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Rajasthan Current Affairs Yearbook-2019-updated

Ancient, Medieval and Modern History of Rajasthan

Geography of Rajasthan

Art, Culture and Heritage of Rajasthan

Polity and Administration of Rajasthan

Economy of Rajasthan

Language & Literature

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts. –

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

 Rajasthani Literature

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

RAJASTHANI LITERATURE

  • Rajasthan has an important place in the country’s history and cultural splendor.
  • The residents of Rajasthan have contributed a lot to the rise of Indian culture, art and literature for centuries.
  • The artists here have done the work of preserving the cultural heritage of the country through their artistic compositions.
  • The literature in Rajasthani language holds a special place in the entire Indian literature.

The ancient literature of Rajasthan is an indicator of the dignity, maturity and vibrantness of this language and its vastness.

Rajasthani literature divided into five parts:

  1. Jain literature
  2. Charan literature
  3. Brahmin literature
  4. Saint literature
  5. Folk literature

Jain literature

  • Jain literature also known as Jain Sahitya.
  • It was composed by  Jain Acharya, Munis, Yates and Shravakas.
  • This literature is stored in abundance in lumbs of different ancient temples.
  • This literature is a religious literature which is available in both prose and verse.

Charan literature

  • This literature produced by the singers of various castes of Rajasthan like Charan and Bhat is called Charan Sahitya.
  • The Charan literature is mainly composed in verse.
  • There are a lot of heroic rituals in Charan Sahitya.

Brahmin literature

  • Brahmin literature is available in small quantities in Rajasthani literature.
  • Kanharde Prabandh, Hammirayan, Bisaldev Raso, Ranmal Chhand are the texts belonging to Brahmin Literature.

Saint literature

  • During the Bhakti movement in the medieval History period, in the calm and mild climate of Rajasthan, there have been born many saints and sages on this land.
  • These saints have composed the prolific literature for the welfare of God and for the welfare of people, in the public language.

Social literature

  • There is immense fame of the literature of Rajasthani literature in the folk style prevailing in the general public.
  • This literature is present in the form of folk tales, folk tunes, myths, proverbs, riddles and folk songs etc.

Features of Rajasthani literature

  • Rajasthani literature has been composed in specific linguistic styles of prose-verse such as khyaat, vaat, veli, Vachanika, dawavait.
  • In Rajasthan literature, wonderful coordination of heroic literature is found.
  • The poets have been rich with the pen as well as with sword.

So they have done wonderful co-ordination of these two contradictory literary writings.

Nurturing life ideals and life values ​​In Rajasthani literature, adequate importance has been given to life values ​​and ideals such as divine love, self-respect, self-determination, protection of the protection, protection of women, protecting the virtues of women, duties towards the motherland etc.

Age of Rajasthan literature and major works

  • Veeragatha period or Adikal from 8th century to early 15th century
  • Middle Ages from the late half of the fifteenth century till the first half of the 19th century
  • Modern period (from the late 19th century to the present time)

Ancient period or Veeragatha period

  • The early period of Rajasthani literature is called as veergathakaal by various writers such as Acharya Ramchandra Shukla.

According to Ramchandra Shukla, the literature composed in this period is Veer Ras (bravery) dominant. Some of the compositions of this period are heroic and some contain love poetry too.

  • In the earliest compositions of early times, there is a ‘Quvalayamala’ composed by a Jain Muni Udhyotan Suri, in which the Rajasthani language is introduced as Maru bhasha.

The brief description of important literature and literary works of this period is as follows:

Neminath Baramasah

  • This book is written by Jain poet Palhana.
  • It describes the 22th Tirthankar Neminath of Jainism.
  • Neminath barahamasa is the first barahamasa of the Gurjar language.

Prithviraj Raso

  • It describes the life, character and wars of Prithviraj Chauhan-III, the last Chauhan emperor of Ajmer.
  • This poem is epic of Veer Ras by Chandrabhardai written in Pingal. Chandrabhardai was a friend and court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Bisaldev Raso

  • This book, written by Naranpati Nalh, describes the love story of the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Bisaldev (Vigraharaj IV) and his queen Rajmati.

Ranmal Chand

  • This is a heroic verse containing 70 verses. This contains the description of the battle of Subedar Muzaffar Shah of Patan with Rathore Raja Ranmal of Eder.
  • It was composed by Sridhar Vyas.
  • Durga Saptashati is another composition.
  • He was contemporary of Vyas Raja Rampal.

Prithviraj Vijay

  • The sequence of Jayanak in Sanskrit poetic language describes the lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan and his achievements.
  • It contains authentic information about Ajmer’s development and its surroundings.

Vijaypal Raso

  • In this heroic rhetoric of Nall Singh, in Pingal language, the description of victories in war founght by Yaduvanshi King Vijaypal of Vijaygarh (Karauli) is found.
  • Nall singh, the Yaduvanshi king of Vijaygarh was a dependent poet of Vijaypal.

Dhola Maru ra dua

  • It is Rajasthan’s best-known poetry written by poet Kallol.
  • The text of the Dingle language, of shringaar ras, is a description of Dhola and Marwani.

Hammir Mahakavya

  • In this volume of Sanskrit language, Jain Muni Nainchandra Surry has described the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore.

Brahsfut Siddhanta

  • It was composed by Brahmagupta.
  • He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore) to Jishnu.
  • He was an intelligent scholar of astronomy and numerology.

Shishupal Vadh

  • This epic was composed by Mahakavi Maagh. He was born in Bhinmal (Jalore).

History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:

  • Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Hindi Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be divided into following periods:-

  • Early Period (1100-1450)
  •  Medieval Period (1450-1850)
  • Modern Period (1850-)

Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan

The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (Jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.

Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th, Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D

  • Sidhha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
  • Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
  • Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan III wrote Prithvi Raaj Vijay.
  • Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.

The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature

 Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.

 This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:

  • Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
  • Bharateshwar Bahubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
  • Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
  • Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
  • Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
  • Gyan Manjari by Vijhana

    Non- Jaina works

  • Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
  • Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
  •  Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
  • Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan

The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature

The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.

 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani.

  • The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.

    1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.

    1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan

    1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah

    17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat

    17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas

  • Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.

The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature

This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.

    The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th

In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.

  • Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kavya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
  • Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
  • Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
  • Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai.
  • Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
  • Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.

 Hindi Literature of Rajasthan

The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.

Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, and Keshri Sibh Barhat.

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