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MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/PCS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of General Studies of World, India and all the Indian states. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India, Indian States regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 – 60 Days Revision
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Important Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020
HDI 2019 REPORT
Recently, Human Development Report 2019 says that India is home to 28% of worlds poor.
- The annual HDI 2019 report, ranked India at the 129th position, one rank above last year’s ranking, out of a total 189 countries.
- India remains the home to 28 percent of global poor. About 41 per cent of the world’s poor live in South Asia.
- Between 1990 and 2018, India’s HDI value increased by 50 per cent (from 0.431 to 0.647), which places it above the average for countries in the medium human development group (0.634) and above the average for other South Asian countries (0.642).
- This means that in the last three decades, life expectancy at birth in India increased by 11.6 years, whereas the average number of schooling years increased by 3.5 years. Per capita incomes increased 250 times.
- The report finds that despite progress, group-based inequalities persist on the Indian subcontinent, especially affecting women and girls.
- While Singapore has the region’s lowest incidence of intimate partner violence against women, the report states that a staggering 31 per cent of women in South Asia have experienced intimate partner violence.
- India is only marginally better than the South Asian average on the Gender Development Index (0.829 vs 0.828), and ranks at a low 122 (of 162) countries on the 2018 Gender Inequality Index.
- The report states that as the number of people coming out of poverty is increasing, the world is veering towards another type of poverty. The old inequalities were based on access to health services and education whereas the next generation of poverty is based on technology, education and climate, according to the report.
- The report ranked countries after analysing reduction in absolute poverty, gains in life expectancy, education, and access to health care.
- India has both types of poverty. Even as Indians continue to face a lack of access to healthcare and education, many others are becoming poor based on the new criteria.
What is HDI?
- The underlying principle of the HDI, considered path breaking in 1990, (created by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq) is elegantly simple: National development should be measured not only by income per capita, but also by health and education achievements.
- The HDI is the composite measure of every country’s attainment in three basic dimensions:
- Standard of living measured by the gross national income (GNI) per capita.
- Health measured by the life expectancy at birth.
- Education levels calculated by mean years of education among the adult population and the expected years of schooling for children.
- This index makes it possible to follow changes in development levels over time and to compare the development levels of different countries.
- Additional indices have been developed to capture other dimensions of human development to identify groups falling behind in human progress and to monitor the distribution of human development.
- In 2010 three indices were launched to monitor poverty, inequality and gender empowerment across multiple human development dimensions
- The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI),
- The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)
- The Gender Inequality Index (GII).
|Human Development Dashboard Quality of human development Quality of health India lost 13.9% in total life expectancy as health expectancy in 2016.There were only 7.6 physicians per 10,000 people in the period 2007-17 falling behind Pakistan who have a better physician to people ratio with 9.8 physicians for every 10,000 people.There are only 7 beds for every 10,000 people in India where a smaller nation like Nepal have 50 beds for every 10,000 people and has a lot to catch up with international standard. Quality of education There is only one teacher in primary schools for every 35 pupil in India falling in the bottom tercile. International model standard comes up to somewhere 15-18 pupils per children.Only 70% teachers in primary schools are trained to teach in Indian schools. Quality of standard of living 77.5% of the employed people are engaged as unpaid family workers and own account workers.77.6% of the rural population had access to electricity in 2016.87.6% of the total population was using improved drinking water sources in 2015, with only 44.2 % people having access to improved sanitation facilities in 2015.|
SMALL FINANCE BANKS
- Data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) show that the small finance banks, in total, saw their deposits grow 31.6% in the third quarter (ended December) of this financial year, compared with the second quarter.
- The phenomenal growth of small finance banks has come on a very small base which is why bigger banks and NBFCs don’t see them as competition yet.
The small finance bank will primarily undertake basic banking activities of acceptance of deposits and lending to unserved and underserved sections including small business units, small and marginal farmers, micro and small industries and unorganised sector entities.
- Take small deposits and disburse loans.
- Distribute mutual funds, insurance products and other simple third-party financial products.
- Lend 75% of their total adjusted net bank credit to priority sector.
- Maximum loan size would be 10% of capital funds to single borrower, 15% to a group.
- Minimum 50% of loans should be up to 25 lakhs.
- Promoter must contribute minimum 40% equity capital and should be brought down to 30% in 10 years.
- Minimum paid-up capital would be Rs 100 cr.
- Capital adequacy ratio should be 15% of risk weighted assets, Tier-I should be 7.5%.
- Foreign shareholding capped at 74% of paid capital, FPIs cannot hold more than 24%.
- Priority sector lending requirement of 75% of total adjusted net bank credit.
- 50% of loans must be up to Rs 25 lakh.
WHY INDIA NEEDS LABOUR REFORMS?
Recently, Industrial Relations Code was introduced in the Parliamentary by Minister of Labour.
- Labour reforms essentially mean taking steps in increasing production, productivity, and employment opportunities in the economy in such a manner that the interests of the workers are not compromised.
- Essentially, it means skill development, retraining, redeployment, updating knowledge base of workers-teachers, promotion of leadership qualities, etc. Labour reforms also include labour law reforms.
- Labour laws are concerned with the trade union rights of the workers, industrial relations and job security and policies relating to wages, bonus and other incentive schemes.
- Labour reforms are of great important as the laws enacted in the labour market aim at regulating the market, protecting employment and ensuring social security of workers.
Problems of Labour Market in India
Indian labour market is characterised by a sharp dichotomy;
- Organised sector is stringently regulated while the unorganized sector is virtually free from any outside control and regulation with little or no job security.
- Wages are ‘too high’ in the organised sector and ‘too low’, even below the subsistence level in the unorganised sector. This dualistic set up suggests how far the Indian labour market is segmented.
Poor Social Security:
- Social security to organised labour force in India is provided through a variety of legislative measures.
- Workers of small unorganised sector as well as informal sectors remain outside the purview of these arrangements.
Multiplicity of Archaic Labour Laws
- Labour Laws govern trade unions, industrial relations, and job security
- Labour is a concurrent subject and more than 40 Central laws more than 100 state laws govern the subject.
Trade Union Issues:
- Trade Union Act, 1926 provide that any seven employees could form a union.
- During the freedom struggle, Indian trade union contributed handsomely. It is now better organized.
Frequent Strikes: Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 aims at promoting good relations between employers and workmen, protecting workers against retrenchment and settling disputes through conciliation, arbitration or adjudication. However, industrial relations climate were far from satisfactory when trade unions resorted to militancy in the 1960s and early 1970s. Between 1972 and 1981, the average number of work days lost per year per employee in the manufacturing sector stood at 4.070. This figure went up to 5.736 between 1982 and 1992—a very high figure compared to other countries in the contemporary period.
- Multiplicity of trade unions hampers dispute resolution.
- Inter-union rivalry and political rivalries are considered to be the major impediments to have a sound industrial relation system in India.
- Indian labour laws are highly protective of labour, and labour markets are relatively inflexible. As usual, these laws are applicable in the organised sector only.
- India’s labour laws for the workers in the organised sector give workers permanent employment, of course, after a probation period ranging from 6 months to 2 years.
- Job security in India is so rigid that workers of large private sector employing over 100 workers cannot be fired without government’s permission.
- Lack of enough skilled workers is a common concern raised by the employers in defence of their inability to hire more.
- They resort to contract employment
- They adopt hire and fire policy.
- Low female labour force participation
- 71% of men above 15 years are a part of the workforce as compared to just 22 percent women (Labour Force Survey)
Low labour Productivity:
- Promotions are based on seniority and thus workers get fixed annual wage increments unrelated to work performance.
- The labour market policies followed in India in the past have led to serious problems due to low labour productivity even in the context of an economy where the firms were shielded from both international competition (by the very high import tariffs) and domestic competition (by the licensing policies).
This, in turn, created an inefficient and internationally uncompetitive industrial sector which eventually led to lower wages (for example, Indian wages in the manufacturing sector are only seventh the Singaporean wages), fewer jobs, and higher unemployment.
Labour market regulations operating since 1947 have tended to discourage both the growth of employment and productivity. Further, it has pushed many activities into the unorganised sector. This is evident from the fact that annual growth rate of employment in the unorganised sector was much higher (2.73 p.c.) than the organised sector (1.58 p.c.) during 1981-91.
Agenda for labour Reforms;
- Consolidation and simplification of numerous States’ and Centre labour laws
- Streamlining of Minimum Wages in the country and ensuring they reach the beneficiaries.
- Introduction of fixed term employment, to curb tendency for employing (socially insecure) contract labour.
Steps Taken by Government;
- Four Labour Codes aims at simplification, amalgamation and rationalisation of Central Labour Laws
- Child labour (prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016 provides complete ban on employment of children below 14 years of age.
- Maternity Benefit Amendment Act, 2017 has increased paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks
The 2nd National Commission of labour had recommended simplification, amalgamation and rationalisation of Central Labour Laws. The central government is compressing of 44 central labour laws into four ‘codes’ or broad categories — wages, social security, industrial relations and occupational health and safety.
Labour Codes on wages Bill, 2019
- It arises in the absence of statutory National Minimum Wage for different regions, which impedes the economic prospect.
- It seeks to consolidate laws relating to wages by replacing- Payment of Wages Act, 1936; Minimum Wages Act, 1948; Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 and Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
- The Code will apply to any industry, trade, business, manufacturing or occupation including government establishments.
- Wages include salary, allowance, or any other component expressed in monetary terms. This will not include bonus payable to employees or any travelling allowance, among others.
- It differentiates the central and State Jurisdiction in determining the wage related decision for establishment such as Railways Mines and oil fields.
- A concept of statutory National Minimum Wage for different geographical areas has been introduced. It will ensure that no State Government fixes the minimum wage below the National Minimum Wages for that particular area as notified by the Central Government.
- The definition of worker is not clear in the Wage Code Bill.
- The calculation of the level of minimum wage by an expert committee is at variance with ILO parameters.
- A ‘national minimum wage’ is a good idea, but its computation is cause for concern. Instead of a single national minimum wage, the bill proposes multiple minimum wage structure at different geographical zones.
- The economic survey 2018-19 had also mentioned that a national mandatory minimum wage is a requirement.
- The calculation of the level of minimum wage by an expert committee is at variance with ILO parameters.
Labour Code on Industrial relations, 2019
- It aims to create greater labour market flexibility and discipline in labour – to improve upon ease of doing business and also to encourage entrepreneurs to engage in labour-intensive sectors.
- It would replace three laws i.e. Trade Unions Act, 1926; Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 and the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.
- Key Features
- It seeks to allow companies to hire workers on fixed-term contract of any duration.
- The code has retained the threshold on the worker count at 100 for prior government approval before retrenchment, but it has a provision for changing ‘such number of employees’ through notification. This provision has been criticized sharply by the labour groups and trade unions as any notification may change it later.
- It also provides setting up of a two-member tribunal (in place of one member) wherein important cases will be adjudicated jointly and the rest by a single member, resulting speedier disposal of cases.
- It has vested powers with the government officers for adjudication of disputes involving penalty as fines.
- Introduces a feature of ‘recognition of negotiating union’ under which a trade union will be recognized as sole ‘negotiating union’ if it has the support of 75% or more of the workers on the rolls of an establishment.
- As several trade unions are active in companies, it will be tough for any one group to manage 75% support, hence taking away their negotiating rights. In such a case, a negotiating council will be constituted for negotiation.
- Underlines that fixed-term employees will get all statutory benefits on a par with the regular employees who are doing work of the same or similar nature.
- Under the code, termination of service of a worker on completion of tenure in a fixed-term employment will not be considered as retrenchment.
- Proposes setting up of a “re-skilling fund” for training of retrenched employees. The retrenched employee would be paid 15 days’ wages from the fund within 45 days of retrenchment.
- While this means workers can be hired seasonally for six months or a year it also means that all workers will be treated at par with regular workers for benefits.
- The Industrial Relations Code of 2019 has evoked strong reactions, as the right to form unions and accord them powers of representation has been severely curtailed.
- It provided that a minimum of 10% of workers or 100 workers employed in an establishment or industry would be needed – from seven at present – to register a trade union.