RAS Mains Exam 2019 Practice Solved Questions-2

RPSC RAS/RTS Mains Exam Revision Part-2

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Describe the Southern Aravali Range and which the main hill ranges of it are?

The southern Aravali expansion of hill ranges: 100km width and the average height is 1000meter. Granite and Aravali quartzite also found in this range and 8-10 hill ranges are in parallel. This range Includes district of Banswara, Udaipur, Sirohi, Dungarpur & South-eastern margin of Pali districts.

Main Hill ranges of Southern Aravali are:

  • Girwa Hills
  • Mewar hills & Bhorat Plateau
  • Merwara Hills
  • Abu block & Oria plateau

The Climate Change Agenda task forces constituted for which sectors?

For the implementation of the Environment Policy, Rajasthan Environment Mission and Climate Change Agenda task forces have been constituted for different sectors, viz.,

1. Industry

2. Water

3. Forestry and bio-diversity

4. Urban governance and sustainable habitat

5. Enhanced energy efficiency including solar energy

6. Strategic knowledge for climate change

The climate of Rajasthan state has varied contrasts. Different experts, each with their own focus parameters, have divided Rajasthan into different climatic regions.

. What is a Collegium system in India?

Answer: Judges select Judges, The Supreme Court of India’s Collegium system, which appoints judges to the nation’s constitutional courts, has its genesis in, and continued basis resting on, three of its own judgments which are collectively known as the Three Judges Cases.

Collegium system is a process through which decisions related to appointments and transfer of judges in supreme court and high court is taken by a Collegium which consists of CJI, four senior most judges of supreme court and three members of concerned high court (in the matter related to high court) including chief Justice.

Mesabi Range

Answer: The Mesabi Iron Range is an elongate trend containing large deposits of iron ore, and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief iron ore mining district in the United States.

Green Bonds

Answer: A green bond is a bond specifically earmarked to be used for climate and environmental projects. These bonds are typically asset-linked and backed by the issuer’s balance sheet, and are also referred to as climate bonds.

The World Bank is a major issuer of green bonds. World Bank green bonds finance projects around the world, such as India’s Rampur Hydropower Project, which aims to provide low-carbon hydroelectric power to northern India’s electricity grid.

Which/What is plastic money?

Answer: Plastic money is a term that is used predominantly in reference to the hard plastic cards we use every day in place of actual bank notes. They can come in many different forms such as cash cards, credit cards, debit cards, pre-paid cash cards and store cards.

The Reserve Bank of India introduce plastic/polymer currency note of ₹10 on a field trial basis in five cities in India. RBI proposed to conduct field trials of Rs 10 polymer banknotes in five cities – Shimla, Kochi, Jaipur, Bhubaneswar and Mysore.

What monetary policy is used to fight inflation?

Answer: One popular method of controlling inflation is through a contractionary monetary policy. The goal of a contractionary policy is to reduce the money supply within an economy by decreasing bond prices and increasing interest rates.

Inflation is generally controlled by the Central Bank and/or the government. The main policy tools to control inflation include:

Monetary policy: – Setting interest rates. Higher interest rates reduce demand, leading to lower economic growth and lower inflation

Control of money supply: – Monetarists argue there is a close link between the money supply and inflation, therefore controlling money supply can control inflation.

Supply-side policies: – policies to increase competitiveness and efficiency of the economy, putting downward pressure on long-term costs.

Fiscal policy: – a higher rate of income tax could reduce spending and inflationary pressures.

Wage controls: Trying to control wages could, in theory, help to reduce inflationary pressures.

Write short notes on NABARD and its functions?

Answer: NABARD is a Development Bank with a mandate for providing and regulating credit and other facilities for the promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts and other allied economic activities in rural areas with a view to promoting.

  • It acts as an apex body for meeting the credit needs of all types of agricultural and rural development.
  • It provides refinancing facilities to State Co-operative Banks (SCBs), Land Development Bank (LDBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and other approved financial institutions for financing rural economic activities.

Llanos forest

Answer: Los Llanos (The Plains) is vast tropical grassland plain situated to the east of the Andes in Colombia and Venezuela, in northwestern South America.

Llanos, (Spanish: “Plains”) wide grasslands stretching across northern South America and occupying western Venezuela and northeastern Colombia. The Llanos have an area of approximately 220,000 square miles (570,000 square km), delimited by the Andes Mountains to the north and west, the Guaviare River and the Amazon River basin to the south, and the lower Orinoco River and the Guiana Highlands to the east.

Young India

Answer: Young India was a weekly paper or journal in English published by Mohandas Karam chand Gandhi from 1919 to 1931. Gandhi wrote various quotations in this journal that inspired many. The papers focused on India and the world’s social and economic problems.

Chenab Bridge

Answer: Chenab Bridge is a railway steel and concrete arch bridge under construction between Bakkal and Kauri in the Reasi district of Jammu and Kashmir in India. When finished, the bridge will span the Chenab River at a height of 359 m (1,178 ft) above the river, making it the world’s highest rail bridge.

In November 2017 the base supports were declared completed allowing for the start of the construction of the main arch.

The bridge is scheduled to open in 2019 though that seems highly optimistic.

Key technical data of the bridge include:

Deck height (height above river): 359 m (1,178 ft)

Bridge length: 1,315 m (4,314 ft), including the 650 m (2,130 ft) long viaduct on the northern side

Arch span: 467 m (1,532 ft)[7]

Arch length: 480 m (1,570 ft)[8]

This makes the Chenab Bridge:

  • The world’s highest railway bridge
  • The bridge with the widest span in the Indian broad gauge railway network

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Enumerate a few reasons that cause phenomenon of ‘Forgetting’ in humans

Answer: This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.

There are three ways in which you can forget information in the STM:

  1. Decay: This occurs when you do not ‘rehearse’ information, ie you don’t contemplate it.
  2. Displacement: Displacement is quite literally a form of forgetting when new memories replace old ones.
  3. Interference

Write down the list of Districts of Rajasthan touched the boundary with other States.

  • Punjab: – Ganganagar and HanumangarhHaryana: – Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Jaipur, Alwar and BharatpurUttar Pradesh: – Bharatpur and DhaulpurMadhya Pradesh: – Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Banswara, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh and Bhilwara.Gujrat: – Barmer, Jalore, Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur and Banswara

What causes temperature variation?

Many factors, both natural and human, can cause changes in earth’s energy balance, including:

  1. Variations in the sun’s energy reaching earth.
  2. Changes in the reflectivity of earth’s atmosphere and surface.
  3. Changes in the greenhouse effect, which affects the amount of heat retained by earth’s atmosphere.

Define the following terms:

  1. Distributary
  2. Downstream
  3. Drainage basin
  4. Fork
  5. Mainstream
  6. Runoff
  7. Watershed
  1. Distributary: stream that branches off from the main stem of a river or other flowing fluid.
  2. Downstream: in the direction of a flow, toward its end.
  3. Drainage basin: an entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.
  4. Fork: branch or tributary of a river, usually having the same name as the river itself.
  5. Mainstream: largest river or channel in a watershed or drainage basin.
  6. Runoff: overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.
  7. Watershed: entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.

What are the main industries and crops of Rajasthan?

The principal crops Barley, Wheat, Gram, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Bajra, Pulses, Jowar, Maize Ground Nuts, fruits and vegetables and spices. Next to the agricultural sector, the Industry of Rajasthan plays a major role in the economy. There are mainly two crop seasons.

What are the different models for Public Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure?

PPP is a mode of providing public infrastructure and services by Government in partnership with private sector. It is a long term arrangement between Government and private sector entity for provision of public utilities and services.

PPP mechanism is a major element of India’s infrastructure creation efforts as there is huge level of investment requirement in the sector. The twelfth plan targets to spend $1000 bn to expand infrastructure. Conventional form of finance – the budgetary allocation by the government is not enough to meet this big investment size. So the government at present is making several efforts to modify and energize the PPP (Public Private Partnership) mode of infrastructure generation. A committee chaired by Kelkar also made valuable recommendations to empower the PPP mechanism.

India’s experience with PPP in a serious manner started from 2006 onwards. PPP requires private sector participation in public asset creation through money, technology and management. For this, several models inviting their participation were launched for different projects. Some of the commonly adopted forms of PPPs include build-operate-transfer (BOT) and its variants, build-lease-transfer (BLT), design-build-operate-transfer (DBFOT), operate-maintain-transfer (OMT), etc.

These models operate on different conditions on the private sector regarding level of investment, ownership control, risk sharing, technical collaboration, duration of the project, financing mode, tax treatment, management of cash flows etc. Following are the main models of PPPs.

(a) Build Operate and Transfer (BOT): This is the simple and conventional PPP model where the private partner is responsible to design, build, operate (during the contracted period) and transfer back the facility to the public sector. Role of the private sector partner is to bring the finance for the project and take the responsibility to construct and maintain it. In return, the public sector will allow it to collect revenue from the users. The national highway projects contracted out by NHAI under PPP mode is a major example for the BOT model.

(b) Build-Own-Operate (BOO): This is a variant of the BOT and the difference is that the ownership of the newly built facility will rest with the private party here.

The public sector partner agrees to ‘purchase’ the goods and services produced by the project on mutually agreed terms and conditions.

(c) Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT): This is also on the lines of BOT. After the negotiated period of time, the infrastructure asset is transferred to the government or to the private operator. This approach has been used for the development of highways and ports.

(d) Build-Operate-Lease-Transfer (BOLT): In this approach, the government gives a concession to a private entity to build a facility (and possibly design it as well), own the facility, lease the facility to the public sector and then at the end of the lease period transfer the ownership of the facility to the government.

(e) Lease-Develop-Operate (LDO): Here, the government or the public sector entity retains ownership of the newly created infrastructure facility and receives payments in terms of a lease agreement with the private promoter. This approach is mostly followed in the development of airport facilities.

(f) Rehabilitate-Operate-Transfer (ROT): Under this approach, the governments/local bodies allow private promoters to rehabilitate and operate a facility during a concession period. After the concession period, the project is transferred back to governments/local bodies.

(g) DBFO (Design, Build, Finance and Operate): In this model, the private party assumes the entire responsibility for the design, construction, finance, and operate the project for the period of concession.

(h) The private party assumes the entire responsibility for the design, construct, finance, and operate or operate and maintain the project for the period of concession.

(i) Management contract: Here, the private promoter has the responsibility for a full range of investment, operation and maintenance functions. He has the authority to make daily management decisions under a profit-sharing or fixed-fee arrangement.

(j) Service contract: This approach is less focused than the management contract. In this approach, the private promoter performs a particular operational or maintenance function for a fee over a specified period of time.

Deendayal Upadhyay Aadarsh Gram Yojna

Around 77% of total population lives in 39753 villages. Besides many plans for village development, most of the villages lack basic facilities. Due to increasing population, the demand for hygiene, pure drinking water, electricity, roads, health facilities etc are increasing day by day. The rural population is migrating to urban places. By giving a thought on present criteria, its necessary to pay attention towards the development of the villages so that the people there can get financial and social basic facilities to improve their living standards. For the mentioned goal, govt. decided to start “DEENDAYAL UPADHYAYY GRAM YOJNA”

It is not possible to make all the facilities available all together in all villages. In the first phase the state Govt. in year 2006-07 decided to undertake 50 villages for this purpose. Similarly in the state on every 10 lacs one village will be selected. The villages with population of 3000 or more will be eligible to apply for DEENDAYAL ADARSH GRAM. The selection will be made with the support and participation of the rural people.

Which one of the following cattle product is main product of Rajasthan?

The State of Rajasthan has proud possession of 9 cattle breeds, 8 sheep breeds, 6 goat breeds, 4 camel breed and also endowed with thorough bred horses. The important breeds of cattle traded in the State are Rathi, Kankrej, Nagour, Tharparkar, Haryana, Malvi, Gir, Sanchori and Mehwati.

What is production possibility of an economy?

In the field of macroeconomics, the production possibility frontier (PPF) represents the point at which a country’s economy is most efficiently producing its goods and services and, therefore, allocating its resources in the best way possible.

What are the some main challenges before agriculture sector in Rajasthan?

  • To achieve a higher growth rate and stability in the face of recurrent droughts and rapidly declining water table.
  • To increase levels of investment, particularly private, in the agriculture sector for modernization, diversification and commercialization.
  • To achieve coordinated development of agriculture and livestock for maximizing benefits to farmers. Fodder availability and development of a dairy network hold the key to a vibrant livestock sector.
  • To modernize agriculture markets to ensure better realization for the producer and availability of produce to buyers and for stimulating diversification agriculture.
  • To encourage setting up of agro-processing and agri-businesses enterprises for value addition in agriculture produce and generating new employment opportunities.

In view of the geographical location and size of the State, dependence of its economy on agriculture is unlikely to reduce significantly in the near future and, therefore, stimulating the growth of the agriculture sector is not a choice but a necessity. The fact that most of the agriculture in Rajasthan is subsistence by nature is reflective of the potential that exists for value addition to agricultural output.

Agriculture being 28 % of the overall economic contribution in terms of value remains its backbone. The services industry has grown to 43 % and industry has grown to 29 % of the state GDP. The manufacturing capacity of the state has been increasing and it is moving towards attracting heavy industries. The economic growth of 7.0 – 7.5 % promises long term development.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)

PMJDY is a National Mission for Financial Inclusion, particularly to provide access to financial services such as savings and deposit accounts, remittance, credit, insurance, pension, etc. at affordable rates. The scheme was announced on the eve of Independence Day, in 2014 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

What has changed?

– 29.43 crore bank accounts opened so far

– Rs 65, 532.77 crore balance in these accounts

– 1.26 lakh Bank Mitras delivering branchless banking services in Sub-Services Areas and counting

– Nearly 25 crore Jan Dhan accounts in the country, of which nearly 5.8 crore are zero-balance accounts.

How can the paradox of value be resolved?

The paradox of value (also known as the diamond–water paradox) is the apparent contradiction that, although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than diamonds, diamonds command a higher price in the market.

What are the three types of benefits provided by Social Security?

Four basic categories of Social Security benefits are paid based upon the record of your earnings: retirement, disability, dependents, and survivors benefits. These benefits all fall under the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program (OASDI), which is the official name of Social Security.

Sister State/City Agreement

Answer: Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

Sister Cities International (SCI) is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between communities in the United States and those in other countries, particularly through the establishment of “sister cities”.

Discuss the role of inland waterways in India?

Answer: Any of the waters (as lakes, canals, rivers, watercourses, inlets, and bays) within the territory of a state as contrasted with the open seas or marginal waters bordering another state subject to various sovereign rights of the bordering state —usually used in plural.

The CIWTC is mainly engaged in transportation of goods by inland waterways in the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly, Sunderbans and Brahmaputra rivers. They are operating regular cargo services between Kolkata and Pandu (near Guwahati), between Kolkata and Karim ganj (Assam), Kolkata-Bangladesh and between Haldia and Patna.

Inland waters are permanent water bodies inland from the coastal zone and areas whose properties and use are dominated by the permanent, seasonal, or intermittent occurrence of flooded conditions. Inland waters include rivers, lakes, floodplains, reservoirs, wetlands, and inland saline systems.

Which factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan?

1.       Temperature

2.       Rainfall

3.       Thunder Storms

4.          Wind

5.       Humidity

6.       Dust Storms

Write short notes on e-waste management.

Answer: The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

  • Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
  • Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
  • Mercury, chromium, lead and Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.
  • Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005
  • In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.

What is the importance of regulating act? What are the features of the act?

Answer: It was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.

  • First time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration in India.
  • The Act designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
  • Governor of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
  • Act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India Company.
  • The Act told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.

What is Coriolis force?

Answer: It is a deflecting force experienced due to rotation of earth. Because of Coriolis the air appears to turn towards its right in the northern hemisphere and towards its left in the southern hemisphere. The coriolis always acts in the perpendicular direction of the motion of air. It is zero at the equator and increases towards the poles.

The following are four basic points to remember about the Coriolis Effect:

  • Regardless of the initial direction of motion, any freely moving object appears to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • The apparent deflection is strongest at the poles and decreases progressively toward the equator, where the deflection is zero.
  • The Coriolis effect is proportional to the speed of the object, and so a fast-moving object is deflected more than a slower one.
  • The Coriolis effect influences direction of movement only; it does not change the speed of an object.

What are the areas of concerns in centre and state relationship?


  • Appointment of governor.
  • Reservation of bill by governor for President Assent.
  • Allegation of use of central agency to serve political vendetta.
  • Appointment of civil servants and Management of All India services.
  • Control over finance.
  • Role of planning commission now NITI Aayog in approving state subjects.
  • Appointment of enquiry commissions against the chief minister.
  • Control over the state subjects.

India-China relation got a setback due to Doklam issue. What was this issue?

Answer: Doklam issue is an extension of border dispute. It is a border dispute between Bhutan and China. India being the party to the friendship treaty with Bhutan tried to stop China from infrastructure creation in the disputed area.

Doklam plateau is situated in SW Bhutan. It is among those three regions which are disputed between China and Bhutan.

They are:

1) Zaskar/lung

2) Pasam Lung

3) Doklam Plateau (259KM)

  • Sino-British treaty was signed in 1890. According to China this treaty gives Doklam to China, But India and Bhutan Rejected the Claims. China was constructing a road in this region which was opposed by India because:
  • India and Bhutan have a friendship treaty of 2007 which gives Bhutan Defence responsibility to India
  • In 2013, India and China signed Border defence and Corporation Agreement which maintains status quo in Border areas and China was amending the status quo.
  • This region is strategically important because “Chicken Neck Corridor” which connects NE states to mainland India is near Doklam. An attack can be launched on India through this region.

Write short notes on the following:

1) Westerlies

2) Horse latitudes

3) Doldrums

4) Jet streams

Above the subtropical highs in the Northern Hemisphere, and below the subtropical highs in the Southern Hemisphere, winds blow from the west towards the east. These winds are thus called westerly winds, after the direction from whence the winds come. The westerlies generally blow between 30 ° and 60 ° latitude in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The higher one travels into the atmosphere, the more noticeable these westerly winds are.

The sub-tropical high pressure belt of the oceans of North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans is known as horse latitudes. This is a belt of weak variable winds and frequent calms.

Doldrums: the quite zone at ITCZ is called the doldrums. The air appears to be stagnant in this belt. Earlier ships used to get stuck in this region because of the absence of the wind.

Jet streams are high speed winds that occur in narrow bands of upper air westerlies. The width of this air band can be 160-480km wide and 900-2150m thick, with core speed exceeding 300km/hr. such is their strength that aircraft routes which run counter to jet movements are generally avoided. Jets are coincident with major breaks in the tropopause.

What are the steps taken by Gandhi ji towards the upliftment of Harijans?

Answer: Determined to undo the divisive intentions of the Government’s divide and rule policy, Gandhi gave up all his other preoccupations and launched a whirlwind campaign against untouchability— first from jail and after his release in August 1933 from the outside. While in jail, he had set up the All India Anti Untouchability League in September 1932 and had started the weekly Harijan in January 1933.

  • He urged political workers to go to villages and work for social, economic, political and cultural upliftment of the Harijan.
  • He undertook two fasts— on May 8 and August 16, 1934—to convince his followers of the seriousness of his effort and the importance of the issue.
  • Throughout his Harijan tour, social work and fasts, Gandhi stressed on certain themes: He put forward a damning indictment of Hindu society for the kind of oppression practised on Harijans.

What is the amendment procedure in Indian Constitution?

Answer: Procedure for amendment is laid down in article 368 part XX of the Indian constitution.

Following is the procedure for the amendment of the constitution:

  • Amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill in either of the house.
  • State legislature cannot introduce a bill for CA.
  • The bill must be passed by special majority by separate house.
  • There is no provision of joint sitting in the case of deadlock between both the houses.
  • If the bill seeks to amend the federal provisions then it must also be ratified by the state legislatures of half of the state by simple majority.
  • After duly passed by both houses and ratified by state legislature, the bill is presented to the President for assent
  • The president must give his assent; he can neither withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
  • After President Assent the Bill becomes an act.

What is corporate governance? What are the importances of corporate governance?

Answer: Corporate governance is the system, principles and group of procedure through which company is governed. It is sum of those principles, ideal values and code which inspire an institution to behave morally and with transparency.

Importance of Corporate Governance:

  • It is helpful in the increment of transparency, accountability and relevance.
  • To discuss policies among people and informing them.
  • Helps in taking effective decision.
  • Maintain transparency in exchange of business.
  • In accordance with the law.
  • Must exercise to protect the rights of the shareholders.
  • Adherence to the business values and moral behaviour.

What are the features borrowed from various constitution?


British Constitution:

  • Parliamentary government, Rule of Law, legislative procedure, single citizenship, cabinet system, prerogative writs, parliamentary privileges and bicameralism.

US Constitution:

  • Fundamental rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of the president, removal of Supreme Court and high court judges and post of vice-president.

Irish Constitution:

  • Directive Principles of State Policy, nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of election of president.


  • Weimar Constitution of Germany Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.

Japanese Constitution

  • Procedure established by Law

Canadian Constitution

  • Federation with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre, appointment of state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Australian Constitution

  • Concurrent List, freedom of trade, commerce and inter-course, and joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.


  • French Constitution Republic and the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in the Preamble.

Soviet Constitution

(USSR, now Russia)

  • Fundamental duties and the ideal of justice (social, economic and political) in the Preamble.

South Africa:

  • Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha.

Give an account of the following

1) Mahila e-Haat

2) Sakhi-one stop centres

3) Ujjwala scheme


Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

Recently RBI released report regarding demonetization, whether demonetization helped in curbing black money? Critically analyze


The issue of demonetization is back in the news due to RBI report highlighting that 99.2% of 500 and 1000 Rs notes in circulation have found their own back in Banking System.

Critically examine – you need to do is look at the good and bad of the topic in fair manner.

Bring out the findings of RBI report and assess what it implies.

Discuss the rationale given that suggests that demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money – increasing tax base, formalization of economy.

Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in penalizing all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetization worked as an unintended amnesty scheme etc.

Examine the other impacts of demonetization which negated any small gains that were made – slow down in GDP, loss of jobs etc.

Conclusions – Give a fair and balanced view on the success/failure of demonetization.

What is OSIRIS-Rex mission and write down facts on asteroid Bennu?

Answer: For the first time in more than two years, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft has unfurled its robotic arm and put it through a series of maneuvers to ensure its space-worthiness after being packed away for launch and a long flight to the asteroid Bennu.

This arm and its sampler head, known as the Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism or TAGSAM, is critical to the mission’s goal of retrieving at least 60 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and returning this sample to Earth by 2023.The collection device will act something like a reverse vacuum cleaner.

The launch of the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission took place on September 8, 2016. Since then, the spacecraft has been two years travelling through space to reach its target, primitive asteroid Bennu, in October and 2018.

About the mission:

OSIRIS-Rex stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security-Regolith Explorer.

OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, which previously sent the New Horizons spacecraft zooming by Pluto and the Juno spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter.

What will the OSIRIS-Rex do?

OSIRIS-REx will spend two years travelling towards Bennu, arriving at the asteroid in August 2018. The probe will orbit the asteroid for 3 years, conducting several scientific experiments, before returning to Earth, with the sample capsule expected to land in Utah, USA in September 2023.

Scientific Mission Goals:

During its three year orbit of Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will be conducting a range of scientific experiments in order to better understand the asteroid.

As part of this, the asteroid will be mapped using instruments on the probe, in order to select a suitable site for samples to be collected from.

The aim of the mission is to collect a sample of regolith- the loose, soil-like material which covers the surface of the asteroid.

In July 2020, the probe will move to within a few metres of Bennu, extending its robotic arm to touch the asteroid’s surface. The arm will make contact with the surface for just 5 seconds, during which a blast of nitrogen gas will be used to stir up the regolith, allowing it to be sucked into the sample collector.

OSIRIS-REx has enough nitrogen on board for 3 sample collection attempts, and NASA are hoping to collect between 60 and 2000g of regolith material to bring back to Earth.

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Why was Bennu chosen?

Bennu was selected for a the OSIRIS-REx mission from over 500,000 known asteroids, due to it fitting a number of key criteria. These include:

Proximity to Earth: In order for OSIRIS-REx to reach its destination in a reasonable timeframe, NASA needed to find an asteroid which had a similar orbit to Earth. Around 7000 asteroids are ‘Near-Earth Objects’ (NEOs), meaning they travel within around ~30million miles of the Earth. Out of these, just fewer than 200 have orbits similar to Earth, with Bennu being one of these.

Small asteroids: Those are less than 200m in diameter; typically spin much faster than larger asteroids, meaning the regolith material can be ejected into space. Bennu is around 500m in diameter, so rotates slowly enough to ensure that the regolith stays on its surface.

Composition: Bennu is a primitive asteroid, meaning it hasn’t significantly changed since the beginning of the Solar System (over 4 billion years ago). It is also very carbon-rich, meaning it may contain organic molecules, which could have been precursors to life on Earth.

Additionally, Bennu is of interest as it is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA). Every 6 years, Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth, which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century.

Examine the role of Praja Mandal Movements in Rajasthan’s political awakening. What was the role of Smt. Vijaya Bahin Bhavsar?

Answer: In 1927, the All India States People’s Conference was held in Bombay after which the congress allowed people from different Princely States to join the party and the Indian freedom Struggle. In 1927 itself, the Akhil Bhartiya Desi Rajya Lok Parishad or All India Native States Public Council was established in Bombay and Vijay Singh Pathik became its chairperson. In Rajasthan, Rajputana Desi Lok Parishad or Rajputana Native States Public Council was established. These councils laid the foundation for Praja Mandal movement in Rajasthan.

Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:

  • The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism.
  • The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights.
  • The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic (fundamental) rights.

Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:

The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states.

They established schools, used Khadi, encouraged cottage industries and Started agitation against the Untouchability.

Contribution of Praja Mandal:

The Praja Mandal movement not only created a political awakening among the people in the Indian States but also fought for their rights, their share in the government and their dynamic participation in the future political set up of the country. Other contributions included:

  • Improvement in Education
  • Rise of social equality
  • The most important contribution of this organisation was to break the insularity of the peasant movements by linking them with one another in different princely states, as well as with peasant movements in British India.

Origin, lifestyle and culture of Garasia Tribal in Rajasthan

Answer: The Garasia tribal community has gained a place of prominence in Indian culture due to their lifestyle and culture. This Garasia tribal community has got concentration in several areas of the state of Rajasthan. The Garasia tribal community is considered to be the third largest tribal group of the state of Rajasthan. The people of this tribal community are basically concentrated in different parts of this state namely Kotra, Abu Road tehsil of Sirohi, Bali and Desuri tehsils of Pali districts and Gogunda and Kherwara tehsils of Udaipur.

As per the history, the Garasia tribes are a division of the Rajput community. The colonization made the scarcity of lands during the time of the British administration, and the tribal people were marginalized and started living with the people dwelling in the forest. The further division was created by the nationalist movement in between the groups. Among the Garasia, the Bhil-Garasia are the part of tribes who married the Bhil women to maintain peace and harmony. This tribal community is divided in three sections namely the nanki niyat, moti niyat and nichli niyat and these sections have further clan divisions namely Solanki, Mali, Parmar, Raidara etc. The territory of the Garasia people is called patta and the smallest unit of the villages is termed as hamlet or phalia.

The word ‘Garasia’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘grass’ that signifies the substance. The history says that after defeated by Ala-ud-Din Khilji, the Rajputs took flight to the hilly areas of Bhil tribes. The Garasia took control over the Bhil tribes and came to be known as Garasia tribal community. They have a link with the medieval Rajput community. Moreover, the Garasia tribes are popularly known as ‘the fallen Rajputs’ and as per the popular belief are that these Garasia tribes can trace back their heredity to the famous Chauhans of Rajasthan state.

Some say that the Garasia tribes are the off springs of the Rajput who got married to a Bhil female. It is assumed that they formerly were ‘chiefs’ who were thrown out by several plunderers. As early as 13th century, several hapless Rajput escape to Aravalli and Vindhya hills. There these Garasia tribes get the opportunity to mix up with several tribes of the Bhil community.

After sometime, the Garasia tribes crushed the power of the Bhil leaders and their supporters, settling down near the dense forests and at the bottom of the hills. For safeguarding the local people and their settlements, this Garasia tribal community got the land for carrying on agricultural activities. There are many people who even refer all the Rajput and other landholders dwelling in both Gujarat and Rajasthan states, as Garasia.

The language of the Garasia tribes is Doongri Garasia language. It belongs to the Bhil sub-group of the famous Indo-Aryan language family. It has been said that the Garasia language is a blend of three different languages namely Bhili, Marwari and Gujarati language. The dialect of the Garasia people is called Nayar dialect or Nayar-Ki-Boli.

Cultural exuberance of these Garasia tribes of Rajasthan is rightly being depicted in several of its elements. Since the houses of these Garasia tribes are small, a Garasia male of the household can perform all the household chores on his own. These Garasia tribes in general reside in one-room houses prepared from mud and bamboo. Nowadays, this Garasia tribal community has learnt to make flat tiled roofs. There are also few Garasia tribes who still today make thatched roofs. Houses are usually built on the slopes of hills with their fields extending out in front. There is as a rule a guest house opposite the house of the head of the Garasia village. However, there is hardly any meting point for all the people of the Garasia community.

Even though the whole of the Garasia tribal community can be divided into several clans, they seldom maintain unity amongst themselves. In order to sustain their living these Garasia tribes practice cultivation. However, there is also no dearth of Garasia people who also work as laborers in the fields also. Needless to say, food habits of these Garasia tribes too follow the tradition of any other agrarian tribal community of the state. Maize is the staple food grown by all Garasia families. Apart from this, they also add rice, jowar and wheat in their diet. Many of this Garasia tribal community also consume all the forest products like vegetables, fruits etc. Rab or rabdi is considered as the well admired food of the Garasia people. They prepare lapsi, malpua, Churma etc. during their occasions. The Garasia tribes are mostly veggies and also have got no addiction to various types of liquors.

The society of the Garasia tribe is controlled by the Panchayat and the village head Patel takes the major decisions related to the village and the villagers. The position of a woman is not high in a Garasia tribal community. Like any other patriarchal society, the Garasia tribal females also are not permitted to possess property. There are also certain stringent rules that these Garasia tribal women need to follow quite diligently. For example, it is mandatory for the Garasia women to put veils over their faces when they are present in front of senior male relatives.

Different duties are allotted for both Garasia males and females. The onus of carrying on certain domestic duties is fall upon the Garasia women. These include cooking, nursing the cattle, milking the animals, and also taking care of the children. The men do the physical labor such as plowing, harvesting, and building the houses.

Marriage too like any other tribal community is held in high position. The Garasia tribal community is permitted freedom in selecting their partners. Young Garasia males between the ages of eighteen and twenty four generally marry females who are between fourteen and eighteen years. Another interesting thing is that any Garasia couple cal lives together without getting married. However, under the impact of Hindu rituals and customs, nowadays, this rule of the Garasia tribal community varies in certain places of the Rajasthan. As per recent survey, it has been rightly find out that only 1 percent of the Garasia tribal community has taken up the religion of Christianity.

What do you mean by Horse Latitudes? Explain the location.

Answer: Horse latitudes or subtropical highs are subtropical latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south where Earth’s atmosphere is dominated by the Subtropical high, an area of high pressure, which suppresses precipitation and cloud formation, and has variable winds mixed with calm winds.

The consistently warm, dry, and sunny conditions of the horse latitudes are the main cause for the existence of the world’s major non-polar deserts, such as the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Arabian and Syrian deserts in the Middle East, the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, all in the Northern Hemisphere; and the Atacama Desert, the Kalahari Desert, and the Australian Desert in the Southern Hemisphere.

Examine the social structure under the Rajputs.

Answer: In the 11th century, the term “rajaputra” appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials. Gradually, the Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the membership of this class became largely hereditary, although new claims to Rajput status continued to be made in the later centuries. Several Rajput-ruled kingdoms played a significant role in many regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.


  • Large-scale land grants and related economic changes led to the evolution of social structure broadly characterized by a sizeable number of intermediaries and a large body of impoverished peasantry.
  • The Samantas and the ruling landed aristocracy irrespective of their social origins emerged as a distinctive group.
  • Brahmans were the majority in this group and focused on management of land. Kayasthas, traders and members of the rich dominant peasantry were also conferred titles such as ranaka, Nayaka etc. as and when they joined the upper section of the society and ruling landed elite.
  • The shudras were getting transformed into cultivators as a result of the expansion of agricultural settlements, thereby coming closer to the vaishyas.
  • The vaishyas practically lost their identity as peasant caste.

Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity

The distribution of climatic regions of Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall and temperature variations includes following divisions:

Arid Region

a. The Arid region includes Jaisalmer district, northern parts of Barmer, western of the Phalodi Tehsil of Jodhpur, western parts of Bikaner and southern parts of Ganganagar district.

b. Climate of the region is very severe and arid.

c. Rainfall less than 10 cm in extreme west parts of regions and rest areas record less than 20 cm rainfall.

d. The average temperature during summer is recorded more than 34degree C and during winters it ranges in between 12 DegC to 16DegC.

Semi-arid Region

i. The average temperature during winter season ranges between 10 Deg C and 17 Deg C and the summer season temperature range 32 Deg C to 36 Deg C.

ii. As the region has erratic as well as torrential rainfall it brings floods too each time.

iii. Rainfall ranges 20 to 40 cm.

iv. The winter season is very short and arid in the northern parts of this region.

v. This region comprises the western parts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur and Barmer districts.

Sub-humid Region

1. In the semi arid humid region, rainfall is meager and the amount of rainfall is limited to a few monsoon months only.

2. The rainfall is between 40 to 60 cm and the average temperature during summer season ranges from 28 Deg to 34 Deg C whereas it is recorded 12 Deg C in northern parts and 18 Deg C in the southern parts.

3. Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa and Ajmer, eastern parts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Pali and Jalore districts, north-western parts of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi districts are included in this category.

4. This region has steppe type of vegetation.

Humid Region

1. This region receives winter rainfall associated with cyclones along with monsoon season rainfall which varies from 60 to 80 cm.

2. Deciduous trees dominate the region.

3. Humid region is found at the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Barmer and Rajsamand and the north-eastern parts of Udaipur.

Very Humid Region

Very Humid Region includes south-east Kota, Baran, and Jhalawar, Banswara, south-west Udaipur and adjacent areas of Mt. Abu. Here, the summers are very hot and winters are cold and dry. Rainfall received is between 80 cm to 150 cm, which is mostly during the rainy season. Monsoon Savanna type of vegetation is present in the region.

What is the difference between Reserved, Protected and Unclassified forest Areas?

Reserved Forest: Land rights to forests declared to be Reserved forests or Protected forests are typically acquired (if not already owned) and owned by the Government of India. Unlike national parks of India or wildlife sanctuaries of India

Protected Forest: Protected forests are of two kinds – demarcated protected forests and undemarcated protected forests, based on whether the limits of the forest have been specified by a formal notification.

Typically, protected forests are often upgraded to the status of wildlife sanctuaries which is turn, may be upgraded to the status of national parks, with each category receiving a higher degree of protection and government funding. For example: Sariska National Park was declared a reserved forest. 

Unclassified forest: forests which are neither protected nor reserved and wasteland comes under this classification. They are controlled by government officials and private individuals.

Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan

Koeppen’s classification for the World Climatic regions is totally based on the vegetation, as the effects of temperature and rainfall are directly evident and visible it. Here, the three categories are associated with Tropical climates, Dry (arid and semiarid) climates and Mild Temperate climates respectively.

The classification of Rajasthan according to Koeppen’s is as follows:

Aw or Tropical Humid Region

  1. Winter season is arid and cool whereas summers experience scorching heat.
  2. Rainfall also mainly occurs in summer season.
  3. The temperature is more than 18 Deg. C in the coldest month records.
  4. The southern parts of Dungarpur district and Banswara come under the region.

Bshw Climatic Region

  1. Vegetation is of steppe type, characterized with thorny bushes and grasses.
  2. Region comprises the districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Hanumangarh.
  3. This climatic region is semi-arid, where winters are dry and even in summers there is no sufficient amount of rainfall.

Bwhw Climatic Region

  1. The region has arid-hot desert climate with very scanty rainfall.
  2. On the contrary the process of evaporation is very active.
  3. North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, western Bikaner and western parts of Ganganagar district are included in this category.

Cwg Climatic Region

  1. The south-eastern areas of Aravalli are the part of the region.
  2. Seasonal winds do not bring rains to this region during winters.
  3. Rains are limited to few monsoon months only.

What is the Rajasthan State Water Policy 2010?

  • The growing imbalance between demand and supply of water
  • Low operational efficiency of water resource development projects
  • Inequity in access to water
  • High cost of service, low cost recovery and low level of expenditure
  • Lack of ownership among stakeholders
  • Depleting groundwater resources and deteriorating quality of water
  • Uncertainty in availability of water

The policy has evolved out of the earlier policy documents and intends to function from the new perspective of Integrated Water Resources Management, which is holistic and includes a bottom up Approach.

The new policy document addresses issues related to:

  1. Water supply and development
  2. Water conservation
  3. Water quality
  4. Environmental management
  5. Water pricing
  6. Integrated Water Resource Management
  7. Irrigation
  8. Water resources infrastructure
  9. Legal enablement
  10. Capacity building
  11. Research
  12. Monitoring and evaluation of water policy and action plans.

What is the distribution of Rainfall in Rajasthan?

There is a wide variation in the mean annual rainfall over Rajasthan as the extreme western parts of Jaisalmer district receive rainfall less than 100mm in contrast to more than 900mm in the eastern parts of Jhalawar and Banswara. The districts of East Rajasthan receive more rainfall than those of West Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall in the East and West Rajasthan is about 64.9 cm and 32.7 cm respectively.

There is a huge variation in the mean annual rainfall over the entire Rajasthan state. The extreme western parts of Jaisalmer districts receives the rainfall less than 10cm wherein the south-eastern parts of Rajasthan receives the rainfall more than 100 cm, which is 10 time more of earlier.

The southern and south-eastern districts, Jhalawar and Banswara, receive the maximum rainfall in the state, which is about 120 cm.

The southern and south-eastern districts Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Baswara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur and Mount Abu region of the Rajasthan receive the rainfall more than 100 cm.

The districts of Eastern plains i.e. Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, North-west Udaipur, South-east Tonk and Chittorgarh receive the 60-80 cm rainfall.

The districts of Aravalli Range i.e. Alwar, Japur, Ajmer, Pali, Jalore, Eastern parts of Nagaur and Jhunjhunu and north-west part of Tonk, Bhilwara and Sirohi receive the 40-60 cm rainfall.

The districts, Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Southern Barmer, Eastern parts of Bikaner and Jodhpur and western parts of Pali, Jalore, Sikar, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu receive the 20-40 cm rainfall.

The districts or western Rajasthan, Thar Desert, i.e. Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh, Eastern Barmer, Southern Shri Ganganagar and Western Bikaner and Jodhpur receive the rainfall less than 20cm.

The maximum rainfall in the state is received in the Southern or South- Eastern districts of the state. On the west of Aravalli hills Pali and Jalore districts receive maximum amount of rain of 50 cm and 43 cm in West Rajasthan.

In the North or North-Western districts Jaisalmer district receives the lowest rainfall. Bikaner, Ganganagar, Jaisalmer receive annual rainfall of 26cm, 24cm and 17cm respectively. The adjoining areas of these districts constitute the driest zone of the state.

The lowest recorded annual rainfall in the past 100 years i.e. between 1900 and 2010 was 24 mm in the western Rajasthan and whereas it was never below 120 mm in the eastern Rajasthan.

What are the features of humidity in Rajasthan?

The relative humidity in the arid region of western Rajasthan is also very high. However, due to unfavorable circulation of the atmosphere, low precipitation occurs in this region as compared to semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the Rajasthan.

During the monsoon months, July to September the relative humidity is generally high in the state of Rajasthan. The humidity is about 45%-47% in June, which rises to a little less than 70% during August in West Rajasthan and to about 76%-77% in East Rajasthan. The Graph depicts the humidity regime in the state from 1980 to 2009. The average annual humidity percentage during these 30 years was 55.4 %. The trend line in the figure shows a gradual decrease in humidity percentage in the state from 1980 to 2009.

The annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 61% in 1980. Now, the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan was 49% in 2010. There is a gradual decline in the annual average of relative humidity of Rajasthan over the last 30 years.

The variation in the relative humidity is low during the monsoon in the East Rajasthan. However, in the western Rajasthan, the variation is much higher. The relative humidity drops to 22-27% in the afternoon due to high temperature. This makes this region a dry and arid region.

The main reason in this decline is the deforestation and other activities.

The diurnal variation in relative humidity is least during monsoon in the East Rajasthan; on the contrary it is higher in West Rajasthan. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity is least, i.e. about 20 to 30% in most of the state which makes the summer very dry and hot. In the winters (December-January and February) the diurnal variation is highest.

Describe the socio-economic condition of Harappan civilisation?

Answer: Indus valley is an example of great civilisation flourishing in the pre Vedic era. The civilisation marks the zenith in terms of art, architecture and culture. Its magnanimous architecture depicts the vibrant social and culture life.

Social life: Cities were divided into two parts. One was citadel (for the nobles) and the other part was common city depicting the hierarchy in the social milieu. There was strong sense of fashion including cosmetics and jewellery and it was common for both men and women. Various household articles made of pottery; stone, shells, ivory and metal have been found at Mohenjodaro. Spindles, needles, combs, fish hooks, knives are made of copper. Children’s toys include little clay carts. Marbles, balls and dice were used for games.

Mother earth was worshipped as Goddess. Nature worshipping was prevalent with people believing in ghosts and spirits. Amulets were used to cast away bad spirits. Pashupati seal resembles the lord Shiva of Vedic era. Absence of temples is there.

Economic life:  There was a great progress in all spheres of economic activity such as agriculture, industry and crafts and trade. Indus valley was both agrarian and industrial economy.  Specialized groups of artisans include goldsmiths, brick makers, stone cutters, weavers, boat-builders and terracotta manufacturers. Bronze and copper vessels are the outstanding examples of the Harappan metal craft.

Internal trade was extensive with other parts of India. Foreign trade of barter type was mainly conducted with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Iran. Presence of seal in Mesopotamia testifies the trade links. Trade was of the barter type.

What is HGP read? How it is different from HGP write? List down the application of Human genome project?

Answer: The Human genome project was a large, international and multi-institutional effort that took 13 years from 1999 and $2.7 billion to produce a blueprint of the sequence of genes and space between genes that make up a typical human genome. Following were the observation of HGP (read)-

  • 99% of the total human DNA is junk DNA
  • 1% is the only functional gene
  • We have a total 30,000 gene in our genome.

In 2016, a project name HGP write was started whose major function was to synthesise gene from scratch by the help of bioengineering tools. Following areas of science have taken advantage of human genome project:

Molecular medicine: HGP has made it easy for researchers and doctors to look deeply into the cause of the disease other than symptoms. It will help to treat genetic disease at an embryonic stage by the help of gene therapy, site generated mutagenesis. It will help to create efficient DNA vaccine.

Biotechnology: Mapping of human genome will help to improve the scope of gene therapy and stem cell therapy to treat the diseases. It will also help to improve the production of healthy livestock.

It will help to solve the criminal cases by increasing the scope and efficiency of forensic DNA testing. It will help to solve the paternity dispute.

HGP will help to build the technology to write the genome of microorganism like bacteria. It will help to treat the deadly diseases like malaria, dengue etc.  We can synthesise methane generating microorganism which can address the energy deficiency issues.

Hence, HGP has wide range of application from filed of medicine to industrial sector. It has huge potential in the future which can be utilised to address the problems like deadly diseases (vector borne), energy deficiency and polluted environment.

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Explain the Salient features of Indian Constitution?

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is a living document, an instrument which makes the government system work. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, Containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 Amendments.

Salient Features of the Indian Constitution

 The lengthiest Constitution in the world

 The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed of all the written Constitutions of the world containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 Amendments.

Parliamentary form of Government

 The constitution of India establishes a parliamentary form of a government both at the Centre and the State. The essence of the parliamentary government is its responsibility to the Legislature. The president is the constitutional head of the State but the real executive power is vested in the council of ministers whose head is the Prime Minister.

Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility

It has been the nature of the amending process itself in federations which had led political scientists to classify federal Constitution as rigid.

 Fundamental Rights

 The incorporation of a formal declaration of Fundamental Rights in part III of the Constitution is deemed to be a distinguishing feature of a democratic State. These rights are prohibitions against the State. The State cannot make a law which takes away or abridges any of the rights of the citizens guaranteed in part III of Constitution.

Directive Principles of State policy (DPSP)

    The Directive Principles of State Policy contained in Part IV of the Constitution, it set out the aims and objectives to be taken up by the States in the governance of the country.

 A federation with strong centralizing tendency

The most remarkable feature of the Indian Constitution is that being a federal Constitution it acquires a unitary character during the time of emergency. During the proclamation of emergency the normal distribution of powers between Centre and State undergoes a vital change. The union parliament is empowered to legislate on any subject mentioned in the state list. The financial arrangements between the Centre and State can also be altered by the Union Government.

Adult Suffrage

 The old system of communal electorates has been abolished and the uniform adult suffrage system has been adopted. Under the Indian Constitution every man and women above 18 years of age has been given the right to elect representatives for the legislature.

 An Independent Judiciary

 An independent and impartial judiciary with power of judicial review has been established under the Constitution of India. It is a custodian right of citizens. Besides, in a federal Constitution it plays another significant role of determining the limits of power of the Centre and States.

 A Secular State

 A Secular State has no religion of its own as recognised religion of State. It treats all religions equally. Articles 25 to 28 of the Indian Constitution give concrete shape to this concept of secularism. It guarantees to every person the freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice and propagate religion. In a Secular state, the state only regulates the relationship between man and man.

Single Citizenship

The American constitution provides for dual citizenship, i.e., the citizen of America and a state citizenship. But in India there is only one citizenship i.e., Citizen of India.No state citizenship like citizen of Assam, Citizen of Delhi. Every Indian is Citizen of India and enjoys the same rights of citizenship no matter in what state he resides.

What were the objectives of Demonetisation? What were the positive effects?        

The stated objective of Demonetisation was-

  • Reduction of black money
  • Achieving lower cash/ GDP ration
  • An attack on fake currency
  • To stop terror funding
  • Increasing digital transactions
  • Increasing tax network

Positive effects of Demonetisation are as follows:

  • The number of tax fillers have increased.( Additional 9 million)
  • The transactions made amounting to Rs 3 lakh crore are under Income tax deptt. Vigilance
  • Over 2 lakh shell companies have been deregistered.
  • Demonetisation has able to put a hold on unregulated Real estate sector.
  • Anonymity with the cash transactions is reduced.
  • The whole process has brought more accountability.
  • Formalisation of economy- a step toward

World War I brought significant changes? Discuss the Impact of World War I?

World War I was fought globally and had global consequences. It leads to rise of new ideologies and new centre of Human power at the same time it had huge cost attached with the war. The Impact of the World War I is as follows:

Human and economic cost:

  • Approx 10million died due to direct military action
  • Rails and River transport was destroyed.
  • Millions were killed due to typhus.
  • The fragile machinery of international exchange was destroyed.
  • The influenza pandemic

Rise of new centre of power

  • US’s military was turned into a large scale fighting force with intense experience of modern warfare.
  • US economic hegemony started to the rise after the war. European dominancy phase started to decline.

Advent of new ideologies:

  • Rise of communism in Russia
  • Fascism and Nazism
  • Rise of socialism

Changes in the Political map of Europe and colonies:

  • Austria and Hungary became new independent states.
  • Serbia kingdom became Yugoslavia
  • French occupation over Rhineland.
  • French, British and Russian divided Ottoman Empire into sphere of influence.
  • A buffer zone of nations was created between Russian and Europe to help deter the spread of Bolshevism.

Social Changes:

Birth rates went down because millions of young men died. Civilians lost their homes and fled to other countries.

The role of women also changed. They played a major part in replacing men in factories and offices. Many countries gave women more rights after the war had ended, including the right to vote.

The upper classes lost their leading role in society. Young middle and lower class men and women demanded a say in forming their country after the war.


World War 1 boosted research in technology, because better transport and means of communication gave countries an advantage over their enemies.

After World War 1, the need for an international body of nations that promotes security and peace worldwide became evident. This caused the founding of the League of Nations.

What is continental drift theory? Write down the evidence for continental drift?

The continental drift hypothesis was developed in the early part of the 20th century, mostly by Alfred Wegener. Wegener said that continents move around on Earth’s surface and that they were once joined together as a single supercontinent. While Wegener was alive, scientists did not believe that the continents could move. Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents were once united into a single supercontinent named Pangaea, meaning all earth in ancient Greek. He suggested that Pangaea broke up long ago and that the continents then moved to their current positions. He called his hypothesis continental drift.

Identical rocks of the same type and age are found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Wegener said the rocks had formed side-by-side and that the land had since moved apart.Mountain ranges with the same rock types, structures, and ages are now on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The Appalachians of the eastern United States and Canada, for example, are just like mountain ranges in eastern Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway. Wegener concluded that they formed as a single mountain range that was separated as the continents drifted.

 Ancient fossils of the same species of extinct plants and animals are found in rocks of the same age but are on continents that are now widely separated. Wegener proposed that the organisms had lived side by side, but that the lands had moved apart after they were dead and fossilized.

 Presence of glossopteris vegetation in carboniferous rocks of India, Australia, South Africa, Falkland Islands (Overseas territory of UK), Antarctica, etc. can be explained on the basis of the fact that parts were linked in the past.

 Tillite deposit: It is the sedimentary rock formed out of deposits of glaciers. The Gondwana system of sediments from India is known to have its counter parts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base the system has thick Tillite indicating extensive and prolonged glaciations. Counter parts of this succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica and Australia besides India.

 Rich placer deposits of gold are found on the Ghana coast (West Africa) but the source (gold bearing veins) are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side by side.

What is Biopiracy? Give some examples?

Biopiracy is the practice of commercially exploiting naturally occurring genetic material or biochemical. Most of the indigenous people possess a traditional knowledge that mainly comprises of genetic diversity and biological feature of the natural environment from generation to generation. Some of the traditional knowledge that is relevant to global survival includes the following components.

  • Medicinal Plants.
  • Farming or Agriculture.
  • Varieties of Food crops.

The essential components for the survival of rural and indigenous people include conservation of habitat, species, and biodiversity.

Examples of Biopiracy

 Biopiracy of African super-sweet berries: Pentadiplandra brazzein is a plant found in the west of South Africa. It is a vital source of protein known as Brazzein. Here, people use it as a low-calorie sweetener. It is known to be two thousand times sweeter than sugar. Recent developments include isolation of the gene encoding brazzein that has been sequenced and patented in the USA.

Biopiracy of the Enola bean: It was named after the wife of Larry Proctor, who patented it in 1999. Enola bean is a variety of Mexican yellow bean. Farmers in North Mexico depended on sales of this bean. The patent-holder subsequently sued a large number of importers of Mexican yellow beans. As a result, it caused an economic damage to farmers. A lawsuit was filed by farmers and the result was in favor of farmers as ruled by U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

The rosy periwinkle: The rosy periwinkle was originally found in Madagascar. Now, it has been introduced to several other tropical countries across the globe. This implements that researchers can obtain knowledge from one nation and plants samples in other nations.

What are the reasons for seasonality? 

Seasonality refers to both the seasonal variation of the suns position above the horizon and the changing day length.  There are five reasons for seasons which are discussed here under:

Earth’s revolution in its orbit around the sun: Earth completes its annual orbit in 365.24 days at a speed averaging 107,280 Km.hr in a counter clockwise direction when viewed from above the earth’s North Pole.

Earth’s rotation: It determines day length, causes the apparent deflection of moving bodies and produces tides. Earth’s rotation reduces the diurnal pattern of day and night. The dividing line between day and night is called the circle of illumination. Since this circle of illumination always bisect the equator, day length at the equator always evenly divided. Tilt of axis: Earth is tilted towards its axis.  It makes an angle of 23.50. This is also the reason for seasonality.

 Axial parallism: Throughout the revolution the earth’s axis maintain the same alignment relative to the plane of ecliptic. In each position earth is revolving with the axis oriented identically. This condition is known as parallelism.

Spherical shape of earth: Earth curved surface presents a continuously varied angle to the incoming parallel rays of the sun. The latitudinal variation in the angle of solar rays results in an uneven global distribution of insolation.

What is the role of NITI Aayog? Write short notes.

Answer: NITI Aayog (National Institute for transforming India) is a policy think tank of the Government of India to achieve sustainable development goals and to achieve cooperative federalism by enhancing the role of state government in the economic policy making and to make bottom up approach a reality.

The role of NITI Aayog will be:

  • Bring Inclusivity in the policy making by acting as collaborating platform.
  • It will act as the friend, philosopher and guide for the state. Here, best practices among the state can be shared and can be implemented.
  • It will help to integrate data and the analysis of the data to make policies more efficient.
  • Designing policies more grounded in reality will be another aspect. Bringing reality and innovation in policy making.
  • It will help to bring harmony between state and centre rather than confonntative federalism. The idea is to make team India.

Describe the drainage system of Rajasthan.

The Location of the great Indian watershed and the existence of the Aravalli axis greatly influence the drainage system of Rajasthan. The drainage to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea gets divide due to the Great Indian watershed which runs along the Aravali axis from the Sambhar Lake southward to Ajmer. From here before proceeding towards the southwest of Udaipur city the line runs to southwest, a few kilometers east of Beawar and to Deogarh and Kumbhalgarh further extending to in the west, past Udai sagar and runs to southeast to Bari Sadri, from Choti Sadri to Pratapgarh.

Smaller streams and their tributaries drain the west and south of the Aravalli axis. Rivers Luni, Sukri, Banas, Sabarmati and Mahi are most significant. These streams are non-perennial in nature. On the eastern side of the watershed, the river Chambal is joined by the river Banas along with its main tributaries like Khari, Moshi and Morel on the left bank and Berach, Bajasen and Golwa on the right. The river Chambal ultimately joins the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.

The inland drainage system is the most characteristic feature of the drainage system of Rajasthan which is that nearly 60.2 per cent of the area of the state. Nearly all this area lies west of the Aravalli range. In this part Kanti basin, Sota and Sahibi basin, Barrah basin of the Luni basin are found in large number of separate drainage basins. The desert tract in the western part soaks all the water of these rivers.

The river Luni which rises at Ana Sagar at Ajmer is the only significant water course in this area is and flows towards the southwest for a distance of about 32 km through the districts of Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore in the semi-arid tract west of the Aravalli range., the river has a small catchment area of about 32 sq km at the source at Talod Road. A small tributary joins from the Pushkar valley and the basin of the river widens. Near Ajmer, the river flows down the Aravalli slope and after 10km flows towards the southwest. This river drains the total catchment area of about 34,866.40 sq kilometers. As it is a rain-fed stream the river is choked with advancing sands at many places during the dry season. When the river is carrying maximum water during the monsoon season it is not able to cut the Aeolian deposits. It receives many smaller hill torrents from the western slope of the Aravalli range, like Lalri, Ghuhia, Bandi, Sukri, Jawai, Jojri and Sagai, all joining on the left bank. All these streams contribute to the sub-soil within its bend. Up to Balotra the water of river Luni but lower down it becomes more and more saline till the river drains near the Rann of Kutch. The river Luni increases in width at Jodhpur district rather than deepening the bed. This is because the floods develop so quickly due to the nature of rainfall that the river has no time to rub the bed. The River Luni spills over the country and occasionally damages the railway line to which it actually runs parallel from Luni Junction to Gole during the rainy season.

The southern and the eastern part of Rajasthan, south, southeast and east of the Aravalli range receives more than 80 cm rainfall and has some important streams.

The river Chambal is the largest stream and is joined by some tributaries like the Banas, the Kali Sindh, and the Parbati. The river Chambal is a perennial river while its tributaries might occasionally turn completely dry and exhibit their stony beds.

The river Chambal rising from the northern flanks of the Vindhyan scarps near Manpur (884.4 m) in the south of Mhow runs for about 325 km through a long narrow and steep gorge which overhangs the valley on both the sides rising about 60m to 90 m above the valley floor. The river falls at 505 m near Chaurasigarh to Kota.

The river Chambal is joined by its first major tributary – river kali Sindh near Monera village. Another tributary Parbati joins about 48 km downstream. Taking a straight course for about 212 km, it bends southeast at Pinahat and flows to join the river Yamuna near Murad ganj, after a total run of about 965 kilometres. For a length of about 153 km the river flows entirely in Rajasthan. The river forms the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh from Palia to Pinahat for about 241 km. it forms the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Before joining the river Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan two other tributaries Kurai and Banas join the Chambal River on the left bank.

The Banas River flows through the heart of the Mewar Plains. Its chief tributaries are Berach, Kothari, Khari, Dhoond and Morel. The river Banas rises from the catchment area lying between Kankroli and Nathdwara and flows towards the east as far as Mandalgarh and further it flows towards the northeast up to Tonk where it again turns towards the east and finally this river turns at right angles and flows south to join the river Chambal. The upper reaches of this stream are hilly and have good rainfall.

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