India & World Geography

The term “Geography” comes from the ancient Greeks. In Greek, geo means earth and graphy means to write. Greeks developed an understanding of where their homeland was located in relation to other places and how people and environments were distributed by using geography. India and World Geography

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way those locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there and how they develop and change over the time. The natural resources of a country are of primary importance for the economic development. As a matter of fact, natural resources determine the economic life of a nation.

Man may grow rich in knowledge and intelligence, however much he may have overcome nature but ultimately he will have to depend on the materials supplied by Mother Nature for the development of his economic life. The physical factors like topography, soils, geologic formation, climate and the available flora and fauna are the basic influences which lead to differences in land-use, cropping pattern, settlement and density of population and occurrence of minerals, water and power resources in different parts of the country. India and World Geography

Geography also became an important part of other academic disciplines, such as chemistry, economics and philosophy. In fact every academic subject has some geographic connection and the study where certain chemical elements such as gold or silver can be found. Economists examine which nations trade with other nations and what resources are exchanged. Some people have trouble to understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic. The geography is concerned with many different topics—people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, landforms and much more.

What distinguishes geography is that, it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way. Geography asks spatial questions—how and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. It also asks questions about how the interaction of different human and natural activities on earth’s surface shape the characteristics of the world in which we live.

Geography seeks to understand where things are found and why they are present in those places; how things that are located in the same or distant places influence one another over time; and why places and the people who live in them develop and change in particular ways. Raising these questions is at the heart of the “Geographical Perspective.”

The study of geography is so broad; the discipline is typically divided into specialties. At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography, human geography, geographic techniques and regional geography. India and World Geography

The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems. Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, Pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography and oceanography.

Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists investigate the nature and impact of wind, ice, rivers, erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes, living things, and other forces that shape and change the surface of the Earth. India and World Geography

Glaciologists focus on the Earth’s ice fields and their impact on the planet’s climate. Glaciologists document the properties and distribution of glaciers and icebergs. Data collected by glaciologists has demonstrated the retreat of Arctic and Antarctic ice in the past century.

Pedologists study soil and how it is created, changed and classified. Soil studies are used by a variety of professions from farmers analyzing field fertility to engineers investigating the suitability of different areas for building heavy structures.

Hydrology is the study of Earth’s water: its properties, distribution and effects. Hydrologists are especially concerned with the movement of water as it cycles from the ocean to the atmosphere then back to Earth’s surface. Hydrologists study the water cycle through rainfall into streams, lakes, the soil and underground aquifers.

Climatologists study Earth’s climate system and its impact on Earth’s surface. For example: climatologists make predictions about El Nino- a cyclical weather phenomenon of warm surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. They analyze the dramatic worldwide climate changes caused by El Nino, such as flooding in Peru, drought in Australia and in the United States, the oddities of heavy Texas rains or an unseasonably warm Minnesota winter.

Biogeographers study the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants and animals. For example: a biogeographer might document all the places in the world inhabited by a certain spider species and what those places have in common.     

Oceanography is a related discipline of physical geography, focuses on the creatures and environments of the world’s oceans. The discovery and tracking of the Gulf Stream helped communications and travel between Europe and the Americas.

Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. They also might look at how consumers in China and India adjust to new technology and markets and how markets respond to such a huge consumer base.

Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers.

The Republic of India is a vast country. It lies entirely in the northern hemisphere. The mainland of the country extends between latitudes 8°4′ and 37°6′ north, longitude 68°7′ and 97°25′ east. India and World Geography


Indian Geography for UPSC CSE (IAS) Prelims 2021 GS Paper 1

Physical Economic and Human Geography of India

Indian Geography Question Bank

INDIAN GEOGRAPHY QUESTION BANK BASED ON 6-12TH NCERT -CLICK HERE

Indian Geography questions with answers practice tests

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Important Topics from Geography for UPSC

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Free Geography Notes download Here

UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2020: Important Questions for Preparation of Geography



Geography of India


Indian Geography: A Complete Study Material

1. General Geography & Physical Features

1.1 Basic Concepts in Geography
1.2 The Universe
1.3 The Solar System
1.4 Latitudes, Longitudes and Standard Time
1.5 Inside our Earth
1.6 Our Changing Earth
1.7 Composition of Air
1.8 Water
1.9 Our Changing View of the Universe
1.10 Location and its Neighbour
1.11 Frontiers of India
1.12 Administrative divisions of India: States and Union Territories
1.13 Physical Division
1.14 Geological Structure of India
1.15 Classification of the Indian Rocks
1.16 Trans-Himalayas Mountain Region or Tibet Himalayan Region
1.17 The Eastern or Purvanchal Hills
1.18 The Aravali Mountain Range
1.19 The Peninsular Plateau
1.20 The Great Plains of India
1.21 Structural division of Plains
1.22 Indian Deser
1.23 The Western Ghats Mountain Range
1.24 The Eastern Ghats Mountain Range
1.25 The Western Ghats Coastal Plain
1.26 The Eastern Coastal Plains
1.27 The Island Groups
1.28 Important Passes in India

2. Climate, Soil & Vegetation

2.1 Seasons in India
2.2 Factors affecting India’s Climate
2.3 The Indian Monsoon
2.4 The Onset of the Monsoon and Withdrawal
2.5 The Thermal Theory of Monsoon
2.6 The Equatorial Westerly Theory
2.7 The Jet Stream Theory
2.8 The El Nino Theory
2.9 Koeppen’s classification of Climate
2.10 Distribution of Rainfall
2.11 Land resources: Availability and Degradation
2.12 Soil profile of India
2.13 Natural Vegetation
2.14 Forest Resources
2.15 The Forest Research Institute in India
2.16 Social Forestry Programme
2.17 Environmental movements and acts of the Government
2.18 Biosphere Reserves in India
2.19 Wild Life and National Parks
2.20 Important facts about Wildlife
2.21 Report of Red Data Book

3. Drainage System

3.1 Drainage pattern
3.2 Drainage System
3.3 The Indus System
3.4 The Ganga River System
3.5 The Brahmaputra River System
3.6 The Peninsular River System
3.7 Peninsular River Flowing towards the East
3.8 Peninsular River Flowing Towards the West
3.9 Lakes in India
3.10 Usability of River Water
3.11 Water Management
3.12 Valley Projects link with Indus River
3.13 River Valley Projects of River Ganga
3.14 River Valley Projects of North – East India (Brahmaputra)
3.15 River Valley Projects of Peninsular India
3.16 River Project Towards East (Bay of Bengal)
3.17 List of Towns situated on the Banks of River

4. Economic Geography

4.1 Industrial Regions in India
4.2 Mineral belts in India
4.3 Power Resources of India
4.4 Coal Resources of India
4.5 Petroleum and Natural Gas
4.6 Atomic Minerals
4.7 Means of Electrical Energy Production in India
4.8 Atomic Energy
4.9 Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
4.10 Industries in India
4.11 Industrial Development in India
4.12 Iron and Steel Industry
4.13 Shipping Industry
4.14 Aluminium Industries in India
4.15 Cement Industry
4.16 Chemical fertilizer Industry in India
4.17 Petro-Chemical Industry in India
4.18 Engineering Industry
4.19 Pharmaceutical Industries in India
4.20 Agro-Based Industries in India
4.21 Forest-based Industry
4.22 Transport and Communication
4.23 Road Transport
4.24 Rail Transport
4.25 Water Transport
4.26 Air Transportation
4.27 Oil and Gas Pipelines
4.28 Personal Communication System
4.29 Mass Communication System

5. Human Geography

5.1 Human Resources
5.2 Human Development
5.3 Human Settlement
5.4 Rural Settlement
5.5 Indicators of Development
5.6 Composition of Indian population
5.7 Urban Settlements in India
5.8 Urbanisation in India
5.9 Functional Classification of Towns
5.10 Dichotomy of Human Geography
5.11 Human Development Index in India
5.12 Racial Groups of India
5.13 Schedule Tribes in India
5.14 Schedule Castes in India
5.15 Population Policies of India
5.16 Human Migration


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