RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-1

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Revision Part-I

Which are the Products obtained from forests of Rajasthan?

  1. Gums and Regins
  2. Tan and Dyes
  3. Oil seeds and Oil yielding plants
  4. Essential oil bearing plants
  5. Species providing fibres and flosses
  6. Edible product species.
  7. Fuel, charcoal etc.

Write down on Instrumented Earthquakes in Rajasthan

1. 15 August 1906 – Thar Desert, Rajasthan, Mw 6.2

2. This event was located along the India-Pakistan border, in the vicinity of Janpalia, Rajasthan which is located north-northwest of Bakhasar.

3. 31 October 1940 – Thar Desert, Rajasthan and Mw 5.6 this event was located to the north-west of Ramgarh and to the north-west of Jaisalmer.

4. 08 November 1991 – Bersi-Tejrawa (Jaisalmer) area, Rajasthan, Mw 5.4 Few houses collapsed in Konoi village and 90% of the structures in the village developed cracks. A 500-metre long fissure was observed in the same village. It was felt over an area of 130 square kilometres, including at Jaisalmer, Barmer and Kishengarh.

5. 11 May 1998 – Pokhran Nuclear Test, Rajasthan, Mw 5.2

This the first nuclear test conducted by India after 1974. Three devices were detonated simultaneously. They consisted of a 45 kiloton thermonuclear device, a 15 kiloton fission device and a sub kiloton device. Interestingly this test was initially reported as an earthquake on the India-Pakistan border by the prototype International Data Centre (PIDC) which verifies the compliance of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

What is the catchment area of a river?

A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent or an area of land where all surface water from rain, melting snow or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin where the waters join another body of water, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea or ocean.

Write Notes about the Seismic Faults in Rajasthan.

  1. Several faults have been identified in Rajasthan, out of which many show evidence of movement during the Holocene epoch.  
  2. The Cambay Graben terminates in the south-western part of the state.
  3. The Konoi Fault near Jaisalmer trends in a north-south direction and was associated with the 1991 Jaisalmer earthquake.
  4. Several active faults criss-cross the Aravalli range and lie parallel to each other.
  5. The most prominent of them is the north-south trending Sardar Shahar Fault and the Great Boundary Fault which runs along the Chambal River and then continues in the same direction into Uttar Pradesh.

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What do you know about ‘Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan’?


  • Mangarh Dham (MANGARH HILL) is known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan
  • In a barbaric tribal massacre that was executed on November 17, 1913, nearly a century ago, 500 odd tribal martyrs were killed by British Rulers, in Santrampur taluka of tribal dominated Panchmahal district.
  • Govind Guru and Mangarh massacre have become part of the memory of Bhils. Despite this, it was buried in remote areas of Banswara-Panchmahal, situated on the border of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and this historic tragedy could not have been more than a footnote in the history of India’s freedom fight.
  • He awakened the Bhil community and filled them with a sense of patriotism. The Bhils were so inspired that they sacrificed their lives for freedom. Later, 1500 Gurubhakt Bhils sacrificed their lives while fighting against the British army. It is therefore also known as Jallianwala Bagh of Rajasthan.

Enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to implement financial inclusion in the country?

Answer: – Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion simply means to ensure that everyone gets the benefit of the financial services of the nation at an affordable cost in spite of whatever background he belongs. It especially focuses on including Underprivileged and vulnerable group of the society into the economy and providing them with its benefit and thus further causing growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country through increase of customer base of the financial institutes which will further results in high profits for future and this cycle will keep going with increasing profits.

It enhances GDP growth by broadening the resource base of the financial system by developing a culture of savings among large segment of rural population bringing low-income groups within the perimeter of formal banking sector thus plays its own role in the process of economic development

India and Financial Inclusion

As far as India is concerned it has a long history of putting efforts to have financial inclusion and to some extent, it has been successful as compared to starting stages of building up of Indian economy after independence but there are still many milestones yet to be achieved in this process. And efforts of current government have enhanced financial inclusion in the society to many folds but we still are in the process figuring out to use this in favoring our economy and make everyone in the reach of its benefit and for this, there are various government schemes available.

Steps and Schemes followed by India for Financial Inclusion

  • Swabhiman Campaign
  • Business correspondent Model

Under this model financial Institutes appoint commission agents who provide financial Services at the doorstep of the public at remote areas where they are unable to open branches which result in large customer base at low cost. Therefore this model is also known as the cost-efficient model.

Various steps taken in area of banking for financial inclusion are:-

RBI’s Compulsory Requirement of Opening Branches in Un-banked Villages, banks is directed to allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches to be opened during the year in un-banked (Tier 5 and Tier 6) rural centers.

No Frill account- The central bank had introduced ‘no-frills’ accounts in 2005 to provide basic banking facilities to poor and promote financial inclusion. The accounts could be maintained without or with very low minimum balance. These were later converted into BSBDA

BSBDA- RBI advised all banks to open Basic Saving Bank Deposit (BSBD) accounts with minimum common facilities such as no minimum balance, deposit, and withdrawal of cash at bank branch and ATMs, receipt/ credit of money through electronic payment channels, facility of providing ATM card

JAN DHAN Account- These are similar to BSBDA but with little more features as earlier bank were reluctant to open BSBDA account. Banks also do not provide good service to BSBDA account holder. They even denied service like the debit card. But after JHAN DHAN Yojna this scenario has been completely changed

JHAN DHAN account holder is compulsorily issued RUPAY debit card and many more services. It certainly increased the financial inclusion and made bank account opening a cake walk

Account age should be at least 6 months

Account holder should visit ATM branches at least once in 90 days

Income should be up to 1 lakh per year in rural areas and up to 1.5 lakh year for urban areas

For Loans-

In order to control public to borrow from Schedule banks to lend fix amount in priority sector at affordable rate of interest along with certain government schemes such as – Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc.

For Insurance Sector

Insurance sector also plays a major role in financial inclusion of a country and thus government has various schemes in this sector among which few most recent schemes are-

Pradhanmantri Fasal Bima Yojna: This is a general insurance for crops and this scheme started from Feb 2016 by NDA government and replaced the earlier scheme of UPA government named “National Agricultural Insurance” with few more advantages such as low premium on crop insurance, use of technology for weather forecasting (like smartphones, drones, remote sensing satellites), Future generation of claim and post-harvest benefits e.t.c

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojna : It is a life insurance scheme from age of 18-50 years (benefit until 55 years) at a premium of Rs 330+(18%gst). It covers till 2 lakh Rs and is under LIC India on behalf of the government of India. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima yojna – started on Jan 2015 for accidental insurance and covers up to Rs 2lakh in case of death and Rs 1 lakh in case of physical disability at a premium of (Rs 12+GST) for the age group of 18 to 70 years and is under HDFC life on behalf of government of India

Recent steps still in progress

On Recommendation of Nachiket More committee there are various measures are going on among which one is opening of two special kinds of banks in India which are

Payment banks– These banks will only accept deposit from public and will not lend loans, these payment banks will provide payment services and deposit products to its target customers which will be small businesses and low-income households. Till date 11 licenses have been granted out of which four banks are functional which are – Paytm, Airtel, Indian postal payment bank, Phinopayment?

Small finance banks– Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.

Where is Kaila Devi temple located in Rajasthan?

Answer: Kaila Devi Temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Kaila Devi Village of Karauli district, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The temple is located on the banks of the Kalisil River, a tributary of the Banas River in the hills of Aravali.

Differentiate between Acute and Chronic diseases, with the help of some examples.

Answer: Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long-developing syndrome, such as osteoporosis or asthma. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma.

Examples of acute diseases include appendicitis, acute leukemia, and strep throat. Some acute diseases do not require hospitalization or medical treatments, such as influenza, whereas others, such as pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction, may require medical attention and extended treatment.

Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Many people with these illnesses become depressed. In fact, depression is one of the most common complications of chronic illness.

Why the Need of new Inland Container Depots in Rajasthan?

Currently, exporters from Udaipur use the inland ports available in Ahmedabad for exporting while the industry in Bhiwadi routes its goods through an inland depot at Khatuwas in Haryana. The proposed Bhiwadi depot would help Industries located in Bhiwadi and nearby areas and Sirohi depot will help in moving the consignments from Udaipur. This would majorly help the marble industry while agriculture, handicraft and textiles Industries located in Udaipur region would also be benefitted.

These ports are also required as 2015, initiative of Rajasthan Government of building an artificial inland seaport at Jalore has been recently declared infeasible by Water and Power Consultancy Services (WAPCOS). The government had proposed to build a canal between Mori creek and Jalore or using existing Cheras and rivers, like Luni, but, when WAPCOS evaluated the internal rate of return (IRR) for the project, it came out as negative. Additionally, reservations were raised by the defense authorities and there were also concern of disturbing ecological sensitivity of the area. Subsequently, the state government’s water resource department has also now raised the red flag and declared the project unviable.

Analyse the Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Rajasthan.

The natural resources, policy incentives, strategic location and infrastructure in the state are favourably suited for investments in sectors such as cement, tourism, agriculture and allied industries, mineral and mineral processing industries.

The state has an agricultural economy with nine agro-climatic zones and various types of soil that help during the cultivation of crops. Food grain production in Rajasthan is estimated to have reached 22.58 million tonnes in 2017-18.

Between 2011-12 and 2017-18, Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) expanded at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.60 per cent (in rupee terms) to US$ 130.37 billion whereas the Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) expanded at a CAGR of 11.45 per cent (in rupee terms) to US$ 117.53 billion.

The state is the leading producer of cement grade limestone in India. Production of limestone during 2017-18 reached 67.03 million tonnes, accounting for 22.05 per cent of India’s total limestone production.

Bureau of Investment Promotion (BIP) is a nodal agency of the Government of Rajasthan that facilitates investments in various sectors in the state. Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation (RIICO) is the sole agency in the state that develops land for industrial growth.

In August 2018, the state government inaugurated Bhamashah Techno Hub, India’s biggest incubation centre, in Jaipur. The state-of-the-art facility is spread over 100,000 sq ft and is expected to house over 700 start-ups. Start-ups operating from the centre will receive various facilities including mentoring, funding, logistics and office space.

Key sector performance stood as follows:

  • Total merchandise exports from Rajasthan were US$ 6.95 billion in FY2018. Merchandise exports during FY2019 reached US$ 5.20 billion.
  • Production of cereals was estimated at 1.91 million tonnes, while that of pulses at 3.53 million tonnes during the 2017-18.
  • Cotton production in the state is estimated at 1.73 million bales in 2017-18.
  • In 2017(Provisional), 45.92 million domestic tourists and 1.61 million foreign tourists visited Rajasthan.
  • Value of all minerals produced during 2017-18 in the state stood at Rs 110.19 billion (US$ 1,527.25 million).

 Sukanya Samriddhi Yojna (SSY)

Narendra Modi launched the Sukanya Samridhi scheme, under the ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ campaign on 22nd January 2015. The aim of this scheme is to meet the education and marriage expenses of a girl child.

What are the features?

– It permits opening of one account per girl child. A family can have a maximum two accounts, if there are 2 girl children.

However, a third account can also be opened, provided the first or second delivery results in twins or triplets

– Minimum Rs. 1,000 and maximum of Rs. 1.5 lakh can be deposited during one financial year

– Deposits in the account can be made until the completion of 14 years, from the date of opening of the account.

– The account can be closed only when the girl turns 21. If the account is not closed and the money is not withdrawn even after turning 21, interest can still be earned on the amount.

What are the Main renewable energy sources?

  • Renewable energy
  • Biofuel.
  • Biomass.
  • Biogas.       
  • Geothermal.
  • Hydropower.
  • Solar energy.
  • Tidal power.
  • Wave power.

What is inclusive and exclusive growth?

Inclusive growth simply means the growth or progress of a country such that each and every citizen benefits from the growth. Exclusive growth on the other hand leaves a sizeable lot of population deprived of the fruits of growth. Inclusiveness refers to equality of opportunity in terms of access to markets, resources.

Write short notes on Crop Specific Growth in Rajasthan?

 The major crops grown in different parts of Rajasthan are bajra, wheat,

Jowar, maize, cotton, rapeseed and mustard, groundnut and horticultural crops

As per the cropping pattern in the state, the crop groups such as total cereals, oilseeds, pulses and fodder crops account for about 42 per cent, 21 per cent,18 per cent and 15 per cent of GCA respectively during the year 2010-11.

Among the cereals, bajra (50.5%), wheat (27.9%), maize (10.5%) and jowar (6.7%) are the major crops; while rapeseed and mustard (45.4%), taramira (21.7%), soyabean (14.0%), Sesamum (10.0%) and groundnut (6.3%) are the major oilseeds grown in the state. Among total pulses, gram, moth and moong are the major crops, accounts for about 37.5 per cent, 33.5 per cent and 22.1 per cent respectively during 2010-11. It is evident from that the share of total cereals has declined drastically by

10 percent points (from 52 per cent in 1990-91 to 42.0 per cent in 2010-11); while the share of oilseeds has increased by 6 percent points (from 15 per cent in 1990-91 to 21 per cent in 2010- 11). Thus, it can be assumed that there is shift in area from cereals to oilseeds.

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Critically analyse that Rajasthan is now at a crossroads and faces serious challenges to sustaining rapid and inclusive growth.

 In recent years, growth has slowed down and the crucial tourism sector has lost market share. A worsening water crisis is making traditional agricultural practices increasingly unsustainable, while growing fiscal pressures due partly to deficiencies in the electricity sector are narrowing the fiscal space available to implement comprehensive policy actions. At the same time, a dearth of high-quality jobs and stagnant social indicators, especially for women, make it imperative to devise ways to improve the sustainability and inclusiveness of growth. If these challenges are not addressed, Rajasthan’s progress might be reversed: conditions in rural areas may become more difficult at a time when the environment in urban areas is not yet conducive to rapid growth and job creation in the manufacturing and services sectors. As a result, growing unemployment compounded by persistent geographical and social disparities could threaten the improvements in the state’s welfare.

What is the effect of inflation on the economy?

When prices rise for energy, food, commodities, and other goods and services, the entire economy is affected. Rising prices, known as inflation, impact the cost of living, the cost of doing business, borrowing money, mortgages, corporate and government bond yields, and every other facet of the economy.

What is the difference between absolute and relative pay?

Relative income measures your income in relation to other members of society, weighing it against the current standards of the day. Absolute income, on the other hand, does not take into consideration those other factors, but simply reflects the total amount of earnings you’ve received in a given period.

What is social and economic development?

Socio-economic development is the process of social and economic development in a society. Socio-economic development is measured with indicators, such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy and levels of employment.

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY):

This scheme was introduced in 2008. Its main motto is to provide health insurance coverage to people belonging to the BPL (Below Poverty Line) category.

It provides health insurance coverage to unorganised sectors, such as construction, that are registered under Welfare Boards, Street Vendors, Licensed Porters (railway, MNREGA workers, mine workers, auto or taxi drivers etc.

Covers up to Rs. 30,000 on a floater basis for family consisting of 5 members.

Provides cover for transportation charges of Rs. 100 per visit to the hospital with the maximum limit of Rs. 1,000.

The premium is just Rs. 30 per annum, and BPL families can get an RSBY smart card, which allows holders to claim medical care expenses of up to Rs. 30,000 per annum.

Rajasthan’s growth performance and its record on poverty reduction distinguish it from India’s other low-income states (LIS). Why?

Rajasthan has had an impressive growth performance over the past two decades and Compares Rajasthan’s per capita GDP growth with those of all-India and the average of other low-incomes states, including Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Over the last two decades, Rajasthan’s average annual per capita growth rate was 4.9 percent, about 1.2 percentage points above the growth performance of the LIS.3 However, the all-India average per capita annual growth rate surpassed Rajasthan’s by 0.3 percentage points.

While the state has made progress in improving water management through micro- and drip-irrigation and promotion of less water- guzzling crops, water resources are increasingly stressed as consecutive droughts have put growing pressure on groundwater. Subsidies have not only distorted the structure of the economy, but also limited fiscal space, hence constraining capital and social expenditure that are vital to promote growth.

What are the three indicators of HDI?

HDI Dimensions and Indicators

Health – Life expectancy at birth.

Education – expected years schooling for school-age children and average years of schooling in the adult population.

Income – measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (PPP US$)

Udyam Abhilasha

It is a National Level Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign launched by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) on the occasion of Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

· The campaign has been launched in 115 Aspirational Districts identified by NITI Aayog in 28 States.

About the Campaign:

The campaign would create and strengthen cadre of more than 800 trainers to provide entrepreneurship training to the aspiring youths across these districts thus encouraging them to enter the admired segment of entrepreneurs.

SIDBI has partnered with CSC e-Governance Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle, (CSC SPV) set up by the Ministry of Electronics & IT, Govt. of India for implementing the campaign through their CSCs.

Payment Regulatory Board (PRB)

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has opposed the Centre’s proposal to set up an independent Payment Regulatory Board (PRB) which will oversee all payment systems in the country stating that the proposed body “must remain with the Reserve Bank” and headed by the RBI Governor.

Coming out strongly against the Inter-Ministerial Committee’s proposal to take PRB out of the RBI’s purview, the RBI said there has been no evidence of any inefficiency in payment systems of India.

What are the major factors of globalization?

Factors influencing Globalization are as follows: (1) Historical (2) Economy (3) Resources and Markets (4) Production Issues (5) Political (6) Industrial Organisation (7) Technologies. Globalisation though is basically an economic activity, is influenced by many factors.

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

Wheat and barley are cultivated in large areas, as are pulses, sugarcane, and oilseeds. Cotton and tobacco are cash crops. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and the second largest producer of oilseeds. Rajasthan is also the biggest wool-producing state in India.

RBI eases ECB hedging norms for companies. Explain

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has eased hedging norms for companies that raise funds through external commercial borrowings (ECB), a move that will lower the cost of hedging.

  • The mandatory hedge coverage has been reduced from 100% to 70% under Track I of the ECB framework.
  • Track I refers to medium-term foreign currency-denominated ECBs with a minimum average maturity of 3-5 years.
  • The move will help reduce costs for companies that raise foreign funds.
  • External commercial borrowings (ECBs) are loans in India made by non-resident lenders in foreign currency to Indian borrowers.
  • They are used widely in India to facilitate access to foreign money by Indian corporations and PSUs (public sector undertakings).

India Post Payments Bank (IPPB)

 India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) has been launched. It will focus on providing banking and financial services to people in rural areas.

The India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) is a public sector company under the department of posts and ministry of communication with 100 per cent equity of the government of India, and governed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

How has the Green Revolution affected India?

The Green Revolution in India refers to a period when Indian agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.

What are the challenges to the long-term sustainability of Rajasthan’s growth Performance?

Challenge 1: Sustainability of water resources

Perhaps the most important challenge to the long-term sustainability of Rajasthan’s growth performance is the impending water crisis. Water scarcity has always been a serious issue for Rajasthan, but the most recent data show that it is approaching critical dimensions. Rajasthan’s water reserves are depleted from drought and overuse, which threatens the viability of current agricultural practices as well as prospects for developing water-intensive manufacturing.

Challenge 2: Persistent intra-state disparities and weak social indicators

Rajasthan displays large disparities (i) between locations; (ii) between men and women; and (iii) between members of different socio-economic groups. Moreover, in contrast to income, performance in improving social indicators has been lagging behind the rest of India.

Challenge 3: Inadequate job growth

Challenge 4: Limited fiscal space

What are the basic objectives of Five year Plans?

The basic objectives of the successive Five Year Plans has been to achieve a significant step up in the rate of growth of the State’s economy, optimum utilisation of benefits from potential already created, and improving the living conditions of the people specially of the weaker sections. At the time of initiation of planning in 1951, the state was involved in problems of integration and so there was lack of basic statistical data required for planning the state.

Which industry is the major source of employment in Rajasthan?

In terms of employment, the business and economy of Rajasthan is predominantly pastoral and agricultural. Business and economy of Rajasthan include agriculture, industries, mining and tourism as well.

Describe the Special Area Development Programmes in Rajasthan.

The area development programmes lay focus on development of special region or area.

Mewat Area Development Programme

The area inhabited by Mev’s is known as Mewat area. The Mev community is concentrated in 12 blocks of Alwar and Bharatpur Districts. The Mev is still socially and economically backward and hence, Rajasthan Government is running a special development program since 1987-88 for overall development of Mewat area.

Border Area Development Programme (BADP)

The Border Area Development Programme (BADP) was introduced during the 7th Five Year Plan as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS). The BADP is a Central Government intervention strategy to bring about a balanced development of border areas.

The programme is being implemented in 16 Blocks of 4 Border Districts, namely Barmer, Bikaner, Ganganagar and Jaisalmer. Under BADP, majority of the funds are invested for security related activities. However, since the border districts have poor social and economic infrastructure development activities are also provided due importance.

Dang Area Development Programme

Dang Area Development Programme has been re-launched in 2004-05 by Government of Rajasthan. The Programme covers 394 Gram Panchayats of 26 Panchayat Samities of 8 Districts (Sawai Madhopur, Karauli, Dholpur, Baran, Jhalawar, Bharatpur, Kota and Bundi).

Magra Area Development Programme

The central Southern part of Rajasthan surrounded by hills specially Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Chittorgarh and Rajsamand and not covered under Tribal Area Development (TAD) is locally known as “Magra”

To improve social and economic status of residents, the “Magra Area Development Programme” was initiated since 2005-06 in 14 Blocks of above 5 districts. At present it is being implemented in 16 blocks in above districts. Activities of Watershed Development, Minor Irrigation, Animal Husbandry, Drinking Water, Education, Electrification, Health and Road Construction are undertaken for development of the area.

Analyse the Rajasthan’s inclusive growth in relation to fiscal policy?

Enhance fiscal policy to spend more, better and sustainably:

Successful implementation of Rajasthan’s inclusive growth strategy will require spending better and spending more, while conducting fiscal policy in a sustainable manner. The delivery of high quality health, education and social protection services, as well as needed infrastructure, requires an improvement in the efficiency of expenditure an increased level of resources to finance larger spending in some areas and a stable fiscal policy stance to ensure spending programs receive predictable funding.

Spending better requires deepening ongoing public financial management reforms to improve resource allocation and service delivery. Notwithstanding substantial reforms in recent years, several public finance areas can be strengthened. Actual compliance with the Rajasthan State Public Procurement Portal Act and the internal control framework still remains a challenge due to lack of capacity and skills.

Audit institutions in the state need to be reoriented towards in-time and action-oriented reporting which will help enhance executive response and accountability. There is a need to enhance budget realism, make the budget more performance-oriented and enhance its medium-term focus, which contributes also to the objective of ensuring predictable funding to priority projects. The state already prepares a medium-term fiscal framework in the context of the annual FRBM exercise and this could become the basis for a

Medium Term Expenditure Framework

What explains Rajasthan’s strong record in poverty reduction?

1. Proximity of many districts in Rajasthan to the Delhi National Capital Region and the Delhi Mumbai economic corridor has contributed to growth and poverty reduction.

 The economically most active locations in Rajasthan tend to fall in the cluster around Delhi — a region characterized by greater economic opportunities and lower poverty rates. At the same time, the Southern districts of Rajasthan tend to be the least productive locations – these districts have a majority ST population and the highest percentage of poor. Hence, slower progress in poverty reduction observed for Scheduled Tribes in Rajasthan is in part a reflection of the state of progress of the districts where they live.

2. The importance and performance of the agriculture sector, as well as the relatively large shift of workers to the construction sector are possible explanations for the greater responsiveness of poverty reduction to growth.

3. Improvements in access to basic services in Rajasthan appear to have also had an important impact on poverty reduction and growth.

National Social Assistance scheme

Launched in 1995, this is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing financial assistance to the elderly, widows, and people with disabilities in the form of social pensions.

Who can avail?

– Anyone above 60 years and below the poverty line (BPL)

– BPL widows who fall in the age group of 40 to 64

– BPL people with more than 80% disability and are above 18 years

How many districts of Rajasthan are covered by Thar Desert?

Western Rajasthan, cover 12 district of Rajasthan viz. Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagaur, Pali and Sikar part of it comes under the great Indian Desert, also well known as the Thar Desert.

What is Gini coefficient and what is the definition?

The Gini index or Gini coefficient is a statistical measure of distribution developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912. It is often used as a gauge of economic inequality, measuring income distribution or, less commonly, wealth distribution among a population.

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)

  • The finance ministry has asked the banks to review all loans

Sanctioned under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY or

Mudra loan scheme), as the non-performing assets (NPA) have

Crossed Rs 11,000 crore within three years of the launch of the


  • Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY) scheme:

The PMMY Scheme was launched in April, 2015.

PMMY is a scheme to extend collateral free loans by Banks,

Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) and Micro

Finance Institutions (MFIs) to Small/Micro business enterprises and individuals in the non-agricultural sector to enable them to setup or expand their business activities and to generate self-employment.

  • Banks, NBFCs and MFIs can draw refinance under the MUDRA Scheme after becoming member-lending institutions of MUDRA.

What are the Components of Human Development?

The noted Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq considered four essential pillars of human development.

Describe the physical features of Aravali Range and Bhorat Plateau of Rajasthan.

This division constitutes east Sirohi, nearly the whole of Udaipur except a narrow belt in the east and whole of Dungarpur district.

The highest section of the Aravalli range known as ‘Bhorat’ Plateau lies northwest of Udaipur between Kumbhalgarh – Gogunda and the average elevation of this plateau is 1,225 metres.

How are the seasons formed?

  • Due to Earth’s axial tilt
  • Earth has 23.5 degrees axial tilt which causes seasons, the direction of the tilt never changes it always points in the same direction. In June the Northern Hemispheres is directly facing the sun which means that there is summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Six months later in December, the Northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun and its winter in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • In March both Northern and Southern Hemispheres sweep equal portions of sun and its spring in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Six months later in September, it’s autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

What are the deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan?

  • Ajmer: Lohagarh, Gujarwara
  • Udaipur: Acheiwas
  • Bhilwara: Titoli, Deora Guda, Nagaur

It is used as moderator in Nuclear Power Reactors and Green transparent variety of beryl is emerald which is a precious stone.

What is the difference between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park?

The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

What are dunes? Explain different type of dunes.

Dunes: In geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by Aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water.

   1. Longitudinal Dunes

  • These are mostly Run South West to North East
  • Parallel to the prevailing winds & mostly Sword-Shaped type.
  • Its Longer axis is parallel to the direction of wind

  2. Transverse Dunes

  • These types of Dunes are formed across the wind direction.
  • Commonly found in eastern & northern parts of Marusthali.
  • Windward side is long & gently sloping, while leeward side is steep and abrupt.
  • These are also called U-shaped dunes.

 3. Crescent Shaped Dunes

  • The Width of these types of dunes varies from 100 m to 200 m Height of dunes-10 m to 20 m.
  • The Dunes have a gently sloping convex windward side & steep leeward
  • These are found in isolation or occasionally side by side in lines.  

Describe Luni Basin area.

This area is locally known as Naid and is one of best alluvial plains and Flood occurs during the Rainy season in Luni River.

The Luni River originates from western slopes of Naga Hills of Aravalli Range near Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer. Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur districts are part of this basin and total Area is 34866 .4 Sq. Km.

Basin is drained by the Luni River & its tributaries Bandi, Saagi, etc. Covers the area from its source to Tilwara in Barmer where Sukari River meets it.  

Name a few schemes targeted for poverty alleviation in India

Answer: The poverty alleviation programmes in India can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as prevalence of poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations.

 The programmes can be mainly grouped into:

1) Wage employment programmes

2) Self-employment programmes

3) Food security programmes

4) Social security programmes

5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

The five year plans immediately after independence tried to focus on poverty alleviation through sectoral programmes.

1        Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)

2        National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)

3        National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

4        National Maternity Benefit Scheme

5        Annapurna

6        Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

7        Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

Identify and describe (in brief) different types of sheep in the state of Rajasthan

Answer: Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan

Jaisalmeri: Found in Jaisalmer.

Naali: Found in Hanumangarh, Churu and Bikaner & Jhunjhunu. …

Maalpuri: Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli & Sawai madhopur.

Magra: Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year.

Pugal: Originated from Pugal in Bikaner.

Chokla or Shekhawati

Sonari or Chanothar

Describe the salient features of demography of Rajasthan in the latest census

Answer: As per details from Census 2011, Rajasthan has population of 6.86 Crores, an increase from figure of 5.65 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Rajasthan as per 2011 census is 68,548,437 of which male and female are 35,550,997 and 32,997,440 respectively. In 2001, total population was 56,507,188 in which males were 29,420,011 while females were 27,087,177. The total population growth in this decade was 21.31 percent while in previous decade it was 28.33 percent. The population of Rajasthan forms 5.66 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 5.49 percent.

Recently as per Rajasthan census data, 93.22% houses are owned while 5.36% were rented. In all, 66.73% couples in Rajasthan lived in single family. In 2011, 68.02% of Uttar Pradesh population had access to Banking and Non-Banking Finance Corporation. Only 1.80% of Uttar Pradesh population had internet facility which is likely to improve in 2021 due to Jio. 4.66% of family in Uttar Pradesh owned car while 24.06% owned two wheeler. In few months we will also get details of election data for Rajasthan.

Describe the status and potential of non-conventional sources of energy in Rajasthan.

Answer: Rajasthan has become the leading state in tapping wind energy and solar energy for power generation in the country. According to the Government of Rajasthan, the estimated wind energy potential in the state is estimated to be about 5400 MW. A total of 3065.55 MW wind power capacity has been installed by December 2014.

Now, the emphasis has shifted to tapping more of solar Energy for power production and Rajasthan has signed MoUs with investors for setting up of a cumulative generation capacity of 32000 MW in the solar sector recently.

“Rajasthan shines on the solar map of India with 300-330 clear sunny days comparable to deserts of California, Nevada, Colorado and Arizona. Within the state the districts such as Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur are the key regions with best solar radiation. Rajasthan is endowed with two critical resources that are essential to solar power production: high level of solar radiation (6-7 kWh/ m2/ day) and large tracts of relatively flat, undeveloped land,” informs the website of resurgent Rajasthan.

Currently development of Solar-park at Jodhpur is in progress to create 2000 MW Solar Power Plant and Rajasthan has taken the lead ahead of all other states in this sector too. With regard to solar energy production, it is said that the world’s largest 4,000 MW solar project would be built in two phases in Sambhar block of Jaipur.

The first phase will be of 1000 MW and most likely will be commissioned by the end of 2016. Rajasthan is one of India’s most solar-developed states, it is said. As we know that solar energy is the most important non-conventional source of energy because it is non-polluting and helpful in lessening the greenhouse effect.

Rajasthan has decided for promoting generation of electricity from biomass also and is encouraging investments in the sector. The main source for biomass energy in the State of Rajasthan is mustard husk and Julie flora.

Why no precipitation in Kachchh and Western Rajasthan?

There is no mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents (which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.

The monsoon currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by stable anti-cyclonic air.

The hot and dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the ascent of air and absorb its moisture.

These conditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan where desert conditions prevail.

Some of the currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unite with the Bay of Bengal branch.

Although a few air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.

Enumerate salient features of India’s Nano Mission.

Answer: Nano Technology is a knowledge-intensive and “enabling technology” which is expected to influence a wide range of products and processes with far-reaching implications for national economy and development. The Government of India, in May 2007, has approved the launch of a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore for 5 years.

The Department of Science and Technology is the nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this upcoming area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field. For this, research on fundamental aspects of Nano Science and training of large number of manpower will receive prime attention. Equally importantly, the Nano Mission will strive for development of products and processes for national development, especially in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water, materials development, sensors development, drug delivery, etc. For this, it will forge linkages between educational and research institutions and industry and promote Public Private Partnerships.

The Nano Mission has been structured in a fashion so as to achieve synergy between the national research efforts of various agencies in Nano Science and Technology and launch new programmes in a concerted fashion. International collaborative research efforts will also be made wherever required.

Describe the span of settlement of Bhil tribe in India?

Answer: Bhils or Bheels are primarily an ethnic group of people in West India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Places they inhabit:

Bhils are popularly known as the bow men of Rajasthan. They are the most widely distributed tribal groups in India. They form the largest tribe of the whole South Asia. Bhils are mainly divided into two main groups the central or pure bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils. The central Bhils are found in the mountain regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and Rajasthan. Bhils are also found in the north eastern parts of Tripura.

Bhils-tribe History:

Bhils belong to the race of the pre-Aryans. The name ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word villu or billu, which according to the Dravidian language is known as Bow. The name Bhil is also finds mentioned in the great epic called Mahabharata and Ramayana. The Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was wandering through the jungles of Dandaka, searching Sita. The popular legend represents them as being descended from Nishada, son of Mahadev by the human female. Nishad was brutal and ugly, who killed his father’s bull and as the consequence he was banished to mountains and forests. During the ancient era they were considered as the great warriors who fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers.

Language and Costumes:

Apart from other states, Bhils comprise 39% of Rajasthan’s total population. Speak Bhili, which is an Indo Aryan language. Bhil women wear traditional saris and the Bhil men wear loose long frock along with pyjama. The peasants wear turbans. Bhils also wear brass ornaments. Bhils are tall, well built with the handsome features. They are known for their truthfulness and simplicity. They love independence. They are brave and their National weapon is bow made of bamboo. Earlier they were the great haunters. They now practice agriculture as the source of livelihood.

Culture and Religion:

Religion practice among the Bhils differs from place to place. Most of them worship local deities like Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba, and Sitalmata. Some of the worship Tiger God called ‘vaghdev’. They have no temples of their own. They consult Badvas -the hereditary sorcerers on all the occasions. Bhils are highly superstitious tribal people. They have Bhagat or Gurus who perform the religious rites. They have village headsmen, who deal with their disputes. Bhils strictly follow rules and regulations. They marry only in their own classes. Their close relationships are tightly based on mutual love and respect. They have rich cultural history and give much importance to dance and music. Ghoomar is the most famous dance among the Bhils. Than Gair is the religious dance drama performed by the men in the month of Shravana (July and August). The Bhils are talented in the sculptured work. They make beautiful horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay.

Fair and Festivals:

The Beneshwar fair is the main festival celebrated among the Bhils. This fair is held during the period of Shivaratri (in the month of January or February) and is dedicated to Beneshwar Mahadev also known as Lord Shiva. On this occasion Bhils gather all together set up camps on the banks of the Som and Mahi River. They perform dance around the fire and sing traditional songs. At night they all of them enjoy Raslila at the Lakshmi Narayan temple. Cultural shows, magic shows, animal shows acrobatic feast are the main attraction of the fair. This fair is actually the combination of two fairs, which are held in reverence of Lord Shiva and the other one that commenced after the setting up of Vishnu temple by Jankunwari. Holy and Dusshera are the other major festivals celebrated among the Bhils in India.

Describe the phenomenon of Monsoon?

Answer: the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. This results in the southwest monsoon. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one.

A monsoon is a seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction that usually brings with it a different kind of weather. It almost always refers to the Asian monsoon, a large region extending from India to Southeast Asia where monsoon conditions prevail.

Write a short note on ‘Maharana Pratap Award’ in the field of sports?

Answer: Maharana Pratap Award:

This is the highest awards for sportsperson in the state of Rajasthan.

The Award includes:

  • Citation
  • Cash prize of INR 1, 00,000
  • Bronze Statute of Maharana Pratap
  • Blazer and Tie

Why most of the world’s tropical deserts located on the Western margins of continents?

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile to plant and animal life. In other words, it is extremely dry area of land with sparse vegetation.

The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation (the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes).

There are four types of desert found in the world: sub-tropical desert, Coastal deserts, Cold desert and Polar Desert. The fifth part of the Earth’s surface is desert. They are found in Asia, Australia, Africa, North America and South America. Sahara is the world’s largest tropical desert.

There are four major factors responsible for the location of the world’s tropical desert on the western margins of continents:

1. Offshore areas of trade wind and falling under the rain shadow area

2. Anti-cyclonic conditions

3. Formation of Rain-shadow Zone

4. Presence of cold ocean currents along the western coast of continents

What are the Ghaggar Plains?

Hanumangarh & Sriganganagar districts are part of this plain. There is no stream or river except Ghaggar Nali which flows through the ancient bed of Ghaggar River which is now extinct; this region is known as Ghaggar Plain. This plain is a sandy plain interspersed with sand-dunes &small sand-hills. A large part of it is dreary & full of sand dunes. Northern part of this region is fully canalled & thus is made productive. Sand ridge dunes are found on the bank of ancient rivers Height of sand ridge dunes-6 m to 30 m.

Describe the Eastern Plains of Rajasthan

The area on the northeast, east and southeast of the Aravalli range is known as the Eastern Plain and it covers 23% of total area of the Rajasthan.

The Vindhyan Plateau marks the southeastern limit of the Plain and the western boundary is demarcated by the eastern edge of the Aravalli up to north of Udaipur.

This Plain is further subdivided into two physiographic units-

(i) The Banas Basin

(ii) The Chappan Plain

(i) Banas Basin

The great watershed of India runs in an easterly direction starting From Udai Sagar, east of Udaipur. The watershed acts as the southern boundary of the Mewar Plains and south of this watershed is the Chappan Plain. The region is marked by various types of erosional features, produced in the granite and gneiss rocks mark the topography of the area. The soil is stony and the annual rainfall is about 73cm.

  • The Area- 187400 Km³ is an elevated plain drained by Banas & its tributaries and it is essentially Peneplains
  • It is a dissected in Mewar and flat in Malpura plain region.
  • Mewar plain gradually slopes towards the east & north east.
  • The Banas & its tributaries Berach, Menal, Bandi, Mansi, Kothari and Khori flow through this plain.
  • It is flat upland which recognized a ―Tertiary Peneplane.
  • It is composed of schist & guess.
  • From the foot of the Aravalli range the plain slopes gradually towards northeast.

(ii) The Chappan Plains

  • It is lying east of the Mewar hills & south of the Banas plain. District- Dungarpur
  • The central & eastern parts known as Chhappan
  • Average Elevation is approximate 200-400 m
  • This dissected plain along with hill tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur are locally known as Bagar.
  • This plain drained by the tributaries of the Mahi River lies south of the great Indian watershed in southeastern Udaipur, Banswara and the southern part of Chittorgarh district.

The Chappan area is deeply and intricately eroded resulting in the formation of separate hillocks, which is not identical to the Mewar plain in the north. This deeply dissected area is locally known as ‘Bagar’ and includes the hilly tracts of Banswara and Dungarpur.

What do you know about Southeastern Rajasthan Pathar or Hadoti Plateau, Comment?

The eastern part along the Chambal River is covered by the Hadoti Plateau. Four districts Kota, Baran, Bundi and Jhalawar is part of this plateau. The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border. River Chambal drains the large part of this area.

  • This region locally called Pathar and Uppermal
    • It comprises of the eastern & South-eastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti.
    • Bhilwara, Bundi, Kota, Baran and Jhalawar districts it contains about 9.6% of the area of whole Rajasthan
    • East of the plateau has a general slope toward Gwalior & catchment of Betwa river
    • The eastern, southern and south-west part bordered with Madhya pradesh.

The Plateau has been divided into two units

(a) Vindhyan Scrap Land

The scarp lands formed by massive sandstones separated by shale have an Average elevation between 350m to 580m. The scarps are facing towards the south-southeast between the Banas and the Chambal and extend towards the east over Bundelkhand. A scarp block occupies the areas of Dholpur and Karauli. The region presents an undulating topography strewn with blocks, depressions and boulders.

(b) Deccan Lava Plateau

The Deccan Lava Plateau is also known as Pathar or Uppermal plateau. It is a wide stony upland, including Kota-Bundi plateau section. The Chambal along with its tributaries Kali Sindh and Parbati form a triangular alluvial basin of 210m-275m at Kota and the Soil of this region is mostly black.

Best Wishes!!

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