhasa, Tibet, to India, was billed as a boon for Sikkim’s economy. Trade through the pass remains hampered by Sikkim’s limited infrastructure and government restrictions in both India and China, though the volume of traded goods has been steadily increasing. Sikkim GK Yearbook 2020

Districts of Sikkim

The visitor to Sikkim will be spoilt for choice with each of the four districts offering a unique travel opportunity.

East District:

The east district is the most populated with Gangtok being the main administrative and business centre. Apart from the modern attractions of the capital town, in the east you will also find the beautiful Tsomgo Lake, the historically important Nathula pass, as well as many monasteries and temples. Gangtok is the capital of Sikkim and heart of all the business hubs.

West District:

West Sikkim is replete with history and religion. This is where the first Chogyal of Sikkim was consecrated at Yuksum in 1642 and this is where some of the holiest and most important monasteries of Sikkim were established, including Dubdi and Sanga Choling, the first monasteries to be built in Sikkim. West Sikkim is beautiful terrain abounding in lakes and waterfalls and also has great trekking routes. Gyalshing is the head quarter and town of the West District.

South District:

South Sikkim, the smallest district belies its size with its variety of tourist attractions. With stupendous view of the Khangchendzonga range, the south of Sikkim is a fairy tale land of picturesque villages and high hills. Near Namchi, the district headquarters is Samdruptse Hill, the site of the 135 feet tall statue of Guru Padmasambhava. In the south too are Tendong Hill and Maenam Hill, of mythical importance to the Lepchas and Bhutias, as well as the tourist destination of Ravangla which hosts the annual Pang Lhabsol festival with great pageantry. Namchi is the district headquarters of South Sikkim which is 78 kms from Gangtok. Sikkim Affairs Yearbook 2020

North District:

Perhaps the most beautiful of the districts, the North offers an exquisite experience for the lover of Nature and alpine scenery. Yumthang alone is enough to satiate the most demanding, with its panoramic Valley of Flowers. During springtime the lush meadows abound with delicate wildflowers that carpet the Valley floor in a rich riot of colors. A must-see here is the Hot Springs and the vibrant Sikkimese tribal culture and customs. 67 kms from Gangtok is the Mangan District Headquarter of North District. A three day music festival is held at Mangan in December every year.

Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Punjab Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Punjab based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Punjab State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Punjab General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

Punjab Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, and the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest. It is bordered by the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India’s total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic groups are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) and Hindus (38%). The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab is a state in northwest region of India and is one of the most prosperous states.

The name Punjab is made of two words Punj (Five) + Aab (Water) i.e. land of five rivers. These five rivers of Punjab are Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum. Only Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow in today’s Punjab. The other two rivers are now in the state of Punjab, situated in Pakistan. The Punjab State is divided into three regions: Majha, Doaba and Malwa.

Agriculture is the mainstay of Punjab’s economy. Other major industries include manufacturing of scientific instruments, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines etc.

Punjab has made considerable economic progress after Independence despite the setback it suffered in 1947. It contributes nearly two thirds to the total production of food grains and a third of milk production in the country. It is the leading producer of wheat, thereby contributing to the national food security. The initiative of Green revolution (a major agricultural initiative) has been keenly taken forward by the people of Punjab. Even though Punjabis account for less than 2.5% of the Indian population, they are one of the most prosperous races in India. Their per capita income is twice the national average. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab is considered to have the best infrastructure in India; this includes road, rail, air and river transport links that are extensive throughout the region. Punjab also has the lowest poverty rate in India and has won the best state performance award, based on statistical data compiled by the Indian Government.

According to 2011 Census of India, the total Population of Punjab is 2, 77, 43, 338,  The decadal change i.e. increase in population from 2001 to 2011 is 13.89%.

The total area of the state is 50,362 square kilometers (19,445 square miles), with the cultivable area being under assured irrigation. Its average elevation is 300 meters (980 ft) above sea level, with a range from 180 meters (590 ft) in the southwest to more than 500 meters (1,600 ft) around the northeast border. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab extends from the latitudes 29.30° north to 32.32° North and longitudes 73.55° east to 76.50° east.

Punjab is bounded on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the northeast by Himachal Pradesh and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan.

The state has a balanced amalgamation of heat in summer, rain in monsoon and cold in winter. The three seasons are so distinctly distributed that you can enjoy each of them individually.  Punjab experiences both summer and winter to its extreme. It even receives abundant rainfall, which makes the state a very fertile land. The region lying near the foot hills of Himalayas receive heavy rainfall whereas the region lying at a distant from the hills, the rainfall is scanty and the temperature is high. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

The summer months span from mid April to the end of June. The rainy season in Punjab is from early July to end of September. October marks the beginning of the winter season. From December onwards, the winter becomes chilly. Most of the major festivals of Punjab, like Lohri, Holla Mohalla, Diwali, and Dussehra, fall during this period. The best time to visit Punjab is from October to the end of March.

Punjabi, the official language of the state, is the tenth most widely spoken language in the world. It is also the fourth most spoken language in Asia. It is the only living language among the Indo-European languages which is a fully tonal language. Punjabi is written in the Gurumukhi Script. Besides Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu and the universally acclaimed English are the languages that are spoken in Punjab.

Chandigarh is a union territory and serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. It is one of the early planned cities in the post-independence India. Picturesquely located at the foothills of Shivaliks, it is known as one of the best experiments in urban planning and modern architecture in the twentieth century in India. The dream city of India’s first Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru, and Chandigarh was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier.

The foundation stone of the city was laid in 1952. In March, 1948, the Government of Punjab, in consultation with the Government of India, approved the area of the foothills of the Shivaliks as the site for the new capital. The location of the city site was a part of the erstwhile Ambala district as per the 1892-93 gazetteer of District Ambala. Subsequently, at the time of reorganization of the state on 01.11.1966 into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pardesh, the city assumed the unique distinction of being the capital city of both, Punjab and Haryana while it itself was declared as a Union Territory and under the direct control of the Central Government.

It is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world with a distinguished culture. Punjabi language has its origins in the Indo-European family of languages which included Persian and Latin. A land of ethnic and religious diversity, it is birth place of a number of religious movements. Some of the prominent ones include Sikhism, Buddhism and many Sufi schools of Islam.

The Indian State of Punjab was created in 1947, when the partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan’s Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh eastern part became India’s Punjab state. The partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence, as many Sikhs and Hindus lived in the west and many Muslims lived in the east. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of Indian Punjab. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

In 1950, two separate states were created; Punjab included the former Raj province of Punjab, while the princely states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kalsia were combined into a new state, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Himachal Pradesh was created as a union territory from several princely states and Kangra District. In 1956, PEPSU was merged into Punjab state, and several northern districts of Punjab in the Himalayas were added to Himachal Pradesh.

Source

The history of Punjab has witnessed the migration and settlement of innumerable races, forming a melting pot of Punjabi civilisation. The first traces of human habitation in India were found in the Punjab region. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in antiquity before recorded history until their decline around 1900 BCE. The Punjab has had numerous recorded invasions, starting with the Vedic tribes. Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including the Achaemenid, Alexander’s, Seleucid, and Maurya Empires. After the fall of the Maurya Empire, the region was splintered into multiple kingdoms and republics. Punjab was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, and then Harsha’s Empire. Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna, Turkic and the Mongols. Circa 1000, the Punjab was ruled by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, and Durrani Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire and ensuing conflict with the Durrani Empire. This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Greater Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western part was assimilated into Pakistan while the east became part of India. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Hindi speaking areas (including various dialects) were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab. Punjab’s government has three branches – executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region. In later years it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryas, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Medieval Punjab saw supremacy of the Muslims. Ghaznavid was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khilji’s, the Tughlaqs, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked a period of watershed in the history of Punjab. Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Sikhism began as a socio-religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa. They rose to challenge tyranny and after centuries of servitude, established a humane Punjabi Raj based on secularism and patriotism. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the works of a Persian writer, changed Punjab from Madam Kada to Bagh-Bahist (from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise). But soon after his death the entire edifice collapsed due to internal intrigues and British machinations. After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849.

The fight against the British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival on the scene. The revolt found expression through the movement of a revivalist or reformist character. First, it was the Namdhari sect, which believed in self-discipline and self-rule. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the Freedom Movement. Punjab was in the vanguard of India’s freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad. Punjab’s hardships did not end with Independence. It had to face the misery of Partition with large-scale bloodshed and migration. Besides their rehabilitation, there was the task of reorganization of the State.

Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form a single State called PEPSU (Patiala and the East Punjab States Union) with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab in 1956. Later in 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab and during the same year the erstwhile capital of Punjab was shifted from Shimla to Chandigarh.

Situated in the north-western corner of the country, Punjab is bound on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the north-east by Himachal Pradesh and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan. There are 13 Members of Parliament from Punjab and 117 Members of Legislature are elected to form the State Government. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

Punjab has accorded top priority to the development of Agriculture sector and has achieved about 3 per cent growth in the first for years of the 11th year Plan. Sustenance of cereal production and productivity is not only important for the State but also for the food security of the nation. The State has been consistently contributing about 45 per cent of wheat and 25 per cent of or rice towards the central pool thereby ensuring the national food security. In the year 2010-11, the State produced 162 lakh MT paddies, out of wheat, out of which 108 lac MT has been procured. Similarly, the State produced 152 lakh MT of wheat, out of which 108 lakh MT has been procured. Only 10 districts of the State are covered under National Food Security Mission for rice even though state is its leading producer.

The State has 83% of its total geographical area (50.36 lakh hectares) under cultivation. The cropping intensity is around 189.69% with over 97% of the cultivable area being under assured irrigation. The State produces 19.50% of the country’s wheat, 11% rice, 10.26% cotton and contributes significantly to the Central Pool with about 50% wheat and 40% rice. The paddy and wheat productivity in the State is 4022 kg/ha and 4462 kg/ha against the national average of 2178 kg/ha and 2907 kg/ha respectively. Fertilizer consumption is at 223.46 kg/ha. The State’s farm economy is highly mechanized. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

The total Geographical area of the State is 50.36 lakh hectares, out of which about 41.74 lakh hectares area is under cultivation. After partition of the country in 1947, Indus water treaty of 1960 between India and Pakistan restricted India’s right to usage to only three eastern rivers Satluj, Beas and Ravi. The State has three dams namely Bhakra Dam with storage capacity of 5.60 MAF constructed on River Satluj, Pong Dam with storage capacity 1.90 MAF constructed on River Ravi. At present the area under irrigation is 40.77 lakh hectares, which is 97.68% of the area under cultivation. The canal surface water distribution System consists of 14500 km of Canals/ Distributaries covering six major systems in the state namely: Sirhind Canal system, Bhakra Main Line, Bist Doab Canal, Upper Bari Doab Canal, Sirhind feeder and Eastern canal. Contrary to common perception only 27% area is irrigated by canal surface water and 73% area is irrigated by tubewells in Punjab. This has resulted in depletion of ground water table. As many as 112 out of 141 blocks have been categorized as over exploited or “dark blocks”. The canal water and electricity are being provided free of cost to the farmer in the State. Punjab GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Odisha Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Odisha Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for Odisha State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Odisha Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like OPSC and Other Odisha State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Odisha based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Click Here To Download

Odisha GK Yearbook 2020 Current Affairs Yearbook

The name Odisha is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Odra Vishaya’ or ‘Odra Desa’. The ancient province of ‘Odra desa’ or ‘Or-desa’ was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

The Odisha state, which was once a land of Kings and Kingdoms, now boasts of being rich source of natural resources. Its people, temple architecture, classical dance, religions, fairs and festivals, unique handlooms and handicrafts, green woodlands, rock caves, charming blue hills have always attracted historians, tourists and travellers from all over the world. Its rich history, revolutionary freedom movement, fascinatingly sculptured temples and monuments, tribal life characterized by dance, music, rituals, hunting, gaiety and wild ways have become important topics of research for great historians and scholars.

For economic development of any state, industrialization plays a vital role. But for creating a viable atmosphere for industries and corporate houses a sound and smooth infrastructure becomes top priority for the government. Keeping that sentiment in view the government of Odisha since few years has consistently tried to provide a fine tuned industry and investment friendly infrastructure. In that direction the government is becoming successful which is seen through a lot of major changes and improvements occurred in the fields of infrastructure. The most important agenda of government of Odisha has become providing the state best connectivity through roads, rail, sea, and air. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Odisha is one of the important states of India which is endowed with varieties of mineral resources. The mineral resources of Odisha have reputation for being qualitative for industries. The mineral resources of Odisha include Iron ore, Manganese, Coal, Bauxite, Dolomite, Tin, etc. Mineral resources have played an important role to make Odisha hot destinations for industries. Because of mineral resources big industries, like Rourkela Steel Plant, National Aluminum Company, National Thermal Power Corporation, have established their positions not only in India but also in world market. Besides those, reforms in infrastructure in recent years have created an atmosphere conducive for major industries of the world to look forward to Odisha as an epi-centre for industrial growth. In Eastern India, Odisha is really growing in real sense to become an industrial hub in the coming years. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Government of Odisha aims at creating and industry-enabling and investor friendly climate in the state with a view to accelerate industrial developments, employment opportunities and economic growth. IPR-2001 and Odisha Industries (facilitation) Act 2004 embodies the above objectives of Govt. Odisha has already emerged as a major investment destination for national as well as transborder national investors, especially in steel, aluminum, petrochemicals, power, IT and ITES, food processing industries, tourism and other such sectors.

Odisha is an Indian state located on the eastern coast of India. It neighbors the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has a coastline of 485 kilometres along the Bay of Bengal. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India’s national anthem, “Jana Gana Mana”. Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with ₹4.16 lakh crore (US$58 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹93,000 (US$1,300). Odisha ranks 23rd among Indian states in human development index;

Prehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans. Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Mahabharata, Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar people of Odisha have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.

Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his reign. According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people was killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected. The resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have deeply affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism.

By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler. He also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Samudragupta and Shashanka. It was also a part of Harsha’s empire.

The city of Brahmapur in Odisha is also known to have been the capital of the Pauravas during the closing years of 4th Century A.D. Nothing was heard from the Pauravas from about the 3rd Century A.D, because they were annexed by the Yaudheya Republic, who in turn submitted to the Mauryans. It was only at the end of 4th century A.D, that they established royalty at Brahmapur, after about 700 years. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri, and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple.

The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, who is considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I, then governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal. They agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the region.

The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.

The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths. Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912, the Bihar and Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936, Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces. The new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor. Following India’s independence, on 15 August 1947, 27 princely states signed the document to join Orissa.

Odisha lies between the latitudes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of 155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a coastline of 450 km. In the eastern part of the state lies the coastal plain. It extends from the Subarnarekha River in the north to the Rushikulya river in the south. The lake Chilika is part of the coastal plains. The plains are rich in fertile silt deposited by the six major rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi and Rushikulya. The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a Food and Agriculture Organization-recognised rice gene bank and research institute, is situated on the banks of Mahanadi in Cuttack. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and broad valleys have been made in them by rivers. These valleys have fertile soil and are densely populated. Odisha also has plateaus and rolling uplands, which have lower elevation than the plateaus. The highest point in the state is Deomali at 1,672 metres. The other high peaks are: Sinkaram (1,620 m), Golikoda (1,617 m), and Yendrika (1,582 metres).

According to a Forest Survey of India report released in 2012, Odisha has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state’s total area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2), medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without closed canopy; 20,477 km2) and scrub forest (4,734 km2). The state also has bamboo forests (10,518 km2) and mangroves (221 km2). The state is losing its forests to timber smuggling, mining, and industrialisation and grazing. There have been attempts at conservation and reforestation.

Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha’s evergreen and moist forests are suitable habitats for wild orchids, Around 130 species have been reported from the state. 97 of them are found in Mayurbhanj district alone. The Orchid House of Nandankanan Biological Park hosts some of these species.

Simlipal National Park is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve spread over 2,750 km2 of the northern part of Mayurbhanj district. It has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The sal tree is the primary tree species there. The park has 55 mammals, including barking deer, Bengal tiger, common langur, four-horned antelope, Indian bison, Indian elephant, Indian giant squirrel, Indian leopard, jungle cat, sambar deer, and wild boar. There are 304 species of birds in the park, such as the common hill myna, grey hornbill, Indian pied hornbill and Malabar pied hornbill. It also has 60 species of reptiles, notable among which are the king cobra and tricarinate hill turtle. There is also a mugger crocodile breeding program in nearby Ramtirtha. The Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary is a 190 km2 protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80 elephants. But by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika, Nayagarh district, and Athagad. Some elephants have died in conflicts with villagers, while some have died during migration from being electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the protected area, they are killed by poachers. Besides elephants, the sanctuary also has Indian leopards, jungle cats and chitals.

The Bhitarkanika National Park in Kendrapara district covers 650 km2, of which 150 km2 are mangroves. The Gahiramatha beach in Bhitarkanika is the world’s largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles. Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in the state are Rushikulya, in Ganjam district, and the mouth of the Devi river. The Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large population of salt-water crocodiles. In winter, the sanctuary is also visited by migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in the sanctuary are the black-crowned night heron, darter, grey heron, Indian cormorant, Oriental white ibis, purple heron, and sarus crane. The possibly endangered horseshoe crab is also found in this region. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha with an area of 1,105 km2. It is connected to the Bay of Bengal by a 35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the Mahanadi delta. In the dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season, the rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity. Birds from places like the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, other parts of Russia, Central Asia, South-East Asia, Ladakh and the Himalayas migrate to the lagoon in winter. Among the birds spotted there are Eurasian wigeon, pintail, bar-headed goose, greylag goose, flamingo, mallard and Goliath heron. The lagoon also has a small population of the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins. The state’s coastal region has also had sightings of finless porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, humpback dolphin and spinner dolphin in its waters. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Satapada is situated close to the northeast cape of Chilika Lake and Bay of Bengal. It is famous for dolphin watching in their natural habitat. There is a tiny island en route for watching dolphins, where tourists often take a short stop. Apart from that, this island is also home for tiny red crabs.

The majority of people in the state of Odisha are Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example, Odisha is home to several Hindu figures. Sant Bhima Bhoi was a leader of the Mahima sect movement. Sarala Das, a Hindu Khandayat, was the translator of the epic Mahabharata in Odia. Chaitanya Das was a Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva was the author of the Gita Govinda.

The Odisha Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the government of Odisha to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the Harijans.Perhaps the oldest scripture of Odisha is the Madala Panji from the Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa. In the modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a Brahmo Samajist and shaped modern Odia literature at the start of the 20th century. Odisha GK Yearbook 2020

Christians in Odisha account for about 2.8% of the population while Odia Muslims account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001, The Sikh, Buddhist and Jain communities’ together account for 0.1% of the population.

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Districts of Odisha:
AnugulBargarhBhadrakBalasoreBalangirBoudh
CuttackDeogarhDhenkanalGajapatiGanjamJagatsinghpur
JajpurJharsugudaKalahandiKandhamalKendraParaKeonjhar
KhurdaKoraputMalkangiri MayurbhanjNuapadaNabarangpur
NayagarhPuriRayagadaSambalpurSonepurSundargarh

Source

Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for Mizoram PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Mizoram (Static GK).

2. Latest Govt. Schemes

3. Latest Budget and Important Points

4. Current Affairs

Mizoram Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Mizoram State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Mizoram based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, PSC and Other exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Mizoram General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

Mizoram Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Mizoram is a state in northeastern India, with Aizawl as its capital city. The name is derived from “Mizo”, the name of the native inhabitants, and “Ram”, which means land, and thus Mizoram means “land of the Mizos”. Within the northeast region, it is the southernmost landlocked state, sharing borders with three of the Seven Sister States, namely Tripura, Assam and Manipur. The state also shares a 722-kilometre border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Like several other northeastern states of India, Mizoram was previously part of Assam until 1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory. It became the 23rd state of India, a step above Union Territory, on 20 February 1987, with the Fifty-Third Amendment of the Indian Constitution, 1986.

Mizoram’s population was 1,091,014, according to a 2011 census. It is the 2nd least populous state in the country. Mizoram covers an area of approximately 21,087 square kilometres. About 91% of the state is forested.

About 95% of the current population is of diverse tribal origins who settled in the state, mostly from Southeast Asia, over waves of migration starting about the 16th century but mainly in the 18th century. This is the highest concentration of tribal people among all states of India, and they are currently protected under Indian constitution as a Scheduled Tribe. Mizoram is one of three states of India with a Christian majority (87%). Its people belong to various denominations, mostly Presbyterian in the north and Baptists in the south.

Mizoram is a highly literate agrarian economy, but suffers from slash-and-burn Jhum, or shifting cultivation, and poor crop yields, in recent years, the Jhum farming practices are steadily being replaced with a significant horticulture and bamboo products industry. The state’s gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹6,991 crore. About 20% of Mizoram’s population lives below poverty line, with 35% rural poverty. The state has about 871 kilometres of national highways, with NH-54 and NH-150 connecting it to Assam and Manipur respectively. It is also a growing transit point for trade with Myanmar and Bangladesh.

The origin of the Mizos, like those of many other tribes in the northeastern India, is shrouded in mystery. The people living in the Mizo Hills were generally referred to as the Cucis or Kukis by their neighbouring ethnic groups which was also a term adopted by the British writers. The claim that ‘The Kukis are the earliest known residents of the Mizo hills area,’ must be read in this light. The majority of the tribes classified as “Mizo” today most likely migrated to their present territories from the neighbouring countries in several waves, starting around 1500 CE. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

Before the British Raj, the various Mizo clans lived in autonomous villages. The tribal chiefs enjoyed an eminent position in the gerontocratic Mizo society. The various clans and sub clans practised slash-and-burn, locally called Jhum cultivation – a form of subsistence agriculture. The chiefs were the absolute rulers of their respective clans’ territories (ram), although they remained under the nominal political jurisdictions of the Rajas of Manipur, Tripura and Burma. There were many instances of tribal raids and head-hunting led by the village chieftains. Head-hunting was a practice which involved ambushing, taking slaves and cutting off the heads of fighters from the enemy tribe, bringing it back, and displaying it at the entrance of the tribal village.

Some of the earliest records of raids and intertribal conflicts are from the early 19th century. In the 1840s, Captain Blackwood of Britain marched into the Mizo Hills with his troops to punish a Palian tribal chief for raiding British interests in India. A few years later, Captain Lester was wounded in a battle with the Lusei tribe in the region that is now Mizoram. In 1849, a Lusei tribal raid killed 29 members of the Thadou tribe and added 42 captives to their clan. Colonel Lister retaliated in 1850, with the co-operation of the Thadou tribe, an event historically called the First British invasion, burning down a Lusei village of 800 tribal houses and freeing 400 Thadou captives. British historical records on the Mizo Hills state similar inter-ethnic tribal raids for loot, slaves and retaliatory battles continued for decades. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

The Mizo Hills formally became part of British India in 1895, and practices such as head-hunting were banned in Mizoram as well as neighbouring regions. The northern and southern Mizo Hills became the Lushai Hills, with Aizawl as their headquarters by declaring the whole area as Excluded Area till India got independence from the British. At the time of the British conquest, there were around 60 chiefs. After Christian missionaries arrived with the gospel, the majority of the population became Christians in the first half of the 20th century.

By the time India gained independence from the British Empire, the number of tribal chiefs had increased to over 200. The educated elites among the Mizos campaigned against the tribal chiefdoms under the banner of the Mizo Union. As a result of their campaign, the hereditary rights of the 259 chiefs were abolished under the Assam-Lushai District (“Acquisition of Chief’s Rights”) Act, 1954. Village courts were re-implemented in the Mizo region along with other parts of Assam. All of these regions were frustrated by these arrangements and by centralised Assam governance. The Mizos were particularly dissatisfied with the government’s inadequate response to the 1959–60 mautam famine. The Mizo National Famine Front, a body formed for famine relief in 1959, later developed into a new political organisation, the Mizo National Front (MNF) in 1961. A period of protests and armed insurgency followed in the 1960s, with the MNF seeking independence from India. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

In 1971, the government agreed to convert the Mizo Hills into a Union Territory, which came into being as Mizoram in 1972. Following the Mizoram Peace Accord (1986) between the Government and the MNF, Mizoram was declared a full-fledged state of India in 1987. Mizoram was given two seats in the Parliament, one each in the Lok Sabha and in the Rajya Sabha. The region has been peaceful in recent decades. Between 2006 and 2013, no more than two civilians have died each year from protest-related violence. The world’s average annual death rate from intentional violence, in recent years, has been 7.9 per 1,00,000 people.

Mizoram is a landlocked state in North East India whose southern part shares 722 kilometres long international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh, and northern part share domestic borders with Manipur, Assam and Tripura. It is the fifth smallest state of India with 21,087 km2. It extends from 21°56’N to 24°31’N, and 92°16’E to 93°26’E. The tropic of cancer runs through the state nearly at its middle. The maximum north-south distance is 285 km, while maximum east-west stretch is 115 km. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hill ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state is about 1,000 metres. These gradually rise up to 1,300 metres to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 metres. Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the southeastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram at 2,210 metres. About 76% of the state is covered by forests, 8% is fallows land, 3% is barren and considered uncultivable area, while cultivable and sown area constitutes the rest. Slash-and-burn or Jhum cultivation, though discouraged, remains in practice in Mizoram and affects its topography. The State of Forest Report 2017 states that Mizoram has the highest forest cover as a percentage of its geographical area of any Indian state, being 86.27% forest. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

Mizoram terrain is, according to the Geological Survey of India, an immature topography, and the physiographic expression consists of several almost north-south longitudinal valleys containing series of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticlinal, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjoining synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. The general geology of western Mizoram consists of repetitive succession of Neogene sedimentary rocks of the Surma Group and Tipam Formation such as sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and rare pockets of shell limestone. The eastern part is the Barail Group. Mizoram lies in seismic zone V, according to the India Meteorological Department; as with other northeastern states of India, this means the state has the highest risk of earthquakes relative to other parts of India.

The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan. It originates in Chin state in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma’s Rakhine state. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District. The rivers have a gentle drainage gradient particularly in the south.

Palak Lake is the biggest in Mizoram and covers 30 hectares. The lake is situated in Saiha district of southern Mizoram. It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a submerged village remains intact deep under the waters. The Tam Dil Lake is a natural lake situated 85 kilometres from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Ţam Dil which means of ‘lake of mustard plant’. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history, Rih Dil, is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the Indo-Burma border. It was believed that departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven. Mizoram is also called a “peninsula state” as it is surrounded by international borders on three sides. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

Mizoram has the third highest total forest cover with 15, 94,000 hectares, and highest percentage area (90.68%) covered by forests, among the states of India, according to 2011 Forest Survey of India. Tropical semi-evergreen, tropical moist deciduous, subtropical broadleaved hill and subtropical pine forests are the most common vegetation types found in Mizoram. Bamboo is common in the state, typically intermixed with other forest vegetation; about 9,245 km2 (44%) of the state’s area is bamboo bearing. The state and central governments of India have cooperated to reserve and protect 67% of the land covered by forests, and additional 15% by management. Only 17% of the land is non-forested area for cultivation, industry, mining, housing and other commercial human activity. Satellite data suggests 91% of state’s geographical area is covered by forests.

Jhum cultivation, or slash-and-burn practice, was a historic tradition in Mizoram and a threat to its forest cover. This practice has reduced in recent decades, due to a government-supported initiative to support horticultural crops such as pineapple and banana plantations.

Mizoram has a population of 1,091,014 with 552,339 males and 538,675 females. This reflects a 22.8% growth since 2001 census; still, Mizoram is second least populated state of India. The sex ratio of the state is 976 females per thousand males, higher than the national ratio 940. The density of population is 52 persons per square kilometre.

The literacy rate of Mizoram in 2011 was 91.33 per cent, higher than the national average 74.04 per cent, and second best among all the states of India. About 52% of Mizoram population lives in urban areas, much higher than India’s average. Over one third of the population of Mizoram lives in Aizawl district, which hosts the capital. Mizoram GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 PDF

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the India Yearbook 2020, Useful for UPSC, State PSC SSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of India General Knowledge in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

UPSC PRELIMS 2020 BATCH 3: COMPLETE REVISION

India General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. General Awareness Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UPSC and Other State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega General Studies Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the India.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The General Knowledge Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The India General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, and Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 8 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc. This section introduces you to the various States/UTs in the Country and urges you to explore their magnificent uniqueness.

India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress since Independence. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4′ and 37° 6′ north, longitudes 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

General Knowledge 2020 Yearbook Download

India General Knowledge 2020

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook 2020: Latest Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Manipur (Static GK)

2. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

3. Latest Govt. Schemes

Manipur Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Manipur based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Manipur State. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Manipur General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

Click Here To Download

Manipur Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Manipur

Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Myanmar lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres and has a population of almost 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state, the Pangals or the Pangans (Manipuri Muslims), Naga tribes, Kuki/Zo tribes and other communities, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It has long connected the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia to Southeast Asia, China (or East Asia), Siberia (Russia), Micronesia and Polynesia, enabling migration of people, cultures, and religions. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

The history of Manipur Meities is chronicled in Puyas or Puwaris, namely, the Ninghthou Kangbalon, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Ningthourol Lambuba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, Panthoibi Khongkul, etc. in the archaic Meitei script, which is comparable to the Thai script. The historical accounts presented here were recordings from the eyes and the judgment of the Meitei Kings and Maichous.  Hill tribes have their own folk tales, myths, and legends.  Manipur was known by different names at various periods in its history, such as, Tilli-Koktong, Poirei-Lam, Sanna-Leipak, Mitei-Leipak, Meitrabak or Manipur (present day). Its capital was Kangla, Yumphal or Imphal (present day).  Its people were known by various names, such as Mi-tei, Poirei-Mitei, Meetei, Maitei or Meitei.  The Puwaris, Ninghthou Kangbalon, Ningthourol Lambuba, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, recorded the events  of each King who ruled Manipur in a span of more than 3500 years until 1955 AD (a total of more than 108 kings). Ningthou Kangba (15th century BC) is regarded as the first and foremost king of Manipur.  There were times when the country was in turmoil without rulers and long historical gaps in between 1129 BC – 44 BC. In 1891 AD, after the defeat of the Meitei’s by the British in the Anglo-Manipuri war of Khongjom, the sovereignty of Manipur which it had maintained for more than three millenniums was lost. In 1926, it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 4 January 1947. It regained its freedom on 14 August 1947 AD. On 15 October 1949, Manipur was unified with India.

During the days of the British Indian Empire, the Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states. Between 1917 and 1939, some people of Manipur pressed the princely rulers for democracy. By the late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to continue to be part of the Indian Empire, rather than part of Burma, which was being separated from India. These negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II in 1939. On 11 August 1947, Maharaja Budha Chandra signed an Instrument of Accession, joining India. Later, on 21 September 1949, he signed a Merger Agreement, merging the kingdom into India, which led to its becoming a Part C State. This merger was later disputed by groups in Manipur, as having been completed without consensus and under duress. The dispute and differing visions for the future has resulted in a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as in repeated episodes of violence among ethnic groups in the state. From 2009 through 2018, the conflict was responsible for the violent deaths of over 1000 people.

The Meitei ethnic group represents around 53% of the population of Manipur state, followed by various Naga tribes at 24% and various Kuki-Zo tribes at 16%. The main language of the state is Meitei on (also known as Manipuri). Tribals constitute about 41% of the state population (according to 2011 census) and are distinguished by dialects and cultures that are often village-based. Manipur’s ethnic groups practice a variety of religions. According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the major religion in the state, closely followed by Christianity. Other religions include Islam, Sanamahism, Buddhism, Judaism etc.

Manipur has primarily an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential. It is connected to other areas by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest in northeastern India. Manipur is home to many sports and the origin of Manipuri dance, and is credited with introducing polo to Europeans. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

By the medieval period, marriage alliances between royal families of the Manipur kingdom, Ahom (Assam) and Burma had become common. Medieval era Manipur manuscripts discovered in the 20th century, particularly the Puya, provide evidence that Hindus from the Indian subcontinent were married to Manipur royalty at least by the 14th century. In centuries thereafter, royal spouses came also from what is now modern Assam, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh along with ancient Dravidian kingdoms, and other regions. Another manuscript suggests that Muslims arrived in Manipur in the 17th century, from what is now Bangladesh, during the reign of Meidingu Khagemba. The socio-political turmoil and wars, particularly the persistent and devastating Manipur-Burma wars, affected the cultural and religious demography of Manipur.

After the war, British India moved towards independence, and the princely states which had existed alongside it became responsible for their own external affairs and defence, unless they joined the new India or the new Pakistan. The Manipur State Constitution Act of 1947 established a democratic form of government, with the Maharaja continuing as the head of state. Faced with Burma’s ambitions to take over the state, in 1949, Maharaja Bodhchandra went to Shillong, where he signed an instrument of accession to merge the kingdom into the Union of India instead. Thereafter, the legislative assembly was dissolved, and in October 1949 Manipur became part of India. It was made a Union Territory in 1956 and a fully-fledged State in 1972.

Manipur has had a long record of insurgency and inter-ethnic violence. The first armed opposition group in Manipur, the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), was founded in 1964, which declared that it wanted to gain independence from India and from Manipur as a new country. Over time, many more groups formed in Manipur, each with different goals, and deriving support from diverse ethnic groups in Manipur. For example, in 1977 the People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was formed, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was formed in 1978 which Human Rights Watch states as having received arms and training from China. In 1980, the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) was formed. These groups began a spree of bank robberies and attacks on police officers and government buildings. The state government appealed to the central government in New Delhi for support in combating this violence.

From 1980–2004, the Indian government referred to Manipur as a disturbed area. This term (designated by the Ministry of Home Affairs or a state governor) refers to a territory where extraordinary laws under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act can be used. The laws allow the military to treat private and public spaces, in the same manner, detain individuals up to 24 hours with unlimited renewals, to perform warrantless searches, and to shoot and kill individuals that break laws, carry weapons, or gather in groups larger than four as well as giving legal immunity to the military. Since 1980, the application of AFSPA has been at the heart of concerns about human rights violations in the region, such as arbitrary killings, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and forced disappearances. Its continued application has led to numerous protests, notably the longstanding hunger strike by Irom Sharmila Chanu.

In 2004, the government lifted the disturbed status after a violent attack on a local woman. The rape of a Manipuri woman, Thangjam Manorama Devi, by members of the Assam Rifles paramilitary had led to wide protests including a nude protest by the Meira Paibis women association.

The state lies at a latitude of 23°83’N – 25°68’N and a longitude of 93°03’E – 94°78’E. The total area covered by the state is 22,327 square kilometres. The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 700 square miles surrounded by Blue Mountains and is at an elevation of 790 metres above sea level. The slope of the valley is from north to south. The mountain ranges create a moderated climate, preventing the cold winds from the north from reaching the valley and barring cyclonic storms. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

The state is bordered by the Indian states of Nagaland to its north, Mizoram to its south, Assam to its west, and shares an international border with Myanmar to its east. The state has four major river basins: the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north. The water resources of Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 Mham. The overall water balance of the state amounts to 0.7236 Mham in the annual water budget.

The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by tributaries, such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north, forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills.

Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and therefore deposit their sediment load in the Loktak Lake. The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang, and Leima tak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams.

Manipur may be characterised as two distinct physical regions: an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated landforms. These two areas are distinct in physical features and are conspicuous in flora and fauna. The valley region has hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak Lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km2. The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mount Tempu peak along the border with Nagaland. Manipur General Knowledge Yearbook

The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand, and sandy clay, and are varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The topsoil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.

Imphal (capital): The city is inhabited by the Meitei, who predominate, also Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) and other tribes. The city contains the Tulihal Airport. The district is divided into East and West. The Khuman Lampak Sports Complex was built for the 1997 National Games. The stadium is used for a sports venue. It also contains a cyclists’ velodrome. Most of the imported goods are sold here at its Paona Bazaar, Gambhir Singh Shopping Complex and Leima Plaza. Shree Govindajee Temple, Andro village, and the Manipur State Museum are in the city.

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Maharashtra Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Maharashtra Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Maharashtra GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Maharashtra Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Maharashtra GK Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Maharashtra based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Maharashtra State. Maharashtra GK Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. Maharashtra GK Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Maharashtra General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

Maharashtra Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Maharashtra

Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. It is the second-most populous state and third-largest state by area. Maharashtra is created as a Marathi speaking State. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south, Telangana to the southeast and Chhattisgarh to the east, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to the north, and the Indian union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west. It is also the world’s second-most populous sub national entity.

Maharashtra was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State, Berar and Vidarbha, and the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra (in present-day Gujarat) by the States Reorganisation Act. It has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as the ‘Oxford of the East’ due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. Nashik is known as the ‘Wine Capital of India’ as it has the largest number of wineries and vineyards in the country.

The Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state. The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near the border between Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanised state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates, Mughals and Marathas, and the British. Ruins, monuments, tombs, forts, and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state. They include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ajanta and Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Shivaji.

Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE. Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, Vedi shri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the “Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty”, made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom. The state was also ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Vakataka, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, and Western Chalukya before finally, the Yadavas rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style. The caves were possibly excavated during this period. Maharashtra GK Yearbook 2020

The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, and the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, and Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century. The Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghavarsha) as “one of the four great kings of the world”. Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, and Vikramaditya VI.

In the early 14th century, the Yadavas Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Later, Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, and temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughlaqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshahis of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Ellichpur. These kingdoms often fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the Vijayanagara Empire of the south in 1565. The present area of Mumbai was ruled by the Sultanate of Gujarat before its capture by Portugal in 1535 and the Faruqi dynasty ruled the Khandesh region between 1382 and 1601 before finally getting annexed by the Mughal Empire. Malik Ambar, the regent of the Nizamshahis dynasty of Ahmednagar from 1607 to 1626. Increased the strength and power of Murtaza Nizam Shah II and raised a large army. Malik Ambar is said to have been a proponent of guerrilla warfare in the Deccan region. Malik Ambar assisted Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Delhi against his stepmother, Nur Jahan, who had ambitions of seating her son-in-law on the throne. Maharashtra GK Yearbook 2020

By the early 17th century, Shahaji Bhosale, an ambitious local general who had served Ahmadnagar Nizamshahis, the Mughals and Adil Shah of Bijapur at different periods during his career, attempted to establish his independent rule. His son Shivaji Maharaj succeeded in establishing the Maratha Empire which was further expanded during the 18th century by the Bhat family Peshwas based in Pune, Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Holkar of Indore, and Scindia of Gwalior. At its peak, the empire covered much of the subcontinent, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km². The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. The Marathas defeated the Mughals, and conquered large territories in northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent. After their defeat at the hand of Ahmad Shah Abdali’s Afghan forces in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Maratha suffered a setback. However, the Marathas soon regained lost influence and ruled central and north India including New Delhi until the end of the eighteenth century. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) led to the end of the Maratha Empire and East India Company ruled the country in 1819. The Marathas also developed a potent Navy circa 1660s, which at its peak, dominated the territorial waters of the western coast of India from Mumbai to Sawantwadi. It would engage in attacking the British, Portuguese, Dutch, and Siddi Naval ships and kept a check on their naval ambitions. The Maratha Navy dominated till around the 1730s, was in a state of decline by the 1770s, and ceased to exist by 1818.

The British governed western Maharashtra as part of the Bombay Presidency, which spanned an area from Karachi in Pakistan to northern Deccan. A number of the Maratha states persisted as princely states, retaining autonomy in return for acknowledging British suzerainty. The largest princely states in the territory were Nagpur, Satara and Kolhapur; Satara was annexed to the Bombay Presidency in 1848, and Nagpur was annexed in 1853 to become Nagpur Province, later part of the Central Provinces. Berar, which had been part of the Nizam of Hyderabad’s kingdom, was occupied by the British in 1853 and annexed to the Central Provinces in 1903. However, a large part called Marathwada remained part of the Nizam’s Hyderabad State throughout the British period.

The period of British rule was marked by social reforms and an improvement in infrastructure as well as revolts due to their discriminatory policies. At the turn of the 20th century, the struggle for independence took shape, led by radical nationalist Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the moderates like Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pherozeshah Mehta and Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Jyotirao Phule – social reformers who were all born in this region. After the partial autonomy given to the states by the Government of India Act of 1935, B. G. Kher became the first Chief Minister of the Congress party-led Government of tri-lingual Bombay Presidency. The ultimatum to the British during the Quit India Movement was given in Mumbai, and culminated in the transfer of power and independence in 1947.

After India’s independence, the Deccan States, including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State, which was created from the former Bombay Presidency in 1950. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act reorganised the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay Presidency State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly Marathi-speaking regions of Marathwada from erstwhile Hyderabad state and Vidarbha region from the Central Provinces and Berar. The southernmost part of Bombay State was ceded to Mysore. From 1954 to 1955 the people of Maharashtra strongly protested against bilingual Bombay state and Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti, was formed. The Mahagujarat Movement was started, seeking a separate Gujarat state. Keshav rao Jedhe, S.M. Joshi, Shripad Amrit Dange, Pralhad Keshav Atre and Gopal rao Khedkar fought for a separate state of Maharashtra with Mumbai as its capital under the banner of Samyukta Maharashtra Movement. On 1 May 1960, following mass protests and 105 deaths, the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay State into the new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The state continues to have a dispute with Karnataka regarding the region of Belgaum and Karwar.

Districts of Maharashtra

Konkan Division
Nashik Division
Pune Division
Aurangabad Division
Amravati Division
Nagpur Division

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

KPSC Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for KPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

KPSC Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. General Knowledge of Kerala

2. Current Affairs (whole year)

Kerala Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like KPSC and Other Kerala State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Kerala based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, KPSC and Other PSC exams and across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Kerala General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click Here To Download

KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020: KPSC Kerala Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Kerala

Kerala is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-third largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the Deep South and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE or AD). The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region’s prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala, had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Top slip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara which was a part of Madras State. KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020

The economy of Kerala is the 11th-largest state economy in India with ₹8.76 trillion in gross domestic products and a per capita GDP of ₹199,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.784 in 2018 (0.712 in 2015); the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.

The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state’s coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state’s income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.

Kerala has been a major spice exporter since 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records and it is still referred to as the “Garden of Spices” or as the “Spice Garden of India”:79 Kerala’s spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Phoenicians established trade with Kerala during this period. The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka’s time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satyaputras. Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam. Along with the Ay kingdom in the south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north, the Cheras formed the ruling kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Common Era (CE). It is noted in Sangam literature that the Chera king Utiyan Cheralatan ruled most of modern Kerala from his capital in Kuttanad, and controlled the port of Muziris, but its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas, which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda in Quilon. The lesser known as and Mushikas kingdoms lay to the south and north of the Chera regions respectively. KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020

In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar. Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal ports at that time. The value of Rome’s annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces; contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana, the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.

Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala. The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE. Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Israelis at Eden. In the 4th century, the Knanaya or Southist Christians also migrated from Persia and lived alongside the early Syriac Christian community known as the St. Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite (Jewish), Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas and Muslim Mappilas. The earliest Saint Thomas Christian Churches, Cheraman Jumu’ah Masjid (traditionally dated to “629 CE” by the Mappilas)—regarded as “the first mosque of India” and Paradesi Synagogue (1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations were built in Kerala.

Namboothiri Brahmins migrated to Kerala during the early middle Ages. Apart from introducing the caste system, they also changed the socio-economic life of the people by commissioning new religious centres. A second Chera Kingdom (c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram (present-day Kodungallur), was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. During the early part of the Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvalla was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century, making the region a part of the Kulasekara empire. Under Kulasekhara rule, Kerala witnessed a developing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. A Keralites identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period around the seventh century. For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.

The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean (Indu Maha Samundra) stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. After Vasco Da Gama’s arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping and the spice-trade in particular. They established a trading center at Tangasseri in Quilon during 1502 as per the invitation of the then Queen of Quilon to start spices trade from there. The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi. When Francisco de Almeida was appointed as Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, his headquarters was established at Fort Kochi (Fort Emmanuel) rather than in Kozhikode. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast. Fort St Angelo or St. Angelo Fort was built at Kannur in 1505 and Fort St Thomas was built at Kollam in 1518 by the Portuguese. However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces in Malabar region; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. An insurrection at the Port of Quilon between the Arabs and the Portuguese led to the end of the Portuguese era in Quilon. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam Fort. KPSC Kerala Yearbook 2020

After India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, Travancore and Kochi, part of the Union of India were merged on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore-Cochin. On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the State’s Reorganisation Act. A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957. It was one of the earliest elected Communist governments, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino, His government helped distribute land and implement educational reforms;

The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between northern latitudes 8°18′ and 12°48′ and eastern longitudes 74°52′ and 77°22 Kerala experiences humid tropical rainforest climate with some cyclones. The state has a coast of 590 km and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 kilometres. Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains. Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala’s terrain. A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbour for spice transport. The eastern region of Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats’ rain shadow. 41 of Kerala’s west-flowing rivers and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks. The Western Ghats rise on average to 1,500 metres above sea level, while the highest peaks reach around 2,500 metres. Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of 2,695 m. The Western Ghats mountain chain is recognised as one of the world’s eight “hottest hotspots” of biological diversity and is listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The chain’s forests are considered to be older than the Himalaya Mountains.

The major change in agriculture in Kerala occurred in the 1970s when production of rice fell due to increased availability of rice all over India and decreased availability of labour. Consequently, investment in rice production decreased and a major portion of the land shifted to the cultivation of perennial tree crops and seasonal crops. Profitability of crops fell due to a shortage of farm labour, the high price of land, and the uneconomic size of operational holdings.

Kerala’s western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region, and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters. The state’s largest lake Vembanad, dominates the backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is about 200 km2 in area. Around eight percent of India’s waterways are found in Kerala. Kerala’s 44 rivers include the Periyar; 244 kilometres, Bharathapuzha; 209 kilometres, Pamba; 176 kilometres, Chaliyar; 169 kilometres, Kadalundipuzha; 130 kilometres, Chalakudipuzha; 130 kilometres, Valapattanam; 129 kilometres and the Achankovil River; 128 kilometres. The average length of the rivers is 64 kilometres. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain. As Kerala’s rivers are small and lacking in delta, they are more prone to environmental effects. The rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution. The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts. The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, and in 2018 received the worst flooding in nearly a century.

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Karnataka

2. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

3. Practice MCQ

Karnataka Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Karnataka based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Karnataka State. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Karnataka General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Click Here To Download

Karnataka Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Demo

Introduction of Karnataka

Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore.

Karnataka is the 7th biggest, 8th most populous, 13th highest and 16th most literate state of the 28 states of the democratic Republic of India. Karnataka is ranked 3rd in the country in tax revenue and 7th in the country in GDP. Karnataka is at 8th position in life expectancy and 11th in female-to-male sex ratio among the states in India. Karnataka is at 7th most media exposed states in India.

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. Other languages spoken include Urdu, Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is primarily spoken.

The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka; Sharavathi in Shimoga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Tirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nadu, meaning “elevated land”. Karu Nadu may also be read as karu, meaning “black” and nadu, meaning “region”, as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnataka, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

With an antiquity that dates to the Paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

The economy of Karnataka is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.35 lakh crore (US$220 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹210,000 (US$2,900). Karnataka has the twelfth highest ranking among Indian states in human development index.

Karnataka’s pre-history goes back to a Paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesis about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation 3300 BCE.

Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan Empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region’s emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi; the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital.

These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Hal midi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi. These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century. The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture. The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara Empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara Empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota. The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salsette, Goa, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.

In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers. In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent. With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan. To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan’s death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799. The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyar and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

As the “doctrine of lapse” gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848. Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions—which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857—were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Hala gali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.

After India’s independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom’s accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Eki karana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the State Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973. In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, born in Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka’s strong manufacturing and industrial base. Karnataka Latest Yearbook 2020

The state has three principal geographical zones:
1.   The coastal region of Karavali
2.   The hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats

3.   The Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan Plateau

The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India. The highest point in Karnataka is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chikmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,925 metres. Some of the important rivers in Karnataka are Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Krishna, Malaprabha and the Sharavathi. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydel power generation capacities of the state.

Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations — the Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic non-fossilliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consists of gneisses, granites and Charnockite rocks. Laterite capping that is found in many districts over the Deccan Traps was formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxysols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols. Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic, and black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.

Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka is divided into three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm per annum; far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm. Amagaon in Khanapur received 10,068 mm of rainfall in the year 2010. In the year 2014, Kokkali in Sirsi taluk received 8,746 mm of rainfall. Agumbe and Hulikal were considered the rainiest cities in Karnataka, being one of the wettest regions in the world. The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) at Raichur and the lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar.

According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Karnataka was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females. This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The population density was 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the populations were Hindu, 12.92% were Muslim, 1.87% was Christian, 0.72% was Jains, 0.16% was Buddhist, 0.05% was Sikh and 0.02% were belonging to other religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.

Karnataka has a parliamentary system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members who are elected for five-year terms. The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring every two years.

​​Districts of Karnataka

  1. Bagalkot 

  2. Ballari 

  3. Bangalore Rural 

  4. Belagavi 

  5. Bengaluru 

  6. Bidar 

  7. Chamarajanagar 

  8. Chikballapur 

  9. Chikkamagaluru 

  10. Chitradurga 

  11. Dakshina Kannada 

  12. Davanagere 

  13. Dharwad 

  14. Gadag 

  15. Hassan 

  16. Haveri 

  17. kalaburagi

  18. Kodagu 

  19. Kolar 

  20. Koppal 

  21. Mandya 

  22. Mysuru 

  23. Raichur 

  24. Ramanagara 

  25. Shivamogga 

  26. Tumakuru 

  27. Udupi 

  28. Uttara Kannada 

  29. Vijayapura 

  30. Yadgir 

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40: IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material: Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

State Wise Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

State Wise GK Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

UPSC PSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Must Read Books for UPSC PSC Exams 2020 UPSC PSC Exams

Preparation 2020 UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Must Read Books

Jharkhand General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Jharkhand General Knowledge Yearbook 2020: It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Jharkhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for JKPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

Jharkhand Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Jharkhand (Static GK)

2. Current Affairs (whole year)

Jharkhand Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like JKPSC and Other Jharkhand PSC Civil services exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Jharkhand based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Jharkhand General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

Click Here To Download

Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020 - Jharkhand PSC Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

DEMO

Introduction of Jharkhand

Jharkhand is a state in eastern India, created on 15 November 2000, from what was previously the southern half of Bihar. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2. It is the 15th largest state by area, and the 14th largest by population. Hindi is the official language of the state. The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. The state is known for its waterfalls, hills and holy places; Baidyanath Dham, Parasnath and Rajrappa are major religious sites.

Jharkhand is located in the eastern part of India and is enclosed by Bihar to the northern side, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh to the western side, Odisha to the southern part and West Bengal to the eastern part.

The region has been inhabited since the Mesolithic-Chalcolithic period, as shown by several ancient cave paintings. Even evidence of use of iron started in this region as early as 1400 BCE. The region was under the rule of many sovereign and autonomous ruling dynasties including Maurya, Gupta, Gauda, Pala, Nagavanshi, Khayaravala, Ramgarh Raj, Raksel, Chero and Kharagdiha Zamindari estates. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

In the 16th century Mughal influence reached the region, and it finally came under the East India Company in the 18th century. After the Independence of India, the region became part of Bihar state. There was demand for a separate state in the region and the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 passed in Parliament, giving rise to the new state of Jharkhand.

Jharkhand suffers from what is sometimes termed a resource curse: it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but 39.1% of its population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of children under five years of age are malnourished. The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities. Jharkhand is among the leading states in economic growth. In 2017-18, the GSDP growth rate of state was at 10.22%.

Stone tools have been discovered from Chota Nagpur plateau region which is from Mesolithic and Neolithic period. There are ancient cave paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from Meso-chalcolithic period (9,000-5,000 BC). In Kabra-Kala mound at the confluence of Son and North Koel rivers in Palamu district various antiquities and art objects have found which are from Neolithic to the medieval period and the pot-sherds of Red ware, black and red ware, black ware, black slipped ware and NBP ware are from Chalcolithic to the late medieval period. Several iron slags, microliths, and potsherds have been discovered from Singhbhum district which are from 1400 BCE according to carbon dating age. The region was ruled by many empires and dynasties including Maurya, Gupta, Gauda, Pala, Nagavanshi, Khayaravala, Ramgarh Raj, Raksel, Chero, and notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates of Koderma, Ledo Gadi, Gandey Gadi and Gadi Palganj.

During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha and Anga. In the Mauryan period, this region was ruled by a number of states, which were collectively known as the Atavika (forest) states. These states accepted the suzerainty of the Maurya Empire during Ashoka’s reign (c. 232 BCE). Samudragupta, while marching through the present-day Chotanagpur region, directed the first attack against the kingdom of Dakshina Kosala in the Mahanadi valley. In the 7th century, Chinese traveller Xuanzang passed through the region. He described the kingdom as Karnasuvarna and Shashanka as its ruler. To the north of Karn-Suberna was Magadha, Champa was in east, Mahendra in the west and Orissa in the south.

During medieval period, the region ruled by Nagavanshi, Khayaravala and Chero ruler. The Mughal influence reached Palamu during the reign of Emperor Akbar when it was invaded by Raja Mansingh in 1574. Several invasions took place during Mughal rule. During region of Nagavanshi King Madhu Singh, Akbar’ general invaded Khukhra. Also there was invasion during region of Durjan Sal. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

The King Medini Ray ruled from 1658 to 1674 in Palamau. His rule extended to areas in South Gaya and Hazaribagh. He attacked Navratangarh and defeated the Nagavanshi Maharaja of Chhotanagpur. The Chero rule in Palamu region lasted till 19th CE, until internal conflict between various factions weakened the Cheros and they were defeated by the East India Company. Later Palamu estate was sold by the British.

Region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagavanshi dynasty, Ramgarh and Kharagdiha became parts of territories of East India Company. Ramgarh Raj along with estates of other chiefs in the regions was permanently settled as Zamindari estate. The Kharagdiha Rajas were settled as Rajas of Raj Dhanwar in 1809, and the Kharagdiha gadis were separately settled as zamindari estates. Some of the notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates were Koderma, Gadi Palganj and Ledo Gadi. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

Region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagavanshi dynasty, Ramgarh and Kharagdiha became parts of territories of East India Company. Ramgarh Raj along with estates of other chiefs in the regions was permanently settled as Zamindari estate. The Kharagdiha Rajas were settled as Rajas of Raj Dhanwar in 1809, and the Kharagdiha gadis were separately settled as zamindari estates. Some of the notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates were Koderma, Gadi Palganj and Ledo Gadi.

The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. The first revolt against the British East India Company was led by Raghunath Mahato, in 1769.

In 1771, the revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. Bakhtar Say and Mundal Singh, two landowners, fought against the British East India Company in 1812. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

The Princely states in Chota Nagpur Plateau came within the sphere of influence of the Maratha Empire, but they became tributary states of British East India Company as a result of the Anglo-Maratha Wars known as Chota Nagpur Tributary States.

Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai rebelled against British East India Company in 1857 rebellion. In Battle of Chatra conflict took place between rebel and East India Company. Tikait Umrao Singh, Sheikh Bhikhari, Nadir Ali, Jai Mangal Singh played pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India. The Cheros and Kharwars again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed. Then Birsa Munda revolt broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon:

In October 1905, the exercise of British influence over the predominantly Hindi-speaking states of Chang Bhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja, and Udaipur was transferred from the Bengal government to that of the Central Provinces, while the two Oriya-speaking states of Gangpur and Bonai were attached to the Orissa Tributary States, leaving only Kharsawan and Saraikela answerable to the Bengal governor.

In 1936, all nine states were transferred to the Eastern States Agency, the officials of which came under the direct authority of the Governor-General of India, rather than under that of any provinces.

In March 1940, INC 53rd Session was accomplished under the presidency of Maulana Abul Qalam Azad at Jhanda Chowk, Ramgarh now Ramgarh Cantonment. Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Acharya J.B. Kripalani, Industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj and others greats leaders of Indian freedom movement attended the Ramgarh Session. Mahatma Gandhi also opened khadi and village Industries Exhibition at Ramgarh.

After Indian independence in 1947, the rulers of the states chose to accede to the Dominion of India. Changbhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja and Udaipur later became part of Madhya Pradesh state, but Gangpur and Bonai became part of Orissa state, and Kharsawan and Saraikela part of Bihar state. In 1912, the state of Jharkhand was first proposed by a student of St. Columba’s College in Hazaribagh. Initially, in 1928, it was demand of Unnati Samaj, political wing of Christian Tribals Association, which submitted a memorandum to Simon Commission to constitute a tribal state in eastern India. Prominent leader like Jaipal Singh Munda and Ram Narayan Singh demanded a separate state. Jharkhand Party led by Jaipal Singh Munda submitted memorandum to States Reorganization Commission for Jharkhand state, but it was rejected due to there was many languages and no link language in the region, tribal were not in majority and adverse effects on economy after separation from Bihar. In 1972, Binod Bihari Mahato, Shibu Soren and A. K. Roy founded Jharkhand Mukti Morcha. Nirmal Mahto founded All Jharkhand Students Union. They spearheaded movement for separate state of Jharkhand. AJSU introduced elements of violence in the movement and called for bycott of election while JMM opposed it. Due to differences these party parted away from each other. There was a provision for limited internal autonomy in the hill area of Assam. Other tribal areas were covered by the fifth schedule of the constitution. Chotanagpur and Santal Pargana development board constituted under the chairmanship of then Chief minister of Bihar under the provinsion of fifth schedule in 1972. It failed to meet desire result. Jharkhand co-ordination committee (JCC) led by Ram Dayal Munda, Dr. B.P. Keshri, Binod Bihari Mahato, Santosh Rana and Suraj Singh Besra started fresh initiative in the matter. Dr. B.P Keshri sent memorandum to form Jharkhand state. Centre government formed a committee on Jharkhand matter in 1989. It stressed the need of greater allocation of the development funds for the area. Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) Bill passed in Bihar legislative assembly in December 1994. Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) has given charge of 40 subjects including Agriculture, rural health, public work, public health and minerals. The council has power to recommend for legislation to the Assembly through the state government and to frames bylaws and regulations. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

In 1998, when the separate state movement was falling apart, Justice Lal Pingley Nath Shahdeo had led the movement. In 1998, the Union government decided to send the bill concerning formation of Jharkhand state to Bihar Legislative Assembly to which Lalu Prasad Yadav had said that the state would be divided over his dead body. A total of 16 political parties including BJP, JMM, AJSU and Congress came in one platform and formed the ‘All Party Separate State Formation Committee’ to start the movement. Shahdeo was elected as the convener of the committee. The voting on Jharkhand Act was to be done on 21 September 1998 in Bihar legislation. On that day the committee, under the leadership of Shahdeo called for Jharkhand Bandh and organised a protest march. Thousands of supporters of separate state took to streets in leadership of Shahdeo. He was arrested and detained in police station for hours along with many supporters.

After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD’s dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill. Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which had made statehood its main poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Bihar reorganisation Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state. NDA formed the government and Babu Lal Marandi took the oath of chief minister on 15 November 2000 on the birth anniversary of tribal leader Birsa Munda. Jharkhand GK Yearbook 2020

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Jammu & Kashmir Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Jammu & Kashmir Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for JKPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State/UT in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Jammu Kashmir Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

  1. Introduction of Jammu & Kashmir (Static GK)
  2. Current Affairs (whole year)

Jammu & Kashmir Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state/UT. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like JKPSC and Other Jammu & Kashmir PSC Civil services Exams across the State/UT. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Jammu & Kashmir based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State/UT.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Jammu & Kashmir General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Jammu Kashmir Yearbook 2020

Click Here To Download

Jammu Kashmir Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Demo

Introduction of Jammu & Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir was a region formerly administered by India as a state from 1954 to 2019, constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the mid-20th century. The underlying region of this state were parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose western districts, now known as Azad Kashmir, and northern territories, now known as Gilgit-Baltistan, are administered by Pakistan. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.

After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution in 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, with effect from 31 October 2019. At the time of its dissolution, Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.

After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was divided between India (who controlled the regions of Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh) and Pakistan (who controlled Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir). The Indian-administered territories elected a constituent assembly in 1951, which ratified the accession of the state to India in 1954.

In 1956–57, China constructed a road through the disputed Aksai Chin area of Ladakh. India’s belated discovery of this road culminated in the Sino-Indian War of 1962; China has since administered Aksai Chin. Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, India and Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement, recognising a Line of Control in Kashmir, and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations. Jammu Kashmir Yearbook 2020

In August 2019, both houses of the Parliament of India passed resolutions to amend Article 370 and extend the Constitution of India in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the President of India. At the same time, the parliament also passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contained provisions that dissolved the state of Jammu and Kashmir and established two new union territories: the eponymous union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and that of Ladakh.

The reorganisation act was assented to by the President of India, and came into effect on 31 October 2019. Prior to these measures, the union government locked down the Kashmir Valley, increased security forces, imposed Section 144 that prevented assembly, and placed political leaders such as former Jammu and Kashmir chief ministers Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti under house arrest. Internet and phone services were also blocked.

The state of Jammu and Kashmir consisted of three divisions: the Jammu Division, the Kashmir Division and Ladakh which are further divided into 22 districts. The Siachen Glacier, while under Indian military control, did not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kishtwar, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Bandipora, Gander bal, Kulgam and Shopian were districts formed in 2008, and their areas are included with those of the districts from which they were formed.

Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India which had special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India, according to which no law enacted by the Parliament of India, except for those in the field of defence, communication and foreign policy, would be extendable in Jammu and Kashmir unless it was ratified by the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir. The state was able to define the permanent residents of the state who alone had the privilege to vote in state elections, the right to seek government jobs and the ability to own land or property in the state.

Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state to have its own official state flag, along with India’s national flag, in addition to a separate constitution. Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir featured a plough on a red background symbolizing labour; it replaced the Maharaja’s state flag. The three stripes represented the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh.

Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. The Kashmir valley is 100 km wide and 15,520.3 km2 in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from the Tibetan plateau while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This valley has an average height of 1,850 metres above sea-level, but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 10,000 feet. The Jhelum River is the major Himalayan River which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the region.

The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per months between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimetres (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29 °C (84 °F).

The state of Jammu and Kashmir was accorded special status by Article 370 of the Constitution of India. In contrast to other states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had its own constitution, flag and administrative autonomy. Indian citizens from other states were not allowed to purchase land or property in Jammu and Kashmir.

Jammu and Kashmir had three distinct areas: Hindu-majority Jammu region, Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley and Buddhist-dominated Ladakh. Unrest and violence persisted in the Kashmiri Valley and, following a disputed state election in 1987, an insurgency persisted in protest over autonomy and rights.

The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power in the 2014 Indian general election and five years later included in their 2019 election manifesto the revocation of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, in order to bring Jammu and Kashmir to equal status with other states.

A resolution to repeal Article 370 was passed by both the houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. At the same time, a reorganisation act was also passed, which would reconstitute the state into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The reorganisation took effect from 31 October 2019.

Article 370 and 35(A) Revoked

On 5th of August 2019, the President of India promulgated the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019.

The order effectively abrogates the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under the provision of Article 370 – whereby provisions of the Constitution which were applicable to other states were not applicable to Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).

According to the Order, provisions of the Indian Constitution are now applicable in the State.

This Order comes into force “at once”, and shall “supersede the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.”

A separate Bill – the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill 2019 – was introduced to bifurcate the State into two separate union territories of Jammu and Kashmir (with legislature), and Ladakh (without legislature).

Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Second Amendment) Bill, 2019 was also introduced to extend the reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) in educational institutions and government jobs in Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu Kashmir Yearbook 2020

Jammu Kashmir Yearbook 2020 - Article 370 and 35 A

J&K acceded to the Dominion of India after the Instrument of Accession was signed by Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution provided that only Articles 1 and 370 itself would apply to J&K, The application of other Articles was to be determined by the President in consultation with the government of the state.

The Constitution Order of 1950 specified the matters on which the Union Parliament would be competent to make laws for J&K, in concurrence with the Instrument of Accession – 38 Subjects from the Union List were added.

The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 settled the constitutional relationship of J&K and the Union of India. It made the following provisions:

Indian citizenship and all related benefits (fundamental rights) were extended to the ‘permanent residents’ of Jammu and Kashmir.

Article 35A was added to the Constitution (empowering the state legislature to legislate on the privileges of permanent residents with regard to immovable property, settlement in the state and employment)

Article 370 – Features and Provisions

Present in part XXI of the Indian Constitution which comprises of Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions with rest to various states of India.

•Forms the basis of the “Special Status” of J&K

•Provides for a separate Constitution of J&K

•Limits the Union Parliament’s power to make laws for J&K to those subjects mentioned in the Instrument of Accession (defense, foreign affairs, and communications) and others as and when declared by the Presidential Orders with the concurrence of the Government of the State. Jammu Kashmir Yearbook 2020

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for HPPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Himachal Pradesh Yearbook 2020

Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like HPPSC and Other Himachal Pradesh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Himachal Pradesh Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Himachal Pradesh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, HPPSC and Other PSC exams and across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Himachal Pradesh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Himachal Pradesh Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Himachal Pradesh (Static GK)

2. Current Affairs (whole year)

3. Practice MCQ

Click Here To download

Himachal Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Demo/Preview

Introduction of Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh is a state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is bordered by union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh on the north, Punjab state on the west, Haryana state on the southwest, Uttarakhand state on the southeast, and Tibet region on the east. At its southernmost point, it also touches the state of Uttar Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh Yearbook 2020

Some Important Facts
Area 55,673 km2
Total population 6,864,602
Males 3,481,873
Females 3,382,729
Population density 123
Sex ratio 972
Rural population 6,176,050
Urban population 688,552
Scheduled Caste population 1,729,252
Scheduled Tribe population 392,126
Literacy rate 83.78%
Male literacy 90.83%
Female literacy 76.60%
Capitals 2
Districts 12
Sub-divisions 71
Tehsils 169
Sub-tehsils 38
Developmental blocks 78
Towns 59
Panchayats 3,243
Panchayat samiti 77
Zila parishad 12
Urban local bodies 59
Nagar nigams 2
Nagar parishads 25
Nagar panchayats 23
Census villages 20,690
Inhabited villages 17,882
Health institutions 3,866
Educational institutions 17,000
Motorable roads 33,722 km
National highways 8
Identified hydroelectric potential 23,000.43 MW in five rivers basins i.e. (Yamuna, Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Himurja)
Potential harnessed 10,264 MW
Food grain production 1579,000 tonnes
Vegetable production 900,000 tonnes
Fruit production 1,027,000 tonnes
Per capita income ₹158,462 (2017–18)
Social Security pensions 237,250 persons, annual expenditure: over ₹ 600 million
Investment in industrial areas ₹ 273.80 billion, employment opportunities: Over 337,391

The predominantly mountainous region comprising the present day Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited since pre-historic times having witnessed multiple waves of human migration from other areas. Through its history, the region was mostly ruled by local kingdoms some of which accepted suzerainty of larger empires. Prior to India’s independence from the British, Himachal comprised the hilly regions of Punjab Province of British India. After independence, many of the hilly territories were organised as the Chief Commissioner’s province of Himachal Pradesh which later became a union territory. In 1966, hilly areas of neighbouring Punjab state were merged into Himachal and it was ultimately granted full statehood in 1971.

Himachal Pradesh is spread across valleys with many perennial rivers flowing through them. Almost 90% of the state’s population lives in rural areas. Agriculture, horticulture, hydropower and tourism are important constituents of the state’s economy. The hilly state is almost universally electrified with 99.5% of the households having electricity as of 2016. The state was declared India’s second open-defecation-free state in 2016. According to a survey of CMS – India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India’s least corrupt state.

Tribes such as the Koli, Hali, Dagi, Dhaugri, Dasa, Khasa, Kanaura, and Kirat inhabited the region from the prehistoric era. The foothills of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh were inhabited by people from the Indus valley civilisation which flourished between 2250 and 1750 B.C. The Kols or Mundas are believed to be the original migrants to the hills of present-day Himachal Pradesh followed by the Bhotas and Kiratas.

During the Vedic period, several small republics known as Janapada existed which were later conquered by the Gupta Empire, after a brief period of supremacy by King Harshavardhana, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some Rajput principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate a number of times. Mahmud Ghaznavid conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 11th century. Timur and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles. Several hill states acknowledged Mughal suzerainty and paid regular tribute to the Mughals.

The Kingdom of Gorkha conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal in 1768. They consolidated their military power and began to expand their territory. Gradually, the Kingdom of Nepal annexed Sirmour and Shimla. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh in 1809. After the defeat, they expanded towards the south of the state. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846, during the First Anglo-Sikh War.

They came into direct conflict with the British along the tarai belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj. The British gradually emerged as the paramount power in the region. In the revolt of 1857, or first Indian war of independence, arising from a number of grievances against the British, the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country. They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive. Some, including the rulers of Chamba, Bilaspur, Bhagal and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt.

The British territories came under the British Crown after Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule. During World War I, virtually all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials. Among these were the states of Kangra, Jaswan, Datarpur, Guler, Rajgarh, Nurpur, Chamba, Suket, Mandi, and Bilaspur. Himachal Pradesh Yearbook 2020

After independence, the Chief Commissioner’s Province of Himachal Pradesh was organised on 15 April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states in the promontories of the western Himalayas. These were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947. The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act, 1954.

Himachal became a Part ‘C’ state on 26 January 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed. The Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory on 1 November 1956. Some areas of Punjab State— namely Simla, Kangra, Kullu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh Tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara, Amb and Una Janungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh Kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una Tehsil of Hoshiarpur District, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District—were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on enactment by Parliament of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. On 18 December 1970, the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament, and the new state came into being on 25 January 1971. Himachal became the 18th state of the Indian Union with Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar as its first chief minister. Himachal Pradesh Yearbook 2020

Districts of Himachal Pradesh

Bilaspur was the capital of a state of the same name founded in the 7th century, also known as Kahlur. The ruling dynasties were Chandela Rajputs, who claimed descent from the rulers of Chanderi in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The town of Bilaspur was founded in 1663. The state later became a princely state of British India, and was under the authority of the British province of Punjab.

On 13 May 1665, Guru Tegh Bahadur went to Bilaspur to attend the mourning and funeral ceremonies for Raja Dip Chand of Bilaspur. Rani Champa of Bilaspur made an offer to the Guru of a piece of land in her state, which the Guru accepted at the cost of 500 rupees. The land consisted of the villages of Lodhipur, Mianpur, and Sahota. Guru Tegh Bahadur broke ground on a new settlement on 19 June 1665, which he named Nanaki after his mother.

In 1932, the state became part of the newly created Punjab States Agency, and in 1936 the Punjab Hill States Agency was separated from the Punjab States Agency. On 12 October 1948 the local ruler, HH Raja Sir Anand Chand, acceded to the Government of India.

Bilaspur became a separate state of India under a chief commissioner, and on 1 July 1954, Bilaspur State was made a district of Himachal Pradesh state by an act of the Indian Parliament. When the Sutlej River was dammed to create the Govind Sagar, the historic town of Bilaspur was submerged, and a new town was built upslope of the old.

Chamba is bounded on north-west by Jammu and Kashmir, on the north-east and east by Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir state and Lahaul and Bara-Bangal area of Himachal Pradesh, on the south-east and south by the District Kangra of Himachal Pradesh and Gurdaspur District of the Punjab.

The Chamba District is situated between north latitude 32° 11′ 30” and 33° 13′ 6” and east longitude 75°49 and 77° 3′ 30”, with an estimated area of 6522 square Kilometers and is surrounded on all sides by lofty hill ranges. The territory is wholly mountainous with altitude ranging from 2,000 to 21,000 feet.

Chamba the land of lord Shiva is famous for its untouched natural beauty. The district has Dalhousie, Khajjiar, Chamba Town, Pangi and Bharamour as main tourist destinations. There are five lakes, five wild life sanctuaries and countless number of temples.

Chamba, is a small but attractive tourist destination of Himachal Pradesh, is known for its exquisite natural beauty. The place, located amidst picturesque and verdant valleys, is visited by tourist round the year. Sub-Himalayan range of mountains, full of diverse flora and fauna, make Chamba an exhilarating experience. Pleasing climate of the place is another factor why Chamba is one among the popular tourist destinations in the whole of India. In the following lines, we will provide you more information on the weather and climate of Chamba.

SUMMER

The summer season in Chamba starts from the middle of April and lasts till the last week of June. Even in summers, when the plains are boiling with high temperatures, the weather here remains quite pleasing. This is the time when majority of tourist takes shelter in the place. Days are a little warm, but nights are romantic and cool. Light cotton clothes are ideal during summers.

MONSOON

Rains in Chamba start in the month of July, when the monsoon breaks-in, and continue till late August or mid September. This is the time when the weather is misty and cloudy. During this time, the entire valley is covered in a hue of light green, with newly washed leaves shining in the glory of after-rain sunshine.

WINTER

The winter season in Chamba starts in the month of December and lasts till the month of February. During this season, Chamba generally remains cool and dry, but snowfall does occur at higher elevations, during these months. In the winter season, the temperature might drop to freezing point in the lower region too and snowfall may happen. Tourists should go with heavy woolen clothes during this season and enjoy snowfall.

Kangra district lies between 31˚ 21′ to 32˚ 59′ N latitude and 75˚ 47′ 55″ to 77˚ 45′ E longitude. It is situated on the southern escarpment of the Himalayas. The entire area of the district is traversed by the varying altitude of the Shivaliks, Dhauladhar and the Himalayas from north-west to south-east. The altitude varies from 500 metres above mean sea level (amsl) to around 5000 metres amsl. It is encapsulated in the north by the districts of Chamba and Lahaul and Spiti, in the south by Hamirpur and Una, in the east by Mandi and in the west by Gurdaspur district of Punjab. The present Kangra district came into existence on the 1st September, 1972 consequent upon the re-organisation of districts by the Government of Himachal Pradesh. It was the largest district of the composite Punjab in terms of area till it was transferred to Himachal Pradesh on the 1st November, 1966 and had six tehsils namely Nurpur, Kangra, Palampur, Dehragopipur, Hamirpur and Una.

Kangra district derives its name from Kangra town that was known as Nagarkot in ancient times. Kangra proper originally was a part of the ancient Trigarta (Jullundur), which comprises of the area lying between the river “Shatadroo” (probably Sutlej) and Ravi. A tract of land to the east of Sutlej that probably is the area of Sirhind in Punjab also formed a part of Trigrata. Trigrata had two provinces. One in the plains with headquarters at Jullundur and other in the hills with headquarters at Nagarkot (the present Kangra).

Kinnaur surrounded by the Tibet to the east, in the northeast corner of Himachal Pradesh, about 235 kms from Shimla is a tremendously beautiful district having the three high mountains ranges i.e. Zanskar, Greater Himalayas and Dhauladhar, enclosing valleys of Sutlej, Spiti, Baspa and their tributaries. All the valleys are strikingly beautiful. The slopes are covered with thick wood, orchards, fields and picturesque hamlets. The much religious Shivlinga lies at the peak of Kinner Kailash mountain.

Nestled in the lap of the majestic Himalayas, Kullu is a veritable jewel in the crown of Himachal Pradesh. The breathtaking beauty of its marvelous landscapes, the hospitality of its people, their distinctive lifestyle and rich culture have enthralled travelers for aeons.

The Dev Sanskriti of the valley blends faith, mythology and history to create and sustain a unique bond between the mundane and the divine. Blessed with salubrious weather throughout the year, the district is known for the internationally renowned towns of Kullu and Manali, the pristine beauty of the Parbati valley, the teeming biodiversity of the Great Himalayan National Park, the quaint temple architecture of the hills and several enjoyable trekking routes across its breadth and width.

The Lahaul and Spiti district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two formerly separate districts of Lahaul and Spiti. The present administrative centre is Keylong in Lahaul. Before the two districts were merged, Kardang was the capital of Lahaul, and Dhankar the capital of Spiti. The district was formed in 1960, and is the fourth least populous district in India.

Kunzum la or the Kunzum Pass (altitude 4,551 m (14,931 ft)) is the entrance pass to the Spiti Valley from Lahaul. It is 21 km (13 mi) from Chandra Tal. This district is connected to Manali through the Rohtang Pass. To the south, Spiti ends 24 km (15 mi) from Tabo, at the Sumdo where the road enters Kinnaur and joins with National Highway No. 5

The two valleys are quite different in character. Spiti is more barren and difficult to cross, with an average elevation of the valley floor of 4,270 m (14,010 ft). It is enclosed between lofty ranges, with the Spiti River rushing out of a gorge in the southeast to meet the Sutlej River. It is a typical mountain desert area with an average annual rainfall of only 170 mm (6.7 in).

The present District Of Mandi was formed with the merger of two princely states Mandi and Suket on 15th April 1948, when the State of Himachal Pradesh came into existence. Ever since the formation of the district, it has not witnessd any changes in it’s jurisdiction. The chiefs of Mandi and Suket are said to be from a common ancestor of the Chandravanshi line of Rajputs of Sena dynasty of Bengal and they claim their descent from the Pandavas of the Mahabharata. The ancestors of the line believed to have ruled for 1,700 years in Indarprastha(Delhi), until one Khemraj was driven out by his Wazir, Bisarp, who then took over the throne. Khemraj, having lost his knogdom, fled eastward and settled in Bengal, where 13 of his successors are said to have ruled for 350 years. From there they had to flee to Ropar in Punjab, but here also the king, Rup Sen, was killed and one of his sons, Bir Sen, fled to the hills and reached Suket. The State of Suket is said to have been founded by Bir Sen, an ancestor of the Sena Dynasty of Bengal.

The former summer capital of the British India, and the present capital of Himachal Pradesh, Shimla has been blessed with all the natural bounties which one can think of. It has got a scenic location, it is surrounded by green hills with snow capped peaks. The spectacular cool hills accompanied by the structures made during the colonial era creates an aura which is very different from other hill. Bulging at its seams with unprecedented expansion, Shimla retains its colonial heritage, with grand old uildings, charming iron lamp posts and Anglo-Saxon names. The Mall, packed with shops and eateries, is the main attraction of the town, and Scandal Point, associated with the former Maharaja of Patiala’s escapades, offers a view of distant snow clad peaks.Shimla is ideally located, and though there is an air service to the town, it is best reached by road that takes in the charms of the HIMALAYAN countryside at its best. There is a sense of nostalgia about SHIMLA, with its old bungalows and their gabled roofs and beautiful gardens.

The Shimla back to the 19th century when it was founded by the British in the year 1819 after the Gorkha war. During that period, it was most popular for the temple of Hindu Goddess Shyamala Devi. In 1822, the first British summer home was constructed by Scottish civil servant Charles Pratt Kennedy. Shimla became the summer capital of the British Raj during the latter half of the 19th century and the soldiers of the British army, merchants and civil servants dropped in here to get relief from the scorching heat of the plains. Presently, it is the state capital of Himachal Pradesh, with its population around 1.6 lacs (Shimla town only) having Altitude 2202.00 meters above sea level, Languages Pahari, Hindi and English, Best time to visit October to November and April to June and STD Code is 0177. Shimla has seen many important historical events such as the famous Shimla Pact between India and Pakistan which was signed here. The place is also famous for its natural beauty, architectural buildings, wooden crafts and apples.

A remarkable event took place in the history of Shimla when the Kalka-Shimla railway line was constructed in the year 1906 that significantly added to its quick accessibility and it gained immense popularity. Apart from this, Shimla was declared as capital of the undivided state of Punjab in the year 1871 and remained so until Chandigarh (the present-day capital of Punjab) was given the status of the region’s capital. Himachal Pradesh got separated from undivided Punjab in the year 1971 with Shimla becoming its capital. You will come across several British structures in Shimla such as the Viceregal lodge, Auckland House, Gorton Castle, Peterhoff house, and Gaiety Theater that are the reminders of the colonial times. Some of the most prominent things to watch in Shimla are the Himachal State Museum and Library, Viceregal Lodge, Botanical Gardens, Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, The Ridge, The Mall, Summer Hill, Glenn and Taradevi Temple. Everything in this quaint town has a unique appeal and never fails to impress even the most demanding tourists.

District Sirmaur   is located in   outer  Himalayas  which is commonly known as Shivalik range.This  district   is bounded  by district Shimla in North Uttrakhand in East, Haryana  in  South  and  Distt. Solan   in North-West.  Like other parts of Himachal Pradesh, it   has beautiful landscapes, bracing climate, big   and   small game and legendry temples which hold abiding attraction for the tourists.

The  river  Giri  is the  biggest  river  in  the district which  originates from  Kotkhai/Jubbal   Tehsil of  Shimla   district and  flows down  in the  south-east  direction. It ultimately joins the river Yamuna near  Paonta  Sahib.  Lot of tributaries join this river in its long  course,  most  important  of  them being Jalal  river  which originates from Dharthi range near  Pachhad and joins the Giri River at Dadahu from  the right  side. The river Giri  is very useful as it a big source of livelihood fishermen in this   district. Another important river  which forms  the   eastern   border of the Sirmour district is the river Tons.

In this District, there are Six Administrative Sub Divisions, Nine tehsils, Four sub  tehsils, Six community development blocks, two municipal committees and one notified  area  committee. Out of 228 panchayats  in this   district, 26 are backward declared panchayats.

Solan is the district headquarters of Solan district (created on 1 September 1972) in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The largest Municipal Council of Himachal Pradesh, it is located 46 kilometres south of the state capital, Shimla. At an average elevation of 1,600 metres (5,200 ft). The place is named after the Hindu goddess Shoolini devi. Every year in the month of June, a fair celebrating the goddess is held, featuring a 3-day mela at Thodo ground. Solan was the capital of the erstwhile princely state, Baghat.

It is known as the “Mushroom city of India” because of the vast mushroom farming in the area as well as the Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR) situated at Chambaghat.

Solan is crowned as the “City of Red Gold“, in reference to the bulk production of tomatoes in the area The town is situated between Chandigarh and Shimla , on the Kalka-Shimla National Highway. The Kalka-Shimla narrow gauge heritage railway line, built by the British passes through Solan and is a recognised World Heritage site.

Una is a district of Himachal Pradesh which lies in its south western part. On the 1st September,1972 the Himachal Pradesh Govt. reorganised the then Kangra district into three districts namely Una, Hamirpur and Kangra.The famous places of Una are ‘Chintpurni’ Goddess temple, Dera Baba Barbhag Singh, Dera Baba Rudru, Joggi Panga, Dharamshala Mahanta, Dhunsar Mahadev Temple Talmehra, Shivbari Temple Gagret and Mini Secretariat. Una district is well developed in the industrial sector due to close proximity to Punjab. Mehatpur, Gagret, Tahliwal & Amb are main industrial centres of Una. On 11th January 1991, Una has been provided with railway line by laying 14 Kms broad gauge track from Nangal(Punjab) to Una. Punjabi, Hindi, Pahari are common languages spoken. In winter, climate is cool, woolen clothes required. In summer, climate is hot, cotton clothes required. From July to September, it is rainy & humid.

Demo – Current Affairs

International Lavi fair being organised in Himachal Pradesh

Rising Himachal Global Investors’ Meet 2019

Renukaji Multipurpose Dam Project

Himachal Pradesh celebrates its 49th full Statehood day

1st Mega Food Park of Himachal Pradesh

Nomadic Elephant 2019

Himachal Pradesh Assembly passed a Bill to make Sanskrit as the second official language of the state

Mukhya Mantri Seva Sankalp Helpline

Indian Army Team Summit Mt. Leo Pargyil

Two new species of Freshwater Fish found

Himachal Pradesh government declared Monkeys as vermin

14th Edition of Annual Sino-Indian Border Trade opens at Nathu La

Tashigang becomes the World’s highest Polling station

Vulnerability Study by the Himalayan States

Al Nagah III Joint Military Exercise

…………….Many More…………….

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Haryana Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Haryana GK Yearbook 2020: It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for HPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Haryana Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Haryana Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like HPSC and Other Haryana State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Haryana GK Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Haryana based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Haryana GK Yearbook 2020: Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, HPSC and Other PSC exams and across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Haryana General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Haryana GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

  Haryana Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Haryana (Static GK)

2. Current Affairs (whole year)

3. Practice MCQ

Click Here To Download

Haryana GK Yearbook 2020 - HPSC Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 - Haryana General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Demo

Introduction of Haryana

Haryana is one of the 28 states in India, located in northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area with less than 1.4% (44,212 km2) of India’s land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages’ panchayats.

S.No Description Summary
1 Total Area 44,212 km 2 (17,070 sq mi)
2 Population 25,353,081
3 The rank of the state Area wise:- 21st
Population wise:- 18th
4 Population Density 573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
5 State Bounded By Himachal Pradesh from North Uttrakhand from North East Rajasthan from the South U.P and Delhi from East Punjab from North West
6 Soil & Minerals Alluvial Soil
7 Major Crops Wheat Rice Sugarcane Cotton Legume
8 Forest Area 1586 Sq. km
9 Climate arid to semi-arid
10 Major Flora Mulberry,  Eucalyptus, Pine, Keekar
11 Major Fauna Black Buck, nilgai, fox, Panther

Among the world’s oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country’s capital Delhi on three sides (north, west and south), consequently a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development. Haryana GK Yearbook 2020

Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani, Dadri, Gurgaon (Ferozepur Jhirka), Hansi, Hisar, Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa, Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak and Sonepat in Haryana.

After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Sunam, Kaithal and Panipat. When he reached the town of Sarsuti (Sirsa), the residents, who were mostly non-Muslims, fled and were chased by a detachment of Timur’s troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops.

From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred. The Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi. They tried to resist but were defeated and fled. Timur’s army pursued and killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners. He then sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered. Timur proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were “fire-worshippers” according to Yazdi, and had fled to Delhi. Next, he travelled to and subdued Tughlaq pur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had already fled. He then marched on to Loni fort. Haryana GK Yearbook 2020

Haryana as a state came into existence on 1 November 1966 the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966). The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing state of Punjab and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district — along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri — were to be included. Haryana GK Yearbook 2020

The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana. The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39′ to 30°35′ N latitude and between 74°28′ and 77°36′ E longitude. The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft above sea level. Haryana has only 4% (compared to national 21.85%) area under forests. Karoh Peak, a 1,467-metre tall mountain peak in the Sivalik Hills range of the greater Himalayas range located near Morni Hill area of Panchkula district, is highest point in Haryana.

The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state is also called Delhi doab consisting of Sutlej-Ghaggar doab (between Sutlej in north in Punjab and Ghaggar river flowing through northern Haryana), Ghaggar-Hakra doab (between Ghaggar river and Hakra or Drishadvati river which is the palaeochannels of the holy Sarasvati River) and Hakra-Yamuna doab (between Hakra river and Yamuna). The Lower Shivalik Hills to the northeast in foothills of Himalaya, The Bagar tract semi-desert dry sandy plain to the south-west. See also: Bangar and Khadir. The Aravali Range’s northernmost low rise isolated non-continuous outcrops in the south. Haryana GK Yearbook 2020

Forest cover in the state in 2013 was 3.59% (1586 km2) and the Tree Cover in the state was 2.90% (1282 km2), giving a total forest and tree cover of 6.49%. In 2016-17, 18,412 hectares were brought under tree cover by planting 14.1 million seedlings. Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found in Haryana;

Historical events of Haryana

S.No Description Answer
1. Founded on 1st November 1966
2. Also Known As “The land of God”
3. Ruled By Maurya, Mughals and Afghans
4. Major Historical Events The First Battle of Panipat in 1526 (Babur defeated the Lodis). The Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 (The local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi was defeated by Akbar) The Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 (The Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas).
Archaeological Monuments/Sites
Archaeological Monuments/Sites Near/place
Khwaja Khizr Tomb Sonipat
Ancient Mound(Bhirrana) Fatehabad
Shishmahal Gurugram
Dehra Temple Ferozepur Jhirka
Pranpir Badshah’s Tomb Hisar
Asigarh Fort (Char Qutub Dargah) Hansi
Firoz Shah Palace Complex(Jahaj Kothi) Hisar
Tomb of Sheikh Tayyab Kaithal
Mughal Bridge Karnal
Harsh Ka Tilla Kurukshetra
Mosque of Pir Turkman and Tomb Narnaul
Tripolia Gateway Narnaul
Shobha Sagar Talab Narnaul
Chatta Rai Bal Mukund Das Narnaul
Mirza Alijan’s Takhat and Baoli Narnaul, Mahendergarh
Sugh Ancient Mound Yamunanagar
Jarasandha-Ka-Qila Karnal
Mugal Kos Minar Sonipat
Shahjahan Ki Baoli Rohtak
Ibrahim Lodi’s Tomb Panipat
Kabuli Bagh Mosque Panipat
Narnaul Jal Mahal Narnaul
Sheikh Chilli’s Tomb Thanesar
Karnal Cantonment Church Tower Karnal
Gharuanda Gateways of Old Mughal Sarai Gharaunda
Barsi gate Hansi
Surajkund Masonry Faridabad
Nabha House Kurukshetra
Major River and Dams
River Dams
Ghaggar-Hakra Masani Barrage
Dangri Hathni Kund Barrage
Dohan Kaushalya Dam
Chautang nangpur Dam
Kaushalya Ottu Barrage
Markanda Palla Barrage
Indori Pathrala Barrage
Krishnavati Tajewala Barrage

DemoCurrent Affairs

Atal Bhujal Yojana gets Cabinet Approval

Haryana Police adopts unique barcoding software ‘Trakea’

“National Organic Festival of Women Entrepreneurs”

Integrated Command and Control Centre inaugurated in Haryana

NuGen Mobility Summit-2019 being held in Haryana

Haryana Government sets up new Foreign Cooperation Department

Bhavantar Bharpayee Yojna Scheme: Haryana

AYUSH Health and Wellness Centres

Indian Cities and Air Pollution

11 projects to revive mythical Saraswati River

Renukaji Multipurpose Dam Project

ESIC Medical College and Hospital was inaugurated in Faridabad

National Institute of Ayurveda was laid in Panchkula by Prime Minister

Foundation stone of ‘Battles of Panipat Museum’

Voter Park in Gurugram

Haryana launches Krishi Kiosk for farmers

Meri Fasal Mera Byora’ portal

Mukhya Mantri Parivar Samridhi Yojna

‘Institution of Eminence’ Status

National Cancer Institute (NIC) at Badhsa in Jhajjar district of Haryana.

Kapil Dev appointed as first chancellor of Rai Sports University

Vinesh Phogat clinches gold in 2019 Poland Open wrestling

Many More…+ Practice MCQ also covered in this Ebook…..

Districts of Haryana

Haryana is a State in the northern region of India with 22 districts and is the nation’s seventeenth most popular. The State borders with Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north and Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region.

Ambala ambala.gov.in
Bhiwani bhiwani.gov.in
Charkhi Dadri charkhidadri.gov.in
Faridabad faridabad.nic.in
Fatehabad fatehabad.gov.in
Gurugram gurugram.gov.in
Hisar hisar.gov.in
Jhajjar jhajjar.nic.in
Jind jind.gov.in
Kaithal kaithal.gov.in
Karnal karnal.gov.in
Kurukshetra kurukshetra.gov.in
Mahendragarh mahendragarh.gov.in
Nuh nuh.gov.in
Palwal palwal.gov.in
Panchkula panchkula.nic.in
Panipat panipat.gov.in
Rewari rewari.gov.in
Rohtak rohtak.gov.in
Sirsa sirsa.gov.in
Sonipat sonipat.nic.in
Yamunanagar yamunanagar.nic.in
Map of Haryana
Source

Some Other Useful Links:

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

GPSC Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for GPSC and other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Gujarat

2. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

3. Practice MCQ

Gujarat Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. GPSC Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020: Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Gujarat based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the Gujarat State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Gujarat General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020 - Gujarat Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 GPSC Exams

Click Here To Download

Demo

Introduction of Gujarat

Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km– most of which lays on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the fifth largest Indian state by area and the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world’s first seaports. Gujarat’s coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centres in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era. Along with Bihar and Nagaland, Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Gir Forest National Park in Gujarat is home of the only wild population of the Asiatic lion in the world.

The population of Gujarat was 60,383,628 (31,491,260 males and 28,948,432 females) according to the 2011 census data. The population density is 308 sq km, lower than other Indian states. As per the census of 2011, the state has a sex ratio of 918 girls for every 1000 boys, one of the lowest (23 Ranked) amongst the 28 (earlier 29 States but Jammu and Kashmir became Union Territory from Oct 31, 2019) states in India.

Important Facts
Capital &
Major Cities
Gandhinagar
– Ahmedabad
– Surat
– Rajkot
– Bhuj
– Dwarka
– Vadodara
Districts 33
Formed
on
Mahagujarat Andolan
demanded creation of state of Gujarat for Gujarati-speaking people from the bilingual Bombay state. Resulted in the formation of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960.
Official
Language
Gujarati
Known as/for – Jewel of Western India
– Manchester of the East
– Has longest coastline of 1,600 Km.
– Largest producer of cotton in India
– Highest producer of salt in India
– Largest producer of groundnut in India
– Gulf of Khambat-older than the ancient Harappan civilization dates back around 4,000 years.
Physical
Characteristics
4 geographical regions:
– Kathiawar or Saurashtra
– Kachchh
– Rann of Kachchh
– Gujarat Plain Drier in the north
Natural
Vegetation
Tropical thorny vegetation
Major
Rivers
– Sabarmati
towards Gulf of Cambay from Dhebar Lake.
Narmada (Rewa) 
flows from Narmada Kund to the Gulf of Khambat.
Tapti (Tapi)
flows from Multai to the Gulf of Khambhat.
Major
Regional
Festivals
– Navratri
– Uttarayan
– Bhadra Purnima
Major Art
Forms
– Garba
– Dandia Raas
Industry – Chemical fertilizers
– Petrochemicals
– Pharmaceuticals
– Polyester textiles
– Handicrafts
– Cotton textiles
– Cement
– Vegetable oil
Minerals Agate, Bauxite, Dolomite, fire clay, China clay, fluorite, Fuller’s earth, kaolin, Lignite, limestone, Chalk, Calcareous sea sand, Petroleum and natural gas, Silica sand, Pelite
Agriculture Bajra, Jowar, Rice,Wheat,Tobacco, Cotton, Groundnut, Linseed, Sugarcane, Cumin, Isabgul (Psyllium husk), Mangoes and Bananas
Geographical
Indications
Sankheda Furniture, Agates of Cambay, Kutch Embroidery, Tangaliya Shawl, Surat Zari Craft, Gir Kesar Mango, Bhalia Wheat, Kachchh ShaWS, Patan Patola
State Animal Asiatic lion
State Bird Greater flamingo
State Flower Marigold
State Tree Mango
World
Heritage
Sites
Champaner
-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Rani ki vav at Patan (The Queen’s Stepwell)
Biodiversity
Hotspots
Western Ghats
Bird
Sanctuaries
Nalsarovar BS, Gaga WS, Khijadiya BS, Kutch Sanctuary, Porbandar BS, Thol Lake.
National
Parks
Blackbuck NP Gir Forest NP Marine NP Gulf of Kutch Vansda NP
Biosphere
Reserve
Kachchh
Wildlife
Sanctuaries
– Balaram Ambaji WS
– Barda WS
– Gaga Great Indian Bustard WS
– Gir  WS
– Girnar WS
– Hingolgadh WS
– Jambugodha WS
– Jessore WS
– Lala Great Indian Bustard WS
– Kachchh Desert WS
– Khijadiya WS
– Mitiyala WS
– Nalsarovar BS
– Narayan Sarovar (Chinkara) WS
– Paniya WS
– Porbandar Lake WS
– Purna WS
– Rampara Vidi WS
– Ratanmahal WS
– Shoolpaneswar (Dhumkhal) WS
– Thol Lake WS
– Wild Ass WS
Marine
Protected Area
Marine
(Gulf of Kachchh), Khijadiya

The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime. He ruled Giri nagar (modern-day Junagadh) (322 BC to 294 BC) and built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondophernes landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas.

In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam, which stretched from Spain in the west to Afghanistan and modern-day Pakistan in the east. Al-Junaid, the successor of Qasim, finally subdued the Hindu resistance within Sindh and established a secure base. The Arab rulers tried to expand their empire southeast, which culminated in the Caliphate campaigns in India fought in 730; they were defeated and expelled west of the Indus river, probably by a coalition of the Hindu rulers Nagabhata I of the Pratihara Dynasty, Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty and Bappa Rawal of Guhila dynasty. After this victory, the Arab invaders were driven out of Gujarat. General Pulakeshin, a Chalukya prince of Lata, received the title Avanijanashraya (refuge of the people of the earth) and honorific of “Repeller of the unrepellable” by the Chalukya emperor Vikramaditya II for his victory at the battle at Navsari, where the Arab troops suffered a crushing defeat. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

In the late 8th century, the Kannauj Triangle period started. The three major Indian dynasties – the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty and the East Indian Pala Empire – dominated India from the 8th to 10th centuries. During this period the northern part of Gujarat was ruled by the north Indian Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty and the southern part of Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty. However, the earliest epigraphically records of the Gurjars of Broach attest that the royal bloodline of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Dadda I-II-III (650–750) ruled south Gujarat, Southern Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty until it was captured by the south Indian ruler Tailapa II of the Western Chalukya Empire.

The Chalukya dynasty ruled Gujarat from c. 960 to 1243. Gujarat was a major center of Indian Ocean trade, and their capital at Anhilwara (Patan) was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. After 1243, the Solankis lost control of Gujarat to their feudatories, of whom the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka came to dominate Gujarat. In 1292 the Vaghela became tributaries of the Yadavas dynasty of Devagiri in the Deccan. Karandev of the Vaghela dynasty was the last Hindu ruler of Gujarat. He was defeated and overthrown by the superior forces of Alauddin Khalji from Delhi in 1297. With his defeat, Gujarat became part of the Muslim empire, and the Rajput hold over Gujarat would never be restored. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra (Kathiawar) and parts of Hyderabad state and Madhya Pradesh in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by Gujarati nationalists, the Mahagujarat Movement, and Marathi nationalists, the Samyukta Maharashtra, for their own states led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. In 1969 riots, at least 660 died and properties worth millions were destroyed.

The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar in 1970. Nav Nirman Andolan was a socio-political movement of 1974. It was a students’ and middle-class people’s movement against economic crisis and corruption in public life. This was the first and last successful agitation after the Independence of India that ousted an elected government. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

The Morvi dam failure, in 1979, resulted in the death of thousands of people and large economic loss. In the 1980s, a reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes.

The 2001 Gujarat earthquake was located about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District. This magnitude 7.7 shock killed around 20,000 people (including at least 18 in South-eastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

In February 2002, the Godhra train burning lead to statewide riots, resulting in the deaths of 1044 people – 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus, and hundreds missing still unaccounted for. Akshardham Temple was attacked by two terrorists in September 2002, killing 32 people and injuring more than 80 others. National Security Guards intervened to end the siege killing both terrorists. On 26 July 2008 a series of seventeen bomb blasts rocked the city, killing and injuring several people.

Gujarat borders the Tharparkar, Badin and Thatta districts of Pakistan’s Sindh province to the northwest, is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the north was known as Anarta, the Kathiawar peninsula, “Saurashtra”, and the south as “Lata”. Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna. The Arabian Sea makes up the state’s western coast. The capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city. Gujarat has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,030 km2) with the longest coastline (24% of Indian sea coast) 1,600 kilometres, dotted with 41 ports: one major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor.

The Sabarmati is the largest river in Gujarat followed by the Tapi, although the Narmada covers the longest distance in its passage through the state. The Sardar Sarovar Project is built on the Narmada River, one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 1,312 kilometres. It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west – the others being the Tapi River and the Mahi River. A riverfront project has been built on the Sabarmati River. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

Gujarat has some of the major mountain ranges of India, including Aravalli, Sahyadri (Western Ghats), Vindhya and Saputara. Apart from this Gir hills, Barda, Jessore, Chotila, etc. are situated in different parts of Gujarat. Girnar is the tallest peak and Saputara is the only hill-station in the state.

The Rann of Kutch is a seasonally marshy saline clay desert located in the Thar Desert biogeographic region in between the province of Sindh and the state of Gujarat. It is situated 8 kilometres from the village of Kharaghoda in the Surendra nagar District and Pakistan’s Sindh province. The name “Rann” comes from the Gujarati word Rann meaning “desert”.

Gujarat invests in development of solar energy in the state and has had India’s largest solar power plant as of January 2012. It has allotted 716 MW of solar power capacity to 34 national and international solar project developers in 2009, against the planned 500 MW capacity under its solar power policy. This is expected to bring in investments of INR 120 billion and generate employment for 5,000 people. By 2014, Gujarat plans on producing 1000MW of energy by solar power on large scale.

Gujarat is a state in Western India, here and there alluded to as the Jewel of Western India. It has a territory of 196,024 km2 with a coastline of 1,600 km the vast majority of which lies on the Kathiawar landmass, and a populace in overabundance of 60 million. The state is circumscribed by Rajasthan toward the north, Maharashtra toward the south, Madhya Pradesh toward the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani region of Sindh toward the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its biggest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati-talking individuals of India. The state incorporates some destinations of the old Indus Valley Civilization, for example, Lothal and Dholavira. Lothal is accepted to be one of the world’s first seaports. Gujarat’s seaside urban communities, essentially Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and exchanging focuses in the Maurya and Gupta domains, and amid the progression of illustrious Saka administrations from the Western Satraps period, whose geographic regions included Saurashtra and Malwa: current Gujarat, South Sindh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states. Gujarat was known not Ancient Greeks, and was recognizable in other Western focuses of development through the end of the European Middle Ages. Verifiably, the condition of Gujarat has been one of the fundamental focuses of the Indus Valley Civilization. It contains some antiquated metropolitan urban areas from the Indus Valley, for example, Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The old city of Lothal was the place India’s first port was set up. The antiquated city of Dholavira is one of the biggest and most unmistakable archeological locales in India, having a place with the Indus Valley Civilization. The latest revelation was Gola Dhoro. Inside and out, around 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been found in Gujarat. GPSC Gujarat Yearbook 2020

Demo – Current Affairs

Cabinet approves creation of the post of Vice Chancellor for National Rail & Transport Institute (Deemed to be University) set up in Vadodara, Gujarat

Gujarat becomes 1st state to implement 10% quota to EWS (Economically Weaker sections)

PM inaugurated Ninth Edition of Vibrant Gujarat Summit in Gandhinagar

Netherlands takes long-term view on prospects for investment in Gujarat

National Foundation for Communal Harmony organized a special workshop under Know My India Programme

10th Biennial National Grassroots Innovation awards were also distributed by the President on the occasion

India’s first Dinosaur Museum inaugurated in Gujarat

India & Portugal to set up National Maritime Heritage Museum in Lothal

Gujarat CM launches a cash incentive scheme called ‘Valhi Dimri Yojna’ for the welfare of the girl child

Demo -Practice MCQ

Qus: Which of the following Prime Minister is from Gujarat?

(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri

(b) Inder Kumar Gujral

(c) Charan Singh

(d) Morarji Desai

Ans: Morarji Desai

Qus: Which of the following was the name of the first Sultan of Gujarat?

(A) Ahmed Shah

(b) Farid Khan

(c) Dilwara Khan

(D) Nadir Shah

Ans: Ahmed Shah

Qus: Which of the following states is in the north of Gujarat?

(a) Karnataka

(b) Odisha

(c) Tamil Nadu

(d) Rajasthan

Ans: Rajasthan

Qus: Which of the following sea is in the west of Gujarat?

(a) Laptev

(b) Yellow

(c) Timor

(d) Arabian

Ans: Arabian

Qus: Rajkot city of Gujarat is located on the banks of which of the following rivers?

(a) Aji and Nyeri

(b) Mahi

(c) Narmada

(d) Tapi

Ans: Aji and Nyeri

Qus: When Gir Forest National Park and Gujarat’s Wildlife Sanctuary was established?

(a) 1966

(b) 1967

(c) 1968

(d) 1965

Ans: 1965

Qus: Which of the following rivers flows in Surat?

(a) Mahi

(b) Tapi

(c) Narmada

(d) Godavari

Ans: Tapi

Qus: In which year the capital of Gujrat shifted from Ahmedabad to Gandhinagar?

(a) 1970

(b) 1976

(c) 1975

(d) 1982

Ans: 1970

Qus: Name the first Chief Minister of Gujrat/

(a) Jivraj Narayan Mehta

(b) Babubhai J. Patel

(c) chimanbhai Patel

(d) Balwantrai Mehta

Ans: Jivraj Narayan Mehta

Qus: In which city (Haryana) the British East India company established its first factory?

(a) Gandhinagar

(b) Ahmedabad

(c) Rajkot

(d) Surat

Ans: Surat

Qus: When was the establishment of the Sabarmati Ashram in Gujarat?

(a) 1917

(b) 1919

(c) 1920

(d) 1922

Ans: 1917

Qus: Name the district which have the largest forest area in Gujarat?

(a) Gir Somnath

(b) Tapi

(c) Amreli

(d)Dang

Ans: Dang

Qus: In which year the Gir Forest National Park was established?

(a) 1965

(b) 1962

(c) 1967

(d)1978

Ans: 1965

Qus: Which of the cities of Gujarat is known as City of Diamonds?

(a) Rajkot

(b) Gandhinagar

(c) Surat

(d)Ahmedabad

Ans: Surat

Qus: In which year the AMUL was founded in Gujarat?

(a) 1947

(b) 1942

(c) 1946

(d) 1951

Ans: 1946

Qus: Name the first full length Gujarati film?

(a) Ranakdevi

(b) Shethani

(c) Gunasundari

(d) Narsinh Mehta

Ans: Narsinh Mehta

Qus: The Gujarati Sahitya Parishad was established in which year?

(a) 1905

(b) 1916

(c) 1908

(d)1902

Ans: 1905

Qus: Name the first President of Gujarati Sahitya Parishad?

(a) Narsinhrao Divetia

(b) Ambala S.Desai

(c) Govardhanram Tripathi

(d) Keshavlal Dhruv

Ans: Govardhanram Tripathi

Qus: Who had built the sun Temple of Modhera?

(a) Kumarapala

(b) Bhimdev 1st

(c) Siddharaj Jaisinh

(d) Karandev 1st

Ans: Bhimdev 1st

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Goa Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Goa Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Goa General Knowledge 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Goa Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Goa General Knowledge 2020

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Goa based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Goa General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Click Here To Download

Introduction of Goa

Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th state of the Union states of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was a part of Union Territory of Goa, Daman & Diu till 30th May 1987 when it was carved out of form a separate state. Goa covers an area of 3702 square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa. Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Tere Khol River which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and West by Arabian Sea. Goa lies in Western Coast of India and is 594 Kms (by road) away from Mumbai city.

A brief summary of the 2011 census: Goa’s population is 1458545 with 739140 Males and 719405 Females. The growth of 14.8 per cent, during 1991 to 2000, is lower than the 16.08 per cent recorded during 1981 to 1990.

The sex-ratio (number of females per thousand males) in Goa is 973 in 2011 compared to 967 in 1991. The density of population per sq km in Goa is 364 in 2001 as compared to 316 in 1991. North Goa has a much higher density (437) as compared to South Goa (300). The national figure is 324. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa was a former state of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.

Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. Goa General Knowledge 2020

Agriculture is one of the important economic activities in Goa. The total agricultural area is approximately 1400 sq km from which 1200 sq km is owned by the govt and remaining 200 sq km is owned privately. Rice and coconut are the staple produce of Goa. Paddy is cultivated during the monsoon from the months of June to September.

In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silaharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom’s grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Goa General Knowledge 2020

In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961. The Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, and was finally abolished in 1812.

In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India’s twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa General Knowledge 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Goa General Knowledge Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Delhi GK Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Delhi Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Delhi GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Delhi Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Delhi GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Delhi based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, and Other exams across the State/UT.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Delhi General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Delhi GK Yearbook 2020

Click Here To Download – Yearbook 2020

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Introduction of Delhi

In Mahabharata, this land of Delhi was initially a huge mass of forests called ‘Khandavaprastha’ which was burnt down to build the Indraprastha. Below is the tabular description of the history of Delhi. 

S.No Description Answer
1. Founded in(Capital Formation) 1911
2. Formation of Union Territory 1956
3. Also Known As  Indraprastha
4. Ruled By Ashoka, Mauryan Emperor, Firuz Shah Tughluq, Mughals
5. Major Historical Events Delhi was the site of the magnificent and opulent Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata, founded around 3500 BC

The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the census, Delhi city proper’s population was over 11 million the second-highest in India after Mumbai. Below in this table, we have described all the essential Structural and physiographical divisions of Delhi.

S.No Description Summary
1 Total Area 1,484.0 km2 (573.0 sq mi)
2 Population 16,787,941
3 The rank of the state Area wise:- 31st Population wise:-
4 Population Density 11,312/km2 (29,298/sq mi)
5 State Bounded By Haryana on three sides Uttar Pradesh to the east
5 Soil & Minerals alluvial soil
7 Major Crops Paddy Field Sorghum Pearl Millet Kharif Crop Wheat Mustard Plant
8 Forest Area 299.77 sq. km. (20.22%)
9 Climate humid subtropical climate
10 River Yamuna Agra canal Hindon River Sahibi river
11 Dam Delhi Dam Hart wick Dam embankment dam
12 Major  Flora Banyan Tree Peepal Tree Neem tree
13 Major Fauna Frogs Leopards

The Mughals ruled Delhi for a long period and the art during that period was worth seeing. Akbar’s empire has been known for work on arts and crafts. In the ancient period, the people used arts and crafts in their palaces for better lives. This is the reason why Mughals used to have Persian artists for carpet weaving and metal crafting. Let us check out the complete information about Delhi Culture and Tradition which is followed by the people of Delhi.

S.No Description Summary
1 Folk Dance Bihu Bhangra Sambalpuri Ghumura Dance Garba Chhau
2 Major Festival Holi Diwali Janmashtami Navratri Durga Puja Dussehra
3 Cuisine (Famous Food) Paranthas chaat Butter chicken Kebabs Chole Bhature Biryani Nihari Rolls Momos Desserts
4 Traditional Dress Women: Salwar, Suit, Duptta, Saree

Male: Kurta, Pajama, Dhoti Kurta,

1. Union Minister for HRD Shri Prakash Javadekar inaugurates 27th Edition of New Delhi World Book Fair in Pragati Maidan with Sharjah as Guest of Honour.

2. GST Council’s 32nd Meeting Held In New Delhi Under The Chairmanship Of The Union Minister Of Finance & Corporate Affairs, Shri Arun Jaitley

3. National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) launched by Environment minister Dr. Harsh Vardhan in New Delhi

4. 102 cities chosen for the implementation of NCAP: The states concerned with the implementation are 23 in number and following shows the details of respective districts in an ascending order of number of districts allotted under the programme per state:

5. Minister Ravi Shankar Inaugurates NIC Command & Control Centre at National Informatics Centre (NIC), New Delhi

6. Union Minister Harshvardhan launches special weather services for Kumbh Mela: On 14th January 2019, Union Minister of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences and Environment and Forests and Climate Change, Dr Harshvardhan launched the special weather services for the benefit of people visiting Prayagraj during Kumbh Mela at a function in New Delhi.

7. Finance Minister Shri Arun Jaitley and Union Minority Affairs Minister Shri Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi inaugurated Hunar Haat exhibitions in New Delhi.

8. First Annual Disarmament and International Security Affairs Fellowship Programme inaugurated in Delhi: On 14th January 2019, the First Annual Disarmament and International Security Affairs Fellowship Programme was organised by Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi. The event will be concluded on 1st February 2019.

9. Saksham 2019, annual event of PCRA, launched by Petroleum ministry in New Delhi: On January 16, 2019, the 2019 edition of ‘Saksham’, an annual high intensity one-month long people-centric mega campaign of Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) under the aegis of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas was launched in New Delhi.

10. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) launches National Agricultural Higher Education Project (NAHEP) in New Delhi

11. Niti Aayog selected McKinsey & Company to set up India’s first Digital Capability Centre in New Delhi: National Institution for Transforming India (Niti Aayog) has selected McKinsey & Company to set up India’s first Digital Capability Centre (DCC) in New Delhi. McKinsey & Company supports 5 such centres globally- in Aachen, Chicago, Singapore, Venice and Beijing. Delhi GK Yearbook 2020

Delhi Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for RPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of Rajasthan

2. Current Affairs (Whole Year)

3. Practice Questions

Rajasthan Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like RPSC and Other Rajasthan State PSC exams across the state. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Rajasthan based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

UPSC Prelims 2020 Test 1-40 : IAS Test Series – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

Important Topics: UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Study Material:Part-1 – Study Portal

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 – Study Portal

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020 Part-2

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, RPSC and Other exams across the State. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Rajasthan General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Click Here to Download

Introduction Of Rajasthan

The Rajasthan state was earlier known as Rajputana came into existence on March 30, 1949.

Rajasthan, situated at the northwestern part of India is the biggest state in the country of India and lies between 23°30′ and 30° 11′ North latitude and 69° 29′ and 78° 17′ East longitude. The state shares its north-western and western boundary with the Indo-Pakistan international border that extends about 1,070 km and touches the major districts Barmer, Bikaner, Sriganganagar and Jaisalmer. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by Haryana &Uttar Pradesh, on the south-southeast and southwest by Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat States respectively. The huge portion of the state of Rajasthan is desiccated and houses the biggest Indian desert- the Thar Desert known as the ‘Maru-kantar’. The oldest chain of fold mountains- the Aravali range splits the state into two geographical zones- desert at one side and forest belt on the other. Only 10% of the total geographical region lies under forest vegetation. The Mount abu is the only hill station of the state and houses the Guru Shikhar Peak that is the highest peak of the Aravali range with an elevation of 1,722 m. The area to the east of the hills is covered by the eastern plains and the Vindhyan plateau. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The north-western state of Rajasthan is the largest Indian state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km comprising of the 10.74% of the total geographical area of the country. This state has a type of rhomboid shape and stretches lengthwise 869 km. from west to east and 826 km. from north to south. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its south tip in its Banswara district.

The Aravalli ranges are India’s oldest fold mountains. The north end of the Aravalli range continues as secluded hills and rocky ridges into Haryana and ending in Delhi.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lays the mewar region home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh in Rajasthan. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast on the border with Madhya Pradesh. The dhundhar region is located in the north of Hadoti and mewar is also known as home to the state capital of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan borders with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The Aravalli outline most important divisions of Rajasthan. The Chambal River which is the only large and perennial river in the state originates from its drainage to the east of this range and flows northeast. Its principal tributary the Banas rises in the Aravali near Kumbhalgarh and collects all the drainage of the Mewar plateau. Farther in north the Banganga after rising near Jaipur in Rajasthan flow east-wards before disappearing. The Luni is the only significant river located in west of the Aravali. It rises in the Pushkar valley of Ajmer and flows 320 km west-southwest into the Rann of Kachchh. Northeast of the Luni basin in the Shekhawati tract, is an area of internal drainage characterized by salt lakes, the largest of which is Sambhar Salt Lake. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan has varying topographic features though a major part of the state is dominated by parched and dry region. The extensive topography includes rocky terrain, rolling sand dunes, wetlands and barren tracts of land filled with thorny scrubs, river-drained plains, plateaus, ravines and wooded regions.

Rajasthan has its important role in drainage system and some very useful rivers flow /originates through rajasthan. Chambal, Banas, Sabarmati, Mithari, Parbati, Berach, Saraswati, Jawai and Luni Rivers are important.

The soil and vegetation of Rajasthan alters with its wide-ranging topography of the state and the availability of water. The varied kind of soils available in Rajasthan are mostly sandy, saline, alkaline and chalky (calcareous). Clay, loamy, black lava soil and nitrogenous soils are also found. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The seasonal vegetation such as a few grass species, shrubs and dwarf trees can be found owing to the limited rainfall. However food crops are grown in the plains that are drained by the rivers and streamlets owing to the alluvial and clay soil deposits. The hilly tracts of the Aravali are characterized by the black, lava soils that sustain the growth of cotton and sugarcane. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The Thar Desert or the Great Indian Desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”. The Rajasthan desert which forms a major portion of the Thar Desert is the biggest desert in India and encompasses the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. In fact the Rajasthan desert comprises the desert triangle of three cities – Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur. Thar Desert extends from Sutlej River bounded by aravali ranges on the eastern part and on the southern part by the Great Rann of Kutch and on the western side by the Indus River. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The desert becomes very hot during the summer and it experiences extreme climate with an average annual rainfall less than 25 cm. Days are hot and the nights are cold here. The Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, shrubs and xerophilious grass. Various species of lizards and snakes are found here. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan has varying climate like its varying topography. The weather and climate of the Rajasthan can be broadly classified into four distinct seasons. They are – Pre-monsoon, which is the hot season preceding the monsoon and extends from April to June, the Monsoon that occurs in the month of June in the eastern region and mid- July in the western arid regions.  The Post-monsoon that commences from mid-September and continues till November and the winter that extends from December to March while January being the coldest month of the year. The average temperature in winter ranges from 8° to 28° C and in summer the average temperature range from 25° to 46° C. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Different Regions of Rajasthan:

1. Ahirwal- This include some part of Haryana too along with Rajasthan. Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon in Haryana are part of this region.

2. Bagar tract- This include regions of Fatehabad and Sirsa (Haryana); Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).

3. Dhundhar- “Jaipur region” include districts – Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and northern part of Karauli.

4. Gorwar- South-western part of Rajasthan; having historical capitals- Nadol, Chandrawati and Sirohi. It covers region of Jalore, Sirohi and southern portion of Pali.

5. Hadoti- districts like Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar and Kota are part of this region.

6. Marwar- “Jodhpur region” includes district of Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur and Pali.

7.  Mewar- South- central region of Rajasthan: In this region the districts covered are- Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa tehsil of Jhalawar (Rajasthan), Neemuch and Mandsaur of M.P. and some parts of Gujarat.

8. Mewat- In this region area covered is the Hathin tehsil and Nuh district of Haryana; Tijara, Kishangarh Bas, Ramgarh and Laxmangarh tehsil. Aravalli range in Alwar district, Pahari, Nagaur, Kaman tehsils in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and some part of Mathura district of U.P. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

9. Shekhawati- district like Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur.

10. Vagad- region in south-eastern Rajasthan. Boundaries roughly defined by districts of Dungarpur and Banswara. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

Rajasthan: Important Facts

Area 342,239 km2  (Biggest state of India in terms of land)
Population 6.85 cr (2011 census)
Language Official language (Hindi), Additional official language (English) and Rajasthani (Devanagari is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family.
Climate Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September.
Capital  Jaipur
Election Seats    25 Seats in General Election (Lok Sabha) and 200 Seats in Legislative Assembley (Vidhan Sabha) Elections.
Legislature Unicameral
Major Cities (population) Jaipur (3,073,349), Jodhpur(1,138,300), Kota(1,001,365), Bikaner(647,804), Ajmer(551,101), Udaipur(474,531) and Bhilwara(360,009)
Famous Lakes Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Nakki Lake, Kaylana Lake, Raj Bagh Talao, Malik Talao, Lake Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar Lake, Lake Pichhola, Swaroop Sagar Lake, Udai Sagar Lake, Raj Bagh Talao etc.
Average annual rainfall (mm) 313-675
The Thar Desert Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur (The Thar desert or the Great Indian desert encompasses about 70% of total landmass of Rajasthan and hence it is identified as the “Desert State of India”.)
Literacy 66.11 %
Districts 33
Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census) 928 per Thousand male
Child sex Ratio 888 (census 2011)
Famous Folk Dances Bhavai Dance, Chari Dance, Drum Dance, Fire Dance, Gair Dance, Ghoomar Dance ( by Bhil tribe),Kachhi Ghodi dance, Kalbelia Dance(‘Sapera Dance or Snake Charmer),Kathak Dance, Kathputli Dance.
Fair and Festivals Desert Festival-Jaisalmer, Nagaur Fair-Nagaur, Pushkar Fair- Pushkar, Summer Festival-Mt. Abu, Marwar Festival-Jodhpur, Camel Race Festival-Bikaner, Gangaur Festival-Jaipur, Teej Festival-Jaipur, Mewar Festival-Udaipur, Urs Festival-Ajmer, Kaila Devi Fair-Karauli, Summer Festival-Mount Abu, Dusshera –Kota
World Heritage Sites   The six forts — Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites in the 37th session of the world heritage committee (WHC) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia .
Principal Crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize,  Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices.etc.
Principal Minerals Wollastonite (100%), Jasper(100%), Zinc concentrate (99%), Fluorite(96%), Gypsum(93%),Marble(90%), Asbestos(89%), Calcite(70%), Phosphate rock(75%), Mica, Copper, Silver and Natural Gas & Petroleum

District-wise Population-List (As per census – 2011)

District Population Area (km2) Po. Density Sex-ratio
Jaipur 66,26,178 11,143 595 910
Jodhpur 36,87,165 22,850 161 916
Alwar 36,74,179 8,380 438 895
Nagaur 33,07,743 17,718 187 950
Udaipur 30,68,420 11,724 262 958
Sikar 26,77,333 7,732 346 947
Barmer 26,03,751 28,387 92 902
Ajmer 25,83,052 8,481 305 951
Bharatpur 25,48,462 5,066 503 880
Bhilwara 24,08,523 10,455 230 973
Bikaner 23,63,937 30,239 78 905
Jhunjhunun 21,37,045 5,928 361 950
Churu 20,39,547 13,835 147 940
Pali 20,37,573 12,387 164 987
Ganganagar 19,69,168 10,978 179 887
Kota 19,51,014 5,217 374 911
Jalore 18,28,730 10,640 172 952
Banswara 17,97,485 4,522 397 980
Hanumangarh 17,74,692 9,656 184 906
Dausa 16,34,409 3,432 476 905
Chittaurgarh 15,44,338 7,822 197 972
Karauli 14,58,248 5,524 264 861
Tonk 14,21,326 7,194 198 952
Jhalawar 14,11,129 6,219 227 946
Dungarpur 13,88,552 3,770 368 994
SawaiMadhopur 13,35,551 4,498 297 897
Baran 12,22,755 6,992 175 929
Dhaulpur 12,06,516 3,033 398 846
Rajsamand 11,56,597 4,655 248 990
Bundi 11,10,906 5,776 192 925
Sirohi 10,36,346 5,136 202 940
Pratapgarh 8,67,848 4,449 195 983
Jaisalmer 6,69,919 38,401 17 852

Political Background of Rajasthan

The Human settlement record in Rajasthan state dates back to around 5000 years ago with sections of Rajasthan at the spirit of the Indus Valley Civilization. This area was earlier known as Gurjaratra, the area protected and ruled by the Gurjars. Later the name changed to Rajputana. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

George Thomas was the first in 1800, to term this region the Rajputana Agency. The historian John Keay in his book, India: A History stated that the Rajputana name was coined by the British but that the word achieved a retrospective authenticity: in an 1829 translation of Ferishta’s history of early Islamic India, John Briggs discarded the phrase “Indian princes”, as rendered in Dow’s earlier version, and substituted “Rajpoot princes”. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

James Tod was the first one to use the name Rajasthan. He mentioned it in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, prior to that the land was called as Rajputana by the Britishers in 1800. The place was never untied so there is no defined boundary of Rajputana. As there were more Rajput kings, this leads to the name Rajputana.

We actually do not have any other name of Rajasthan prior to Rajputana as first mentioned that they were never united and once the Britishers started ruling India they gave it a name Rajputana.

In ancient period west of western Rajasthan was called Maru. Central Rajasthan was Shakambhari, SE Rajasthan was under Malwa state and a whole it was in “Aryavarta“. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

The unification of Rajasthan was completed in seven stages, and resulted in Rajasthan as we see it today.

The credit for the unification goes to the ‘Iron man of India’, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

What is unification?

The act, process, or result of bringing or coming together into or as if into a single unit or group unification of a divided state or nation.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is not only known for the unification of rajasthan but he united India by merging different princely states. He keeps forming unions, by luring the Princes of different states for the post of head of United States.

The ruler of largest state was made the Head of State and then when a new state was merged with the union, the prince of that state was made the head.

To keep others in good gesture, new posts of Deputy Head, and Prime Minister were also introduced.

Integration of Rajasthan
Seven Stages of formation of Rajasthan 
(1948-1956)

S.No. Name of Group States Date of Integration
1. Matsya Union Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli 17-03-1948
2. Rajasthan Union Banswara, Bundi, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Kishangarh, Kota, Pratapgarh, Shahpura, Tonk. 25-03-1948
3. United State of Rajasthan Udaipur also joined with the other Union of Rajasthan. 18-04-1948
4. Greater Rajasthan Bikaner, Jaipur, Jaisalmer & Jodhpur also joined with the United State of Rajasthan. 30-03-1949
5. United State of Greater Rajasthan Matsya Union also merged in Greater Rajasthan 15-05-1949
6. United Rajasthan 18 States of United Rajasthan merged with Princely State Sirohi except Abu and Delwara. 26-01-1950
7. Re-organised Rajasthan Under the State Re-organisation Act, 1956 the erstwhile part ‘C’ State of Ajmer, Abu Road Taluka, former part of princely State Sirohi which was merged in former Bombay, State and Sunel Tappa region of the former Madhya Bharat merged with Rajasthan and Sironj subdistrict of Jhalawar district was transferred to Madhya Pradesh. 01-11-1956

(1)17 March 1948: Formation of ‘Matsya Union’

The states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli Joined to form the “Matsya Sangh” and Dholpur Ruler, Udaybhan Singh was chosen as the Union Head or Rajpramukh, along with Shobaram Kumawat from Alwar of Indian National Congress was the Prime Minister of the State from 18 March 1948 till 15 May 1949.

On 15 May 1949, the Matsya Union was merged with Greater Rajasthan to form the United State of Greater Rajasthan, which later became the state of Rajasthan on 26 January 1950.

(2) 25 March 1948: Constituting of Rajasthan Union

Separate from Matsya Sangh, the states of Banswara, Bundi, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Kota, Tonk, Pratapgarh, Kishangarh and Shahpura Joined to from another union known as Rajasthan Union.

Bhim Singh of Kota was chosen as the Head of the state, Kota being the largest of the unified states. Bhadursingh of Bundi was appointed as the Deputy Head.

(3)  18 April 1948: United States of Rajasthan

Subsequently the Udaipur state (Mewar) also got united in Rajasthan union on April 18, 1948. The name was then changed to United Rajasthan. The State of Udaipur was also made to join the union, by Sardar Patel, by giving the perks of the Head of State of new union and Udaipur was also made the capital of Union.

Three days after inauguration of Rajasthan Union, the Maharana of Udaipur decided to join this Union which was accepted. The Maharana of Udaipur was appointed as Rajpramukh and the Kota Naresh was appointed as Up- Rajpramukh of this Union and the Cabinet was formed under the leadership of Shri Manikya Lal Verma. This United States of Rajasthan was inaugurated by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru on 18 April, 1948. Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020

(4) 30 March 1949: Greater Rajasthan

The formation of the United States of Rajasthan paved the way for the merger of big states like Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur and Jodhpur with the Union and formation of Greater Rajasthan. It was formally inaugurated on 30 March, 1949 by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. The Maharana Bhupal Singh of Udaipur was appointed as the Maha-Rajpramukh and the Kota Naresh was appointed as the Up- Rajpramukh and the Cabinet was formed under the leadership of Shri Hira Lala Shastri.

It was the most important step in Unification process, and that is why 30 March is also celebrated as the Rajasthan Day.

(5)15 May 1949: United States of Greater Rajasthan

On 15 May, 1949 Finally Matsya Union was merged with Greater Rajasthan. The post of Prime minister was discontinued and a Chief Minister office was constituted. Hiralal Shastri became the first Chief Minister of Rajasthan.

(6) 26 January 1950: United Rajasthan

18 states of United Rajasthan & princely state of Sirohi got merged with exception of Abu & Delwara. It was completed by 26 Jan 1950.

Sirohi was the last princely state to be merged into the union, and United Rajasthan came into being. The name of Rajasthan was given duly to the union.

(7)  State Re-organization Act (1956)

This stage completed the integration, formation and reorganization of state of Rajasthan and took place because of State Re-organization Act of 1956. Under this, the erstwhile part ‘C’ State of Ajmer, Abu Road Taluka, former part of princely State Sirohi which was merged in former Bombay State and Sunel Tappa region of the former Madhya Bharat merged with Rajasthan and Sironj subdistrict of Jhalawar district was transferred to Madhya Pradesh. The process got completed on 1 November 1956 and Mohanlal Sukhadia became Chief Minister and Gurumukh Nihal Singh became Governor.

Some facts related to unification process of Rajasthan:

  1. The ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, wanted to join the Union of Pakistan but due to the efforts of Patel and V.P. Menon, finally agreed to accede to India.
  2. Banswara State Maharawal, Chandra veer Singh, while signing the accession documents, commented, “I am signing on my death warrant“.
  3. Jodhpur was the largest state while Shahpura was the smallest in terms of area.
  4. Tonk was the only state under Muslim Ruler, while Bharatpur and Dholpur were under Jat Rajas, remaining was under Rajputs.

Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the “Great Indian Desert”) and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.

Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Kalibanga and Balathal, the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan’s only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range and in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site known for its bird life. Rajasthan is also home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota……………

The state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Kota, Bikaner, Ajmer and Udaipur. The economy of Rajasthan is the ninth-largest state economy in India with ₹9.24 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000, Rajasthan ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index.

Parts of what is now Rajasthan were partly part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Another archaeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilisation dating back to 3000 – 1500 BC.

Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state. Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India is said to roughly correspond to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratnagar (modern Bairat), which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata.

Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava also locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana.

The Western Kshatrapas (405–35 BC), the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, and were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with their calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state.

The Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was openly acknowledged by the Arab writers. He further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.

Traditionally the Rajputs, Gurjars, Jats, Meenas, Bhils, Rajpurohit, Charans, Yadavas, Bishnois, Meghwals, Sermals, Rajput Malis and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting their culture and the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Brahmins, according to Outlook constituted 8% to 10% of the population of Rajasthan as per a 2003 report, but only 7% in a 2007 report. According to a 2007 DNA India report, 12.5% of the states are Brahmins.

Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the invading Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. In 1192 CE, Muhammad Ghori decisively defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. After the defeat of Chauhan in 1192 CE, a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthambhore was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. The Rajputs resisted the Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput kingdoms eventually became subservient to the Delhi Sultanate.

The Rajputs put up resistance to the Islamic invasions with their warfare and chivalry for centuries. The Rana’s of Mewar led other kingdoms in its resistance to outside rule. Rana Hammir Singh defeated the Tughlaq dynasty and recovered a large portion of Rajasthan. The indomitable Rana Kumbha defeated the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat and made Mewar the most powerful Rajput Kingdom in India. The ambitious Rana Sanga united the various Rajput clans and fought against the foreign powers in India. Rana Sanga defeated the Afghan Lodi Empire of Delhi and crushed the Turkic Sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat. Rana Sanga then tried to create an Indian empire but was defeated by the first Mughal Emperor Babur at Khanua. The defeat was due to betrayal by the Tomar king Silhadi of Raisen. After Rana Sangas death there was no one who could check the rapid expansion of the Mughal Empire.

Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Macheri in Alwar District in 1501. He won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, and defeated Akbar’s forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the “Hindu Raj” in North India, albeit for a short duration, from Purana Quila in Delhi. Hem Chandra was killed in the battlefield at Second Battle of Panipat fighting against Mughals on 5 November 1556.

During Akbar’s reign most of the Rajput kings accepted Mughal suzerainty, but the rulers of Mewar (Rana Udai Singh II) and Marwar (Rao Chandra sen Rathore) refused to have any form of alliance with the Mughals. To teach the Rajputs a lesson Akbar attacked Udai Singh and killed Rajput commander Jaimal of Chittor and the citizens of Mewar in large numbers. Akbar killed 20 – 25,000 unarmed citizens in Chittor on the grounds that they had actively helped in the resistance.

Rajasthan GK Yearbook 2020 Latest Current Affairs General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Click Here to Download

MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for MPPSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR REGULAR UPDATES

Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like MPPSC and Other Madhya Pradesh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian Economy Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian and World Geography Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian Polity Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Indian History: Latest Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Madhya Pradesh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, MPPSC and Other Madhya Pradesh PSC exams across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Madhya Pradesh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Yearbook 2020

Click here to download

You Can Also Buy This Book from Instamojo: Click Here

Madhya Pradesh Yearbook 2020

1. Introduction of M.P.

2. Latest Govt. Schemes

3. Latest Budget and Important Points

4. Current Affairs

5. Practice MCQ

Introduction of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh is situated in the central region of India and that’s why it is called the Heartland State. It has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India as Madhya Pradesh is rich in mineral resources. It came into existence in 1956. It experiences sub-tropical climate. Hot dry summer is from April to June and Monsoon Rains are from July to September. There are all total 52 districts present in Madhya Pradesh. It has 92% of Hindus and around and the remaining 8% are Muslim, Jain, Christian, Sikhs and Buddhists.

Madhya Pradesh is also known as the Tiger state of India. The state came into existence on 1 November 1956. It is the 2nd largest state by an area and 5th by is population. After Independence Madhya Pradesh was created with Nagpur as its capital, in 1956, Madhya Pradesh was recognized and Bhopal makes its capital. Madhya Pradesh was the largest area state in India until 2000 when the Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Madhya Pradesh literally means “Central Province”, and is located in the geographic heart of India, between latitude 21.2°N-26.87°N and longitude 74°59′-82°06′ E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The highest point in Madhya Pradesh is Dhupgarh, with an elevation of 1,350 m.

It is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

The State has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India, it has a hot dry summer (April–June), followed by monsoon rains (July–September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,371 mm. The southeastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm, while the western and northwestern districts receive 1,000 mm or less.

It is the second largest state in India after Rajasthan with an area of 3, 08, 000 sq. km. It is a part of peninsular plateau of India lying in north central part, whose boundary can be classified in the north by the plains of Ganga-Yamuna, in the west by the Aravali, east by the Chhattisgarh plain and in the south by the Tapti valley and the plateau of Maharashtra.

CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020 : Latest And Current Affairs

APSC Assam Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook 2020 : Current Affairs

Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Gwalior, Jabalpur and Ujjain being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km. The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India’s independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today’s Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the then Bombay State. This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

The interesting and unique tool stone-age tools have been discovered from the Narmada river valley. Rock shelter and cave painting which can be dated to 30,000 BCE have been discovered at a no. of places. Arunachal Pradesh was ruled by Maurya Empire (Ashoka of Magadha) in the 3rd century BC.

It was made Indias 25th State on 30th May 1987, the largest city of Madhya Pradesh in Indore. The History of Madhya Pradesh divided into 3-Time period. During this period the region was dominated by the Maurya, Nanda and Gupt.

The city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada—have also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.

Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya Empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha.

S.No Description Answer
1. Founded on 1 November 1956
2. Capital Formation 1 November 1956
3. Largest city Indore
4. Also Known as Heart of India
5. Ruled By Mauryan Empire, Malava, Dasarna, Nishada  Karusha
6. Major Historical Events The merger of Bhopal into Union of India (1949) MP comes into existence (1956) first non-Cong government (1967) Discovery of Narmada man (1982) Bhopal gas tragedy (1984) Division of MP (2000)

Dams

  • Highest dam of Indirasagar Dam.
  • The second highest dam of Bargi Dam.
  • Longest dam of Bargi Dam.
  • Largest power generating dam Omkareshwar Dam 520 MW.
Dams River Length  Height  Capacity  Location Open
Indirasagar Dam Narmada River 653 m (2,142 ft) 92m (302 ft) 9,890,701 acre·ft Khandwa district 2006
Bargi Dam Narmada River 5357 m 69.80 m 3,920 million m3 Jabalpur
District
1988
Ban Sagar Dam Sone River 1,020 m (3,350 ft) 67 m (220 ft) 2,000,000 acre-feet (2.5 km3) shahdol 2006
Gandhi Sagar Dam Chambal River 514 metres (1,686 ft) 62.17 metres (204.0 ft) 5,936,000 acre
⋅ft
Mandsaur District 1960
Madikheda Dam Sindh River 1070 m 62 m 901 million m3 Shivpuri
district
2008
Tawa Dam Tawa River 1,815 m 57.91 m 9,890,701 acre·ft. Hoshangabad District  1974
Rivers Originates From Falls or Meet Total Length City
Narmada Anuppur Hugli river 1070 Km Jabalpur Barwani, Harda, Hoshangabad, Omkareshwar, Narmada Nagar, Dewas
Chambal Indore Yamuna River 965 Km  Kota
Betwa river Bhopal  Yamuna River 380 km Bhopal, Gwalior, Jhansi, Jaluan
Tapti Betul Arabian Sea 724 Km
Son Amarkantak Ganga river 784 km Sidhi, Dehri, Patna
Shipra North of Dhar district Chambal River 195 Km Ujjain, Ratlam, Dhar, Mandsaur
Kali Sindh Bagli Chambal River 150 Km Indore, Bhopal.
Tawa Betul  District Narmada River 172 Km Hoshangabad District

Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India’s Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.

The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakataka’s. The rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta Empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590–647) ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century. When the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty also held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time. It also left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa. The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.

The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to the Hindu king Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553–56 and became the ruler of Delhi as a Vikramaditya king winning 22 battles continuously from Bengal to Gujrat and defeating Akbar’s forces in the Battle of Delhi on 7 October 1556. However, he chose Delhi as his capital after his formal Coronation and left Gwalior. After Hemu’s defeat by Akbar at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. MPPSC Madhya Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Chhattisgarh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for CGPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020 Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Chhattisgarh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like CGSC and Other Chhattisgarh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Chhattisgarh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the Chhattisgarh State. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, CGPSC and Other Chhattisgarh PSC exams across the State. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Chhattisgarh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click here to download

You can buy the book from instamojo : Buy now

CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh is one of the 28 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the ninth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,192 km2. With a 2011 population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced as well as large contributor of coal. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning ten Chhattisgarhi and six Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in the south, and Odisha in the southeast. Currently the state comprises 28 districts. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala), the native place of Bhagwan Rama as his mother name was Kaushalya, daughter of Kaushal Naresh.”Chhattisgarh” was popularised later during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

It is claimed that Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 ancient forts in the area. The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara. However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh meaning Raj or “Empire of the Chedis“. In ancient times, Chhattisgarh region had been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kalinga, in modern Odisha. In the medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern Chhattisgarh was part of the Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. The highest point in the state is the Gaurlata. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild Asian buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division. Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh; CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi River and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The natural environment of Koriya in Chhattisgarh includes forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls.[citation needed] Koriya was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is also known for its mineral deposits. Coal is also found in this part of the country. The dense forests are rich in wildlife. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya’s main attraction, is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdeo River. The fall is situated seven kilometres from Koriya on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall falls from a height of 27 m, and it is approximately 3–4.5 m wide. Chirimiri is one of the more popular places, known for its natural environment and climate, in Chhattisgarh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in Chhattisgarh can reach upto 49 °C (113 °F). The monsoon season is from late June to October and is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to January. Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshina Kosala. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. One of the earliest statues of Vishnu has been excavated from Shunga period site at Malhar. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sharabhpurias, Panduvanshis (of Mekala and Dakshina Kosala), Somavanshi, Kalachuri and Nagavanshi rulers dominated this region. The Bastar region of Chhattisgarh was invaded by Rajendra Chola I and Kulottunga Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Name Area
Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park 1440.71 Km2
Indravati National Park 1258.37 Km2
Kanger Ghati National Park 200 Km2

Chhattisgarh has a heritage of robust culture. The state is the storehouse of Performing arts, Literature and crafts. The culture of Chhattisgarh includes various types of traditional Dances, Music, cuisines, traditional dress etc. which includes a lot in general knowledge of Chhattisgarh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

S.No Description Summary
1. Folk Dance Panthi Rawat Nacha Pandwani Chaitra Kaksar Saila Khamb-swang Bhatra Naat Rabhas Raai Mao-Pata Sow
2. Music Pandavani
3. Major Festival Bastar Dussehra Bastar Lokotsav Madai Festival Bhoramdeo Festival Goncha Festival Teeja Festival Champaran Mela Narayanpur Mela Pola Hareli First fruit Festival
4. Cuisine (Famous Food) Aamat Bafauri Bhajia Chousela Dubkikadhi Farra Khurmi Moong Bara Thethari Muthia
5. Traditional Dress Men: Dhotis and Headgears Women: Lugda (Knee length and full length) Polkha (Blouse)

The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 2000. The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organised movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes. A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organisation for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandu lal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organised under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The government of India subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Divisions of Chhattisgarh

Bastar Durg Raipur Bilaspur Surguja
Bastar (Jagdalpur) Bijapur Sukma Dantewada (Dakshin Bastar) Kondagaon Narayanpur Kanker (Uttar Bastar) Kawardha (Kabir dham) Rajnandgaon Balod Durg Bemetara Dhamtari Gariyaband Raipur Baloda Bazar Mahasamund Bilaspur Mungeli Korba Janjgir-Champa Raigarh Gaurela-Pendra-Marwahi w.e.f. 10th February, 2020 Koriya Surajpur Surguja (Ambikapur) Balrampur-Ramanujganj Jashpur

Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country’s total cement production. It has the highest output of coal in the country with second-highest reserves. It is third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin ore-producing state in India. Other commercially extracted minerals include corundum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Chhattisgarh has a significant role in the life of the Lord Rama. Lord Rama along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had started his Vanvas in the Bastar region (more precisely Dandakaranya region) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 of their 14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of the remarkable places is Shivrinarayan which is nearby Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh. Shivrinarayan was named after an old lady Shabari. When Ram visited Shabari she said “I do not have anything to offer other than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it please you, my Lord.” Saying so, Shabari offered the fruits she had meticulously collected to Rama. When Rama was tasting them, Lakshmana raised the concern that Shabari had already tasted them and therefore unworthy of eating. To this Rama said that of the many types of food he had tasted, “nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with such devotion. You taste them, and then alone will you know. Whosoever offers a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it with great joy.” CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The Odia culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Odisha. Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs. Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware, and tribal jewellery. Chhattisgarh has a rich literary heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Panthi, Raut Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang, Bhatra Naat, Rabhas, Raai, Mao-Pata and Sow are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh. Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, tabla the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogising their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru’s renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion, As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs. Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware, and tribal jewellery. Chhattisgarh has a rich literary heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

S.No Description Answer
1. Founded on 1 November 2000
2. Capital Formation 1 November 2000, Raipur
3. Largest city Raipur
4. Also Known as Rice bowl of India
  5. Ruled By Sharabhpurias Kalachuri Nagavanshi Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur)
        6.        Major Historical Events 10th century- The region was ruled by Rajput family Haihaya dynasty. 1741- Marathas attacked in Chhattisgarh and destroyed the Haihaya power 1818- Chhattisgarh came under British control for the first time 1-11-2000 – Chhattisgarh became a separate state

 Chhattisgarh is the 10th largest state in India. Chhattisgarh covers an area of 1, 35,192 square kilometres with a total population over 2.55 Crores. The average temperature of Chhattisgarh is 40°C in summers and 25°C in winters. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

S.No Description Summary
1. Total Area 135,192 km²
2. Population 2.55 crores
3. The rank of the state Area Rank:-10th Population Rank:- 17th
4. Population Density 190/km2 (490/sq mi)
5. State Bounded By Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand  (North) Odisha (East) Andhra Pradesh (South) Maharastra and Madhya Pradesh (West)
6. Soil Red–Yellow Soil Red Sandy Loam soil Black soil Laterite Soil
7. Minerals Bauxite Dolomite Iron Ore Limestone Garnet Tin
8. Major Crops Grain Wheat Corn Peanut Legume Hazelnut
9. Forest Area 59,772 km²
10. Climate Tropical Monsoon Climate
11. Rivers Arpa Jonk Godavari Gopad Kanhar Savari Sankh Shivnath Mahanadi
12. Major Dam Name: Minimata (Hasdeo) Bango
River: Hasdeo
13. Major Flora Bamboo Coconut Mangoes Cashew Jackfruit Pineapples Blackberries
14. Major Fauna Blue bull Wild boar Chinkara Blackbuck Sambhar Barking Deer Wild dog Wild boar Jackals hyena Crocodiles Tigers
City Name
Korba Power hub of India
Jagdalpur The tourism capital of Chhattisgarh
Bhilai Steel City of India
Kanker Gateway of Bastar
S.No. Name of Wildlife Sanctuary Year of Notification Total Area(km²)
1. Achanakmar  Wildlife Sanctuary 1975 551.55
2. Badalkhol  Wildlife Sanctuary 1975 104.45
3. Barnawapara  Wildlife Sanctuary 1976 244.66
4. Bhairamgarh  Wildlife Sanctuary 1983 138.95
5. Bhoramdev  Wildlife Sanctuary 2001 163.8
6. Sarangarh-Gomardha  Wildlife Sanctuary 1975 277.82
7. Pamed Wild Buffalo  Wildlife Sanctuary 1985 262.12
8. Semarsot  Wildlife Sanctuary 1978 430.36
9. Sitanadi  Wildlife Sanctuary 1974 553.36
10. Tamor Pingla  Wildlife Sanctuary 1978 608.53
11. Udanti Wild Buffalo  Wildlife Sanctuary 1985 247.59

Geographical features

Coordinates: 21.27°N 81.60°E

Established: 01 November 2000

Capital: Raipur

Largest city: Raipur

Districts: 27 (9 dist. new)

Official languages: Chhattisgarhi and Hindi

Major Rivers of Chhattisgarh:

Name of the river:  Kanhar River

Passes through: Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Rihand River

Passes through: Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 

Name of the river: Sankh River

Passes through:  Chattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand

Name of the river: Tandula River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Sondur River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Shivnath River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Sabari River

Passes through: Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Rihand River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh

Name of the river: Mand River

Passes through: Chhattisgarh, Orissa

Name of the river: Indravati River

Passes through: Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh

Major Waterfalls

Name of the waterfall: Chitrakoot Falls

Location: Jagdalpur, India

Total height: 29 metres

 Watercourse: Indravati River

Name of the waterfall: Tirthgarh Falls

Total height: 91 metres

Watercourse: Kanger River

The history of Chhattisgarh, which was called as South Kosala goes back to the 4th century AD. The mythological history of the state can be traced back to the days of Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Haihaya dynasty ruled Chhattisgarh for six centuries during the 14th century. During the middle ages, Chalukya dynasty established its rule in Bastar. Annmdev was the first Chalukya ruler, who founded the dynasty in Bastar in 1320. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In 1741, the kingdom was seized by the Marathas from the Haihaya dynasty. After conquering the kingdom during 1745 AD, Raghunathsinghji, the last descendant of the Ratanpur house was forced to leave the area. So finally in the year 1758, Chhattisgarh was conquered by Marathas and Bimbaji Bhonsle was appointed as the ruler. After the demise of Bimbaji Bhonsle, suba system was followed by the Marathas. It was an era of unrest and misrule. Maratha army was involved in large-scale loot and ransack. The Maratha officials compromised the interests of the region to the British. The atrocities of the Maratha rule were opposed by the Gonds. The kingdom was attacked by the Pindaris during the early Nineteenth Century. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

In the year 1818, Chhattisgarh came under the British rule. After Nagpur was included under the rule of the British government in 1854, Chhattisgarh was created into a deputy commissionership. Its headquarters were located at Raipur. The British government brought about certain reforms in the administrative and revenue systems. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

The tribals of Bastar strongly stood firmly against the British, which resulted in the Halba rebellion, which continued for about five years from 1774-1779. Vir Narain Singh’s name is written in golden words in the history of Chhattisgarh, as he was the first martyr from this region in the struggle of independence. CGPSC Chhattisgarh Yearbook 2020

Chhattisgarh is one of the states of India located in the central part of the country. The state is surrounded by Jharkhand state on northwest, Orissa on the east, Andhra Pradesh on the south, and Maharastra on the southwest. It has been formed from the state of Madhya Pradesh. The origin of the name of Chhattisgarh has an interesting and long story.

During the ancient period Chhattisgarh was called Dakshin Kosala. We can get an evidence of it in the inscriptions and literary works of the early writers. During the Mughal reign the region was called Ratanpur territory and not Chhattisgarh. The word Chhattisgarh gained popularity during the rule of the Marathas. It was used for the first time in 1795, in an official document……………………………

BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020 : Latest And Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Bihar Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for BPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Online 60 Days Programme

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Bihar based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Bihar Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like BPSC and Other Bihar State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, BPSC and Other Bihar PSC exams across the State. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Bihar General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

This Ebook have:

1. Introduction of Bihar

2. Current Affairs whole year

3. Practice MCQ

Click here to download

You can also buy the book from instamojo – Buy now

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

BPSC Bihar Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Bihar

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the twelfth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2. The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. From Magadha arose India’s first empire, the Maurya Empire, as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions: Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the freight equalization policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word, meaning “abode”. The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist viharas, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word, later known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.

Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila gained prominence after the establishment of the Videha Kingdom in ancient India. During the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pancalas. The kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by Valmiki. The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.

The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir), the two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India’s first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna), is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy. Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.

This dynasty signifies the establishment of second empire in ancient Indian History. Gupta succeeded in bringing major parts of India under a unified administration to a great extent. The difference between Gupta empire’s and Mauryan empire’s administration was that in the Mauryan administration and power was centralised but the in the Gupta administration, power was more decentralised. Inscriptions state that the Sri Gupta was the first king. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

The Gupta Empire is referred to as the Golden Age of India because of the extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that illuminated the elements of Hindu Culture.

The Gupta Empire came into power in around 275 AD. It marked the end of 500 hundred years of domination of the provincial powers and resulting disquiet that began with the fall of the Mauryas. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After the fall of the Pala Empire, the Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from the 12th century to the 16th century until Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oiniwar dynasty and finally Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna. After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the Diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugraha Narayan Sinha.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam after independence. Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cold winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2. the state is located between 24°-20′-10″ N ~ 27°-31′-15″ N latitude and between 83°-19′-50″ E ~ 88°-17′-40″ E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet.

The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar’s landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example, the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Bihar is the fourth-largest producer of vegetables and the eighth-largest producer of fruits in India. Bihar has high agricultural production making it one of the strongest sectors of the state. About 80 percent of the state’s population is employed in agriculture, which is higher as compared to India’s average. The main agricultural products produced in Bihar are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady’s finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat and sugarcane, and sunflower. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions such as good rainfall favour agriculture, it has to encounter flood threat as well, which may drain off the fertile soil, if not conserved properly. The state (mostly southern parts) faces droughts almost every year affecting production of crops such as paddy.

There are several traditional styles of painting practiced in Bihar. One is Mithila painting, a style of Indian painting used in the Mithila region of Bihar. Traditionally, the painting was one of the skills that were passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila region, mainly by women. Painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life cycle, like birth, Upanayanam (the sacred thread ceremony), and marriage.

Mithila painting is also called Madhubani art. It mostly depicts human beings and their association with nature. Common scenes illustrate deities like Krishna, Ram, Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati from ancient epics. Natural objects like the sun, moon, and religious plants like Tulsi are also widely painted, along with scenes from the royal court and social events like weddings. Generally, no space is left empty. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Bihar has produced musicians like Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan and dhrupad singers like the Malliks (Darbhanga Gharana) and the Mishras (Bettiah Gharana) along with poets like Vidyapati Thakur who contributed to Maithili Music. The classical music in Bihar is a form of the Hindustani classical music. Gaya is another centre of excellence in classical music, particularly of the Tappa and Thumri varieties. Pandit Govardhan Mishra – son of the Ram Prasad Mishra, himself an accomplished singer – is perhaps the finest living exponent of Tappa singing in India today, according to Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh, founding secretary of the Sangeet Natak Akademi of Bihar. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes, in his memoir, that Champa nagar, Banaili, was another major centre of classical music. Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha of Champa nagar, Banaili princely state, was a great patron of music and was himself one of the finest exponents of classical vocal music in Bihar in his time.

Hindu Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord Rama is believed to be born in Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day Bihar. Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Mahipala I recouped northern and eastern Bengal inside of three years of ascended the throne in 988 AD. He additionally recouped the Northern part of the present-day Burdwan division. Amid his rule, Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire much of the time attacked Bengal from 1021 to 1023 AD with a specific end goal to get Ganges water and simultaneously, succeeded to humble the rulers, obtaining significant goods. The rulers of Bengal who were defeated by Rajendra Chola were Dharmapala, Ranasur and Govinda chandra, who may have been feudatories under Mahipala I of the Pala Dynasty. Rajendra Chola I defeated Mahipala. Mahipala additionally picked up control of north and south Bihar, presumably supported by the intrusions of Mahmud of Ghazni, which depleted the quality of different rulers of North India. He may have likewise vanquished Varanasi and encompassing zone, as his siblings Sthirapala and Vasantapala embraced development and repairs of a few hallowed structures at Varanasi. Later, the Kalachuri king Gangeyadeva added Varanasi subsequent to defeating the ruler of Anga, which could have been Mahipala I.

In the wake of picking up control of Varendra, Rampala attempted to resuscitate the Pala realm with restricted achievement. He ruled from another capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the administration’s end. He diminished assessment, advanced development and built open utilities. He brought Kamarupa and Rar under his control, and constrained the Varman lord of east Bengal to acknowledge his suzerainty. He likewise battled with the Ganga ruler for control of present-day Orissa; the Gangas figured out how to add the area strictly when his passing. Rampala kept up inviting relations with the Chola lord Kulottunga to secure backing against the common enemies: the Ganas and the Chalukyas. He held the Senas under wraps, however lost Mithila to a Karnataka boss named Nanyuadeva. He likewise kept down the forceful outline of the Gahadavala ruler Govindacharndra through a wedding organization together.

Rampala was the last powerful Pala ruler. After his death, defiance broke out in Assam amid his son Kumarapala’s rule. The rebellion was squashed by Vaidya deva, yet after Kumarapala’s death, Vaidya deva for all intents and purposes made a different kingdom.

Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji was one of the Military Generals of Qutb-ud-din Aibak invaded some parts of eastern India at the end of the 12th Century and at the beginning of the 13th century. During his invasion many of the Viharas and universities were sacked and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred.

The first half of the 16th century AD witnessed the Afghan- Mughal contest for power in the Sub-continent. After defeating Humayun, Sher Shah Suri emerged as a powerful Pashtun Afghan ruler and established the Sur Empire. The Empire’s strength lay in the great administrative capacity and reforms of the ruler, aimed at the benefit of people. The Empire boasts of extremely well thought of governmental systems and policies as well as great architectural marvels. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

After Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur in 1526 AD (first battle of Panipat), the Afghan chiefs who were still powerful, gathered together under the leadership of Sher Shah Suri to mark their discontent against the alien rule, As a result the Sur Empire of Pashtun origin (the tribal house of Sur) came to power and ruled a massive territory of Northern  part  of  South  Asia  from  1540-1556  AD,  with  their  capital  as  Delhi.  The empire’s major strength is in the fact that it disturbed the hold of the Mughal Empire under Humayun.

The Sur Dynasty controlled the major territories of Mughals east to west, from current day’s eastern Afghanistan to Bangladesh. Establishing a strong hold over the throne for nearly 17 years, the Sur Empire also systematized administrative reforms, promoted economic growth and created a trustworthy relationship with the public. However, when their rule ended with the reinstitution of the Mughal Empire, the Surs belonged to the sub-Groups of Ghilzais. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Military Achievements of Sher Shah Suri

  • Encounter on the fort of Chunar and Sher Shah’s diplomatic surrender.
  • Battle of Chausa with Humayun and Sher Shah’s victory.
  • Batttle of Kannauj and Sher Shah’s decisive victory over Humayun. With the victory at Kannauj, Sher Shah became the ruler of Delhi. Agra, Sambhal and Gwalior etc., also came under his sway. This victory ended the rule of the Mughal dynasty for 15 years.
  • Battle at Surajgarh (1533 AD): He defeated the combined forces of the Lohani chiefs of Bihar and Mohamud Shah of Bengal at Surajgarh. With this victory, whole of Bihar came under Sher Shah.
  • Invasion of Bengal: He plundered Bengal several times and by capturing Gaur, the capital of Bengal, forced Mohammad Shah to seek refugee with Humayun.
  • Conquest of Punjab (1540-42 AD): He immediately conquered Punjab from Kamran (Brother of Humayun) after his accession to the throne.
  • Suppression of Khokhars (1542 AD): He suppressed the turbulent Khokhars of the northern region of river Indus and Jhelum.
  • Conquest of Malwa (1542 AD): The ruler of Malwa had not helped Sher Shah in his struggle with Humayun. Therefore he attacked Malwa and annexed it to his empire.
  • Conquest of Raisin: He attacked Raisin – a Rajput principality and besieged it. Rajput ruler Purnamal entered into an agreement with Sher Shah that if he surrendered, his family would not be harmed. However Sher Shah did not honour this agreement.
  • Conquest of Multan and Sind (1543 AD): Sher Shah conquered and annexed these provinces into his empire.
  • Conquest of Marwar (1543-1545 AD): He brought Marwar under his control by forged letters and sowing dissensions in the army of Maldev, the ruler of Mewar.
  • Conquest of Kalanjar (1545 AD) and death of Sher Shah: He launched a fierce attack. He won but lost his life when he was grievously injured by the blast.

Bihar is situated on the one of the fertile regions of the world which is drained by river Ganga. It was famous for its cotton, textile, and saltpetre and indigo. Hence, it was one of the important trading centres of India from Ancient to Medieval India. This makes reason of enticing for European to open trade factories and centre for trade. BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020

Sher Shah Suri is also referred as Sher Khan or the Lion King administrator of medieval India. His administration included a blend of old institutions and new spirit to serve the interest of the people…………………..

Districts of Bihar

BPSC Bihar Yearbook 2020
Araria

Madhepura

Arwal

Madhubani

Aurangabad

Monghyr

Banka

Muzaffarpur

Begusarai

Nalanda

Bhagalpur

Nawada

Bhojpur

Patna

Buxar

Purnea

Darbhanga

Rohtas

East Champaran

Saharsa

Gaya

Samastipur

Gopalganj

Saran

Jamui

Shiekhpura

Jehanabad

Sheohar

Kaimur

Sitamarhi

Katihar

Siwan

Khagaria

Supaul

Kishanganj

Vaishali

Lakhisarai

West Champaran

APSC Assam Yearbook 2020 : Latest Current Affairs

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Assam Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for APSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Assam Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like APSC and Other Assam State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Assam based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, APSC and Other PSC exams and across the State. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Assam General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

This Ebook have: 1. Introduction of Assam 2. Current Affairs whole year 3. Practice MCQ

Click here to download

You can also buy the book from instamojo – Buy now

APSC Assam Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Assam

Assam is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2. The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia. Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, looks green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.

Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making;

Ambari site in Guwahati has revealed Shunga-Kushana era artefacts including flight of stairs and a water tank which may date from 1st century BC and may be 2,000 years old. Experts speculate that another significant find at Ambari is Roman era Roman roulette pottery from the 2nd century BC. Samudragupta’s 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa (Western Assam) and Davaka (Central Assam) as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire;

The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled Upper Assam, the Shans built their kingdom and consolidated their power in Eastern Assam with the modern town of Sibsagar as their capital. Until the early 1500s, the Ahoms ruled a small kingdom in Sibsagar district and suddenly expanded during King Suhungmung’s rule taking advantage of weakening rule of Chutia and Dimasa kingdoms. By 1681, the whole track down to the border of the modern district of Goalpara came permanently under their sway. Ahoms ruled for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) with major expansions in the early 16th century at the cost of Chutia and Dimasa Kachari kingdoms. Since c. the 13th century AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended to the Karatoya River in the 17th or 18th century. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungphaa or Sworgodeu Rudra Sinha (c. 1696–1714 AD). APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

The Chutiya rulers (1187–1673 AD), a Bodo-Kachari group by origin, held the regions on both the banks of Brahmaputra with its domain in the area eastwards from Vishwanath (north bank) and Buridihing (south bank), in Upper Assam and in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. It was partially annexed in the early 1500s by the Ahoms, finally getting absorbed in 1673 AD. The rivalry between the Chutiyas and Ahoms for the supremacy of eastern Assam led to a series of battles between them from the early 16th century until the start of the 17th century, which saw great loss of men and money.

The Koch, another Bodo-Kachari dynasty, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom in Western Assam and present-day North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Nara Narayan (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 CE, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Later, in 1682, Koch Hajo was entirely annexed by the Ahoms. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month. Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam, is an antecedent river older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain. The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system. In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River.

Urban centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world; Guwahati is the gateway to the North-East India. Silchar, (in the Barak valley) the 2nd most populous city in Assam and an important centre of business, Other large cities include Dibrugarh, an oil and natural gas industry centre,

With the tropical monsoon climate, Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March–April) and autumn (September–October) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam’s agriculture usually depends on the south-west monsoon rains.

Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers such as Barak River etc. deluges places in Assam, The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks, and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the State;

Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems; many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan.

Assam’s economy is based on agriculture and oil. Assam produces more than half of India’s tea. The Assam-Arakan basin holds about a quarter of the country’s oil reserves, and produces about 12% of its total petroleum. According to the recent estimates, Assam’s per capita GDP is ₹6,157 at constant prices (1993–94) and ₹10,198 at current prices; almost 40% lower than that in India. According to the recent estimates, per capita income in Assam has reached ₹6756 (1993–94 constant prices) in 2004–05, which is still much lower than India’s.

There are diversified important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. It is the Assamese New Year celebrated in April of the Gregorian calendar. Christmas is observed with great merriment by Christians of various denominations, including Catholics and Protestants, throughout Assam. Durga Puja, a festival introduced and popularised by Bengalis, is widely celebrated across the state. Muslims celebrate two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam.

Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator’s life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as ‘uruka’. The first day of ‘rongali bihu’ is called ‘Goru bihu’, when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres.

Bwisagu is one of the popular seasonal festivals of the Bodos. Bwisagu start of the New Year or age. Baisagu is a Boro word which originated from the word “Baisa” which means year or age, ang “Agu” that means starting or start.

Beshoma is a festival of Deshi people. It is a celebration of sowing crop. The Beshoma starts on the last day of Chaitra and goes on till the sixth of Baisakh. With varying locations it is also called Bishma or Chait-Boishne.

Bushu Dima or simply Bushu is a major harvest festival of the Dimasa people. This festival is celebrated during the end of January. Officially 27 January has been declared as the day of Bushu Dima festival. The Dimasa people celebrate their festival by playing musical instruments- khram (a type of drum), muri (a kind of huge long flute). The people dances to the different tunes called “murithai” and each dance has got its name, the prominent being the “Baidima” There are three types of Bushu celebrated among the Dimasas Jidap, Surem and Hangsou. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

Chavang Kut is a post harvesting festival of the Kuki people. The festival is celebrated on the first day of November every year. Hence, this particular day has been officially declared as a Restricted Holiday by the Assam government. In the past, the celebration was primarily important in the religio-cultural sense. The rhythmic movements of the dances in the festival were inspired by animals, agricultural techniques and showed their relationship with ecology. Today, the celebration witnesses the shifting of stages and is revamped to suit new contexts and interpretations. The traditional dances which form the core of the festival is now performed in out-of-village settings and are staged in a secular public sphere. In Assam, the Kukis mainly reside in the two autonomous districts of Dima Hasao and Karbi Anglong. APSC Assam Yearbook 2020

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook 2020 : Current Affairs

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 Useful for APPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for APPSC State PSC and all other competitive exams. This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of State in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 – 60 Days Programme

Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs/General Knowledge Yearbook 2020 has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of state. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like APPSC and Other Andhra Pradesh State PSC Civil services Exams across the State. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs consists of latest news/ information about Andhra Pradesh based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the State. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

This Ebook have:

1. Introduction of Andhra Pradesh

2. Current Affairs whole year

3. Practice MCQ

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, APPSC and Other PSC exams and across the State.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews, The Andhra Pradesh General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

Click here to download

You can also buy the book from instamojo – Buy now

APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Introduction of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the south-eastern states of India. A new State Telangana got its existence out of it on 2nd June 2014. In population, Andhra is the 10th biggest state of the country. As per 2011 census, the population of the state is 49,386,799. The capital of the state is Hyderabad. There are many beautiful cities, places in the state namely Vijayawada, Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam Port, Godavari Arch Bridge, Dolphin’s Nose Mountain etc.

The north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state of Telangana on 2 June 2014, and Hyderabad, the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat, with jurisdiction over almost 15,000 km2 of territorial waters. The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lays the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state.

The state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, and Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. The largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal; the second largest city in the state is Vijayawada, located on the banks of the Krishna River. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India.

A group of people named Andhras was mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India from banks of River Yamuna and settled in south India. The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.

Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagara Empire. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: “Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)”. After Potti Sreeramulu’s death, the Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city. On the basis of the gentlemen’s agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed combined Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that supports varied ecosystems, the rich diversity of flora and fauna. There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari that flow through the state. The coast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state’s geography. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

The state has many sanctuaries, national parks and zoological parks, such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park and Indira Gandhi Zoological Park. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attract many migratory birds. The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambhars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of the Godavari and Krishna Rivers support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 40 °C. July to September is the season for tropical rains. About one-third of the total rainfall is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C. Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is the only place in South India which receives snowfall because of its location as at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above the sea level. It is also nicknamed as the “Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh” and the temperature ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C

Mahayana Buddhism: Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was “a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years”. The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta;

The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana Buddhism, along with the Magadha-area in northeastern India. According to Xing, “Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River.

Andhra Pradesh’s economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as “Rice Bowl of India”. The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.

Satish Dhawan Space Centre, also known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), at barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is a satellite launching station operated by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India’s primary orbital launch site. India’s lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre on 22 October 2008. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

Districts of Andhra Pradesh

Anantapur got its name from ‘Anaatasagaram’, a big tank, which means “Endless Ocean”. The villages of Anaantasagaram and Bukkarayasamudram were constructed by Anantaras Chilkkavodeya, the minister of Bukka-I, a Vijayanagar ruler. Some authorities assert that Anaantasagaram was named after Bukka’s queen, while some contend that it must have been known after Anantarasa Chikkavodeya himself, as Bukka had no queen by that name. Anantapur District was formed in the year 1882 having been separated from Bellary district. The district was situated between 76º 47′ and 78º 26’E, of the eastern longitudes and 13º 41′ and 15º 14’N, of northern latitudes. The district is bounded on the north by the Kurnool District, on the southeast by Chittor District, on the east by YSR District, and on the west and southwest by Karnataka state. The district has population of 40,83,315 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 4.82% of the total population of the State with 12.16% decadal growth.

The district was situated between 78º 30′ and 79º 55E, of the eastern longitudes and 12º 37′ and 14ºN, of northern latitudes. It is bounded on the north by Anantapur and Cuddapah districts, on the east by Nellore and Chengai-Anna districts of Tamilnadu, on the south by North Arcot Ambedkar & Dharmapuri district of Tamilnadu and on the west by Kolar District of Karnataka state. The district has population of 41,70,468 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 4.92% of the total population of the State with 11.33% decadal growth.

The District is known as rice bowl of Andhra Pradesh with lush paddy fields and coconut groves. It is also known as another Kerala. Its district headquarters is in Kakinada. The district was situated between 81º 29′ and 82º 37’E, of the eastern longitudes and 16º 30′ and 18’N, of northern latitudes. The Boundaries of East Godavari are Bay of Bengal in the East and South, Khammam district in the West and Visakhapatnam district in the North directions. The district has population of 51, 51,549 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 6.08% of the total population of the State with 5.10% decadal growth.

Guntur is a centre of education & learning and is home of historically significant Amaravati, Bhattiprolu and Sitanagaram monuments. The district was situated between 79º 10′ and 80º 55’E, of the eastern longitudes and 15º 18′ and 16º 50’N, of northern latitudes. The district is bounded on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Prakasam District, on the west by Mahabubnagar District, and on the northwest by Nalgonda District. The district has population of 48, 89,230 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 5.77% of the total population of the State with 9.50% decadal growth.

Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhara Reddy District (Cuddapah) is situated in the south-central part of the Andhra Pradesh State. Located 8 km south of the Penna River, the city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palakonda hills. The name Kadapa is derived from the Telugu word Gadapa (threshold). The city is so named because it is the gateway from the north to the sacred hill Pagoda of Shri Venkateshvara (also spelt as Venkateswara) of Tirupati. The district was situated between 77º 51º and 79º 29ºE, of the eastern longitudes and 13º 43º and 15º 14ºN, of northern latitudes. The district is bounded on the north by the Prakasam & Kurnool Districts, on the south by Chittor District, on the east by Nellore District, and on the west by Anantapur District. The district has population of 28,84,524 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 3.40% of the total population of the State with 10.87% decadal growth.

Krishna District is a district of India’s Andhra Pradesh state. It is named after the Krishna River which flows through the district. Machilipatnam is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district was situated between 80º 01′ and 81º 33’E, of the eastern longitudes and 15º 45′ and 17º 10’N, of northern latitudes. The Boundaries of this district are West Godavari district in the East, Bay of Bengal in the South, Guntur and Nalgonda districts in the West and Khammam district in the North directions. The district has population of 45,29,009 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 5.34% of the total population of the State with 8.15% decadal growth.

This district derives its name from its chief town Kurnool the capital of former Nawabs, Capital of Andhra Pradesh State from 1st October 1953 to 1st November, 1956 and at present the headquarters of the district. The name Kurnool is said to have been derived from “Kandanavolu”. The district was situated between 77º 24′ and 79º 40’E, of the eastern longitudes and 14º 54′ and 16º 18’N, of northern latitudes. The Boundaries of Kurnool district are Guntur and Nellore districts in the East, Ballary district in the West, Mahaboobnagar district in the North, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts in the South directions. The district has population of 40,46,601 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 4.77% of the total population of the State with 14.65% decadal growth.

The region was named as Prakasam District on 12 May 1972 in memory of Tanguturi Prakasam, also known as Andhra Kesari (Lion of Andhra). The district was situated between 79º and 80º E, of the eastern longitudes and 15º 30′ and 16ºN, of northern latitudes. The Boundaries of Prakasam district are Bay of Bengal in the East, Cuddapah and Nellore districts in the South, Kurnool district in the West and Guntur district in the North directions. The district headquarters are located at Ongole. The district has population of 33,92,764 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 4.00% of the total population of the State with 10.90% decadal growth.

Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore District is famous for high paddy yield, and so it got its name from “nelli”, an equivalent word for paddy in Tamil. It was earlier known as Nellore district. In June 2008, the government of Andhra Pradesh officially renamed the district as Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore District after the freedom fighter and revolutionary Potti Sri Ramulu, who died fasting in an attempt to achieve the formation of a separate state for the Telugu people. The district was situated between 79º 9′ and 80º 14’E, of the eastern longitudes and 13º 25′ and 15º 55’N, of northern latitudes. The district is bounded on the north by the Prakasam District, on the south by Tamil Nadu state and Chittor District, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the west by YSR District. The district has population of 29,66,082 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 3.50% of the total population of the State with 11.15% decadal growth.

Srikakulam district has the longest coast line in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Two of the rivers that pass through Srikakulam district are River Nagavali and River Vamsadhara. Srikakulam District was created out of part of Vishakhapatnam District on August 15, 1950. The district was situated between 83º 25′ and 84º 50’E, of the eastern longitudes and 18º 20′ and 19º 10’N, of northern latitudes. The boundaries of this district are Bay of Bengal in the East, Vijayanagaram district in the South and Orissa state borders in the West and North directions. The district has population of 26,99,471 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 3.18% of the total population of the State with 6.38% decadal growth. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

Visakhapatnam is a coastal, port city, often called “The Jewel of the East Coast”, situated in the Andhra Pradesh, located on the eastern shore of India, and nestled among the hills of the Eastern Ghats and facing the Bay of Bengal to the east. It is the second largest city in Andhra Pradesh with an area of 550 km²; it is primarily an industrial city, apart from being a port city. It is also home to the Eastern Naval Command. The district was situated between 81º 06′ and 83º 31’E, of the eastern longitudes and 17º 15′ and 18º 32’N, of northern latitudes. The boundaries of this district are Bay of Bengal in the East, East Godavari district in the South, Orissa state in the West and North directions. The district has population of 42, 88,113 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 5.06% of the total population of the State with 11.89% decadal growth.

If India is a land of precious stones, one such jewel embedded on the Indian soils is the district Vizianagaram. The Pusapatis of Vizianagaram, the Ravus of Bobbili, Varicharlas of Kurupam, the Satrucharlas of Merangi and the aristocrats of salur were all the exalted Luminaries and multi-facial personalities. The battle of Bobbili and the battle of Padmanabham are unforgettable and make the area the land of pride and valour. The district was situated between 83º 0′ and 83º 45’E, of the eastern longitudes and 17º 15′ and 19º 15’N, of northern latitudes. The Boundaries of this district are Srikakulum district in the East, Vijayanagaram district in the South, Orissa state and Vishakapatnam district in the West and Orissa state in the North directions. The district has population of 23, 42,868 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 2.76% of the total population of the State with 4.16% decadal growth. APPSC Andhra Pradesh Yearbook

Eluru is the headquarters of West Godavari district. The district is located in delta region of the Krishna and Godavari rivers. The district was situated between 80º 50′ and 81º 55’E, of the eastern longitudes and 16º 15′ and 17º 30’N, of northern latitudes. Khammam District lies to the north, East Godavari District to the east, the Bay of Bengal to the south, and Krishna District to the west. The district has population of 39, 34,782 as per the 2011 census which accounts for 4.64% of the total population of the State with 3.45% decadal growth…