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Write short notes on Popular Lok Devtas of Rajasthan?

Pabu Ji

Pabuji is a folk divinity of Rajasthan. He subsisted in Fourteenth century. He was one of 4 kids of Dhadal Rathore of Kolu, Rajasthan. The ancient Pabuji was a Rajput prince. He is now extensively revered as a divine being by Rabari herdsmen throughout Rajasthan; and he is served by priests of Nayak. Pabuji survived in the isolated arid region of Kolu.

Rawal Mallinath

Rawal Mallinath is a folk idol of Rajasthan. He was the elder lad of Rao Salkhaji, the Mehwanagar ruler in Barmer.  The descendants of Rawal Mallinath’s are the eldest among all abodes of Rathores in the state of Rajasthan. The domiciles of Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sitamau, Ratlam, Idar, Alirajpur and Sailana sketch their roots to Viramdeo.

Veer Teja Ji

Veer Teja Ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. The narration of Rajasthan is crammed with lots of gallant chronicles and illustrations where people have put their lives at menace and reserved the pride and principles like faithfulness, liberty, genuineness, protection, communal transformation etc. integral. Veer Teja Ji was one of the well-known people in the account of Rajasthan.

Ramdev Ji

Ramdev ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. He was the Rajput ruler of 14th century, said to have astounding powers who dedicated his life for the fortifying of subjugated and deprived people and Hindu revivalism which were edged by assailants. He is venerated today by many communal groups. His devotees deem him to be an embodiment of Lord Vishnu.

Khetla Ji

Khetla Ji was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. His one of the temples is situated in Sonana Village, Rajasthan. The place of worship is the spot of a 2 day fair, held annually during the months of May and June in respect of Khetla ji. The fair draws a hefty number of followers who gather together here during the fair to summon the blessing of the divinity. There are number of temples of Khetla Ji in Marwar, for example Sayala, Sewari etc. Kataria society of Rajasthan regards him as their Kul Devta. They also perform some ceremonies after birth and marriage which is known as ‘Juar’.

Goga Ji

Goga Ji is also recognized as Jahar Veer Gogga. He is a folk divinity, revered in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. He is a combatant conqueror of the area, acclaimed as a saint. He is venerated as a peer among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus.


Eloji is a folk divinity and is considered to be the deity of villages. Effigies of Eloji can be instituted roughly in every rural community of Rajasthan. He is revealed as a burly man with moustaches and arrogance on his face. Many folk songs and music are played in honor of sexual power of Eloji.

Give an account of the following:



3) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: PRO-ACTIVE GOVERNANCE AND TIMELY IMPLEMENTATION, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters

NITI Aayog releases ‘Strategy for New India @75 what are the key features of it?

The forty-one chapters in the document have been merged under four sections – Drivers, Infrastructure, Inclusion and Governance.


The Strategy document aims to further improve the policy environment in which private investors and other stakeholders can contribute their fullest towards achieving the goals set out for New India 2022 and propels India towards a USD 5 trillion economy by 2030.

Key Takeaways

  • With ‘Strategy for New India @ 75′, Niti Aayog aims to accelerate growth to 9-10 percent and make India a USD 5 trillion economy by 2030.
  • The development strategy includes doubling of farmers’ income, boosting ‘Make in India’, upgrading the science, technology and innovation ecosystem, and promoting sectors like fintech and tourism.
  • NITI Aayog prescribed reducing upper age limit to join the civil services to 27 years from the present 30 years for General Category candidates by 2022-23 in a phased manner and also to have one integrated exam for all civil services.
  • It calls for successfully implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme including the establishment of 150000 health and wellness centres and rolling out Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.
  • The document outlines the need for creating agripreneurs, which implies creation of agro-processing industry at a much faster pace to enhance farmer participation though agro processing.
  • It calls for participation of Private Sector in Indian Railways. From ownership of locomotives and rolling stocks to modernising stations, improvement of the railways hinges on private participation.
  • It boasts of expanding the scope of Swachh Bharat Mission to cover initiatives for landfills, plastic waste and municipal waste and generating wealth from waste.
  • The government will have to ease the tax compliance burden and eliminate direct interface between taxpayers and tax officials using technology.
  • It suggests better compensation to banking correspondents, facilitating paperless banking and introducing financial literacy chapters in school curricula to spur financial inclusion.

It recommends identification of the poorest among the minority communities through the socio-economic caste census data for proper targeting of various schemes.

Key recommendations stated under four sections

Recommendations stated under Drivers

  • Steadily accelerate the economy to achieve a GDP growth rate of about 8 percent on average during 2018-23. This will raise the economy’s size in real terms from USD 2.7trillion in 2017-18 to nearly USD 4 trillion by 2022-23.
  • In agriculture, shift the emphasis to converting farmers to ‘agripreneurs’ by further expanding e-National Agriculture Markets and replacing the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee Act with the Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Act.
  • Give a strong push to ‘Zero Budget Natural Farming’ techniques that reduce costs, improve land quality and increase farmers’ incomes.
  • To ensure maximum employment creation, complete codification of labor laws; and upscale and expand apprenticeships.
  • Launch a mission “Explore in India” by revamping minerals exploration and licensing policy.

Recommendations under Infrastructure

  • Expedite the establishment of the Rail Development Authority (RDA), which is already approved.
  • Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways.
  • Develop an IT-enabled platform for integrating different modes of transport and promoting multi-modal and digitised mobility.
  • Deliver all government services at the state, district, and gram panchayat level digitally by2022-23. With the completion of the Bharat Net programme in 2019, all 2.5 lakh gram panchayats will be digitally connected.
  • The three themes in this section revolve around the dimensions of health, education and mainstreaming of traditionally marginalized sections of the population.

Recommendations under Inclusion

  • Successfully implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme including the establishment of 150000 health and wellness centres across the country, and rolling out the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Abhiyaan (PM-JAY).
  • Create a focal point for public health at the central level with state counterparts.
  • Upgrade the quality of the school education system and skills, including the creation of a new innovation ecosystem at the ground level by establishing at least 10,000 Atal Tinkering Labs by 2020.
  • Conceptualize an electronic national educational registry for tracking each child’s learning outcomes.
  • As already done in rural areas, give a huge push to affordable housing in urban areas to improve workers’ living conditions.
  • Recommendations under Governance
  • Implement the recommendations of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission as a prelude to appointing a successor for designing reforms in the changing context of emerging technologies.
  • Set up a new autonomous body ‘Arbitration Council of India’ to grade arbitral institutions and accredit arbitrators to make the arbitration process cost effective and speedy/
  • Address the backlog of pending cases.
  • Expand the scope of Swachh Bharat Mission to cover initiatives for landfills, plastic waste and municipal waste and generating wealth from waste.

What is the Objective behind States’ Start-up Ranking?

  1. The key objective of the exercise was to encourage States and Union Territories to take proactive steps towards strengthening the Start-up ecosystems in their states.
  • The entire exercise was conducted for capacity development and to further the spirit of cooperative federalism.
  • The methodology behind the exercise was aimed at creating a healthy competition environment wherein States were encouraged further to learn, share and adopt good practices.

Which are five types of State System during Vedic period?

1. Rajya (Central kingdom): Ruled by the Raja

2. Bhojya (Southern kingdom): Ruled by the Bhoja

3. Swarajya (Western kingdom): Ruled by the Svarat

4. Vairajya (Northern kingdom): Ruled by the Virat

5. Samrajya (Eastern kingdom):  Ruled by the Samrat


The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization in South Asia.

Initially there were 7 members in the SAARC but Afghanistan joined it on April 3, 2007.  Now it has 8 members which includes; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. This organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.

Myanmar is not the member of the SAARC.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu (Nepal). The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu on 16 January 1987 and was inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal.

Maitrakas dynasty

Maitrakas was Iranian in origin and ruled in Saurashtra region of Gujarat with Valabhi as capital. Valabhi became centre of learning, culture and trade and commerce under the guidance of Bhatarka. It survived the longest Arab attacks.

What are the causes of water logging in Rajasthan and measures to reduce it?

A study has determined what the most important causes of Water logging is caused by a combination of excess rainfall (for the site), poor external drain- age (runoff), poor internal drainage (water movement in the soil profile) and the inability of the soil to store much water.


  1. After flooding, wash down hard surfaces and collect up debris to prevent drains blocking, soil surfaces being covered, and pollutants or contaminants lingering in the garden.
  2. Keep off the soil until it is workable, to avoid compacting it and worsening the conditions.
  3. Remove damaged shoots from affected plants.

Why do the Western Ghats receive more rain than the Eastern Ghats?

The reason why do the Western Ghats receive more rain than the Eastern Ghats are discussed below:

1. The winds from Arabian Sea climb the slopes of the Western Ghats from 900-1200 m. Soon, they become cool, and as a result, the windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall ranging between 250 cm and 400 cm. After crossing the Western Ghats, these winds descend and get heated up. This reduces humidity in the winds. As a result, these winds cause little rainfall in the Eastern Ghats.

2. The Western Ghats block rain-bearing winds which cause rainfall on the western slopes. Whereas South-west monsoon moves parallel to the Eastern Ghats, which cause less rainfall because in the Eastern Ghats unable to block moisture-laden winds

3. The Western Ghats lies in rain-fed area of the Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon whereas Eastern Ghats lies in the rain shadow area of the Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon.

4. The Western Ghats have gentle slope that provides a greater area for sunlight absorption whereas the Eastern Ghats have an abrupt slope.

What if India has two Time Zones?

Recently, the journal Current Science by the Indian Academy of Sciences states that if India has two time zones then it will not only save the Daylight but also increase the productivity.

In the north-eastern states of India, Sun rises and set earlier, which causes loss of many daylight hours in normal days? But this situation worsens in winter because during winter days get shorter, which causes lower productivity and higher electricity consumption. The study estimated that if India has two time zones then India can save 20 million kWh annual electricity.

Some researcher states that if India has two time zones then it will be havoc situation. For Example- Two time zones could lead to railway collisions.

This study also suggested that “how two time zones are feasible for India”.  For Example- If the train clocks are switched at Alipurduar Junction on the West Bengal and Assam border, such collisions can be avoided.

It will be implemented then we have to generate IST-II for that matter a Primary Time Scale (PTS) must be established to ensemble of five caesium clocks and one hydrogen maser, in one of the north-eastern states similar to PTS for IST-I, which is located in Delhi. A caesium clock measures time on the basis of the resonance (or change of energy state of an isotope of caesium) and a hydrogen maser, which measures time on the basis of the resonance of hydrogen across energy states.

Why India need two time zones?

Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.30′ E longitude which divided India into two halves. It is taken as the standard time as it passes through almost the centre of India. But it is worth remembering that it operate a single Time Zone, not for Daylight Saving Time.

But the country’s east–west distance is more than 2,933 kilometres (1,822 mi) covers over 29 degrees of longitude, resulting in the sun rising and setting almost two hours earlier on India’s eastern border than in the Rann of Kutch in the far west. The people of the north-eastern states have to advance their clocks with the early sunrise and avoid the extra consumption of energy after daylight hours.

What is UN Road Safety Trust Fund?

As we know that United Nations Organisation (UNO) is an intergovernmental organization which maintain international peace and security; develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. Recently, it has launched UN Road Safety Trust Fund in order to enhance road safety worldwide.

UN Road Safety Trust Fund was established in April 2018 with an aims to contribute to two major outcomes, assisting UN Member states to (a) substantially curb the number of fatalities and injuries from road traffic crashes, as well as (b) reduce economic losses resulting from these crashes. Building on the best practices and expertise developed through the Decade of Action for Road Safety, the Trust Fund will focus on supporting concrete actions helping to achieve the road safety-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

It is a trust fund managed by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. It aims to accelerate progress in improving global road safety by bridging the gaps in the mobilization of resources for effective action at all levels. Fund will mobilize resources from governments, intergovernmental or nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, philanthropic organizations and individuals. It will focus on strengthening the capacity of government agencies, local governments and city authorities to develop and implement road safety programmes, prioritizing projects in low and middle-income countries.

Initiatives of UN Road Safety Trust Fund

There are two initiatives which are given below:

1. It will support efforts along five pillars of Global Plan for Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-20), which include improved safety of road infrastructure and broader transport networks; strengthened road safety management capacities; enhanced safety of vehicles; improved behaviour of road users and improved post-crash care.

2. It will serve as catalyst for much-needed progress towards road safety targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG targets 3.6 and 11.2 aim to halve number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents and provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems as well as improve road safety for all.

Hence, we can say that, it has potential to galvanise global efforts to address road safety situation to save lives and prevent the loss of opportunity associated with road accidents. But all these initiatives can only achieve through cooperation and universal brotherhood.

What is Cyberspace Internet and how it is different from Internet?

The media such as radio, television and world web has great impact on the society and also became an anthropological interest for a long time. Now a day, the internet and cyberspace created a virtual world and become social and cultural practices because it transcends the boundaries of the nation-state and offer new ways of creating identities and new spaces for self-representation. The emergence of virtual reality of cyberspace or internet or electronic communication has led to examine the ways of seeing, representing and communicating.

What is Cyberspace Internet?

The term ‘Cyberspace’ was coined by William Gibson in his book ‘Neuromancer’ written in 1984. He defined the term as a consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts.

The Cyberspace Internet can be defined as the virtual computer world which is used to form a global computer network to facilitate online communication. In other words, it is a world of information through the internet. More precisely, we can say it is a three-dimensional representation of virtual space in a computer network. It is a large computer network made up of many worldwide computer networks that employ TCP/IP protocol to aid in communication and data exchange activities.

In the last three decades, there has been a shift among global users from USA to the developing countries. The percentage share of the USA has dropped from 66 in 1995 to only 25 in 2005. Now, the majority of the world’s users are in USA, UK, Germany, Japan, China and India. As billions use the internet each year, cyberspace will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans through e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance. Internet together with fax, television and radio will be accessible to more and more people cutting across place and time. It is these modern communications systems, more than transportation, which has made the concept of global village a reality.

How Cyberspace Internet different from Internet?

The internet is basically a global computer network which provides information and communication facilities through interconnected networks by using standardized communication protocols; Whereas, Cyberspace internet is the virtual computer world which is work over the notional environment of computer networks.

In other words, we can say internet is a set of computer networks that communicate using the internet protocol (an intranet) whereas cyberspace is a world of information through the internet.

What is Black Box? How does it Work?

What is ‘Black Box’?

Black Box is also known as the ‘Flight Data Recorder’. The Black Box or Flight Data Recorder of an Airplane is an instrument which records all the activities of the airplane during its flight.

Black Box is generally kept at the back side of the airplane for the security point of view. This Box is made of Titanium metal and is enclosed in a Titanium box which gives it strength to withstand any shock if it falls in sea or falls from the height.

History of Black Box:-

In the year 1953-54, in view of the increasing incidences of Air accidents, it was thought to develop a device which can give information about the reasons for Plane accidents and might also help in saving planes from accidents. Hence, a black box was invented.

Earlier it used to be red in colour and was known by the name ‘Red Egg’. In the early days, its inner walls were black in colour, so it came to be known as a ‘Black Box’.

The Black Box has two separate boxes:

1. Flight Data Recorder: – This box can contain information about direction, altitude, fuel, speed, turbulence, cabin temperature etc. About 88 such values for about 25 hours can be recorded.

This box can withstand a temperature of about 11000°C for one hour and a temperature of 260°C for 10 hours. These boxes are red or pink in color so that can be found easily.

2. Cockpit Voice Recorder:-This box records the sound of the airplane during the last two hours. It records the sound of engine, emergency alarm, cabin and cockpit in order to predict the conditions of the plane before any accident occurred.

How does a Black Box works:-

As we have already told that the Black Box is made up of a strong metal. It can work for 30 days without any electricity. It can withstand a temperature of 11000°C. When this box is lost anywhere, it keeps on emitting the waves along with a beep sound for about 30 days.

This voice can be identified by the investigators from a distance of about 2-3 Kilometers. An interesting fact with regard to Black box is that it can emit waves from the depth of 14000 feet in the sea.

What is the Meaning of Net Neutrality?

The term “Net Neutrality” was coined by the law professor “Tim Wu” at Columbia University in 2003. Net Neutrality refers to the equal treatment for all the internet users. It means all the users of the social media, email, voice calls, online shopping and YouTube videos will have the equal access and speed of the internet.

Under the principle of Net Neutrality; Internet Service Providers will give equal importance to every type of data. So the behaviour of equality with every internet user is called “Net Neutrality”.

What will happen in the absence of the Net Neutrality?

If the Net Neutrality is not in effect then the Internet Service Providers (includes Telecom Operators) may behave like this;

Video calling through WhatsApp may consume more data and speed may also be slow but YouTube may run at good speed and data consumption can also be very low.

What are the main Properties of Net Neutrality?

1. All online content on the network of Internet Service Providers has the same access and speed.

2. Internet Service Providers can not slow down a particular website, that is, it should not happen that the website of Amazon opens quickly and Flipkart at slow speed.

3. Internet Service Providers will not have any preference for any particular company/website.

But if Net Neutrality is eliminated then the speed on the internet will not be equal for all users and internet services will also get costlier.

If I say in very easy words, Net Neutrality is like the road traffic, where every vehicle has the right to move at the same speed. It cannot happen that the owner of a luxury car; cost Rs. 1 crore will run ahead of all vehicles and all the vehicles on the road will give side to the luxury car like an ambulance car but on the other hand the owner of the Rs. 5 lac car will not these benefits.

If Net Neutrality is finished then what will happen?

1. Service providers or big companies can block other sites on their network.

2. Service providers can charge more money for access to a particular website or separate data price can be charged for these services. Like once, Airtel said that if its users want to enjoy video calling on WhatsApp, then users will have to buy a separate data pack of 100 rupees; currently this service is available free for the users.

3. Internet Service Providers may give preference to the content of a particular company. For example, data speed of the WhatsApp can be increased while the speed of the Skype can be reduced.

4. A company can bribe the Internet Service Providers for blocking the website of a particular company and promote website of the briber or others.

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