General Knowledge of India and its States/UTs

States and Union Territories in India

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, and Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 8 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc.

India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress since Independence. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

The mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4′ and 37° 6′ north, longitudes 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

States and Capitals

Andhra Pradesh (V, A, K)Arunachal Pradesh(Itanagar)Assam(Dispur)Bihar(Patna)
Chhattisgarh(Raipur)Goa(Panaji)Gujarat(Gandhinagar)Haryana(Chandigarh)
Himachal Pradesh(Shimla)Jharkhand(Ranchi)Karnataka(Bangalore)Kerala(Thiruvananthapuram)
Madhya Pradesh(Bhopal)Maharashtra(Mumbai)Manipur(Imphal)Meghalaya(Shillong)
Mizoram(Aizawl)Nagaland(Kohima)Odisha(Bhubaneshwar)Punjab(Chandigarh)
Rajasthan(Jaipur)Sikkim(Gangtok)Tamil Nadu(Chennai)Telangana(Hyderabad)
Tripura(Agartala)Uttarakhand(Dehradun)Uttar Pradesh(Lucknow)West Bengal(Kolkata)

Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Port Blair)Chandigarh (Chandigarh)Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu
The Government of NCT of Delhi (Delhi)Jammu & Kashmir
(Srinagar-S*, Jammu-W*)
Ladakh (Leh)
Lakshadweep (Kavaratti)Puducherry (Puducherry)* S (Summer) and * W (Winter)

Geography

Geographical information about India

ParticularsDescription
LocationThe Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.
Geographic CoordinatesLying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4′ and 37° 6′ latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ longitudes east of it.
Indian Standard TimeGMT + 05:30
Area3.3 Million sq. km
Telephone Country Code+91
Border CountriesAfghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
Coastline7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
ClimateThe climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons:winter (December-February)summer (March-June)south-west monsoon season (June-September)post monsoon season (October-November)
TerrainThe mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
Natural ResourcesCoal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.
Natural HazardsMonsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides.
Environment – Current IssuesAir pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc.
Environment – International AgreementsRio Declaration on environment and development, Cartagena Protocol on biosafety, Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on climatic change, World Trade Agreement, Helsinki Protocol to LRTAP on the reduction of sulphur emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes (Nox Protocol), and Geneva Protocol to LRTAP concerning the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds or their transboundary fluxes (VOCs Protocol).
Geography – NoteIndia occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.

People

Information about Indian Citizens

ParticularsDescription
PopulationIndia’s population, as on 1 March 2011 stood at 1,210,193,422 (623.7 million males and 586.4 million females)
Population Growth RateThe average annual exponential growth rate stands at 1.64 per cent during 2001-2011
Birth RateThe Crude Birth rate was 18.3 in 2009
Death RateThe Crude Death rate was 7.3 in 2009
Life Expectancy Rate65.8 years (Males); 68.1 years (Females) in the period 2006-2011
Sex Ratio940 according to the 2011 census
NationalityIndian
Ethnic GroupsAll the five major racial types – Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.
ReligionsAccording to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.
LanguagesThere are 22 different languages that have been recognised by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. Article 343(3) empowered Parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes.
LiteracyAccording to the provisional results of the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 74.04 per cent, 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females.

Government

ParticularsDescription
Country NameRepublic of India; Bharat Ganrajya
Government TypeSovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.
CapitalNew Delhi
Administrative Divisions28 States and 8 Union Territories.
Independence15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)
ConstitutionThe Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
Legal SystemThe Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.
Executive BranchThe President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.
Legislative BranchThe Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.
Judicial BranchThe Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
Flag DescriptionThe National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
National Days26th January (Republic Day)
15th August (Independence Day)
2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)

Demographic Background

  • Census
  • Population
  • Population Density
  • Sex Ratio
  • Literacy

Physical Background

  • Physical Features
  • Geological Structure
  • Rivers
  • Climate
  • Flora
  • Fauna

The Polity

  • The Union and its Territory
  • Citizenship
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Fundamental Duties
  • Directive Principles of State Policy
  • The Union
  • The States
  • Union Territories
  • Local Government

Culture & Heritage

The Ministry of Culture plays a vital role in the preservation and promotion of art and culture. Its aim is to develop ways and means by which basic cultural and aesthetic values and perceptions remain active and dynamic among the people. It also undertakes programmes for the promotion of various manifestations of contemporary art. The Department is a nodal agency for commemorating significant events and celebrating centenaries of great artists.

Indian History

  • Ancient History
  • Medieval History
  • Freedom Struggle

Monuments

Mass Media

People and Lifestyle

Lifestyle, Values and Beliefs

Ethnicity of India

Festivals

Organisations engaged in Cultural Activities

Performing Arts

National Academies

Visual Arts and Literature

  • Literature
  • Folk and Tribal Art
  • Handicrafts

Schemes, Scholarships and Fellowships

Presidents of India

Vice-Presidents of India

Prime Ministers of India

Chief Justices of India

Chief Election Commissioners of India

List of State-wise National Highways in India

Chairmen of UPSC

Chief of Defence Staff

Commanders-in-Chief

Chiefs of Army Staff

Chiefs of Naval Staff

Chiefs of Air Staff

Length of some important Indian Rivers

Sahitya Akademi Awards

Sangeet Natak Akademi Puraskar

Nobel Laureates

Gallantry Awards

Param Vir Chakra (PVC)

Civilian Awards

  • Bharat Ratna
  • Padma Vibhushan
  • Padma Bhushan
  • Padma Shri

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