Important Solved Test Questions for RAS/RTS Mains Exam – 2019
Why Telecom Companies are against the Net-neutrality of the internet network?
Telecom companies are worried due to new technology because new technology has affected their business.
For example, the use of SMS service is almost finished due to free app like WhatsApp app. This has reduced the revenue of telecom companies because the earlier SMS packs were sold in large quantities and even on the occasion of festivals, every message was charged up to 2 rupees. Similar losses are due to facility of free video chats because these companies used to generate a lot of revenue from the International Calling earlier.
What are the rules of Net Neutrality in India?
Net Neutrality is applicable in India and all users have access of internet services with a similar speed. However, telecom companies in India are trying to put pressure on the government to end Net Neutrality.
The Government of India argues that internet is still used by very few peoples in India. India is in the initial phase of conveying the internet to every citizen of the country. The number of mobile Internet users in India is likely to reach 478 million by June 2018 but rural India has miles to go in this area. So it is not possible for the government to introduce the concept of Net Neutrality in the country at this juncture.
What is “OneerTM”?
OneerTM is an innovative technology for drinking water disinfection system which was developed by the Council Scientific and Industrial Research and Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Lucknow.
All disease causing pathogens like virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and cyst will be removed from drinking water making it safe for domestic use and for communities. This technique is useful for continuous treatment of water to meet National and International standards prescribed for potable water (WHO etc.). This technology was transferred to M/s Bluebird Water Purifiers on 17 October, 2018.
Let us tell you that Oneer smaller unit is particularly suitable for homes, street food vendors and small establishments.
According to CSIR-IITR this technology will provide access to safe and clean drinking water at a cost of just 2 Paise/Ltr. We know that infection through drinking water results in an increase in morbidity and mortality particularly amongst children. Therefore, this technology will be helpful for rural people since it can be solar powered and the development is done under ‘Make in India Mission’.
About this technology
The technology is based on the principle of anodic oxidation. Through a chamber, raw water is passed and disinfection occurs with the help of singlet oxygen species which was generated at the anode.
Do you know why this technology has been named as Oneer?
The technology has been named as Oneer as ‘O’ for singlet oxygen species and ‘neer’ for water.
Features of OneerTM
A key feature of OneerTM technology is that purified water will retain all essential minerals and there will be no wastage as it happens in reverse osmosis (RO) based purifiers. Also, there is no need to add any type of chemical and water can be stored around 30 hours without the risk of any recontamination. It also consists of an in-built smart sensor system that will provide the real-time information of all operational steps. Depending upon the quality of water it also provides auto self-cleaning system after fixed number of cycles.
Per 5000 litres of water, this system will consume around one unit if electricity and can be operated with solar power as well. Also, the domestic model can be used at homes, street food vendors and small shops, while the community model is suitable for schools, hospitals, restaurants, railway stations etc.
Therefore, we can say that OneerTM is a water purifier technology which can eliminate disease causing pathogens and provide safe drinking water as per national and international standards.
What is Glioblastoma or GBM Grade IV cancer?
Glioblastoma is also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is a type of brain cancer. Among adults, it is most common type of malignant brain tumour. Basically, it is a malignant Grade IV tumour which spread quickly and grows fast in brain.
Let us tell you that there are multiple grades of gliomas i.e. grade II, III and IV but the grade IV is most malignant. Glioblastoma is considered as grade IV tumour.
Where it occurs in the brain?
Glioblastoma is a type of cancer that forms in the brain from star-shaped cells known as astrocytes and the cancer is also called as astrocytoma. It starts in adults in the largest part of the brain that is cerebrum. This type of tumour doesn’t need blood from any where they supply itself due to which they grow easily and quickly.
We can say that Glioblastoma occur is the lobe of the brain, stem of the brain and cerebellum. But more commonly occur in the frontal and temporal lobe.
Is this cancer is common?
It is said that it is most common in males, persons older than 50 and people of Caucasian or Asian ethnicity. Also, brain cancers are not common.
What are the symptoms of Glioblastoma Cancer?
It depends upon the location where the tumour is located in the brain, from where it originated the rate of growth etc. Also, symptoms depend upon the fluid that surrounds the tumour and causes brain swelling.
Common Symptoms are as follows:
– Constant Headache
– Trouble in thinking or memory loss
– Mood swings and changes in personality
– Blurred vision or sometimes double also.
– Disturbance in speech, problem in speaking
– Muscle weakness
– Weakness or sensory changes of face arm or leg
– Difficulties in balance
Now the question arises that how Glioblastoma tumour is diagnosed?
The diagnosis of Glioblastoma tumour is done by a neurologist, a doctor who has specialization in diagnosing and treating disorders of brain. Several tests, MRI or CT scan are performed which depends upon the symptoms of the patient.
Procedure for the treatment of Glioblastoma
Main focus of the doctors is to slow and control the growth of the tumour as much as possible. The treatments given to the patients are surgery, radiation therapy, Chemotherapy and Electric field therapy.
The first treatment given to the patient is the surgery. Doctors remove tumour in high risk areas of the brain as much as possible.
In Radiation treatment the left over tumour is killed and also slow the growth of the tumour which can’t be removed from the surgery.
In Chemotherapy the most common type of drug given to the patient by the doctors is Temozolomide for glioblastoma. This therapy causes short time side effects but is much less toxic.
Surgically glioblastoma is not curable, only the good part is to remove the tumour as much as possible. But in radiation and chemotherapy treatment progression of the tumour can be delayed.
In Electric field therapy the electric fields are used to target the cells in the tumour while not hurting the normal cells. For this doctor insert electrodes directly into the scalp. The device with the help of this is done is known as Optune. Let us tell you that this FDA therapy has been approved for both newly diagnosed people and people whose glioblastoma has come back.
What is Space Debris and its causes?
The term debris implies that the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up. When it comes to the Space Debris, it referred to the natural debris found in the solar system such as asteroids, comets, and meteoroids (a small rocky or metallic body in outer space).
What causes Space Debris?
The space debris is consists of not only broken pieces of asteroids, comets, and meteoroids but also abandoned pieces of old satellites and used rocket stages including remainder of rocket fuel, paint flakes, frozen liquid coolant, etc.
According to the report of United States Space Surveillance Network, there are more than 13,000 pieces of space debris larger than 10 cm (4 inches), about 200,000 pieces between 1 and 10 cm (0.4 and 4 inches) and also predicted there could be millions of pieces smaller than 1 cm.
How Space Debris will be threat to the operational satellites as well as Earth’s atmosphere?
These debris travels at a high speeds which is up to 8 km per second which might be threats to both manned and unmanned spaceflight. Most of the debris can be found geostationary orbit above equator.
The threat of the collision came into existence when operational satellite and a piece of space debris took place when a fragment from the upper stage of a European Ariane rocket collided with Cerise (French microsatellite) on July 24 1996. This collide partially damages the Cerise, but still functional. The real threat came into light when Iridium 33 (communications satellite owned by the American company Motorola), collided with Cosmos 2251 that destroyed the operational satellite.
Apart from the threat to the operational satellite, it is also a threat to the Earth’s atmosphere as well. Because most of the debris can be found geostationary orbit above the equator, and if debris burns up in the atmosphere, larger objects can reach the ground intact. Hence, despite of their size, there will be significant property damage from the debris.
Tools for tracking and measuring the Space Debris
Lidar (combination of Radar and optical detector) is the main tool for tracking the space debris. Recently, NASA Orbital Debris Observatory tracked space debris with a 3 m (10 ft.) liquid mirror transit telescope. FM Radio waves can also detect debris, after reflecting off them onto a receiver.
Hence, space agencies around the world come up with a single agenda to clean all the debris. Now, they all are actively involved in tracking the largest bits of space debris to mitigate the problem.
What do you know about India’s first floating laboratory?
1. The Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD), Imphal has established India’s first floating laboratory at Loktak Lake to monitor the ecosystem of the lake as well as the water quality.
2. It is a joint venture of Loktak Development Authority (LDA) and Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory Institute (IBSD); and about 15 lakhs spent in setting up this floating laboratory.
3. The Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable laboratory (IBSD) took 4 months to set up this floating laboratory.
4. This floating laboratory will check the oxygen and the pH level of the lake and also will record changes in temperature, acidity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the 300 sq. km of the lake. So that the Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD) can take immediate steps to check water pollution and restore it.
5. This floating laboratory is equipped with all modern equipment such as water quality Analyzer, which will automatically check temperature, temperature, acidity, salinity and electrical conductivity standards.
6. This floating laboratory will have a five-member female researcher who will collect the samples of microorganisms, which may carry potential for use in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and other industries.
7. This floating laboratory model is given by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) of the Central Government to protect the unique ecosystem of the Loktak Lake.
8. The length of the boat is 15 metre and can accommodate 10 people.
9. The lake is shrinking at a speed of 40 sq. km. Therefore, it is a well needed laboratory which will study the nutrients of vegetation and monitor their health so that the hundreds of massive circular rings of floating vegetation called “Phumdis” or floating islands can be taken care of.
10. This floating laboratory will also set up scientific research and social responsibility, because for a few years this has become a dumping yard of lake pollutants which is affecting the ecosystem of the lake.