Covid-19 being syndemic


  • World Health Organization (WHO) announced that Covid-19 less likely to be eliminated (i.e. may become endemic).
  • The possibilities of Covid-19 being syndemic have been raised in the backdrop of the announcement.
  • Classification of Diseases based on spread and occurrence
  1. Pandemic – A pandemic is declared when a new disease for which people do not have immunity spreads around the world beyond expectations.
  2. Epidemic – An epidemic is a large outbreak, one that spreads among a population or region. It is less severe than pandemic due to a limited area of spread.
  3. Endemic – A disease is called endemic when the presence or usual prevalence of its infectious agent is constant within a given geographical area or population group.
  4. Syndemic – A Syndemic is a situation when two or more epidemics interact synergistically to produce an increased burden of disease in a population.
  • The least possibility of elimination of Covid-19 pandemic and warning about the second wave of Covid-19 infections worldwide have reinforced the presence of Covid-19 for the long term.
  • Meanwhile, the alarm is being raised about diseases like dengue and malaria emerging with the upcoming monsoon season in tropical South Asia.
  • Thus, there is a possibility that the world will face increased burden of the diseases and thus the situation of syndemic.
  • The second wave of infection due to Covid-19 is suspected to be seen in those with weakened immunity.
  • At the same time, the world already faces antibiotic resistance and if Covid-19 deepens as a syndemic in populations with antibiotic resistance, the world will face comorbidities (Co-morbidity is the presence of one or more additional conditions co-occurring with a primary condition)

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