Rajasthan is a state in northern India. It covers 342,239 square kilometers (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 per cent of India’s total geographical area. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. It is on India’s northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the Great Indian Desert) and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus River valley. It is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest. Its geographical location is 23.3 to 30.12 North latitude and 69.30 to 78.17 East longitudes, with the Tropic of Cancer passing through its southernmost tip.
Humidity in Rajasthan
The relative humidity in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.
During the monsoon months, July to September the relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.
The annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.
The variation in the relative humidity is low during the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid region.
The main reason in this decline is the deforestation and other activities.
The diurnal variation in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the diurnal variation is highest.
Air temperature and relative humidity conditions
The pleasant winters in the state witness mean night temperatures above 4.7 C to 10.6 C. During summers the western Rajasthan becomes the hottest place in the country with mean maximum air temperatures varying from 38.6 C to 42.6 C in May. The recorded extreme temperatures in the state were -4.4 C to 50.0 C in the western Rajasthan and -2.8 C to 47.8 C in the eastern Rajasthan (as per Indian Meteorological Department, 2010).
The relative humidity in the arid region of Western Rajasthan is also quite high because of the unfavorable circulations of the atmosphere and low precipitation that occurs in the arid region as compared to other semi-arid and sub-humid regions.
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