National Parks of Rajasthan
|S. No.||Name of National Park||Year of Notification||Total Area (Sq.Km)|
|1||Mukundra Hills (Darrah)||2006||200.54|
|2||Desert National Park||1992||3162|
|3||Keoladeo Ghana National Park||1981||28.73|
|4||Ranthambhore National Park||1980||282|
|5||Sariska National Park||1982||273.8|
Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park
Mukundra Hills National Park is also known as Darrah wildlife Sanctuary. Darrah wildlife Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan. The sanctuary is located to the southeastern border of the town Kota.
Darrah was declared a (Protected area) wildlife sanctuary in 1955andvisitors now require seeking permission from the local forest ranger to visit the park. The total area of the sanctuary is about 250 sq. km.
In past, Darrah sanctuary was the royal hunting ground of the Maharaja of Kota. This place is located at a distance of about 50 km from Kota. It is located on the eastern bank of Chambal River and is drained by its tributaries.
The Darrah wildlife sanctuary was declared as a National park (Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park) in 2004. Total area of the National park is about 200 sq. km. Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park is a combination of three wildlife sanctuaries namely Darrah wildlife sanctuary, Chambal wildlife sanctuary and Jaswant Sagar wildlife sanctuary.
The park got the nod from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in 2013 and the state (Rajasthan) bagged its third tiger reserve in the form of the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve.
The name Darrah is taken as the ‘Pass’ in the local language revealing the purpose that the region served earlier. The Marathas, Rajput’s and the British utilized the opportune position of the forest to seek asylum during war.
The park is situated between two parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gagrola which run across a length of about 80 km (from Murlipura to Rawatbhata). The four rivers which form the boundary of this valley are Ramzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.
The densely wooded Darrah Sanctuary is spread all over the hilly terrain. The forest of the sanctuary is very thick and dense.
Ranthambore National Park
Ranthambore is a beautiful place, located in the Sawai Madhopur district of the state of Rajasthan. Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest national parks in northern India.
Ranthambore was (Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955) declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1957andcame under the “Project Tiger “as a Tiger reserves in 1973-74. The total area of the sanctuary is about 400 sq. km.
The Ranthambore tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1981. Total area of the National park is about 282 sq. km.
Ranthambore was a hunting reserve of the Maharajas of Jaipur, the park at Ranthambore was once the scene of royal hunting parties in the past.
Ranthambore National Park is famous for its tigers and is one of the best places in the country to see these majestic tigers.
- Ranthambore National Park is set between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges. Located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill range.
- It spreads over a highly undulating topography varying from the gentle to the steep slopes; from flat topped hills of the Vindhayas to the conical hillocks and the sharp ridges of the Aravallis.
- An important geological feature the ‘Great Boundary Fault’ where the Vindhayas plateaus meet the Aravalli hill ranges.
The Rivers Chambal in the South and the Banas in the North bound the National Park. Pure stands of the Dhok interspersed with open grasslands of the plateaus, six large lakes – Gilai Sagar, Mansarovar, Malik talao, Raj Bagh and Padam Talao with in the National Park.
The rugged park terrain alternates between dry deciduous forest, open grassy meadow, dotted by several lakes and rivers that are only made passable by rough roads built and maintained by the Forest Service.
There are many water bodies located all over the park, which provide perfect relief during the extremely hot summer months for the forest inhabitants.
A huge fort, after which the park is named, towers over the park atop a hill. There are many ruins of bygone eras scattered all over the jungle, which give it a unique, wonderful and mixed flavour of nature, history and wildlife.
Tigers at Ranthambore National park have been known to even hunt in full view of human visitors. These tigers are famous for being seen in the daytime too, due to their lack of fear of human presence in vehicles. This lack of fear of humans is excellent for tourists, as they get to see the tigers often.
Desert National Park
Desert National Park is a beautiful place located in the Jaisalmer district of the state of Rajasthan. Desert National Park is one of the largest national parks in India. The Desert National Park is also a protected sanctuary.
The Desert protected sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1980. Total area of the National park is about 3162 km2. The desert is a harsh place to sustain life and thus most of the fauna and flora live on the edge.
The great Indian Bustard is a magnificent bird and can be seen in considerably good numbers in this park. It migrates locally in different seasons. The region is a heaven for migratory and resident birds of the desert.
- Desert National park harbours a wide array of flora and fauna species.
- It is only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Camel) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
- It also has fossil evidences dating back to the Jurassic Period indicating hot and humid climate characterized by dense forests. 180 million years old fossils of animals and plants are preserved at Wood Fossil Park at Akal, situated 17 km away from Jaisalmer.
- The Desert National Park is a unique and fragile ecosystem. More than 60 per cent of it is simply semi-arid desert.
- The seemingly barren lands gradually dissolve at the horizon touching Pakistan.
- But the warm sands of the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer form a fertile micro broth hiding an astounding variety of animals and birds.
- Desert National Park is an excellent example of the desert ecosystem.
- The landform primarily comprises rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
- The topography of Desert National Park supports sandy, gravelly, rocky and compact salt lake bottoms. Sandy areas dominate the western parts of Jaisalmer district, while gravelly and rocky areas are scattered throughout central, southern and eastern areas.
- The Desert National Park is barren with several sand dunes and a few hills in the north-western region. The Park forms a vast sandy and undulating terrain.
Birds – Great Indian Bustard, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, Bee-Eaters, Shrikes, Larks, Demoiselle Crane, Macqueen’s Bustard, Sand grouse, Long-Legged, Honey Buzzards, chats, babblers, kites etc.
Mammals – Camel, Desert Fox, Bengal Fox, Chinkara, Wolf, Desert Cat, Blackbuck, Hedgehog, Nilgai
Reptiles – Russell’s viper, Saw Scaled Viper, Monitor Lizard, Spiny tailed lizard, Saw scaled viper, Common Krait, Spiny Tailed Lizard, Gecko, Persian Gecko etc.
Keoladeo Ghana National Park
Ramsar site Oct-1981
World Heritage Site-1985
Keoladeo Ghana National Park is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is located in the Bharatpur district of the state of Rajasthan.
Keoladeo Ghana National Park famous for housing of birds and was created around 250 years ago. The name Keoladeo has been derived from a nearby ancient Hindu temple, devoted to Lord Shiva (Maharaja Suraj Mal).
- Keoladeo Ghana National Park also famous migrant species of birds, including the Common, Demoiselle and the rare Siberian Cranes.
- Keoladeo was declared a Bird Sanctuary in 1971. The Keoladeo bird sanctuary was declared as a National park in 1981.
- Total area of the National park is about 28.7 sq. km.
- Keoladeo Ghana National Park was announced as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
- Keoladeo was designated a World Heritage Site under the world Heritage Convention in 1985 by UNESCO.
- It is a Reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union.
- The park was a hunting ground for the maharaja of Bharatpur, who turned his personal hunting domain into a bird sanctuary in 1956.
- Maharaja of Bharatpur setting up the sanctuary, building a dam and an artificial lake to store the rains that would fall in torrents during the monsoons.
- Duck shoots were organized yearly in honor of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, about 4,250 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972.
- Grazing of village cattle was banned in this area in 1982, which led to clashes between government and local farmers.
Sariska National Park
(1979) Sariska Tiger Reserve
- Sariska is a beautiful place, located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
- The area of Sariska, being a part of the Aravalli Range.
- Sariska was declared a wildlife Reserve in 1955.
- The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979.
- The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 sq. km.
- The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982. Total area of the National park is about 273.8 sq. km.
- The landscape of Sariska comprises of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.
- The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
- The area of Sariska is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
- Supreme Court of India ban on mining in the area of Sariska National park, in 1991.
- Sariska is the first tiger reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers.
Sariska was a hunting reserve for royal families in past. Its plentiful tiger population supported by large herds of Sambhar and Nilgai was the ideal place for the royals of the state as well as their visiting guests to go on shikaars. The broad range of wildlife here is a wonderful example of ecological adoption and tolerance, for the climate here is variable as well as erratic.
It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.
This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.
Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.
Geography of Rajasthan
2. Broad Physical Features
- Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges
- Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan
- Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain
- River system of Rajasthan
(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal: Chambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland Rivers: Inland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River
(1) Salt Water Lakes: Sambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan
3. Major Physiographic regions
(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar Tract, Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract
4. Natural Vegetation and Climate
Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity: Arid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic Region, Cwg Climatic Region, Rainfall Distribution, IMD forecast method, Water Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan
5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation
National Livestock Mission (NLM), Dairy (Milch) breeds, Draught breeds, Dual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow, Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan
6. Agriculture – Major Crops
Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel
Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber
7. Mineral resources
(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation
(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals
8. Energy Resources
Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
9. Population and Tribes
Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:
11. Practice MCQ