What is the Green revolution? Analyse the impact of green revolution

The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution, was a period of technology transfer initiatives that saw greatly increased crop yields. These changes in agriculture began in developed countries in the early 20th Century and spread globally till the late 1980s.

The Green Revolution greatly increased food production through its reforms and went a long way toward eradicating poverty, especially among agricultural workers. However, there were also significant negative effects, and some poor agricultural workers had their condition worsened through the Green Revolution.

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Green Revolution Important Notes

  • Throughout history there have been many revolutions that have occurred and changed human lives, such as the American Revolution and the Industrial Revolution.
  • In the mid- and late-20th century a revolution occurred that dramatically changed the field of agriculture, and this revolution was known as the Green Revolution.
  • The Green Revolution was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new advances.
  • During this time period, new chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides were created. The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield.
  • The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.
  • In addition to the chemical advances utilized during this time period, high-yield crops were also developed and introduced.
  • High-yield crops are crops that are specifically designed to produce more overall yield. A method known as multiple cropping was also implemented during the Green Revolution and lead to higher productivity.
  • Multiple cropping is when a field is used to grow two or more crops throughout the year, so that the field constantly has something growing on it. These new farming techniques and advances in agricultural technology were utilized by farmers all over the world, and when combined, intensified the results of the Green Revolution.

Green revolution is an agricultural revolution in which agricultural productivity was increased by providing package of inputs like High yield variety seeds, chemical fertilizer and better irrigation facility. It lead to the increased agricultural production and made India a self -reliant country in terms of food production.

Impact of green revolution are summarised as below:

    Economic impact:

  • Increased productivity and food self sufficiency
  • Increase in the GDP
  • Increase farm income
  • Increase in the total cultivable land
  • Increase in the credit for agriculture
  • Increase in food exports
  • Boost to Industrial activity
  • Increase in subsidy hence pressure on fiscal deficit
  • Regional Imbalance in agri -productivity

    Ecological Impact

  • Land and soil degradation
  • Over exploitation of natural resources like water
  • Chemical fertilizer uses increased. It increased Toxicity in food chain
  • Soil health jeopardized.

    Social Impact:

  • Resistance to land reforms
  • Concentration of wealth in few farmers. Agriculture income being tax free it further increased inequality.
  • Social disequilibrium and hence increase in feudal mindset.

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