India 2021 UPSC CSE (IAS), State PSC and other exams: The Republic of India is the seventh-largest country by area and the second-most populous country in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.
India has a diverse geology: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges river, deserts in west, and the Himalayas in the north. The government is a federal republic; the chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. India has a market economy in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. India is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
Man has been living in India roughly from 5, 00,000 BC. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.
India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, spanning a period of more than 4000 years, and witnessing the fusion of several customs and traditions, which are reflective of the rich culture and heritage of the Country.
The history of the nation gives a glimpse into the magnanimity of its evolution – from a Country reeling under colonialism, to one of the leading economies in the global scenario within a span of fifty years. More than anything, the nationalistic favor of the people is the contributing force behind the culmination of such a development. This transformation of the nation instills a sense of national pride in the heart of every Indian within the Country and abroad, and this section is a modest attempt at keeping its flame alive.