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Mahatma Gandhi: Biography and GK Questions PDF download

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Mahatma Gandhi Biography (1869–1948)

Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Until Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, his life and teachings inspired activists including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

Who Was Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi (October 2, 1869 to January 30, 1948) was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule and in South Africa who advocated for the civil rights of Indians. Born in Porbandar, India, Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948. Mahatma Gandhi leading the Salt March in protest against the government monopoly on salt production.

Early Life and Education

Indian nationalist leader Gandhi (born Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, which was then part of the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karmachand Gandhi, served as a chief minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putli bai, was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept with the lights on even as a teenager. In the ensuing years, the teenager rebelled by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household servants.

Although Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father hoped he would also become a government minister and steered him to enter the legal profession. In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The young Indian struggled with the transition to Western culture.

Upon returning to India in 1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just weeks earlier. He struggled to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom case, a nervous Gandhi blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees.

Gandhi’s Religion and Beliefs

Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous ancient Indian religion that espoused non-violence, fasting, meditation and vegetarianism.

During Gandhi’s first stay in London, from 1888 to 1891, he became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of sacred texts to learn more about world religions.

Living in South Africa, Gandhi continued to study world religions. “The religious spirit within me became a living force,” he wrote of his time there. He immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity, austerity, fasting and celibacy that was free of material goods.

Gandhi in South Africa

After struggling to find work as a lawyer in India, Gandhi obtained a one-year contract to perform legal services in South Africa. In April 1893, he sailed for Durban in the South African state of Natal.

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly appalled by the discrimination and racial segregation faced by Indian immigrants at the hands of white British and Boer authorities. Upon his first appearance in a Durban courtroom, Gandhi was asked to remove his turban. He refused and left the court instead. The Natal Advertiser mocked him in print as “an unwelcome visitor.”

Nonviolent Civil Disobedience

A seminal moment occurred on June 7, 1893, during a train trip to Pretoria, South Africa, when a white man objected to Gandhi’s presence in the first-class railway compartment, although he had a ticket. Refusing to move to the back of the train, Gandhi was forcibly removed and thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg.

Gandhi’s act of civil disobedience awoke in him a determination to devote himself to fighting the “deep disease of color prejudice.” He vowed that night to “try, if possible, to root out the disease and suffer hardships in the process.”

From that night forward, the small, unassuming man would grow into a giant force for civil rights. Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight discrimination.

Gandhi prepared to return to India at the end of his year-long contract until he learned, at his farewell party, of a bill before the Natal Legislative Assembly that would deprive Indians of the right to vote. Fellow immigrants convinced Gandhi to stay and lead the fight against the legislation. Although Gandhi could not prevent the law’s passage, he drew international attention to the injustice.

After a brief trip to India in late 1896 and early 1897, Gandhi returned to South Africa with his wife and children. Gandhi ran a thriving legal practice, and at the outbreak of the Boer War, he raised an all-Indian ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers to support the British cause, arguing that if Indians expected to have full rights of citizenship in the British Empire, they also needed to shoulder their responsibilities.

Satyagraha

In 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he called “Satyagraha” (“truth and firmness”), in reaction to the South African Transvaal government’s new restrictions on the rights of Indians, including the refusal to recognize Hindu marriages.

After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in 1913, including Gandhi. Under pressure, the South African government accepted a compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts that included recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of a poll tax for Indians. 

Return to India 

When Gandhi sailed from South Africa in 1914 to return home, Smuts wrote, “The saint has left our shores, I sincerely hope forever.” At the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi spent several months in London.

In 1915 Gandhi founded an ashram in Ahmedabad, India, that was open to all castes. Wearing a simple loincloth and shawl, Gandhi lived an austere life devoted to prayer, fasting and meditation. He became known as “Mahatma,” which means “great soul.”

Opposition to British Rule in India

In 1919, with India still under the firm control of the British, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison people suspected of sedition without trial. In response, Gandhi called for a Satyagraha campaign of peaceful protests and strikes. 

Violence broke out instead, which culminated on April 13, 1919, in the Massacre of Amritsar. Troops led by British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators and killed nearly 400 people.

No longer able to pledge allegiance to the British government, Gandhi returned the medals he earned for his military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians to serve in World War I.

Gandhi became a leading figure in the Indian home-rule movement. Calling for mass boycotts, he urged government officials to stop working for the Crown, students to stop attending government schools, soldiers to leave their posts and citizens to stop paying taxes and purchasing British goods.

Rather than buy British-manufactured clothes, he began to use a portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth. The spinning wheel soon became a symbol of Indian independence and self-reliance.

Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violence and non-cooperation to achieve home rule.

After British authorities arrested Gandhi in 1922, he pleaded guilty to three counts of sedition. Although sentenced to a six-year imprisonment, Gandhi was released in February 1924 after appendicitis surgery.

He discovered upon his release that relations between India’s Hindus and Muslims devolved during his time in jail. When violence between the two religious groups flared again, Gandhi began a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924 to urge unity. He remained away from active politics during much of the latter 1920s.

Gandhi and the Salt March

Gandhi returned to active politics in 1930 to protest Britain’s Salt Acts, which not only prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt—a dietary staple—but imposed a heavy tax that hit the countries poorest particularly hard. Gandhi planned a new Satyagraha campaign, The Salt March that entailed a 390-kilometer/240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where he would collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly.

“My ambition is no less than to convert the British people through non-violence and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India,” he wrote days before the march to the British viceroy, Lord Irwin.

Wearing a homespun white shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, Gandhi set out from his religious retreat in Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with a few dozen followers. By the time he arrived 24 days later in the coastal town of Dandi, the ranks of the marchers swelled, and Gandhi broke the law by making salt from evaporated seawater.

The Salt March sparked similar protests, and mass civil disobedience swept across India. Approximately 60,000 Indians were jailed for breaking the Salt Acts, including Gandhi, who was imprisoned in May 1930.

Still, the protests against the Salt Acts elevated Gandhi into a transcendent figure around the world. He was named Time magazine’s “Man of the Year” for 1930.

Gandhi was released from prison in January 1931, and two months later he made an agreement with Lord Irwin to end the Salt Satyagraha in exchange for concessions that included the release of thousands of political prisoners. The agreement, however, largely kept the Salt Acts intact. But it did give those who lived on the coasts the right to harvest salt from the sea.

Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule, Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference, however, proved fruitless.

Protesting “Untouchables” Segregation

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932 during a crackdown by India’s new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. He embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to segregate the “untouchables,” those on the lowest rung of India’s caste system, by allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the proposal.

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and leadership passed to his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting India’s rural areas.

India’s Independence from Great Britain

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, Gandhi launched the “Quit India” movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day Pune.

“I have not become the King’s First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation of the British Empire,” Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of the crackdown.

With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment in 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchill’s Conservatives in the British general election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent states—predominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus, however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward Muslims.

Gandhi’s Wife and Kids

At the age of 13, Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage. She in Gandhi’s arms in February 1944 at the age of 74

In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby.

In 1888, Gandhi’s wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was born in India 1893. Kasturba gave birth to two more sons while living in South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

On January 30, 1948, 78-year-old Gandhi was shot and killed by Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse, who was upset at Gandhi’s tolerance of Muslims.

Weakened from repeated hunger strikes, Gandhi clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living quarters in New Delhi’s Birla House to a late-afternoon prayer meeting. Godse knelt before the Mahatma before pulling out a semiautomatic pistol and shooting him three times at point-blank range. The violent act took the life of a pacifist who spent his life preaching nonviolence.

Godse and a co-conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949. Additional conspirators were sentenced to life in prison.

Legacy

Even after Gandhi’s assassination, his commitment to nonviolence and his belief in simple living — making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest — have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

Questions on Gandhiji mostly asked in competitive exams

Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, politician, social activist, and writer who became the leader of the nationalist movement against the British rule of India. He is also called Bapu and known as the Father of the Nation.

Q.1. Mohandas Karmachand Gandhi was born on

 (a) October 5, 1896    (b) October 3, 1840

 (c) October 2, 1869    (d) October 10, 1880

Q.2. At which place was Gandhiji born?

(a) Porbandar  (b) Rajkot

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Delhi

Q.3. what was Gandhiji’s age when he got married to Kasturba?

(a) 19 years      (b) 15 years

(c) 12 years      (d) 13 years

Q.4. Gandhiji confessed his guilt of stealing for the purpose of smoking in a letter, promising never to steal in future and asking for adequate punishment. To whom was this letter addressed?

 (a) Father        (b) Mother

(C) Elder Brother        (d) Friend

Q.5. About how old was Gandhiji when he reached London to become a barrister?

(a) 20 years      (b) 19 years

(c) 21 years      (d) 18 years

Q.6. to become a barrister in England, one had to join one of the Inns of Courts. After obtaining admission, Gandhiji joined the Inner Temple on

(a) October 5, 1870     (b) December 15, 1885

(c) November 6, 1888 (d) January 3, 1880

Q.7. Devadas was Gandhiji’s

(a) Only child  (b) Second child

(c) Eldest child            (d) youngest child

Q.8. Gandhiji, the votary of nonviolence was shot dead on January 30, 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi, shortly after 5 p.m. while going to the prayer meeting. Which was that fateful day of the week?

(a) Saturday    (b) Wednesday

(c) Friday        (d) Monday

Q.9. In which South African unit had most of the India emigrants taken up abode?

(a) Johannesburg         (b) Natal

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.10. While holding a first-class ticket Gandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to the van compartment. On his refusal to comply with the unjust order, a constable was called to push him out with bag and baggage. Identify the railway station where this incident took place.

(a) Natal          (b) Johannesburg

(c) Maritz burg            (d) Durban

Q.11. At which place was Gandhiji arrested for the first time by the British Government for sedition?

(a) Bombay     (b) Pune

(c) Calcutta     (d) Ahmedabad

Q.12. On which day of March 1930 Gandhiji started with a band of chosen volunteers on his famous Dandi March to break the law by manufacturing illegally, but openly, salt from the sea?

(a) Tenth          (b) Thirteenth

(c) Eleventh     (d) Twelfth

Q.13. When was the Gandhi – Irwin Pact signed?

(a) March 1, 1932        (b) March 5, 1931

(c) March 10, 1935      (d) March 7, 1937

Q.14. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected President of the Congress in 1938 with Gandhiji’s goodwill. He wanted a second term, but Gandhiji did not approve of it. Despite the disapproval, Bose fought the election and won it, defeating the official candidate by over 200 votes. Gandhiji took it as a personal defeat. Identify the candidate.

(a) Lala Lajpat rai        (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(C) Pattabhi Sitaramayya        (d) Sarojini Naidu

Q.15. On being arrested for his “Quit India” programme, where was Gandhiji detained?

(A) Yeravada Jail        (b) Byculla Prison

(C) Aga Khan Palace Jail        (d) Ahmedabad Prison

Q.16. Lord Mountbatten arrived in India on 22nd March 1947 as the new Viceroy in the place of Lord Wavell to finalise the process of the transfer of power. His first act was to invite Gandhiji to meet him in that connection. When did Gandhiji meet him for the first time?

 (a) March 29, 1947     (b) March 30, 1947

 (c) March 31, 1947     (d) March 23, 1947

Q.17. The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. Who was its author?

 (A) Ruskin Bond       (b) John Ruskin

 (C) Leo Tolstoy          (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 18. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

 (a) Infinite capacity for suffering      (b) Non-violence

 (c) Truth         (d) All the three

Q. 19. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati.

 (a) Magan lal Gandhi (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Pyarelal ji  (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q. 20. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

 (a) Light of India       (b) Hind Swaraj

 (c) My Experiments with Truth         (d) Both (b) & (c)

Q. 21. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government-run Gandhi museum.

 (a) 1960          (b) 1965

 (c) 1971          (d) 1976

Q. 22. Identify the leader who lass met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

 (A) Vallabhbhai Patel            (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vinoba Bhave

Q. 23. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti-untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

 (a) Bombay    (b) Ahmedabad

 (c) Poona        (d) Nasik

Q. 24. When on August 15, 1947 the transfer of power took place, the Congress President issued a message to the nation and saluted Mahatma Gandhi as “the maker of freedom achieved in a unique way.” He said “never before was so great an event consummated with such little bloodshed and violence.” Who was the Congress President?

 (a) J B Kripalani         (b) Vallabhbhai Patel

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Motilal Nehru

Q. 25. What did Gandhiji mean by ‘Swaraj’?

 (a) Freedom for the country   (b) Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

 (c) Self-Government  (d) complete independence

Q. 26. When did Gandhiji take the vow of brahmacharya or celibacy of life?

 (a) 1911          (b) 1906

 (c) 1900          (d) 1905

Q. 27. When did Gandhiji get his head shaved, discard his clothes and settle for a loin cloth?

 (a) 1930          (b) 1921

 (c) 1925          (d) 1930

Q. 28. Who worked as a Private Secretary to Mahatma Gandhi?

 (a) Pyarelal ji  (b) Mahadev Desai

 (c) Kishori lal Mashruwala     (d) Sushila Nayyar

Q.29. Who in South Africa gave Gandhiji ‘Unto This Last’ to read which proved to be one of the most decisive books of his life?

 (A) John Holmes Haynes       (b) H S Polak

 (C) Hermann Kallenbach       (d) Louis Fischer

Q. 30. To put the ideas of ‘Unto This Last’ into practice, Gandhiji founded the Phoenix Settlement near Durban which came into being in the middle of the year ________________.

 (a) 1903          (b) 1904

 (c) 1905          (d) 1906

Q.31. Who described Gandhi’s march to Dandi in the following words? “Like the historic march of Ramchandra to Lanka, the march of Gandhi will be memorable”.

 (a) Motilal Nehru       (b) Sarojini Naidu

 (C) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Vallabhbhai Patel

Q. 32. The historic August session of the All-India Congress Committee, at which the Quit India Resolution was passed, was held at Gowalia Park in __________________.

 (a) Bombay    (b) Calcutta

 (c) Ahmedabad          (d) Amritsar

Q. 33. Gandhiji accorded very high priority to communal harmony in his programme of actions. At which place did he undertake his last fast for it on January 13, 1948?

 (a) Nasik         (b) Delhi

 (c) Calcutta    (d) Bombay

Q. 34. After the attainment of political independence in 1947, Gandhiji felt that the Congress, as a propaganda vehicle and a parliamentary machine, had outlived its usefulness. So to keep the Congress away from unhealthy competition with political parties and communal bodies, Gandhiji towards the end of January 1948 sketched a draft constitution for the Congress to transform itself into ______________.

 (A) Lok Samiti           (b) Lok Kalyan Sangh

 (C) Lok Sevak Sangh (d) People’s Forum

Q. 35. Which of the following did Gandhiji describes as his two lungs?

 (a) Ahimsa and peace (b) Ahimsa and truth

 (c) Truth and Peace    (d) Brahmacharya and Aparigraha

Q. 36. The differences with Gandhiji led Subhas Chandra Bose to resign the Presidentship of the India National Congress in 1939. Leaving the Congress he formed a new party called __________________.

 (a) Indian National Party       (b) Forward Bloc

 (c) Freedom Party      (d) Freedom Bloc

Q. 37. Identify the Viceroy who wrote home these words after his first meeting with Gandhiji:”Mr Gandhi’s religious and moral views are, I believe, admirable, but I confess that I find it difficult to understand the practice of them in politics.”

 (a) Lord Wavell          (b) Lord Irwin

 (C) Lord Reading      (d) Lord Mountbatten

Q. 38. What was the profession of Gandhiji’s father?

 (a) Farmer       (b) Diwan

 (c) Shop-keeper          (d) Tehsildar

Q. 39. How many children did Putli bai have?

 (a) Two sons and daughters   (b) One daughter and three sons

 (c) Four sons  (d) three sons

Q. 40. What was the name of Gandhi’s domestic help?

 (a) Titli ai        (b) Rambha ai

 (c) Ranabai     (d) Guardia

Q. 41. What was the name of Gandhiji’s sister?

 (a) Gauri         (b) Ralia

 (c) Rambha     (d) Meera

Q. 42. Who inspired Gandhi with ‘ Ram Nam’ in his childhood?

 (a) Kasturba   (b) Putli bai

 (C) Rambha Dai         (d) Lakshmi Das

Q. 43. What was Gandhiji’s nickname in childhood?

 (a) Monu        (b) Manu or Moniya

 (c) Sonu          (d) Mahu

Q. 44. Which spelling did Gandhiji spell wrong as a child when the school inspector gave dictation to the class?

 (a) School       (b) Kettle

 (c) Uniform    (d) Umbrella

Q. 45. Where did Gandhiji receive his primary education?

 (a) Sudamapuri           (b) Bikaner

 (c) Porbandar (d) Rajkot

Q. 46. Which mythological character impressed Gandhiji for life when he saw a play on his life?

 (a) Harishchandra       (b) Ashoka

 (c) Vikramaditya        (d) Krishna

Q. 47. Who asked Gandhiji to eat meat in order to become strong?

 (a) Sheikh Mehtab      (b) Karsan Das

 (c) Lakshmi Das         (d) Uka

Q. 48. How old was Gandhiji when his father died?

 (a) 15 years     (b) 17 years

 (c) 16 years     (d) 18 years

Q. 49. In which year did Gandhiji pass his matriculation in England?

 (a) 1889          (b) 1890

 (c) 1891          (d) 1892

Q. 50. What were the vows taken up by Gandhiji before he left for England?

 (a) Not to take alcohol           (b) Not to eat meat

 (c) Not to eye other women   (d) All the above

Q. 51. Which institution did Gandhiji join as a member during his stay in England?

 (a) Vegetarian Society           (b) Cricket Club

 (c) Church of England           (d) Film Institution

Q. 52. Which book influenced Gandhiji greatly, which he read in England?

 (a) Be Vegetarian       (b) Vegetables are good for health

 (c) Plea for Vegetarianism     (d) Use of Vegetables

Answer Key:

1. (c) 1869                  

2. (a) Porbandar                                 

3. (d) 13 years

4. (a) Father    

5. (b) 19 years            

6. (c) November 6, 1888

7. (d) Youngest Child

8. (c) Friday   

9. (b) Natal

10. (c) Maritz burg     

11.(d) Ahmedabad     

12. (d) Twelfth

13. (b) March5, 1931 

14. (c) Pattabhi Sitaramayya  

15. (c) Agakhan Palace Jail

16. (c) March 31, 1947           

17. (b) John Ruskin    

18. (d) All three

19. (b) Mahadev Desai           

20. (d) both (b) & (c) 

21. (c) 1971

22. (a) Vallabhbhai Patel        

23. (c) Poona  

24. (a) J B Kripalani

25. (b) freedom for the meanest of the countrymen  

26. (b) 1906    

27. (b) 1921

28. (b) Mahadev Desai           

29. (b) H S L Polak    

30. (b) 1904

31. (a) Motilal Nehru 

32. (a) Bombay          

33. (b) Delhi

34.(c) Lok Sevak Sangh         

35. (b) Ahimsa and Truth       

36. (b) Forward Bloc

37. (c) Lord Reading 

38. (b) Diwan 

39. (b) One daughter and three sons

40. (b) Rambha dai    

41. (b) Raliat  

42. (c) Rambha Dai

43. (b) Manu or Moniya         

44. (b) Kettle  

45. (d) Rajkot

46. (a) Harishchandra 

47. (a) Sheikh Mehtab

48. (c) 16years

49. (b) 1890    

50. (d) All the above  

51. (a) Vegetarian Society

52. (c) Plea for Vegetarianism               

Part – II                 

1. Who is the author of ‘Unto This Last’?

A. John Ruskin

B. Ruskin Bond

C. Hermann Kallenbach

D. Louis Fischer

Ans:  A

2. Which of the following, according to Gandhiji, is an essential principle of Satyagraha?

A. Infinite capacity for suffering

B. Non violence

C. Truth

D. All the three

Ans: D

3. Gandhiji’s “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” was originally written in Gujarati. Who translated it into English?

A. Magan lal Gandhi

B. Mahadev Desai

C. Pyarelal ji

D. Sushila Nayyar

Ans: B

4. Which one of the following books is the work of Gandhiji?

A. Light of India

B. Hind Swaraj

C. My Experiments with Truth

D. Both B & C

Ans: D

5. Identify the year in which Birla House, New Delhi, where Gandhiji very often used to stay and where he was shot dead, was turned into a government – run Gandhi museum.

A. 1960

B. 1965

C. 1971

D. 1976

Ans: C

6. Identify the leader who last met Gandhiji for about an hour and left him just few minutes before he was shot dead on January 30, 1948 while on his way to the prayer meeting.

A. Vallabhbhai Patel

B. Sarojini Naidu

C. Jawaharlal Nehru

D. Vinoba Bhave

Ans: A

7. In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti – untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933 from

A. Bombay

B. Ahmedabad

C. Poona

D. Nasik

Ans: C

8. Book ‘The Satyagraha’ was originally written in?

A. English

B. Hindi

C. Gujarati

D. Bengali

Ans: C

9. As per Gandhiji, what is the mean of “Swaraj”?

A. Freedom for the country

B. Freedom for the meanest of the countrymen

C. Self Government

D. Complete Independence

Ans: B

10. When had Gandhiji gone to London?

A. 1894

B. 1893

C. 1899

D. 1891

Ans:  D

11. Who said “Live as if you were to die tomorrow? Learn as if you were to live forever.”

A.  Mahatma Gandhi

B.  Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

C.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

D.  Sarojini Naidu

Ans: A

12. When is the International Day of Non-Violence celebrated?

A. 14th August

B. 16th May

C. 8th October

D. 2nd October

Ans: D

13. The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October, the birthday of ____________________.

A.  Jawaharlal Nehru

B.  Mahatma Gandhi

C.  Sarojini Naidu

D.  Lal Bahadur Shastri

Ans: B

14. What was the title given by MK Gandhi to his Gujarati translation of “Unto This Last”?

A.  Manavta

B.  Sadbhavna

C.  Sarvodaya

D.  Ahimsa

Ans: C

15. MK Gandhi was born in which place?

A.  Porbandar

B.  Madhya Pradesh

C.  Karnataka

D.  Andhra Pradesh

Ans: A

16. Which of the following slogans is associated with the name of Gandhiji?

A.  Do or Die

B.  Tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe Azaadi dunga

C.  Swaraj is my birth-right

D.  Jai Hind

Ans: A

17. How many days did Mahatma Gandhi and his volunteers took to cover 24 mile journey from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi?

A. 24

B. 20

C. 21

D. 17

Ans: A

18. Where is Sabarmati Ashram?

A.  Rajkot

B.  Ahmedabad

C.  Pathankot

D.  Baroda

Ans: B

19.  Which book did Mohandas Gandhi write?

A.  India – The National

B.  The Story of My Experiments with Truth

C.  Two States

D.  The Good Earth

Ans: B

20. Which of the following was the first movement of Mahatma Gandhi in India?

A. Champaran Satyagraha

B. Bardoli Satyagraha

C. Dandi March

D. Kheda Satyagraha

Ans: A

Source: mkgandhi.org

Best wishes!!

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